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1

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Chemical Composition and Nutritional Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the composition and the nutritional value of parental and transgenic maize seeds fed to pigs. The parental maize line was genetically modified to incorporate a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressing a toxin against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Both (parental and transgenic) maize lines were analyzed for crude nutrients,

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk; G. Flachowsky

2002-01-01

2

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Fattening Performance and Slaughtering Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grower finisher performance trial with forty-eight pigs was designed to compare the growth performance of pigs fed diets containing either genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize (NX6262) or its parental maize (Prelude) line. During the experiment, the pigs were fed with a grower and a finisher diet both containing 70% maize investigated in a previously study which showed that they contained

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk

2002-01-01

3

Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15 g.kg-1 DM) and of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan (2.6 and 1.7 g.kg-1 DM, respectively) were observed. In the biological experiment carried out on rats the tested maize lines were the only dietary sources of nitrogen, thus, the experimental diets contained 9% CP in dietary dry matter. In the feeding experiment no significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed between groups receiving conventional or transgenic maize (1.51 and 1.41, respectively). Also almost equal results were obtained in the balance experiments. Both maize lines revealed a high nitrogen digestibility (84.9 and 84.5%, respectively) and the net protein utilization amounted to 63.5 and 63.2%, respectively. From these results can be concluded that regarding nutrient composition and utilisation, genetically modified (RR) maize is equivalent to isogenic maize. PMID:12391907

Chrenková, Mária; Sommer, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana; Nitrayová, Sona; Prostredná, Miroslava

2002-06-01

4

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize  

E-print Network

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize for the assessment of coexistence between genetically modified and conventional maize. The assessment is based. SMAC stands for SIGMEA MAize Coexistence, denoting that this software was developed in SIGMEA

Bohanec, Marko

5

96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize (Bt corn) and  

E-print Network

to produce their own pesticides or insecticides. The engineering of genetically modified food is a rel96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize the short-term effects of genetically modified (GM) maize, specifically MON810 and MON863, on laboratory

Thaxton, Christopher S.

6

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

PubMed

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

7

Detection of DNA of genetically modified maize by a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor based sensor (SiNW-FET) has been proved to be the most sensitive and powerful device for bio-detection applications. In this paper, SiNWs were first fabricated by using our recently developed deposition and etching under angle technique (DEA), then used to build up the complete SiNW device based biosensor. The fabricated SiNW biosensor was used to detect DNA of genetically modified maize. As the DNA of the genetically modified maize has particular DNA sequences of 35S promoter, we therefore designed 21 mer DNA oligonucleotides, which are used as a receptor to capture the transferred DNA of maize. In our work, the SiNW biosensor could detect DNA of genetically modified maize with concentrations down to about 200?pM.

Binh Pham, Van; Pham, Xuan Thanh Tung; Thuy Duong Dang, Ngoc; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Duy Tran, Phu; Chien Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Van Quoc; Chien Dang, Mau; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Hien Tong, Duy

2011-06-01

8

Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy.  

PubMed

Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This debate, which addresses both safety and ethical aspects, has raised questions about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the biodiversity of traditional landraces and on the environment. Here, we review some of the key points of maize genetic history as well as the methods used to stably transform this cereal. We describe the genetically engineered Bt-maizes available for field cultivation and we investigate the controversial reports on their impacts on non-target insects such as the monarch butterfly and on the flow of transgenes into Mexican maize landraces. PMID:12595137

Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Massonneau, Agnès; Dumas, Christian

2002-11-01

9

Comparative phenology of Lepidoptera on genetically modified BT- and non-BT maize / A. van Wyk.  

E-print Network

??The maize stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are economically important pests of maize in South Africa. Genetically… (more)

Van Wyk, Annemie

2006-01-01

10

Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.  

PubMed

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

11

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

12

Mass spectrometric detection of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya and maize.  

PubMed

The potential of protein fractionation hyphenated to mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and characterize the transgenic protein present in Roundup Ready soya and maize has been investigated. Genetically modified (GM) soya and maize contain the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens CP4, which confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The GM soya and maize proteomes were fractionated by gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) prior to MS. This facilitated detection of a tryptic peptide map of CP4 EPSPS by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (nanoESI-QTOF) MS. Subsequently, sequence information from the CP4 EPSPS tryptic peptides was obtained by nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS. The identification was accomplished in 0.9% GM soya seeds, which is the current EU threshold for food-labeling requirements. PMID:17200978

Ocaña, Mireia Fernández; Fraser, Paul D; Patel, Raj K P; Halket, John M; Bramley, Peter M

2007-01-01

13

Effect on soil chemistry of genetically modified (GM) vs. non-GM maize.  

PubMed

The effects of genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Fa2 protein (Bt) and phosphinothricin or glyphosate herbicide tolerance on soil chemistry (organic matter, N, P, K and pH), compared with non-GM controls, were assessed in field and pot experiments. In the field experiment, NH(4)(+) was significantly higher in soil under the crop modified for herbicide tolerance compared to the control (mean values of 11 and 9.6 mg N/kg respectively) while P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 6.9 and 6.4 dg P/kg, respectively). No significant differences were found as a result of growing Bt/herbicide tolerant maize. In the pot experiment, using soils from three sites (Gongzhuling, Dehui and Huadian), significant effects of using Bt maize instead of conventional maize were found for all three soils. In the Gongzhuling soil, P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 4.8 and 4.0 dg P/kg, respectively). For the Dehui soil, the pH was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values for {H(+)} of 1.1 and 2.4 ?M for the control and the GM crop respectively). In the Huadian soil, organic matter and total N were both higher in soil under the GM crop than under the control. For organic matter, the mean values were 3.0 and 2.9% for the GM crop and the control, respectively, while for total nitrogen the mean values were 2.02 and 1.96% for the GM crop and the control respectively. Our results indicate that growing GM crops instead of conventional crops may alter soil chemistry, but not greatly, and that effects will vary with both the specific genetic modification and the soil. PMID:21844670

Liu, Na; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Kang, Lingsheng; Gao, Hongjun; Clarke, Nicholas J; Clarke, Jihong Liu

2010-01-01

14

A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.  

PubMed

Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars. PMID:23668783

Mumm, Rita H

2013-09-01

15

Detection of airborne genetically modified maize pollen by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised numerous concerns in the European Union and other parts of the world about their environmental and economic impact. Especially outcrossing of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was from the beginning a critical issue as airborne pollen has been considered an important way of GMO dispersal. Here, we investigate the use of airborne pollen sampling combined with microscopic analysis and molecular PCR analysis as an approach to monitor GM maize cultivations in a specific area. Field trial experiments in the European Union and South America demonstrated the applicability of the approach under different climate conditions, in rural and semi-urban environment, even at very low levels of airborne pollen. The study documents in detail the sampling of GM pollen, sample DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis. Our results suggest that this 'GM pollen monitoring by bioaerosol sampling and PCR screening' approach might represent an useful aid in the surveillance of GM-free areas, centres of origin and natural reserves. PMID:22805239

Folloni, Silvia; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Rajcevic, Bojan; Guimarães, Nilson C C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Valicente, Fernando H; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

2012-09-01

16

Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

2013-01-01

17

Transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified maize to nulliparous sows and offspring on offspring growth and health.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effect of feeding genetically modified maize expressing a truncated form of the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt MON810 maize) to sows during gestation and lactation and their offspring from weaning to 115 d postweaning on offspring growth and health. After weaning at approximately 28 d of age (d 0), individually penned, mixed sex pigs (approximately 8 kg BW) from sows fed isogenic or Bt maize diets were blocked by sow treatment, sex, and BW and randomly assigned to Bt or isogenic maize diets as follows: i) isogenic maize-fed sow/isogenic maize-fed offspring (iso/iso); ii) isogenic maize-fed sow/Bt maize-fed offspring (iso/Bt); iii) Bt maize-fed sow/isogenic maize-fed offspring (Bt/iso); and iv) Bt maize-fed sow/Bt maize-fed offspring (Bt/Bt). Growth performance was recorded at intervals to harvest at approximately 105 kg BW (n=15/treatment) and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis on d 0, 30, 70, 100, and 115 postweaning (n=10/treatment). Pigs were harvested on d 115 postweaning (n=10/treatment), and carcass weight, backfat depth, and organ weights (heart, kidney, spleen, and liver) were recorded. Kidney, liver, lymph nodes, and small intestine were collected for histological analysis. Offspring from Bt maize-fed sows were heavier than offspring from isogenic maize-fed sows on d 30 (P<0.05), 100 (P<0.05), and 115 postweaning (P<0.05) and had greater overall ADG (P<0.05). Overall ADFI was greater for offspring from sows fed Bt maize (P<0.05) and for Bt maize-fed pigs (P<0.05). Offspring from Bt maize-fed sows had greater carcass (P<0.05) and lighter spleen (P<0.05) weights. Dressing percentage was greater for Bt maize-fed pigs than isogenic maize-fed pigs (P<0.05), and livers were lighter for pigs in the Bt/Bt group than pigs in the iso/Bt or Bt/iso group (P<0.05). Offspring from Bt maize-fed sows also had greater duodenal crypt depths (P<0.05) and lower villus height/crypt depth ratios (P<0.05). No pathology was observed in the organs, and serum biochemistry values generally remained within normal limits and no overall differences were observed, with the exception of overall ? glutamyltransferase, which was less for pigs on the Bt/Bt treatment than pigs on the iso/Bt and Bt/iso treatments. These results indicate that transgenerational consumption of Bt maize diets is not detrimental to pig growth and health. PMID:23097397

Buzoianu, S G; Walsh, M C; Rea, M C; Cassidy, J P; Ryan, T P; Ross, R P; Gardiner, G E; Lawlor, P G

2013-01-01

18

Establishment of quantitative analysis method for genetically modified maize using a reference plasmid and novel primers.  

PubMed

For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×10(1)~10(5) copies of pGMmaize and the R(2) values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

2012-12-01

19

Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize offers an additional means of control against W...

20

Detection of six genetically modified maize lines using optical thin-film biosensor chips.  

PubMed

As more and more genetically modified organisms (GMO) are commercialized, efficient and inexpensive assays are required for their quick detection. An event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific sequences of integration junctions is useful because of its high specificity. This study developed a system for detecting six GM maize lines (Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, NK603, and T25) using optical silicon thin-film biosensor chips. Aldehyde-labeled probes were arrayed and covalently attached to a hydrazine-derivatized chip surface. Biotinylated PCR amplicons were then hybridized with the probes. After washing and brief incubation with an anti-biotin IgG horseradish peroxidase conjugate and a precipitable horseradish peroxidase substrate, biotinylated PCR amplicons perfectly matched with the probes can be visualized by the color change on the chip surface (gold to blue/purple). This assay is extremely robust, exhibits high sensitivity and specificity, and is flexible from low through moderate to high throughput. PMID:20614904

Bai, Sulan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shucheng; Chen, Haodong; Terzaghi, William; Zhang, Xin; Chi, Xiurong; Tian, Jin; Luo, Hongxia; Huang, Wensheng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yaochuan

2010-08-11

21

Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt-maize.  

PubMed

Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically modified Bt-maize varieties (Ostrinia-resistant MON810 and Diabrotica-resistant MON88017) on the occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera, especially the two families Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae. Based on a statistical analysis aimed at establishing whether Bt-maize varieties are equivalent to their near-isogenic counterparts, we discuss the limitations of using field experiments to assess the effects of Bt-maize on these two beetle families. The densities of most of the beetle families recorded in the herb layer were very low in all growing seasons. Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae were comparatively abundant and diverse, but still low in numbers. Based on their role as biological control agents, Coccinellidae should be a focus in the ERA of Bt-plants, but given the large natural variability in ladybird densities in the field, most questions need to be addressed in low-tier laboratory tests. Chrysomelidae should play a negligible role in the ERA of Bt-plants, since they occur on-crop as secondary pests only. Species occurring off-crop, however, can be addressed in a similar fashion as non-target Lepidoptera in Cry1Ab expressing Bt-maize. PMID:20012775

Rauschen, Stefan; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Gathmann, Achim

2010-10-01

22

Representative taxa in field trials for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

When assessing the benefits and risks of transgenic crops, one consideration is their relative effects on non-target arthropod (NTA) abundance and functions within agroecosystems. Several laboratory and field trials have been conducted in Spain since the late 1990s to assess this issue. A consideration in the design of field trials is whether it is necessary to sample most NTAs living in the crop or only representative taxa that perform main ecological functions and have a good capacity to detect small changes in their abundance. Small changes in the field abundance of an effective representative taxon should be detectable using standard experimental protocols. The ability of a species to reveal differences across treatments may be analysed by examining the detectable treatment effects for surveyed non-target organisms. Analysis of data from several NTAs recorded in 14 field trials conducted over 10 years using complete block designs allowed us to select a number of representative taxa capable of detecting changes in the density or activity of arthropod herbivores, predators, parasitoids and decomposers in transgenic and non-transgenic maize varieties. The most suitable NTA as representative taxa (with detectable treatment effects below 50%) included leafhoppers among arthropod herbivores, Orius spp., Araneae, and Carabidae among predators, chalcidids, particularly the family Mymaridae, among parasitoids and Chloropidae as decomposer. Details of sampling techniques for each sampled taxa and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is concluded that abundance of taxa is the most influential factor determining their capacity to detect changes caused by genetically modified varieties. PMID:23987801

Albajes, R; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Comas, J

2013-12-01

23

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment.  

PubMed

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes. PMID:24937207

Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

24

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment  

PubMed Central

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes. PMID:24937207

Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

25

Genetic drift and selection effects of modified recurrent full-sib selection programs in two F 2 populations of European flint maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection response of a modified recurrent full-sib (FS) selection scheme conducted in two European flint F2 maize (Zea mays L.) populations was re-evaluated. Our objectives were to (1) determine the selection response for per se and testcross performance in both populations and (2) separate genetic effects due to selection from those due to random genetic drift. Modified recurrent FS selection

C. Flachenecker; M. Frisch; K. C. Falke; A. E. Melchinger

2006-01-01

26

Bioinformatics The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.  

E-print Network

Bioinformatics The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. The Community Resource for Access 50011­3260 (T.E.S.) The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays data types available through MaizeGDB. MISSION AND SCOPE The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

Brendel, Volker

27

Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)  

PubMed Central

The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/non-GM), (ii) non-GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/GM), (iii) GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (GM/non-GM), and (iv) GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (GM/GM). Offspring of GM maize-fed sows had higher counts of fecal total anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae at days 70 and 100 postweaning, respectively. At day 115 postweaning, GM/non-GM offspring had lower ileal Enterobacteriaceae counts than non-GM/non-GM or GM/GM offspring and lower ileal total anaerobes than pigs on the other treatments. GM maize-fed offspring also had higher ileal total anaerobe counts than non-GM maize-fed offspring, and cecal total anaerobes were lower in non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM offspring than in those from the non-GM/non-GM treatment. The only differences observed for major bacterial phyla using 16S rRNA gene sequencing were that fecal Proteobacteria were less abundant in GM maize-fed sows prior to farrowing and in offspring at weaning, with fecal Firmicutes more abundant in offspring. While other differences occurred, they were not observed consistently in offspring, were mostly encountered for low-abundance, low-frequency bacterial taxa, and were not associated with pathology. Therefore, their biological relevance is questionable. This confirms the lack of adverse effects of GM maize on the intestinal microbiota of pigs, even following transgenerational consumption. PMID:24096421

Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2013-01-01

28

Genetically Modified, Insect Resistant Maize: Implications for Management of Ear and Stalk Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article summarizes six years of research that indicate that Bt transformation of maize hybrids enhances the safety of grain for livestock and human food products by reducing the plants' vulnerability to mycotoxin-producing Fusarium fungi.

G. P. Munkvold (Iowa State University; )

2000-09-12

29

Application of immunoaffinity column as cleanup tool for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase detection in genetically modified maize and rape.  

PubMed

We have developed a new immunoassay method to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and rape containing phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT). PAT encoded by Bialaphos resistance gene (bar) was highly expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. A simple and efficient extraction and purification procedure of PAT from GM maize and rape was developed by means of the immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a cleanup tool. Purified polyclonal antibodies against PAT was produced and coupled covalently to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Both the binding conditions and elution protocols were optimized. The IAC was successfully employed to isolate and purify the PAT from the various tissues of GM maize (Bt11 and Bt176) and rapes (MS1/RF1 and MS8/RF3). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures were established further on to measure the PAT protein. GM maize cannot be differentiated from non-GM maize by ELISA. But IAC-ELISA allowed 0.5% GMOs to be detected in MS1/RF1 and MS8/RF3 and 10% GMOs to be detected in Bt11 and Bt176, which makes this method an acceptable method to access PAT protein in GM rapes and maize. PMID:15913288

Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhao, Heng; Luo, Yunbo

2005-06-01

30

Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this. PMID:19602858

Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2009-06-01

31

Molecular population genetics of maize regulatory genes during maize evolution  

E-print Network

Molecular population genetics of maize regulatory genes during maize evolution By Qiong Zhao population genetics of MADS-box genes during the domestication and improvement of maize. Chapter 2 Page 92 Molecular evolution of tb1, tga1 and ba1 during maize domestication. Chapter 3 Page 133 Molecular evolution

Doebley, John

32

[Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].  

PubMed

In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize. PMID:23470871

Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

2013-01-01

33

Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize. PMID:21873818

Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

2011-01-01

34

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Following a request from Monsanto within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 on genetically modified food and feed, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the authorisation of the insect-resistant, glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810 (Unique Identifier MON88Ø17-3 x MON- ØØ81Ø-6). In delivering its scientific opinion, the

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Howard Davies

2009-01-01

35

Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.  

PubMed

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions suggest that a 20 % refuge of non-Diabrotica-active Bt-maize can delay resistance evolution in WCR under certain conditions. This publication concludes that further research is needed to resolve the remaining scientific uncertainty related to the appropriateness of the HDR in delaying resistance evolution in WCR, resistance monitoring is essential to detect early warning signs indicating resistance evolution in the field, and that integrated pest management reliant on multiple tactics should be deployed to ensure effective long-term corn rootworm management and sustainable use of Bt-maize. PMID:23011587

Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

2013-04-01

36

Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 ?m) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. PMID:22740254

Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

2012-06-01

37

Assessing the risk posed to free-living soil nematodes by a genetically modified maize expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein.  

PubMed

Before pest-resistant genetically modified maize can be grown commercially, the risks for soil-beneficial, non-target organisms must be determined. Here, a tiered approach was used to assess the risk to free-living soil nematodes posed by maize genetically modified to express the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein (event Mon88017), which confers resistance towards western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera; Coleoptera). The toxicity of purified Cry3Bb1 for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was determined using a bioassay and gene expression analysis. In addition, a soil toxicity test was used to assess the effects on C. elegans of rhizosphere soil obtained from plots of an experimental field grown with Mon88017, the near-isogenic cultivar, or either of two conventional cultivars. Finally, the indigenous nematode communities from the experimental field site with Mon88017 and from the control cultivars were analyzed. The results showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of Cry3Bb1 on the growth and reproduction of C. elegans, with EC50 values of 22.3 mg l?¹ and 7.9 mg l?¹, respectively. Moreover, Cry-protein-specific defense genes were found to be up-regulated in the presence of either Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1. However, C. elegans was not affected by rhizosphere soils from Mon88017 compared to the control plots, due to the very low Cry3Bb1 concentrations, as indicated by quantitative analyses (< 1 ng g?¹ soil). Nematode abundance and diversity were essentially the same between the various maize cultivars. At the last sampling date, nematode genus composition in Bt-maize plots differed significantly from that in two of the three non-Bt cultivars, including the near-isogenic maize, but the shift in genus composition did not influence the composition of functional guilds within the nematode communities. In conclusion, the risk to free-living soil nematodes posed by Mon88017 cultivation can be regarded as low, as long as Cry3Bb1 concentrations in soil remain four orders of magnitude below the toxicity threshold. PMID:21511326

Höss, S; Nguyen, H T; Menzel, R; Pagel-Wieder, S; Miethling-Graf, R; Tebbe, C C; Jehle, J A; Traunspurger, W

2011-06-01

38

Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion  

PubMed Central

To investigate the relative degradation and fragmentation pattern of the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dairy cows, a 25 months GM maize feeding study was conducted on 36 lactating Bavarian Fleckvieh cows allocated into two groups (18 cows per group) fed diets containing either GM maize MON810 or nearly isogenic non-GM maize as the respective diet components. All cows were fed a partial total mixed ration (pTMR). During the feeding trial, 8 feed (4 transgenic (T) and 4 non-transgenic (NT) pTMR) and 42 feces (26 T and 18 NT) samples from the subset of cows fed T and NT diets, and at the end of the feeding trial, digesta contents of rumen, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and cecum were collected after the slaughter of six cows of each feeding group. Samples were analyzed for Cry1Ab protein and total protein using Cry1Ab specific ELISA and bicinchoninic acid assay, respectively. Immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the integrity of Cry1Ab protein in feed, digesta and feces samples. A decrease to 44% in Cry1Ab protein concentration from T pTMR to the voided feces (9.40 versus 4.18 ?g/g of total proteins) was recorded. Concentrations of Cry1Ab protein in GIT digesta of cows fed T diets varied between the lowest 0.38 ?g/g of total proteins in abomasum to the highest 3.84 ?g/g of total proteins in rumen. Immunoblot analysis revealed the extensive degradation of recombinant Cry1Ab protein into a smaller fragment of around 34 kDa in GIT. The results of the present study indicate that the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from MON810 is increasingly degraded into a small fragment during dairy cow digestion. PMID:19888668

Paul, Vijay; Guertler, Patrick; Wiedemann, Steffi

2009-01-01

39

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-NL-2007-37) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant genetically modified maize MON89034, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This document provides an opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO Panel) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on genetically modified maize MON89034 (Unique Identifier MON-89Ø34-3) developed to provide resistance to certain insect pests. In delivering its scientific opinion, the GMO Panel considered the new application EFSA- GMO-NL-2007-37, additional information provided by the applicant (Monsanto)

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Lieve Herman; Niels Hendriksen; Jozsef Kiss; Gijs Kleter; Ilona Kryspin-Sørensen; Harry Kuiper; Ingolf Nes; Nickolas Panopoulos; Joe Perry; Joachim Schiemann; Willem Seinen

2008-01-01

40

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics  

E-print Network

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics Carolyn J. Lawrence1 , Qunfeng Dong1 , Mary L. Polacco3 , Trent E. Seigfried1 and Volker Brendel1,2,* 1 Department of Genetics ABSTRACT The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence

Brendel, Volker

41

Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.  

PubMed

Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

2013-03-01

42

Subchronic feeding study with genetically modified stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran resistant (DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7) maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7 (1507x59122) is a genetically modified (GM) maize hybrid that was produced by crossing of two GM maize inbreds; DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and DAS-59122-7. This hybrid cross expresses four transgenic proteins: Cry1F and PAT (from DAS-Ø15Ø7-1) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT (from DAS-59122-7) that confer resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current subchronic feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the potential health effects of long-term consumption of a rodent diet containing 1507x59122 maize grain compared with a diet containing maize grain from its near-isogenic control (091). Diets formulated with three unrelated non-GM commercial hybrids (3573, 35P12, 36G12) were also included for within study reference data. All diets contained 34% (w/wt) maize grain and were prepared according to the specifications of PMI((R)) Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet((R)) 5002 (PMI((R)) 5002). Diets were fed ad libitum to rats for at least 92days. OECD 408 response variables from rats fed the 1507x59122 diet were compared with those from rats fed the 091 control diet. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in nutritional performance variables, clinical and neurobehavioral signs, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology between rats in the 091 and 1507x59122 treatment groups. The results from this study demonstrate that 1507x59122 maize grain is as safe and nutritious as non-GM maize grain and support the concept that crossing of two safe GM maize events results in production of a safe stacked GM event. PMID:19358870

Appenzeller, Laura M; Malley, Linda; Mackenzie, Susan A; Hoban, Denise; Delaney, Bryan

2009-07-01

43

THE MAIZE GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE: A COMMUNITY RESOURCE FOR ACCESS TO DIVERSE MAIZE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database) is the research database for the maize community. The site features a wealth of resources and data facilitating the scientific study of maize. Among the data sets included in MaizeGDB are sequences, including PlantGDB's EST and GSS contig assemblie...

44

New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.  

PubMed

Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. PMID:17356802

Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

2007-05-01

45

Rapid visual detection of phytase gene in genetically modified maize using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize plant expressing high phytase activity has been reported and approved by Chinese government in 2009. Here, we report a highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the phytase gene in the GMO maize. The LAMP reaction takes less than 20min and the amplification is visible without gel electrophoresis. The detection sensitivity of the LAMP method is about 30 copies of phytase genomic DNA, which is 33.3 times greater than the conventional PCR method with gel electrophoresis. The quantitative detection results showed that the LAMP method has a good linear correlation between the DNA copy number and the associated Tt values over a large dynamic range of template concentration from 6×10(1) to 6×10(7) copies, with a quantification limit of 60 copies. Therefore, the LAMP method is visual, faster, and more sensitive, and does not need special equipment compared to traditional PCR technique, which is very useful for field tests and fast screening of GMO feeds. PMID:24629956

Huang, Xin; Chen, Lili; Xu, Jiangmin; Ji, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Hongjun

2014-08-01

46

MAIZEGDB: THE MAIZE COMMUNITY GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (Maize Genetics and Genomics Database) is the research database for the maize community. The site features a wealth of resources and data facilitating the scientific study of maize. Among the data sets included in MaizeGDB are sequences, including integration with various contig assemblies;...

47

Genetic Characterization of a Core Set of a Tropical Maize Race Tuxpeño for Further Use in Maize Improvement  

PubMed Central

The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants). Clustering analyses (CA) based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD) clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size) representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community. PMID:22412898

Chavez-Tovar, Victor H.; Yan, Jianbing; Taba, Suketoshi

2012-01-01

48

Quantitation of 35S promoter in maize DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction, part 2: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Network of GMO Working Laboratories have proposed development of a modular strategy for stepwise validation of complex analytical techniques. When applied to the quantitation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products, the instrumental quantitation step of the technique is separately validated from the DNA extraction step to better control the sources of uncertainty and facilitate the validation of GMO-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory study on the quantitation step of the method standardized by CEN for the detection of a regulatory element commonly inserted in GMO maize-based foods. This is focused on the quantitation of P35S promoter through using the quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Fifteen French laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study of the P35S quantitation operating procedure on DNA extract samples using either the thermal cycler ABI Prism 7700 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) or Light Cycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Attention was focused on DNA extract samples used to calibrate the method and unknown extract samples. Data were processed according to the recommendations of ISO 5725 standard. Performance criteria, obtained using the robust algorithm, were compared to the classic data processing after rejection of outliers by the Cochran and Grubbs tests. Two laboratories were detected as outliers by the Grubbs test. The robust precision criteria gave values between the classical values estimated before and after rejection of the outliers. Using the robust method, the relative expanded uncertainty by the quantitation method is about 20% for a 1% Bt176 content, whereas it can reach 40% for a 0.1% Bt176. The performances of the quantitation assay are relevant to the application of the European regulation, which has an accepted tolerance interval of about +/-50%. These data were fitted to a power model (r2 = 0.96). Thanks to this model, it is possible to propose an estimation of uncertainty of the QRT-PCR quantitation step and an uncertainty budget depending on the analytical conditions. PMID:15859084

Feinberg, Max; Fernandez, Sophie; Cassard, Sylvanie; Bertheau, Yves

2005-01-01

49

The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference  

SciTech Connect

The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were able to defray lodging and meal costs for 133 graduate and undergraduate students and 66 postdocs

Cone, Karen

2014-03-26

50

Maize Genetics and Genomics Database  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...

51

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Through 2003 there have been more than 38 trillion GM [genetically modified] plants grown in the U.S." , and "GM plants are the most deeply studied and understood (genetically, physiological, and ecologically) plants ever grown anywhere. These two statements, presented by the author, set the stage...

52

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics  

PubMed Central

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence, stock, phenotype, genotypic and karyotypic variation, and chromosomal mapping data. In addition, MaizeGDB provides contact information for over 2400 maize cooperative researchers, facilitating interactions between members of the rapidly expanding maize community. MaizeGDB represents the synthesis of all data available previously from ZmDB and from MaizeDB—databases that have been superseded by MaizeGDB. MaizeGDB provides web-based tools for ordering maize stocks from several organizations including the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center and the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS). Sequence searches yield records displayed with embedded links to facilitate ordering cloned sequences from various groups including the Maize Gene Discovery Project and the Clemson University Genomics Institute. An intuitive web interface is implemented to facilitate navigation between related data, and analytical tools are embedded within data displays. Web-based curation tools for both designated experts and general researchers are currently under development. MaizeGDB can be accessed at http://www.maizegdb.org/. PMID:14681441

Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Dong, Qunfeng; Polacco, Mary L.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Brendel, Volker

2004-01-01

53

Original article Genetic analysis of root traits in maize  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic analysis of root traits in maize Emmanuelle Guingoa Yannick Héberta Alain December 1997; accepted 27 April 1998) Abstract - In many areas around the world, maize (Zea Mays L.) crops@lusignan.inra.fr #12;1. INTRODUCTION Selection for increased root lodging resistance is an important objective of maize

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Plant improvement Genetic variation for heterotrophic growth in maize  

E-print Network

Plant improvement Genetic variation for heterotrophic growth in maize in relation to temperature C was conducted in the frame of early maize (Zea mays L) adaptation to northern Eu- rope climatic conditions, and for optimum temperature between 27 and 30 °C). maize / temperature / heterotrophic growth / radicle / non

Boyer, Edmond

55

Use of Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC) to identify novel genetic loci that modify the maize hypersensitive response  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The partially-dominant, autoactive maize disease resistance gene Rp1-D21 causes hypersensitive response (HR) lesions to form spontaneously on the leaves and stem in the absence of pathogen recognition. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population consists of 25 200-line subpopulations each...

56

Entering the second century of maize quantitative genetics  

PubMed Central

Maize is the most widely grown cereal in the world. In addition to its role in global agriculture, it has also long served as a model organism for genetic research. Maize stands at a genetic crossroads, as it has access to all the tools available for plant genetics but exhibits a genetic architecture more similar to other outcrossing organisms than to self-pollinating crops and model plants. In this review, we summarize recent advances in maize genetics, including the development of powerful populations for genetic mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and the insights these studies yield on the mechanisms underlying complex maize traits. Most maize traits are controlled by a large number of genes, and linkage analysis of several traits implicates a ‘common gene, rare allele' model of genetic variation where some genes have many individually rare alleles contributing. Most natural alleles exhibit small effect sizes with little-to-no detectable pleiotropy or epistasis. Additionally, many of these genes are locked away in low-recombination regions that encourage the formation of multi-gene blocks that may underlie maize's strong heterotic effect. Domestication left strong marks on the maize genome, and some of the differences in trait architectures may be due to different selective pressures over time. Overall, maize's advantages as a model system make it highly desirable for studying the genetics of outcrossing species, and results from it can provide insight into other such species, including humans. PMID:23462502

Wallace, J G; Larsson, S J; Buckler, E S

2014-01-01

57

The art and design of genetic screens: maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays) is an excellent model for basic research. Genetic screens have informed our understanding of developmental processes, meiosis, epigenetics and biochemical pathways--not only in maize but also in other cereal crops. We discuss the forward and reverse genetic screens that are possible...

58

The Other NPGS Maize Collection – A Rich Source of Maize Genetic Diversity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize collection at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA is comprised of over 18,300 accessions from all over the world. Of these, 16,000 are maize accessions with population level genetic diversity and over 2,000 are inbred lines with little segregation. The collectio...

59

Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

2013-01-01

60

Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Chinese waxy maize germplasm.  

PubMed

Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

2013-01-01

61

Breeding Specialty Starch Maize Using Exotic Genetic Resources for Gene Discovery of Novel Alleles and Modifiers with Materials Generated from the USDA-ARS GEM Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amylomaize VII, a class of High Amylose Maize with at least 70% of the kernel starch composed of the linear amylose polymer, has had numerous food and industrial applications including the manufacturing of biodegradable plastics, adhesives and candies. More recently it has been found to be a signi...

62

A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that a diet including insect-resistant Bt176 maize, fed to 53 ewes and their progeny for 3 years, did not have adverse effects on their health or performance and that no horizontal gene transfer to ruminal microorganisms or animal tissues was detected. No differences were observed regarding performance, reproductive traits, haematological parameters, antioxidant defences, lymphocyte proliferative capacity, phagocytosis and

Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci; Giorgio Brandi; Cristina Rondini; Luca Avellini; Camilla Giammarini; Silva Costarelli; Gabriele Acuti; Chiara Orlandi; Giovanni Filippini; Elisabetta Chiaradia; Manuela Malatesta; Silvia Crotti; Chiara Antonini; Giulia Amagliani; Elisabetta Manuali; Anna Rita Mastrogiacomo; Livia Moscati; Mohamed Naceur Haouet; Alberto Gaiti; Mauro Magnani

2008-01-01

63

Genetic Properties of the Maize Nested Association Mapping Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is one of the world’s most diverse species, and this variation can be used to understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation and to improve agricultural efficiency and sustainability. To access this genetic variation, 25 diverse inbred maize lines were crossed to the B73 reference lin...

64

The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

65

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet) in a long- term toxicology study of 22.7 weeks (the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from weaning animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

66

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS: THE STAKES  

E-print Network

Following their eruption and success in the outer-Atlantic, genetically modified plants (GMP) have undeniably missed their appointment with the European society. Beginning purely as a biotechnological test,

G. Riba; Y. Chupeau

2001-01-01

67

The genetic architecture of maize height  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

68

From Many, One: Genetic Control of Prolificacy during Maize Domestication  

PubMed Central

A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb “causative region” upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize. PMID:23825971

Wills, David M.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E.; Shannon, Laura M.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F.

2013-01-01

69

Genetic signals of origin, spread, and introgression in a large sample of maize landraces  

E-print Network

Genetic signals of origin, spread, and introgression in a large sample of maize landraces Joost van, 2010) The last two decades have seen important advances in our knowledge of maize domestication, thanks in part to the contri- butions of genetic data. Genetic studies have provided firm evidence that maize

Doebley, John

70

Analysis of genetic distance by SSR in waxy maize.  

PubMed

We examined the genetic diversity of 80 inbred waxy maize lines using 22 SSR molecular markers that could be used to achieve heterosis in waxy maize. Eighty inbred waxy maize lines with different phenotypes, 40 yellow, 25 white, 13 black, and two red lines were analyzed by SSR molecular marker fingerprint and cluster analysis. Using a standard genetic distance of 0.55, the 80 waxy maize inbred lines were clustered into nine groups. Among them, group II, group V, groups VII and VIII, and group IX were divided into three subgroups at a genetic distance of 0.46, into two subgroups at 0.49, into two subgroups at 0.46, and into four subgroups at 0.493, respectively. All but one of the yellow waxy maize inbred lines were clustered in groups VI, VII, VIII, and IX. Group IX (30 lines) contained 28 yellow lines; the other 11 yellow lines were distributed among groups VI, VII and VIII. Among the 25 white lines, 21 were clustered in groups III, V, VI and the third subgroup of group II. The black line N72 was in a group of its own. The black lines N75, N76 and N78 were distributed in groups VII, VIII and IX, respectively. The other nine black lines were clustered in group II. The red lines were distributed in the second subgroup of group II and there was no difference in genetic distance between them. In conclusion, there were considerable genetic differences among waxy maize inbred lines of different colors. The mean genetic distance of inbred lines of the same color was significantly less than that of lines of different colors. Therefore, we concluded that it was more accurate to determine the difference between the populations using the highly stable DNA genetic markers. PMID:22370892

Yu, R H; Wang, Y L; Sun, Y; Liu, B

2012-01-01

71

Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Maize.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mitochondrial genome encodes proteins essential for mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Nuclear gene products, however, are required for the expression of mitochondrial genes and the elaboration of functional mitochondrial protein complexes. We are exploiting a unique collection of maiz...

72

Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

73

Prospects for reducing fumonisin contamination of maize through genetic modification.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in (italic)Fusarium verticillioides-infected maize grain worldwide. Attention has focused on FBs because of their widespread occurrence, acute toxicity to certain livestock, and their potential carcinogenicity. FBs are present at low levels in most field-grown maize but may spike to high levels depending on both the environment and genetics of the host plant. Among the strategies for reducing risk of FB contamination in maize supplied to the market, development and deployment of Fusarium ear mold-resistant maize germplasm is a high priority. Breeding for increased ear mold tolerance and reduced mycotoxin levels is being practiced today in both commercial and public programs, but the amount of resistance achievable may be limited due to complicated genetics and/or linkage to undesirable agronomic traits. Molecular markers can be employed to speed up the incorporation of chromosomal regions that have a quantitative effect on resistance (quantitative trait loci). Transgenic approaches to ear mold/mycotoxin resistance are now feasible as well. These potentially include genetically enhanced resistance to insect feeding, increased fungal resistance, and detoxification/prevention of mycotoxins in the grain. An example of the first of these approaches is already on the market, namely transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, targeted to the European corn borer. Some Bt maize hybrids have the potential to reduce FB levels in field-harvested grain, presumably through reduced feeding of Bt-susceptible insects in ear tissues. However, improved ear mold resistance per se is still an important goal, as the plant will still be vulnerable to noninsect routes of entry to (italic)Fusarium. A second approach, transgene-mediated control of the ability of Fusarium to infect and colonize the ear, could potentially be achieved through overexpression of specific antifungal proteins and metabolites, or enhancement of the plant's own defense systems in kernel tissues. This has not yet been accomplished in maize, although promising results have been obtained recently in other monocots versus other fungal and bacterial pathogens. Achieving reproducible and stable enhanced ear mold resistance under field conditions will be immensely challenging for biotechnologists. A third approach, transgene strategies aimed at preventing mycotoxin biosynthesis, or detoxifying mycotoxins in planta, could provide further protection for the grower in environments where FBs present a risk to the crop even when the maize is relatively resistant to Fusarium mold. In one example of such a strategy, enzymes that degrade FBs have been identified in a filamentous saprophytic fungus isolated from maize, and corresponding genes have been cloned and are currently being tested in transgenic maize. PMID:11359705

Duvick, J

2001-01-01

74

GENETIC ASSOCIATION MAPPING AND GENOME ORGANIZATION OF MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Association mapping, a high-resolution method for mapping QTL based on linkage disequilibrium, holds great promise for the dissection of complex genetic traits. Recent assembly and characterization of maize association mapping panels, development of improved statistical methods, and successful asso...

75

The genetic architecture of maize stalk strength  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,892 rec...

76

MOLECULAR POPULATION GENETICS OF MAIZE DOMESTICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The domestication of maize resulted in a dramatic change in its plant architecture and inflorescence development as compared to its wild ancestor, teosinte, with the most remarkable difference being in their female inflorescence (ear) structure. Only a few genes have been uncovered to be associated ...

77

Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

78

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

79

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

80

Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

81

Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

82

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

83

Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

2014-09-15

84

Copyright 0 1992 by the Genetics Societyof America Comparative Genome Mappingof Sorghum and Maize  

E-print Network

Copyright 0 1992 by the Genetics Societyof America Comparative Genome Mappingof Sorghum and Maize severalinferencesconcerningprocessesinvolved in the evolutionary divergence of the maize and sorghumgenomes. The results show a larger proportion of the loci are duplicated in the maize genome than inthe sorghum genome.This result

Whitkus, Richard

85

Relevant traits, genetic variation and breeding strategies in early silage maize  

E-print Network

Review Relevant traits, genetic variation and breeding strategies in early silage maize Y Barrière 1997 ; accepted 24 December 1997) Summary - A silage maize hybrid is now considered different from a grain maize hybrid. This paper gives data on rel- evant agronomic and feeding value traits suitable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Health, Socioeconomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about genetically modified (GM) food seeds are serious and well-founded, the problems which these seeds raise are usually not unique to GM seeds alone. GM organisms are only one example of problematic new varieties or breeds. Large soybean and other monocultural plantations have serious environmental effects which GM seeds exacerbate. Although GM seeds may benefit large scale commercial

Frank J. Leavitt

87

Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds.  

PubMed

Changes that may have occurred over the past 50 years of hybrid breeding in maize (Zea maize L.) with respect to heterosis for yield and heterozygosity at the molecular level are of interest to both maize breeders and quantitative geneticists. The objectives of this study were twofold: The first, to compare two diallels produced from six older maize inbreds released in the 1950's and earlier and six newer inbreds released during the 1970's with respect to (a) genetic variation for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and (b) the size of heterosis and epistatic effects, and the second, to evaluate the usefulness of RFLP-based genetic distance measures in predicting heterosis and performance of single-cross hybrids. Five generations (parents, F1; F2, and backcrosses) from the 15 crosses in each diallel were evaluated for grain yield and yield components in four Iowa environments. Genetic effects were estimated from generation means by ordinary diallel analyses and by the Eberhart-Gardner model. Newer lines showed significantly greater yield for inbred generations than did older lines but smaller heterosis estimates. In most cases, estimates of additive x additive epistatic effects for yield and yield components were significantly positive for both groups of lines. RFLP analyses of inbred lines included two restriction enzymes and 82 genomic DNA clones distributed over the maize genome. Eighty-one clones revealed polymorphisms with at least one enzyme. In each set, about three different RFLP variants were typically found per RFLP locus. Genetic distances between inbred lines were estimated from RFLP data as Rogers' distance (RD), which was subdivided into general (GRD) and specific (SRD) Rogers' distances within each diallel. The mean and range of RDs were similar for the older and newer lines, suggesting that the level of heterozygosity at the molecular level had not changed. GRD explained about 50% of the variation among RD values in both sets. Cluster analyses, based on modified Rogers' distances, revealed associations among lines that were generally consistent with expectations based on known pedigree and on previous research. Correlations of RD and SRD with f1 performance, specific combining ability, and heterosis for yield and yield components, were generally positive, but too small to be of predictive value. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that RFLPs can be used to investigate relationships among maize inbreds, but that they are of limited usefulness for predicting the heterotic performance of single crosses between unrelated lines. PMID:24221007

Melchinger, A E; Lee, M; Lamkey, K R; Hallauer, A R; Woodman, W L

1990-10-01

88

Cultural and genetic approaches to managing mycotoxins in maize.  

PubMed

Infection of maize kernels by toxigenic fungi remains a challenging problem despite decades of research progress. Cultural practices, including crop rotation, tillage, planting date, and management of irrigation and fertilization, have limited effects on infection and subsequent mycotoxin accumulation. Current infrastructure and grain storage practices in developed countries can prevent postharvest development of mycotoxins, but this aspect remains a threat in developing countries, especially in tropical areas. Because most mycotoxin problems develop in the field, strategies are needed to prevent infection of growing plants by toxigenic fungi. Developing genetic resistance to Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella zeae, and Fusarium spp. (particularly F. verticillioides) in maize is a high priority. Sources of resistance to each of these pathogens have been identified and have been incorporated into public and private breeding programs. However, few, if any, commercial cultivars have adequate levels of resistance. Efforts to control infection or mycotoxin development through conventional breeding and genetic engineering are reviewed. The role of transgenic insect control in the prevention of mycotoxins in maize is discussed. PMID:12730397

Munkvold, Gary P

2003-01-01

89

Genetic and Physiological Analysis of Iron Biofortification in Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, where poverty is a major factor. Therefore, biofortification of maize by increasing Fe concentration and or bioavailability has great potential to alleviate this deficiency. Maize is also a model system for genomic research and thus allows the opportunity for gene discovery. Here we describe an integrated genetic and physiological analysis of Fe nutrition in maize kernels, to identify loci that influence grain Fe concentration and bioavailability. Methodology Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to dissect grain Fe concentration (FeGC) and Fe bioavailability (FeGB) from the Intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred (RI) population. FeGC was determined by ion coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). FeGB was determined by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell line bioassay. Conclusions Three modest QTL for FeGC were detected, in spite of high heritability. This suggests that FeGC is controlled by many small QTL, which may make it a challenging trait to improve by marker assisted breeding. Ten QTL for FeGB were identified and explained 54% of the variance observed in samples from a single year/location. Three of the largest FeGB QTL were isolated in sister derived lines and their effect was observed in three subsequent seasons in New York. Single season evaluations were also made at six other sites around North America, suggesting the enhancement of FeGB was not specific to our farm site. FeGB was not correlated with FeGC or phytic acid, suggesting that novel regulators of Fe nutrition are responsible for the differences observed. Our results indicate that iron biofortification of maize grain is achievable using specialized phenotyping tools and conventional plant breeding techniques. PMID:21687662

Szalma, Stephen J.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Kochian, Leon V.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

2011-01-01

90

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

91

Construction of genetic linkage maps in maize and tomato using restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage maps were constructed for both maize and tomato, utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) as the source of genetic markers. In order to detect these RFLPs, unique DNA sequence clones were prepared from either maize or tomato tissue and hybridized to Southern blots containing restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA from different homozygous lines. A subsequent comparison of the RFLP

T. Helentjaris; M. Slocum; S. Wright; A. Schaefer; J. Nienhuis

1986-01-01

92

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods

Marieke Saher; Marjaana Lindeman; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2006-01-01

93

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

94

Genetically Modified Animals and Pharmacological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the\\u000a domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of\\u000a the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in\\u000a generating affordable models of human disease although

Dominic J. Wells

95

Abstract The objectives of this study were the examina-tion of genetic similarities in a diverse group of maize  

E-print Network

group of maize inbreds and an investigation of the incidence of shared haplotypes within closely related-group haplotypes. Keywords Maize pedigree SSR Introduction Estimation of genetic relationship using pedigree infor for the estimation of genetic relation- ships between maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds (Smith et al. 1997). Both

Romero-Severson, Jeanne

96

SSR-BASED GENETIC DIVERSITIES AMONG MAIZE INBRED LINES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH F1 PHENOTYPIC DATA OF MR4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was done to assess genetic diversities in 34 maize inbreed lines and to determine relationships between genetic distances and phenotypic data. The lines represent the different Indonesian flint maize germplasms. Thirty microsatellite loci distributed throughout the maize genome were chosen based on their level of polymorphism. A total of 133 alleles were detected with a range of 2-8

Marcia B. Pabendon; H. Aswidinnoor

2009-01-01

97

SSR analysis of genetic diversity among maize inbred lines adapted to cold regions of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information regarding diversity and relationships among breeding material is necessary for hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. Simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of the 60 loci distributed uniformly throughout the maize genome was carried out for 65 inbred lines adapted to cold regions of Japan in order to assess genetic diversity among the inbred lines and to assign them to heterotic

H. Enoki; H. Sato; K. Koinuma

2002-01-01

98

Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

99

Potential anthranilate modifying enzymes of maize mutant bf-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedlings of maize mutant bf-1 exhibit blue fluorescence and a distinct grape odor due to an accumulation of methyl anthranilate and other anthranilate related compounds. The bf-1 also expresses a feedback insensitive anthranilate synthase. Previously, we identified a unique mutation in anthranila...

100

Genetically Modified Organisms and Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modification techniques have transformed the scope of biotechnology. Describes the new technology and its potential uses in the food industry. Safety is an important consideration and there are European Community and British legislative safeguards for human and environmental safety. Proposed EC legislation on novel foods, as drafted, contains equivalent provisions. There are wider questions about use of genetic modification

Stewart Marshall

1994-01-01

101

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

102

Targeting Genetically Modified Macrophages to the Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages are key players in the development of the majority of renal diseases and are therefore ideal cellular vectors for site specifically targeting gene therapy to inflamed glomeruli. Macrophages can be genetically modified using viral vectors ex vivo then re-introduced into the body where they can home to the diseased site. This review summarises current experience in efficiently targeting modified

H. M. Wilson; D. C. Kluth

2003-01-01

103

Genetically modified mouse models in cancer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified animals represent a resource of immense potential for cancer research. Classically, genetic modifications\\u000a in mice were obtained through selected breeding experiments or treatments with powerful carcinogens capable of inducing random\\u000a mutagenesis. A new era began in the early 1980s when genetic modifications by inserting foreign DNA genes into the cells of\\u000a an animal allowed for the development of

Javier Santos; Pablo Fernández-Navarro; María Villa-Morales; Laura González-Sánchez; José Fernández-Piqueras

2008-01-01

104

Modification of recombinant maize ChitA chitinase by fungal chitinase-modifying proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In commercial maize, there are at least two different alleles of the chiA gene that encode alloforms of ChitA chitinase, a protein that is abundant in developing seed. Both known alloforms are modified by Bz-cmp, a protein secreted by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris zeicola. One alloform (ChitA-B73) i...

105

The Domestication of Maize The Maize Genome  

E-print Network

The Domestication of Maize The Maize Genome Maize Genetics in the 20th Century The Future From Gene Discovery to Application The Dynamic Maize Genome Corn, also known as maize (from the Spanish maíz these bigger spikes, and thus the remarkable events of domestication began. By studying the maize genome

Napp, Nils

106

Out of America: tracing the genetic footprints of the global diffusion of maize.  

PubMed

Maize was first domesticated in a restricted valley in south-central Mexico. It was diffused throughout the Americas over thousands of years, and following the discovery of the New World by Columbus, was introduced into Europe. Trade and colonization introduced it further into all parts of the world to which it could adapt. Repeated introductions, local selection and adaptation, a highly diverse gene pool and outcrossing nature, and global trade in maize led to difficulty understanding exactly where the diversity of many of the local maize landraces originated. This is particularly true in Africa and Asia, where historical accounts are scarce or contradictory. Knowledge of post-domestication movements of maize around the world would assist in germplasm conservation and plant breeding efforts. To this end, we used SSR markers to genotype multiple individuals from hundreds of representative landraces from around the world. Applying a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic, linguistic, and historical data, we reconstructed possible patterns of maize diffusion throughout the world from American "contribution" centers, which we propose reflect the origins of maize worldwide. These results shed new light on introductions of maize into Africa and Asia. By providing a first globally comprehensive genetic characterization of landraces using markers appropriate to this evolutionary time frame, we explore the post-domestication evolutionary history of maize and highlight original diversity sources that may be tapped for plant improvement in different regions of the world. PMID:23921956

Mir, C; Zerjal, T; Combes, V; Dumas, F; Madur, D; Bedoya, C; Dreisigacker, S; Franco, J; Grudloyma, P; Hao, P X; Hearne, S; Jampatong, C; Laloë, D; Muthamia, Z; Nguyen, T; Prasanna, B M; Taba, S; Xie, C X; Yunus, M; Zhang, S; Warburton, M L; Charcosset, A

2013-11-01

107

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pre-treated corn meal were

Sergej Jerman; Aleš Podgornik; Katarina Cankar; Neža ?adež; Mihaela Skrt; Jana Žel; Peter Raspor

2005-01-01

108

ZmCCT and the genetic basis of day-length adaptation underlying the postdomestication spread of maize  

E-print Network

of maize Hsiao-Yi Hunga,1 , Laura M. Shannonb,1 , Feng Tianc,d,1 , Peter J. Bradburyd,e , Charles Chenf, NC 27695; b Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706; c National Maize, the progenitor of maize, is restricted to tropical environ- ments in Mexico and Central America. The pre

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

109

Maize Authentication: Quality Control Methods and Multivariate Analysis (Chemometrics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize is one of the most important cereals because of its numerous applications in processed foods where it is the major or minor component. Apart from maize authenticity issues related to cultivar and geographical origin (national and\\/or international level), there is another important issue related to genetically modified maize. Various objective parameters such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, pigments, heavy

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

2009-01-01

110

Advances in Maize Genomics and Their Value for Enhancing Genetic Gains from Breeding  

PubMed Central

Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products. PMID:19688107

Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J.; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Crouch, Jonathan H.

2009-01-01

111

Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.  

PubMed

Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had ?-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the ?-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the ?-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the ?-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends. PMID:24491720

Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

2014-06-15

112

Epigenetics: modifying the genetic blueprint.  

PubMed

The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint. While it is now possible to draw direct connections between specific DNA sequences and specific physical features and to predict disease risk, the effects of certain genes can be masked by a process called "epigenetics." Here, I summarize our current understanding of epigenetics and it affects gene expression, with impacts on health and aging. PMID:25438366

Eissenberg, Joel C

2014-01-01

113

Genetic Variation at Bx 1 Controls DIMBOA Content in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main hydroxamic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to leaf-feeding by several corn borers. Most genes involved in the DIMBOA metabolic pathway are located on the short arm of chromosome 4, and QTLs involved in maize resis...

114

[Molecular-genetic analysis of maize mitochondrion regions associated with cytoplasmic male sterility].  

PubMed

Molecular-genetic polymorphism of 86 world and Ukrainian breeding maize lines with S-, C- and T-types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and with normal wild type mitochondrion has been researched via mitochondrion regions PCR-analysis. Molecular marker system allowed to detect and identify definite type of CMS within maize lines, as well as to differentiate lines with definite CMS type either from lines with another CMS type or from normal wild type cytoplasm lines. PMID:21774398

Slishchuk, H I; Kozhukhova, N E; Syvolap, Iu M

2011-01-01

115

The genetic basis of C-glycosyl flavone Bring modification in maize ( Zea mays L.) silks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to corn earworm (CEW) (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) has been attributed to high concentrations of C-glycosyl flavones and chlorogenic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) silks. The most common C-glycosyl flavones isolated from maize silks are maysin, apimaysin, and methoxymaysin, which are distinguished by their B-ring substitutions. For a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the synthesis of these

Moisés Cortés-Cruz; Maurice Snook; Michael D. McMullen

2003-01-01

116

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods  

E-print Network

to Wild Relatives,'' Report to Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (U.K.), 2005, availableSCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods and the Attack on Nature Stuart A. Newman to improve foods and other crop plants by introducing exogenous genes (experi- mental transgenesis, a type

Newman, Stuart A.

117

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

118

Disease-resistant genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infectious disease adversely affects livestock production and animal welfare, and has impacts upon both human health and public perception of livestock production. The authors argue that the combination of new methodology that enables the efficient production of genetically-modified (GM) animals with exciting new tools to alter gene activity makes the applications of transgenic animals for the benefit of animal

C. B. A. Whitelaw; H. M. Sang

2005-01-01

119

Should genetically modified organisms be patentable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some of the philosophical issues involved in patenting genetically modified organisms. In particular, what we think has been highly problematic has been the tendency to use terms such as intervention, identification, creation, authorship and artifact interchangeably as criteria for invention. We examine attempts by various people to formulate a philosophically precise set of criteria for

Justine Lacey; Julian Lamont

120

ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

121

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensification of agriculture has provided cheaper more plentiful food, but has also caused declines in farm- land wildlife. The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may exacerbate this, or offer new ways of mitigating anthropogenic impacts. The potential conse- quences of the introduction of GM crops have been stud- ied for over a decade, since commercialization. Although the specific

Rosemary S Hails

2009-01-01

122

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

123

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

124

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

125

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

126

New Insights into the Genetics of in Vivo Induction of Maternal Haploids, the Backbone of Doubled Haploid Technology in Maize  

PubMed Central

Haploids and doubled haploid (DH) inbred lines have become an invaluable tool for maize genetic research and hybrid breeding, but the genetic basis of in vivo induction of maternal haploids is still unknown. This is the first study reporting comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of this trait in maize. We determined haploid induction rates (HIR) in testcrosses of a total of 1061 progenies of four segregating populations involving two temperate haploid inducers, UH400 (HIR = 8%) and CAUHOI (HIR = 2%), one temperate and two tropical inbreds with HIR = 0%, and up to three generations per population. Mean HIR of the populations ranged from 0.6 to 5.2% and strongly deviated from the midparent values. One QTL (qhir1) explaining up to p^=66% of the genetic variance was detected in bin 1.04 in the three populations involving a noninducer parent and the HIR-enhancing allele was contributed by UH400. Segregation ratios of loci in bin 1.04 were highly distorted against the UH400 allele in these three populations, suggesting that transmission failure of the inducer gamete and haploid induction ability are related phenomena. In the CAUHOI × UH400 population, seven QTL were identified on five chromosomes, with qhir8 on chromosome 9 having p^>20% in three generations of this cross. The large-effect QTL qhir1 and qhir8 will likely become fixed quickly during inducer development due to strong selection pressure applied for high HIR. Hence, marker-based pyramiding of small-effect and/or modifier QTL influencing qhir1 and qhir8 may help to further increase HIR in maize. We propose a conceptual genetic framework for inheritance of haploid induction ability, which is also applicable to other dichotomous traits requiring progeny testing, and discuss the implications of our results for haploid inducer development. PMID:22135357

Prigge, Vanessa; Xu, Xiaowei; Li, Liang; Babu, Raman; Chen, Shaojiang; Atlin, Gary N.; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

2012-01-01

127

GMEnzy: A Genetically Modified Enzybiotic Database  

PubMed Central

GMEs are genetically modified enzybiotics created through molecular engineering approaches to deal with the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance prevalence. We present a fully manually curated database, GMEnzy, which focuses on GMEs and their design strategies, production and purification methods, and biological activity data. GMEnzy collects and integrates all available GMEs and their related information into one web based database. Currently GMEnzy holds 186 GMEs from published literature. The GMEnzy interface is easy to use, and allows users to rapidly retrieve data according to desired search criteria. GMEnzy’s construction will increase the efficiency and convenience of improving these bioactive proteins for specific requirements, and will expand the arsenal available for researches to control drug-resistant pathogens. This database will prove valuable for researchers interested in genetically modified enzybiotics studies. GMEnzy is freely available on the Web at http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/gmenzy/. PMID:25084271

Lu, Hairong; Li, Guodong; Huang, Qingshan

2014-01-01

128

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

129

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

130

Distinct genetic architectures for male and female inflorescence traits of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared the genetic architecture of thirteen maize morphological traits in a large population of recombinant inbred lines. Four traits from the male inflorescence (tassel) and three traits from the female inflorescence (ear) were measured and studied using linkage and genome-wide association ana...

131

Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study, are at present used on roughly half of the tropical acreage of this crop. Several

Etten van J

2006-01-01

132

SHORT COMMUNICATION Does feeding on Bt-maize affect the slug Arion vulgaris  

E-print Network

2 September 2009) Via expression of Cry-proteins, toxic for specific insect groups, genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize offers an effective protection against insect pests-effect but indicated the general poor quality of maize as food resource for slugs. Keywords: Bt-maize; non

Richner, Heinz

133

Genetic analysis of visually scored orange kernel color in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing levels of provitamin A carotenoids in maize (Zea mays L.) grain through plant breeding, termed biofortification, is an economical and sustainable way to help humans suffering from vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Unfortunately, in parts of Africa where VAD is prevalent, there is frequently a c...

134

GENETIC MAPPING OF MAIZE MUTANTS WITH SSR MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mapping of mutants in the Maize Mapping Project seeks to increase the value of the mutant resource with map information. Because the number of mutants is enormous, and is ever growing, we have worked to increase the rate and resolution by which mutants can be mapped with molecular markers. By prod...

135

Genetic and biochemical analysis of iron bioavailability in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is an inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, b...

136

Genetic and biochemical analysis of iron bioavailability in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biofor...

137

Genetics and Biochemistry of Insect Resistance in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are a major concern for maize production worldwide. Host plant resistance to insects involves a number of chemical and biochemical factors that limit but rarely eliminate insect damage. Most chemical and many biochemical factors involved in resistance to insects are synthesized independent...

138

Bulk genetic characterization of Ghanaian maize landraces using microsatellite markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays) was first introduced into Ghana over 5 centuries ago and remains the most important cereal staple, grown in all agro-ecologies across the country. Yield from farmers’ fields are low, which is attributed in part to farmer’s preferences and/or reliance on local landraces for cultivati...

139

Development of an innovative immunoassay for CP4EPSPS and Cry1AB genetically modified protein detection and quantification.  

PubMed

An innovative immunoassay, called enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) Reverse, based on a new conformation of the solid phase, was developed. The solid support was expressly designed to be immersed directly in liquid samples to detect the presence of protein targets. Its application is proposed in those cases where a large number of samples have to be screened simultaneously or when the simultaneous detection of different proteins is required. As a first application, a quantitative immunoassay for Cry1AB protein in genetically modified maize was optimized. The method was tested using genetically modified organism concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were determined as 0.0056 and 0.0168 (expressed as the percentage of genetically modified organisms content), respectively. A qualitative multiplex assay to assess the presence of two genetically modified proteins simultaneously was also established for the case of the Cry1AB and the CP4EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in genetically modified maize and soy, respectively. PMID:16901856

Ermolli, M; Prospero, A; Balla, B; Querci, M; Mazzeo, A; Van Den Eede, G

2006-09-01

140

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS  

E-print Network

may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, London, UK. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Environmental impact of genetically modified crops/edited by Natalie Ferry and Angharad M.R. Gatehouse. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84593-409-5 (alk. paper) 1. Transgenic plants--Environmental aspects. 2. Food--Safety measures. 3. Agricultural biotechnology. I. Ferry, Natalie. II. Gatehouse, A. M. R. III. Title.

Natalie Ferry; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Typeset Spi

141

Genetic analysis of maturity and flowering characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the pattern of inheritance and determine the relative magnitude of various genetic effects for maturity and flowering attributes in subtropical maize. Methods Four white grain maize inbred lines from flint group of corn, two with late maturity and two with early maturity, were used. These contrasting inbred lines were crossed to form four crosses. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) were developed for each individual cross. These were evaluated in triplicate trial for two consecutive years. Results Both dominance gene action and epistatic interaction played major role in governing inheritance of days to pollen shedding, 50% silking, anthesis silking interval and maturity. Conclusions Preponderance of dominance gene action for these traits indicated their usefulness in hybrid programs of subtropical maize. PMID:23569982

Sher, Hassan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Khan, Kiramat; yasir, Muhammad; Hameed-ur-Rahman

2012-01-01

142

Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley] [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany] [USDA Albany

2013-10-31

143

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food.  

PubMed

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues to a size where it would be unlikely to be stably transferred to bacterial gut microflora. The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SS) genes are of similar size (approximately 1.4 kb) to transgenes present in GM plants. DNA analysis and PCR amplification of Rubisco SS genes showed that fresh maize and maize silage contained high molecular weight DNA and intact Rubisco SS genes. Relatively high temperatures and pressurised steam were necessary to degrade fully genomic DNA and Rubisco SS genes in maize and wheat grains, the source of most animal feedstuffs. Furthermore, chemical expulsion and extrusion of oilseeds resulted in residues with completely degraded genomic DNA. These results imply that stringent conditions are needed in the processing of GM plant tissues for feedstuffs to eliminate the possibility of transmission of transgenes. PMID:10996317

Chiter, A; Forbes, J M; Blair, G E

2000-09-15

144

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

145

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

146

Population structure and genetic diversity of maize inbreds derived from tropical hybrids.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify the population structure and to assess the genetic diversity of maize inbreds. We genotyped 81 microsatellite loci of 90 maize inbreds that were derived from tropical hybrids and populations. The population structure analysis was based on a Bayesian approach. Each subpopulation was characterized for the effective number of alleles, gene diversity, and number of private alleles. We also performed an analysis of molecular variance and computed a measure of population differentiation (FST). The genetic distances were computed from the similarity index of Lynch and the dissimilarity measures proposed by Smouse and Peakall. The cluster analyses were based on the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages and Tocher method. The clustering efficiency was assessed by the error rate of the discriminant analysis. We also performed a principal coordinates analysis. The population structure analysis revealed three tropical heterotic pools, which have been used by worldwide and Brazilian maize seed companies. The degree of genetic differentiation and of intra- and inter-population genetic diversity for these tropical heterotic pools are comparable to that observed for temperate and subtropical heterotic pools. The higher allelic frequency variation within each tropical heterotic pool and the high genetic diversity between the inbreds were evidence of heterotic groups within the main tropical heterotic pools. PMID:25222235

Lanes, E C M; Viana, J M S; Paes, G P; Paula, M F B; Maia, C; Caixeta, E T; Miranda, G V

2014-01-01

147

Development of sampling approaches for the determination of the presence of genetically modified organisms at the field level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to comply with the European Union regulatory threshold for the adventitious presence of genetically modified organisms\\u000a (GMOs) in food and feed, it is important to trace GMOs from the field. Appropriate sampling methods are needed to accurately\\u000a predict the presence of GMOs at the field level. A 2-year field experiment with two maize varieties differing in kernel colour

Jelka Šuštar-Vozli?; Katja Rostohar; Andrej Blejec; Petra Kozjak; Zoran ?ergan; Vladimir Megli?

2010-01-01

148

Multivariate analysis of maize disease resistances suggests a pleiotropic genetic basis and implicates a GST gene  

PubMed Central

Plants are attacked by pathogens representing diverse taxonomic groups, such that genes providing multiple disease resistance (MDR) are expected to be under positive selection pressure. To address the hypothesis that naturally occurring allelic variation conditions MDR, we extended the framework of structured association mapping to allow for the analysis of correlated complex traits and the identification of pleiotropic genes. The multivariate analytical approach used here is directly applicable to any species and set of traits exhibiting correlation. From our analysis of a diverse panel of maize inbred lines, we discovered high positive genetic correlations between resistances to three globally threatening fungal diseases. The maize panel studied exhibits rapidly decaying linkage disequilibrium that generally occurs within 1 or 2 kb, which is less than the average length of a maize gene. The positive correlations therefore suggested that functional allelic variation at specific genes for MDR exists in maize. Using a multivariate test statistic, a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene was found to be associated with modest levels of resistance to all three diseases. Resequencing analysis pinpointed the association to a histidine (basic amino acid) for aspartic acid (acidic amino acid) substitution in the encoded protein domain that defines GST substrate specificity and biochemical activity. The known functions of GSTs suggested that variability in detoxification pathways underlie natural variation in maize MDR. PMID:21490302

Wisser, Randall J.; Kolkman, Judith M.; Patzoldt, Megan E.; Holland, James B.; Yu, Jianming; Krakowsky, Matthew; Nelson, Rebecca J.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.

2011-01-01

149

Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed for 59 maize, 66 beet and 67 spring oilseed rape sites. Fields were split into halves, one being sown with a GMHT crop and the other with the equivalent conventional non-GMHT crop. Margin vegetation was recorded in three components of the field margins. Most

D. B. Roy; D. A. Bohan; A. J. Haughton; M. O. Hill; J. L. Osborne; S. J. Clark; J. N. Perry; P. Rothery; R. J. Scott; D. R. Brooks; G. T. Champion; C. Hawes; M. S. Heard; L. G. Firbank

2003-01-01

150

Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abun- dances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differ- ences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects

A. J. Haughton; G. T. Champion; C. Hawes; M. S. Heard; D. R. Brooks; D. A. Bohan; S. J. Clark; A. M. Dewar; L. G. Firbank; J. L. Osborne; J. N. Perry; P. Rothery; D. B. Roy; R. J. Scott; I. P. Woiwod; C. Birchall; M. P. Skellern; J. H. Walker; P. Baker; E. L. Browne; A. J. G. Dewar; B. H. Garner; L. A. Haylock; S. L. Horne; N. S. Mason; R. J. N. Sands; M. J. Walker

2003-01-01

151

Opaque-15, a maize mutation with properties of a defective opaque-2 modifier  

SciTech Connect

An opaque mutation was identified that reduces {gamma}-zein synthesis in maize endosperm. The mutation, opaque-15, causes a 2- to 3-fold reduction in {gamma}-zein mRNA and protein synthesis and reduces the proportion of the 27-kDa {gamma}-zein A gene transcript. Although the protein bodies in opaque-15 are similar in size and morphology compared to wild type, there are fewer of them in developing endosperm cells. The opaque-15 mutation maps near the telomere of chromosome 7L, coincident with an opaque-2 modifier locus. Based on its phenotype, opaque-15 appears to be a mutation of an opaque-2 modifier gene. 23 refs., 6 figs.

Dannenhoffer, J.M.; Bostwick, D.E.; Or, E.; Larkins, B.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-03-14

152

Genetic Transformation of Maize Cells by Particle Bombardment  

PubMed Central

Intact maize cells were bombarded with microprojectiles bearing plasmid DNA coding for selectable (neomycin phosphotransferase [NPT II]) and screenable (?-glucuronidase [GUS]) marker genes. Kanamycin-resistant calli were selected from bombarded cells, and these calli carried copies of the NPT II and GUS genes as determined by Southern blot analysis. All such calli expressed GUS although the level of expression varied greatly between transformed cell lines. These results show that intact cells of important monocot species can be stably transformed by microprojectiles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667039

Klein, Theodore M.; Kornstein, Laura; Sanford, John C.; Fromm, Michael E.

1989-01-01

153

A somatic gene rearrangement contributing to genetic diversity in maize  

SciTech Connect

The authors have discovered a somatic genomic rearrangement that occurs at high frequency at a duplicated zein locus in certain cultures of the maize inbred line A188. The rearranged allele arises from the duplication by a two-step process involving a homologous recombination and a second event, which may be a deletion, inversion, or insertion; both steps always occur together. The frequency of rearrangement is lower in homozygous states of the parental allele than in heterozygotes. In both cases, the rearrangement is shown to be mitotic. The rearranged product can be transmitted through meiosis, providing another mechanism for genome evolution in higher eukaryotes.

Das, O.P.; Levi-Minzi, S.; Koury, M.; Benner, M.; Messing, J. (The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway (USA))

1990-10-01

154

Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks  

PubMed Central

Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging. PMID:8138165

Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

1994-01-01

155

Genetic Mechanisms Underlying Apimaysin and Maysin Synthesis and Corn Earworm Antibiosis in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-glycosyl flavones in maize silks confer resistance (i.e., antibiosis) to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) larvae and are distinguished by their B-ring substitutions, with maysin and apimaysin being the di- and monohydroxy B-ring forms, respectively. Herein, we examine the genetic mechanisms underlying the synthesis of maysin and apimaysin and the corresponding effects on corn earworm larval growth. Using an F2

E. A. Lee; P. F. Byrne; M. D. McMullen; M. E. Snook; B. R. Wiseman; N. W. Widstrom; E. H. Coe

156

Genetic Resources for Maize Cell Wall Biology1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Grass species represent a major source of food, feed, and fiber crops and potential feedstocks for biofuel production. Most of the biomass is contributed by cell walls that are distinct in composition from all other flowering plants. Identifying cell wall-related genes and their functions underpins a fundamental understanding of growth and development in these species. Toward this goal, we are building a knowledge base of the maize (Zea mays) genes involved in cell wall biology, their expression profiles, and the phenotypic consequences of mutation. Over 750 maize genes were annotated and assembled into gene families predicted to function in cell wall biogenesis. Comparative genomics of maize, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequences reveal differences in gene family structure between grass species and a reference eudicot species. Analysis of transcript profile data for cell wall genes in developing maize ovaries revealed that expression within families differed by up to 100-fold. When transcriptional analyses of developing ovaries before pollination from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize were contrasted, distinct sets of cell wall genes were expressed in grasses. These differences in gene family structure and expression between Arabidopsis and the grasses underscore the requirement for a grass-specific genetic model for functional analyses. A UniformMu population proved to be an important resource in both forward- and reverse-genetics approaches to identify hundreds of mutants in cell wall genes. A forward screen of field-grown lines by near-infrared spectroscopic screen of mature leaves yielded several dozen lines with heritable spectroscopic phenotypes. Pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry confirmed that several nir mutants had altered carbohydrate-lignin compositions. PMID:19926802

Penning, Bryan W.; Hunter, Charles T.; Tayengwa, Reuben; Eveland, Andrea L.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Koch, Karen E.; McCarty, Donald R.; Davis, Mark F.; Thomas, Steven R.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

2009-01-01

157

Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species.  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on 12 weed species. We sampled the seedbank before and after cropping. During the season we counted plants and measured seed rain and biomass. Ratios of densities were used to calculate emergence, survival, reproduction and seedbank change. Treatments significantly affected the biomass of six species in beet, eight in maize and five in spring oilseed rape. The effects were generally consistent, with biomass lower in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape and higher in GMHT maize. With few exceptions, emergence was higher in GMHT crops. Subsequent survival was significantly lowered for eight species in beet and six in spring oilseed rape in the GMHT treatments. It was increased for five species in maize and one in spring oilseed rape. Significant effects on seedbank change were found for four species. However, for many species in beet and spring oilseed rape (19 out of 24 cases), seed densities were lower in the seedbank after GMHT cropping. These differences compounded over time would result in large decreases in population densities of arable weeds. In maize, populations may increase. PMID:14561317

Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

2003-01-01

158

The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.  

PubMed

Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. PMID:20213690

Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

2010-07-01

159

Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by chemically modified maize straw.  

PubMed

A new regenerable adsorbent was successfully prepared by modifying maize straw (MS) with succinic anhydride in xylene. The succinylated-maize straw (S-MS) was characterized by FTIR, solid-state MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and point of zero charge analysis. NaS-MS was successfully obtained after deprotonating the carboxylic acid groups of S-MS by Na2CO3 solution. Batch experiments were carried out with NaS-MS for the removal of Cd(II). The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental data were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, and ?S) were also calculated from data obtained from experiments performed to study the effect of temperatures. NaS-MS could be regenerated at least five times in saturated NaCl solution without any loss. Furthermore, ?97% of adsorbed Cd(II) ions could be recovered as the metal oxide. Finally, the adsorption mechanism of NaS-MS was discussed. PMID:25439883

Guo, Hong; Zhang, Shufen; Kou, Zinong; Zhai, Shangru; Ma, Wei; Yang, Yi

2015-01-22

160

Modification of recombinant maize ChitA chitinase by fungal chitinase-modifying proteins.  

PubMed

In commercial maize, there are at least two different alleles of the chiA gene that encode alloforms of ChitA chitinase, a protein that is abundant in developing seed. Both known alloforms are modified by Bz-cmp, a chitinase-modifying protein (cmp) secreted by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris zeicola. One alloform (ChitA-B73) is also modified by Stm-cmp, a protein secreted by the fungal pathogen Stenocarpella maydis, whereas the other (ChitA-LH82) is resistant. The two ChitA alloforms possess six differences or polymorphisms (P1-P6). To determine whether the P2 polymorphism in the chitin-binding domain is responsible for resistance or susceptibility to modification by Stm-cmp, and to determine whether Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp are proteases, heterologous expression strains of the yeast Pichia pastoris that produce recombinant maize ChitA (rChitA) alloforms and mutant rChitAs were created. rChitA alloforms and mutant rChitAs were purified from yeast cultures and used as substrates in assays with Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp. As with native protein, Bz-cmp modified both rChitA-LH82 and rChitA-B73, whereas Stm-cmp modified rChitA-B73 only. Mutant rChitAs, in which the P2 amino acids were changed to those of the other alloform, resulted in a significant exchange in Stm-cmp susceptibility. Amino-terminal sequencing of unmodified and modified rChitA-B73 demonstrated that Stm-cmp cleaves the peptide bond on the amino-terminal side of the P2 alanine, whereas Bz-cmp cleaves in the poly-glycine hinge region, the site of P3. The results demonstrate that Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp are proteases that truncate ChitA chitinase at the amino terminus, but at different sites. Both sites correspond to polymorphisms in the two alloforms, suggesting that the sequence diversity at P2 and P3 is the result of selective pressure to prevent truncation by fungal proteases. PMID:21453431

Naumann, Todd A

2011-05-01

161

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

162

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

163

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

164

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

165

[Cytological observation on pollen abortion of genetic male sterile mutant induced by space flight in maize].  

PubMed

In order to understand the cytological mechanism of pollen abortion of genetic male sterile mutant induced by space flight in maize, the sister cross population were used for sterility analysis and cytological observation. Intact anther observation, isolated cells observation and paraffin section were adopted in this research. The results showed that pollen abortion occured mostly in dyad stage of meiosis in genetic male sterile mutant. The dyad were degenerated with abnormal shape. In late anther developing stage, the tapetal cells were giant vacuolated and delayed degeneration. The pollen mother cells (PMC) began to dissolve and degenerate in a few anther before meiosis. PMID:18254342

Li, Shi Zhao; Cao, Mo Ju; Rong, Ting Zhao; Pan, Guang Tang; Tang, Qi Lin; Zhu, Ying Guo

2007-10-01

166

Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens

S. L Taylor

1997-01-01

167

Comparisons of DNA marker-based genetic diversity with phenotypic estimates in maize grown in Pakistan.  

PubMed

We compared DNA-based genetic diversity estimates with conventional estimates by investigating agronomically important traits in maize grown in the northwestern region of Pakistan. RAPD markers were used to characterize 10 commonly cultivated maize genotypes. The same material was tested for phenotypic variation of quantitative traits using replicated field trials. The genetic distances between pairs of genotypes using RAPD data were used to generate a similarity matrix and to construct a phenogram. Statistical analyses were carried out on the data obtained from field trials of all maize genotypes for days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant height, ear height, grain yield, grain weight per cob, and ear length. Analysis of variance and single degree of freedom contrasts were performed on morphological data to examine the relationship between molecular-based clusters and agronomic traits. A molecular marker-based phenogram led to the grouping of all genotypes into four major clusters, some of which were distantly related. These clusters contained one to four genotypes. Analysis of variance showed significant variations among all genotypes for agronomic traits. The single degree of freedom contrasts between groups of genotypes indicated significant differences for most traits. Pair-wise comparisons between clusters were also significant. The two types of data correlated well, providing an opportunity for better choices for selection. PMID:20882490

Shah, M M; Hassan, S W; Maqbool, K; Shahzadi, I; Pervez, A

2010-01-01

168

[Genetic analysis of maize cytoplasmic male sterile mutants obtained by space flight].  

PubMed

Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production. PMID:21377975

Zhang, Cai-Bo; Yuan, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Pan, Guang-Tang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

2011-02-01

169

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

170

Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

171

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

172

Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

2001-01-01

173

Genetic dissection of Al tolerance QTLs in the maize genome by high density SNP scan  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to food security in tropical and subtropical regions. High Al saturation on acid soils limits root development, reducing water and nutrient uptake. In addition to naturally occurring acid soils, agricultural practices may decrease soil pH, leading to yield losses due to Al toxicity. Elucidating the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying maize Al tolerance is expected to accelerate the development of Al-tolerant cultivars. Results Five genomic regions were significantly associated with Al tolerance, using 54,455 SNP markers in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Cateto Al237. Candidate genes co-localized with Al tolerance QTLs were further investigated. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) developed for ZmMATE2 were as Al-sensitive as the recurrent line, indicating that this candidate gene was not responsible for the Al tolerance QTL on chromosome 5, qALT5. However, ZmNrat1, a maize homolog to OsNrat1, which encodes an Al3+ specific transporter previously implicated in rice Al tolerance, was mapped at ~40 Mbp from qALT5. We demonstrate for the first time that ZmNrat1 is preferentially expressed in maize root tips and is up-regulated by Al, similarly to OsNrat1 in rice, suggesting a role of this gene in maize Al tolerance. The strongest-effect QTL was mapped on chromosome 6 (qALT6), within a 0.5 Mbp region where three copies of the Al tolerance gene, ZmMATE1, were found in tandem configuration. qALT6 was shown to increase Al tolerance in maize; the qALT6-NILs carrying three copies of ZmMATE1 exhibited a two-fold increase in Al tolerance, and higher expression of ZmMATE1 compared to the Al sensitive recurrent parent. Interestingly, a new source of Al tolerance via ZmMATE1 was identified in a Brazilian elite line that showed high expression of ZmMATE1 but carries a single copy of ZmMATE1. Conclusions High ZmMATE1 expression, controlled either by three copies of the target gene or by an unknown molecular mechanism, is responsible for Al tolerance mediated by qALT6. As Al tolerant alleles at qALT6 are rare in maize, marker-assisted introgression of this QTL is an important strategy to improve maize adaptation to acid soils worldwide. PMID:24564817

2014-01-01

174

[Genetic study on two maize male sterile mutants obtained by space mutagenesis].  

PubMed

Two maize male sterile mutants were selected from the offspring of four maize inbred lines, which were carried into space by the Shenzhou spaceship 4. Their genetic characteristic and stability was analyzed in present study. Crosses were made between the male sterile plants and fertile plants from the same line, and other inbred lines with normal cytoplasm. The ratios of the sterile plants with the fertile plants in their F1, F2 generations, and their reciprocal backcross generations with the male sterile plants were calculated. The results showed that the characteristic in male sterility was stable in different years, different seasons and different locations, and was inheritable from generation to generation. This male sterile was controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. Since no pollens or a few malformed pollens existed in the anther of the sterile plants, it was a completely sterile type. PMID:17650492

Li, Yu-Ling; Yu, Yong-Liang; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xue-Hui; Fu, Jia-Feng

2007-06-01

175

Construction of a reference plasmid containing ten targets for the detection of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Standard reference molecules play a significant role for the detection of genetically modified (GM) crops and products. The newest reference molecules should catch up with the rapid development of GM crops in the world. In this work, a reference plasmid containing ten targets from GM soybean, maize and cotton was constructed on the basis of the pTLE8 harboring eight targets only from GM soybean and cotton. Three target segments of the Bt176 event-specific 3'-junction (Bt176G3'), MON810 event-specific 3'-junction (MON810G3') and the endogenous maize Hmg genes, were fused into the 890 bp fragment by overlap extension PCR. The CP4 EPSPS gene in the plasmid pTLE8 previously constructed in our laboratory was replaced with above fusion fragment, thus generating a new plasmid pTLH10 containing ten target genes from GM soybean, maize and cotton. The PCR efficiencies with pTLH10 as a calibrator ranged from 93.3% to 99.9% for the standard curves of the Bt176G3', MON810G3' and Hmg genes. The standard deviation (SD) values of repeatability were from 0.04 to 0.8 for three different days and from 0.12 to 1.14 for one day, respectively. These results indicated that the reference plasmid constructed in this work is also suitable for the identification of GM maize, and would be an important tool to establish a feasible identification management for various GM crops components. PMID:23085154

Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Xi, Di; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

2013-01-01

176

Independent genetic control of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination and its phenotypic plasticity.  

PubMed

Maize kernel weight (KW) is associated with the duration of the grain-filling period (GFD) and the rate of kernel biomass accumulation (KGR). It is also related to the dynamics of water and hence is physiologically linked to the maximum kernel water content (MWC), kernel desiccation rate (KDR), and moisture concentration at physiological maturity (MCPM). This work proposed that principles of phenotypic plasticity can help to consolidated the understanding of the environmental modulation and genetic control of these traits. For that purpose, a maize population of 245 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was grown under different environmental conditions. Trait plasticity was calculated as the ratio of the variance of each RIL to the overall phenotypic variance of the population of RILs. This work found a hierarchy of plasticities: KDR ? GFD > MCPM > KGR > KW > MWC. There was no phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits per se and trait plasticities. MWC, the trait with the lowest plasticity, was the exception because common quantitative trait loci were found for the trait and its plasticity. Independent genetic control of a trait per se and genetic control of its plasticity is a condition for the independent evolution of traits and their plasticities. This allows breeders potentially to select for high or low plasticity in combination with high or low values of economically relevant traits. PMID:24895355

Alvarez Prado, Santiago; Sadras, Víctor O; Borrás, Lucas

2014-08-01

177

Contributions from Remote Sensing to Policy Development Related to Genetically Modified Crops in US Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of Plant Incorporated Protectant (PIP) maize by American producers has been increasing dramatically. PIP maize contains genetically inserted traits that produce toxins in the plant that provide narrowly targeted protection against specific insect pests. The plant producing toxins can offer significant reductions in the application of broad-spectrum pesticides that have ecological and human health consequences.

John A. Glaser; Kenneth L. Copenhaver; Joseph Casas; Karen Stephens; Glen Alexander

2008-01-01

178

Comparative SNP and Haplotype Analysis Reveals a Higher Genetic Diversity and Rapider LD Decay in Tropical than Temperate Germplasm in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in diverse maize germplasm is fundamentally important for maize improvement. A total of 287 tropical and 160 temperate inbred lines were genotyped with 1943 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of high quality and compared for genetic diversity and LD decay using the SNPs and their haplotypes developed from genic and intergenic

Yanli Lu; Trushar Shah; Zhuanfang Hao; Suketoshi Taba; Shihuang Zhang; Shibin Gao; Jian Liu; Moju Cao; Jing Wang; A. Bhanu Prakash; Tingzhao Rong; Yunbi Xu; Pär K. Ingvarsson

2011-01-01

179

[Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].  

PubMed

The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

2012-03-01

180

Methodological scheme for designing the monitoring of genetically modified crops at the regional scale.  

PubMed

According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g. unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods. These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used to develop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks. PMID:16311819

Graef, F; Züghart, W; Hommel, B; Heinrich, U; Stachow, U; Werner, A

2005-12-01

181

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

2014-01-01

182

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.  

PubMed

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

2014-06-27

183

The genetic basis of natural variation for iron homeostasis in the maize IBM population  

PubMed Central

Background Iron (Fe) deficiency symptoms in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) express as leaf chlorosis, growth retardation, as well as yield reduction and are typically observed when plants grow in calcareous soils at alkaline pH. To improve our understanding of genotypical variability in the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, the objectives of this study were to (i) determine the natural genetic variation of traits related to Fe homeostasis in the maize intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population, (ii) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits, and (iii) to analyze expression levels of genes known to be involved in Fe homeostasis as well as of candidate genes obtained from the QTL analysis. Results In hydroponically-grown maize, a total of 47 and 39 QTLs were detected for the traits recorded under limited and adequate supply of Fe, respectively. Conclusions From the QTL results, we were able to identify new putative candidate genes involved in Fe homeostasis under a deficient or adequate Fe nutritional status, like Ferredoxin class gene, putative ferredoxin PETF, metal tolerance protein MTP4, and MTP8. Furthermore, our expression analysis of candidate genes suggested the importance of trans-acting regulation for 2’-deoxymugineic acid synthase 1 (DMAS1), nicotianamine synthase (NAS3, NAS1), formate dehydrogenase 1 (FDH1), methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (IDI2), aspartate/tyrosine/aromatic aminotransferase (IDI4), and methylthioribose kinase (MTK). PMID:24400634

2014-01-01

184

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

185

Distinct Genetic Architectures for Male and Female Inflorescence Traits of Maize  

PubMed Central

We compared the genetic architecture of thirteen maize morphological traits in a large population of recombinant inbred lines. Four traits from the male inflorescence (tassel) and three traits from the female inflorescence (ear) were measured and studied using linkage and genome-wide association analyses and compared to three flowering and three leaf traits previously studied in the same population. Inflorescence loci have larger effects than flowering and leaf loci, and ear effects are larger than tassel effects. Ear trait models also have lower predictive ability than tassel, flowering, or leaf trait models. Pleiotropic loci were identified that control elongation of ear and tassel, consistent with their common developmental origin. For these pleiotropic loci, the ear effects are larger than tassel effects even though the same causal polymorphisms are likely involved. This implies that the observed differences in genetic architecture are not due to distinct features of the underlying polymorphisms. Our results support the hypothesis that genetic architecture is a function of trait stability over evolutionary time, since the traits that changed most during the relatively recent domestication of maize have the largest effects. PMID:22125498

Brown, Patrick J.; Upadyayula, Narasimham; Mahone, Gregory S.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter J.; Myles, Sean; Holland, James B.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; McMullen, Michael D.; Buckler, Edward S.; Rocheford, Torbert R.

2011-01-01

186

Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.  

PubMed

The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS. PMID:25389118

Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

2014-12-01

187

Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

2003-01-01

188

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

189

Mycorrhizal and Rhizobial Colonization of Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybeans?  

PubMed Central

We grew plants of nine soybean varieties, six of which were genetically modified to express transgenic cp4-epsps, in the presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal colonization and nodule abundance and mass differed among soybean varieties; however, in no case was variation significantly associated with the genetic modification. PMID:17483262

Powell, Jeff R.; Gulden, Robert H.; Hart, Miranda M.; Campbell, Rachel G.; Levy-Booth, David J.; Dunfield, Kari E.; Pauls, K. Peter; Swanton, Clarence J.; Trevors, Jack T.; Klironomos, John N.

2007-01-01

190

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

191

Unraveling the genetic architecture of subtropical maize (Zea mays L.) lines to assess their utility in breeding programs  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is an increasingly important food crop in southeast Asia. The elucidation of its genetic architecture, accomplished by exploring quantitative trait loci and useful alleles in various lines across numerous breeding programs, is therefore of great interest. The present study aimed to characterize subtropical maize lines using high-quality SNPs distributed throughout the genome. Results We genotyped a panel of 240 subtropical elite maize inbred lines and carried out linkage disequilibrium, genetic diversity, population structure, and principal component analyses on the generated SNP data. The mean SNP distance across the genome was 70 Kb. The genome had both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions; the latter were dominant in areas near the gene-rich telomeric portions where recombination is frequent. A total of 252 haplotype blocks, ranging in size from 1 to 15.8 Mb, were identified. Slow LD decay (200–300 Kb) at r 2 ???0.1 across all chromosomes explained the selection of favorable traits around low LD regions in different breeding programs. The association mapping panel was characterized by strong population substructure. Genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of 0.36. Conclusions The genotyped panel of subtropical maize lines characterized in this study should be useful for association mapping of agronomically important genes. The dissimilarity uncovered among genotypes provides an opportunity to exploit the heterotic potential of subtropical elite maize breeding lines. PMID:24330649

2013-01-01

192

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

193

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or\\u000a by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported\\u000a the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne,\\u000a 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For

Jaroslava Ovesná; Katerina Demnerová; Vladimíra Pouchová

2008-01-01

194

Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in proteolysis in yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P < 0.05) concentration of lactic and acetic acids in comparison with that of MWMSY and the CY up to day 14, thereafter, the product showed a decrease in lactic acid content in all 3 batches until the end of storage. The level of syneresis was the lowest (2.14%) in MWMSY as compared with that of GOSY (2.35%) and CY (2.53%). There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. PMID:23278467

Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

2013-01-01

195

Discovery and purification of a fungal protease secreted by Bipolaris zeicola that modifies maize seed endochitinase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Healthy maize seeds have two basic endochitinases, chitA and chitB, with antifungal properties. A comparison of the isoenzyme profiles of symptomatic fungal-infested maize seeds, removed at harvest from ears that we wound inoculated in the late milk stage of maturity with one of several common ear-...

196

EXPRESSION AND INHERITANCE PATTERNS OF A MODIFIED PORCINE A-LACTALBUMIN TRANSGENE IN MAIZE KERNELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A codon-adjusted version of a gene encoding the porcine milk protein alpha-lactalbumin was synthesized to create maize with improved nutritional quality. Three expression vectors containing the synthetic gene were constructed and transformed into maize callus by particle bombardment. The constructs ...

197

A Survey of Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming. In addition to the usual computational functions found in CGP, SMCGP includes functions that can modify the evolved program at run time. This means that programs can be iterated to produce an infinite sequence of phenotypes from a single evolved genotype. Here, we discuss the results of using SMCGP on a variety of different problems, and see that SMCGP is able to solve tasks that require scalability and plasticity. We demonstrate how SMCGP is able to produce results that would be impossible for conventional, static Genetic Programming techniques.

Harding, Simon; Banzhaf, Wolfgang; Miller, Julian F.

198

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping and The Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Maize and Rice  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance to agriculture, the genetic basis of heterosis is still not well understood. The main competing hypotheses include dominance, overdominance, and epistasis. NC design III is an experimental design that has been used for estimating the average degree of dominance of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and also for studying heterosis. In this study, we first develop a multiple-interval mapping (MIM) model for design III that provides a platform to estimate the number, genomic positions, augmented additive and dominance effects, and epistatic interactions of QTL. The model can be used for parents with any generation of selfing. We apply the method to two data sets, one for maize and one for rice. Our results show that heterosis in maize is mainly due to dominant gene action, although overdominance of individual QTL could not completely be ruled out due to the mapping resolution and limitations of NC design III. For rice, the estimated QTL dominant effects could not explain the observed heterosis. There is evidence that additive × additive epistatic effects of QTL could be the main cause for the heterosis in rice. The difference in the genetic basis of heterosis seems to be related to open or self pollination of the two species. The MIM model for NC design III is implemented in Windows QTL Cartographer, a freely distributed software. PMID:18791260

Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Wang, Shengchu; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Zeng, Zhao-Bang

2008-01-01

199

Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717

2014-01-01

200

Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathway in maize  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial nuclear transformation is a novel method for the rapid production of multiplex-transgenic plants, which we have used to dissect and modify a complex metabolic pathway. To demonstrate the principle, we transferred 5 carotenogenic genes controlled by different endosperm-specific promoters into a white maize variety deficient for endosperm carotenoid synthesis. We recovered a diverse population of transgenic plants expressing different enzyme combinations and showing distinct metabolic phenotypes that allowed us to identify and complement rate-limiting steps in the pathway and to demonstrate competition between ?-carotene hydroxylase and bacterial ?-carotene ketolase for substrates in 4 sequential steps of the extended pathway. Importantly, this process allowed us to generate plants with extraordinary levels of ?-carotene and other carotenoids, including complex mixtures of hydroxycarotenoids and ketocarotenoids. Combinatorial transformation is a versatile approach that could be used to modify any metabolic pathway and pathways controlling other biochemical, physiological, or developmental processes. PMID:19011084

Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2008-01-01

201

Development and validation of real-time PCR screening methods for detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes in genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primers and probes were developed for the element-specific detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes, based on their DNA sequence as present in GM maize MON89034. Cry genes are present in many genetically modified (GM) plants and they are important targets for developing GMO element-specific\\u000a detection methods. Element-specific methods can be of use to screen for the presence of GMOs in

Andréia Z. Dinon; Theo W. Prins; Jeroen P. van Dijk; Ana Carolina M. Arisi; Ingrid M. J. Scholtens; Esther J. Kok

2011-01-01

202

MaizeGDB - Past, present, and future  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) turns 20 this year. This editorial outlines MaizeGDB's history and connection to the Maize Genetics Cooperation, describes key components of how the MaizeGDB interface will be completely redesigned over the course of the next two years to meet cur...

203

Population structure and genetic diversity in a commercial maize breeding program assessed with SSR and SNP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the genetic diversity and population structure in elite breeding material is of fundamental importance for\\u000a the improvement of crops. The objectives of our study were to (a) examine the population structure and the genetic diversity\\u000a in elite maize germplasm based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, (b) compare these results with those obtained from\\u000a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

Delphine Van InghelandtAlbrecht; Albrecht E. Melchinger; Claude Lebreton; Benjamin Stich

2010-01-01

204

Trends in genetic diversity among European maize cultivars and their parental components during the past 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that the system that delivers the products of plant breeding reduces the diversity of cultivated varieties\\u000a leading to an increased genetic vulnerability. The main goal of our study was to monitor the temporal trends in genetic diversity\\u000a over the past five decades among maize cultivars with the largest acreage in Central Europe. Our objectives were to

Jochen C. Reif; Sonia Hamrit; Martin Heckenberger; Wolfgang Schipprack; Hans Peter Maurer; Martin Bohn; Albrecht E. Melchinger

2005-01-01

205

Molecular Improvement of Tropical Maize for Drought Stress Tolerance in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C4 grass Zea mays (maize or corn) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice in terms of production and the second most widespread genetically modified (GM) crop, after soybean. Its demand is predicted to increase by 45% by the year 2020. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the

Sylvester Anami; Marc De Block; Jesse Machuka; Mieke Van Lijsebettens

2009-01-01

206

Welfare Issues of Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Genetically engineered animals have opened,new frontiers in the study of physiology and disease processes. Mutant animals offer more,accurate disease models,and increased precision for pathogenesis and treatment studies. Their use offers hope for improved,therapy to patients with conditions that currently have poor or ineffective treatments. These advantages have fostered an increase in studies using mice in recent years, a development

Melvin B. Dennis

1989-01-01

207

Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

2014-11-01

208

Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Methods Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 µm Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of 109Cd applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Key Results Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Conclusions Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots. PMID:22455991

Vaculík, Marek; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria; Luxová, Miroslava; Stoláriková, Miroslava; Lux, Alexander

2012-01-01

209

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

210

Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

1989-06-01

211

MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. PMID:21500243

García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-01-01

212

[Genetic analysis about maize male sterile mutant obtained by space flight].  

PubMed

The seeds of maize single hybrid Chuandan No. 9 were carried into space in 1996 by satellite. After the seeds were planted in field in comparison with travel in space seeds which was not carried into space. Fortunately, male sterile plants were discovered in one of the ear rows. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different years, different locations and different generations. In order to analysis the genetic characteristic of male sterility, test cross, sister cross, back cross, reciprocal cross and self-pollination were conducted with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility was stable in different years and different locations, it is inheritable from generation to generation. The sterility is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. The appearance of male sterile mutant is the conclusion of gene mutation which happened in nuclear by space flight. This mutant material always accompanies with lower plant height. PMID:14577372

Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Pan, Guang-Tang

2003-09-01

213

Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.  

PubMed

Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-?-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies. PMID:23425633

Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

2013-06-01

214

Genetic Modifiers of Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a complex, multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental determinants. Experimental investigation of the effects of these determinants on the development and progression of atherosclerosis has been greatly facilitated by the use of targeted mouse models of the disease, particularly those resulting from the absence of functional genes for apolipoprotein E or the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). This review focuses on the influence on atherosclerosis of combining apoE or LDLR deficiencies with factors affecting atherogenesis, including (1) inflammatory processes, (2) glucose metabolism, (3) blood pressure, and (4) coagulation and fibrinolysis. We also discuss the general problem of using the mouse to test the effects on atherogenesis of human polymorphic variations and future ways of enhancing the usefulness of these mouse models. PMID:11073835

Knowles, Joshua W.; Maeda, Nobuyo

2009-01-01

215

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

216

Genetic Control of Photoperiod Sensitivity in Maize Revealed by Joint Multiple Population Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reduced photoperiod sensitivity was critical to the evolution of broad geographical adaptability in maize, but modern tropical maize retains photoperiod sensitivity, hindering its use in temperate maize breeding programs. Many flowering time genes have been identified in diverse plant species, but t...

217

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

218

Renal Tubular Cells Cultured from Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of renal tubular cells from genetically modified animals opens the opportunity of biochemical, cell biology and physiological studies under strictly controlled conditions. Either primary cultures or cell lines can be used. Through two examples of primary cultures of proximal tubular cells obtained from knock-out mice, important information about the function of proteins were obtained. Mice lacking vimentin, an

Gérard Friedlander; Isabelle Runembert; François Vrtovsnik; Fabiola Terzi

1999-01-01

219

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

220

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

221

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

222

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

223

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

224

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

225

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

226

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

227

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

228

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

229

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

230

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

231

The Genetic Architecture of Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernel Weight Determination  

PubMed Central

Individual kernel weight is an important trait for maize yield determination. We have identified genomic regions controlling this trait by using the B73xMo17 population; however, the effect of genetic background on control of this complex trait and its physiological components is not yet known. The objective of this study was to understand how genetic background affected our previous results. Two nested stable recombinant inbred line populations (N209xMo17 and R18xMo17) were designed for this purpose. A total of 408 recombinant inbred lines were genotyped and phenotyped at two environments for kernel weight and five other traits related to kernel growth and development. All traits showed very high and significant (P < 0.001) phenotypic variability and medium-to-high heritability (0.60?0.90). When N209xMo17 and R18xMo17 were analyzed separately, a total of 23 environmentally stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) and five epistatic interactions were detected for N209xMo17. For R18xMo17, 59 environmentally stable QTL and 17 epistatic interactions were detected. A joint analysis detected 14 stable QTL regardless of the genetic background. Between 57 and 83% of detected QTL were population specific, denoting medium-to-high genetic background effects. This percentage was dependent on the trait. A meta-analysis including our previous B73xMo17 results identified five relevant genomic regions deserving further characterization. In summary, our grain filling traits were dominated by small additive QTL with several epistatic and few environmental interactions and medium-to-high genetic background effects. This study demonstrates that the number of detected QTL and additive effects for different physiologically related grain filling traits need to be understood relative to the specific germplasm. PMID:25237113

Prado, Santiago Alvarez; López, César G.; Senior, M. Lynn; Borrás, Lucas

2014-01-01

232

Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.  

PubMed

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2010-12-01

233

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

234

Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.  

PubMed

Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. PMID:22333321

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

2012-01-01

235

GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated Annealing employs and instead we used a global technique based on grammatical evolution.

Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

2006-05-01

236

Genetic Insights into Graminella nigrifrons Competence for Maize fine streak virus Infection and Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Most plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are transmitted by one or a few closely related insect species. Additionally, intraspecific differences in transmission efficacy often exist among races/biotypes within vector species and among strains within a virus species. The black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, is the only known vector of the persistent propagative rhabdovirus Maize fine streak virus (MFSV). Only a small percentage of leafhoppers are capable of transmitting the virus, although the mechanisms underlying vector competence are not well understood. Methodology RNA-Seq was carried out to explore transcript expression changes and sequence variation in G. nigrifrons and MFSV that may be associated with the ability of the vector to acquire and transmit the virus. RT-qPCR assays were used to validate differential transcript accumulation. Results/Significance Feeding on MFSV-infected maize elicited a considerable transcriptional response in G. nigrifrons, with increased expression of cytoskeleton organization and immunity transcripts in infected leafhoppers. Differences between leafhoppers capable of transmitting MFSV, relative to non-transmitting but infected leafhoppers were more limited, which may reflect difficulties discerning between the two groups and/or the likelihood that the transmitter phenotype results from one or a few genetic differences. The ability of infected leafhoppers to transmit MFSV did not appear associated with virus transcript accumulation in the infected leafhoppers or sequence polymorphisms in the viral genome. However, the non-structural MFSV 3 gene was expressed at unexpectedly high levels in infected leafhoppers, suggesting it plays an active role in the infection of the insect host. The results of this study begin to define the functional roles of specific G. nigrifrons and MFSV genes in the viral transmission process. PMID:25420026

Michel, Andrew P.; Stewart, Lucy R.; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.

2014-01-01

237

Genetic variation modifies risk for neurodegeneration based on biomarker status  

PubMed Central

Background: While a great deal of work has gone into understanding the relationship between Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, brain atrophy, and disease progression, less work has attempted to investigate how genetic variation modifies these relationships. The goal of this study was two-fold. First, we sought to identify high-risk vs. low-risk individuals based on their CSF tau and A? load and characterize these individuals with regard to brain atrophy in an AD-relevant region of interest. Next, we sought to identify genetic variants that modified the relationship between biomarker classification and neurodegeneration. Methods: Participants were categorized based on established cut-points for biomarker positivity. Mixed model regression was used to quantify longitudinal change in the left inferior lateral ventricle. Interaction analyses between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and biomarker group status were performed using a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the Bonferroni procedure. Results: One intergenic SNP (rs4866650) and one SNP within the SPTLC1 gene (rs7849530) modified the association between amyloid positivity and neurodegeneration. A transcript variant of WDR11-AS1 gene (rs12261764) modified the association between tau positivity and neurodegeneration. These effects were consistent across the two sub-datasets and explained approximately 3% of variance in ventricular dilation. One additional SNP (rs6887649) modified the association between amyloid positivity and baseline ventricular volume, but was not observed consistently across the sub-datasets. Conclusions: Genetic variation modifies the association between AD biomarkers and neurodegeneration. Genes that regulate the molecular response in the brain to oxidative stress may be particularly relevant to neural vulnerability to the damaging effects of amyloid-?. PMID:25140149

Hohman, Timothy J.; Koran, Mary Ellen I.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

2014-01-01

238

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

239

Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants used for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

The reliable quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by real-time PCR requires, besides thoroughly validated quantitative detection methods, sustainable calibration systems. The latter establishes the anchor points for the measured value and the measurement unit, respectively. In this paper, the suitability of two types of DNA calibrants, i.e. plasmid DNA and genomic DNA extracted from plant leaves, for the certification of the GMO content in reference materials as copy number ratio between two targeted DNA sequences was investigated. The PCR efficiencies and coefficients of determination of the calibration curves as well as the measured copy number ratios for three powder certified reference materials (CRMs), namely ERM-BF415e (NK603 maize), ERM-BF425c (356043 soya), and ERM-BF427c (98140 maize), originally certified for their mass fraction of GMO, were compared for both types of calibrants. In all three systems investigated, the PCR efficiencies of plasmid DNA were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the genomic DNA extracted from seed powders rather than those of the genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although the mean DNA copy number ratios for each CRM overlapped within their uncertainties, the DNA copy number ratios were significantly different using the two types of calibrants. Based on these observations, both plasmid and leaf genomic DNA calibrants would be technically suitable as anchor points for the calibration of the real-time PCR methods applied in this study. However, the most suitable approach to establish a sustainable traceability chain is to fix a reference system based on plasmid DNA. PMID:22638881

Caprioara-Buda, M; Meyer, W; Jeynov, B; Corbisier, P; Trapmann, S; Emons, H

2012-07-01

240

The relationship between parental genetic or phenotypic divergence and progeny variation in the maize nested association mapping population  

PubMed Central

Appropriate selection of parents for the development of mapping populations is pivotal to maximizing the power of quantitative trait loci detection. Trait genotypic variation within a family is indicative of the family's informativeness for genetic studies. Accurate prediction of the most useful parental combinations within a species would help guide quantitative genetics studies. We tested the reliability of genotypic and phenotypic distance estimators between pairs of maize inbred lines to predict genotypic variation for quantitative traits within families derived from biparental crosses. We developed 25 families composed of ?200 random recombinant inbred lines each from crosses between a common reference parent inbred, B73, and 25 diverse maize inbreds. Parents and families were evaluated for 19 quantitative traits across up to 11 environments. Genetic distances (GDs) among parents were estimated with 44 simple sequence repeat and 2303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. GDs among parents had no predictive value for progeny variation, which is most likely due to the choice of neutral markers. In contrast, we observed for about half of the traits measured a positive correlation between phenotypic parental distances and within-family genetic variance estimates. Consequently, the choice of promising segregating populations can be based on selecting phenotypically diverse parents. These results are congruent with models of genetic architecture that posit numerous genes affecting quantitative traits, each segregating for allelic series, with dispersal of allelic effects across diverse genetic material. This architecture, common to many quantitative traits in maize, limits the predictive value of parental genotypic or phenotypic values on progeny variance. PMID:22027895

Hung, H-Y; Browne, C; Guill, K; Coles, N; Eller, M; Garcia, A; Lepak, N; Melia-Hancock, S; Oropeza-Rosas, M; Salvo, S; Upadyayula, N; Buckler, E S; Flint-Garcia, S; McMullen, M D; Rocheford, T R; Holland, J B

2012-01-01

241

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.  

PubMed

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency. PMID:15494222

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2004-10-15

242

Genetic interactions and modifier genes in Hirschsprung's disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital disorder that occurs in 1:5000 live births. It is characterised by an absence of enteric neurons along a variable region of the gastrointestinal tract. Hirschsprung’s disease is classified as a multigenic disorder, because the same phenotype is associated with mutations in multiple distinct genes. Furthermore, the genetics of Hirschsprung’s disease are highly complex and not strictly Mendelian. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung’s disease also suggests the involvement of modifier genes. Here, we summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying Hirschsprung’s disease based on human and animal studies, focusing on the principal causative genes, their interactions, and the role of modifier genes. PMID:22174542

Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Richard B

2011-01-01

243

Dynamics of list-server discussion on genetically modified foods.  

PubMed

Computer-mediated discussion lists, or list-servers, are popular tools in settings ranging from professional to personal to educational. A discussion list on genetically modified food (GMF) was created in September 2000 as part of the Forum on Genetically Modified Food developed by Science Controversies: Online Partnerships in Education (SCOPE), an educational project that uses computer resources to aid research and learning around unresolved scientific questions. The discussion list "GMF-Science" was actively supported from January 2001 to May 2002. The GMF-Science list welcomed anyone interested in discussing the controversies surrounding GMF. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the discussions and how the GMF-Science list may contribute to learning. Activity on the GMF-Science discussion list reflected some but not all the controversies that were appearing in more traditional publication formats, broached other topics not well represented in the published literature, and tended to leave undiscussed the more technical research developments. PMID:15323060

Triunfol, Marcia L; Hines, Pamela J

2004-04-01

244

Genetic Combining Analysis of Food-Grade Maize: Colored and Quality Protein  

E-print Network

carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic compounds. These compounds are seen as purple, blue, and red. Colored maize is gaining popularity around the world due to the potential nutritive value not only from antioxidant activity in food products.... Of the main phytochemicals found in maize, more research has been on carotenoids than anthocyanins or phenols. Carotenoids are a class of yellow/orange pigments found in the endosperm of maize. Carotenes and xanthophylls are the two major carotenoid...

Mahan, Adam Lyle

2012-10-19

245

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Structure and Diversity Among Maize Inbred Lines  

E-print Network

and the cluster analysis. Tropical and subtropical inbreds possess a greater number of alleles and greater gene segments of the landrace gene pool to each inbred group's gene pool were estimated using a novel likelihood for the analysis of the maps (Burr et al. 1988), quantitative trait locus mapping effects of genetic background

Doebley, John

246

Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...

247

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

248

Regulating Genetically-Modified Seeds in Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the implications of biosafety regulation on national seed policy. Biosafety regulation—the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology, in particular, the release of genetically-modified organisms—has been extensively discussed at various national and international fora. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks, and, at the international

Patricia L. Traynor; John Komen

2002-01-01

249

Genetically modified crop plants: science versus society? — A perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants offer the possibility of solving local virus-related production agricultural\\u000a problems for local communities in both developed and undeveloped countries. However, major concerns are held regarding the\\u000a safety, health (personal and environmental) and ethics of growing GM crop plants. Such non-technical factors and regulatory\\u000a processes have slowed and\\/or prevented the field testing and commercialisation of many

Robin MacDiarmid

2007-01-01

250

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

251

Relationship of the channels of normal maize starch to the properties of its modified products.  

PubMed

Starches from 5 inbred lines of normal maize with different relative average degrees of channelization (RADC) that could be divided into two groups (2 with RADC values of 1.49-1.52 and 3 with RADC values of 0.10-0.17) were reacted with 4 highly reactive reagents. No consistent correlations between RADC and the effects of derivatization with the 4 reagents on physical properties, either without or after surface protein removal, were found. Reaction with propylene oxide, a slowly reacting reagent whose reaction should be independent of RADC, resulted in an inverse relationship between several physical properties and RADC. The results indicate that there are inherent granular and molecular differences in the maize starches that control reactivity that are more influential than RADC (at least with the degrees of modification used), that the differences carry through chemical derivatization, and that different reagents react differently with different starches. PMID:23218382

Sui, Zhongquan; BeMiller, James N

2013-01-30

252

Genotyping and phenotyping of an epigenetic modifier Unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) in maize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pericarp color 1 is a model system for the study of epigenetic gene regulation. It has more than 100 alleles that contribute to the color of the pericarp and cob glume of maize. Unstable factor for orange 1 (Ufo1) is a spontaneous dominant mutation that leads to a gain in pigmentation due to a decrease in methylation in p1 genes. This decrease in methylation of cytosine in the DNA leads to changes in chromatin structure. Finding the mechanism for this spontaneous mutation can lead to way of preventing the mutation increasing production colorless maize for food production. Through genotyping and phenotyping fine gene mapping, gene expression and whole genome profiling can be accomplished for plants with the Ufo1 mutation present.

Bowersox, Karisa; Chopra, Surinder

2012-02-01

253

THE MAIZE UNSTABLE FACTOR FOR ORANGE1 IS A DOMINANT EPIGENETIC MODIFIER OF A TISSUE SPECIFICALLY SILENT ALLELE OF PERICARP COLOR1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have characterized Ufo1 (unstable factor for orange1), a dominant, allele-specific modifier of expression of the maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene. The p1 gene encodes a Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments. The P1-wr allele speci...

254

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.?A) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

2015-02-01

255

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

256

Dosage Effect of High-Amylose Modifier Gene(s) on the Starch Structure of Maize amylose-extender Mutant.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate how dosages of high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s) affected the structure of maize amylose extender (ae) mutant starch. GEMS-0067 (G), a homozygous mutant of ae and the HAM gene(s), and H99ae (H), an ae single mutant, were self-pollinated or inter-crossed to produce maize endosperms of G/G, G/H, H/G, and H/H with 3, 2, 1, and 0 doses of HAM gene(s), respectively. Endosperm starch was fractionated into amylopectin, amylose, and intermediate component (IC) of large and small molecular weights using 1-butanol precipitation of amylose followed by gel-permeation chromatography. Increases in the dosage of HAM gene(s) from 0 to 3 decreased the amylopectin content. The HAM-gene dosage significantly changed the branch chain-length of small-molecular-weight IC, but had little effect on the branch chain-length distributions of amylopectin and large-molecular-weight IC and the molecular structure of amylose. PMID:25495144

Jiang, Hongxin; Campbell, Mark; Wu, Yusheng; Du, Shuangkui; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Jane, Jay-Lin

2015-01-21

257

Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661  

PubMed Central

In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodríguez, Víctor M.

2013-01-01

258

Genetic Variability among Maize Cultivars Grown in Ekiti-State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appreciable level of variation within crop varieties is essential to initiate and sustain crop improvement using plant breeding methods. A field experiment was conducted with the aim of estimatin g variation among maize cultivars grown in Ekiti State. Twenty maize cultivars obtained from various locations within the state was evaluated between April to August 2005 at the Teaching and

A. E. Salami; S. A. O. Adegoke; O. A. Adegbite

259

RESEARCH ARTICLES Maize Centromeres: Organization and Functional Adaptation  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLES Maize Centromeres: Organization and Functional Adaptation in the Genetic maize (Zea mays) centromeres using oat (Avena sativa)-maize chromosome addition lines. The maize and organization of centromeric DNA of individual maize chromosomes. We demonstrate that the cores of maize

260

Impact of genetics and environment on nutritional and metabolite components of maize grain.  

PubMed

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommends the measurement of specific plant components for compositional assessments of new biotechnology-derived crops. These components include proximates, nutrients, antinutrients, and certain crop-specific secondary metabolites. A considerable literature on the natural variability of these components in conventional and biotechnology-derived crops now exists. Yet the OECD consensus also suggests measurements of any metabolites that may be directly associated with a newly introduced trait. Therefore, steps have been initiated to assess natural variation in metabolites not typically included in the OECD consensus but which might reasonably be expected to be affected by new traits addressing, for example, nutritional enhancement or improved stress tolerance. The compositional study reported here extended across a diverse genetic range of maize hybrids derived from 48 inbreds crossed against two different testers. These were grown at three different, but geographically similar, locations in the United States. In addition to OECD analytes such as proximates, total amino acids and free fatty acids, the levels of free amino acids, sugars, organic acids, and selected stress metabolites in harvested grain were assessed. The major free amino acids identified were asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, and proline. The major sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The most predominant organic acid was citric acid, with only minor amounts of other organic acids detected. The impact of genetic background and location was assessed for all components. Overall, natural variation in free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids appeared to be markedly higher than that observed for the OECD analytes. PMID:17608428

Harrigan, George G; Stork, Leanna G; Riordan, Susan G; Reynolds, Tracey L; Ridley, William P; Masucci, James D; Macisaac, Susan; Halls, Steven C; Orth, Robert; Smith, Ronald G; Wen, Li; Brown, Wayne E; Welsch, Michael; Riley, Rochelle; McFarland, David; Pandravada, Anand; Glenn, Kevin C

2007-07-25

261

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

262

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

2014-01-07

263

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

264

Molecular genetics of the R complex of maize. Final technical report DE-FG02-86ER13627  

SciTech Connect

A molecular genetic characterization of the maize R-r complex of maize was completed during the period of support. The complex was shown to consist of two main regions: the P region, containing the r-p gene which controlled pigmentation of plant parts, and the S subcomplex, containing two rl-s genes in head-to-head orientation and a nonfunctional component termed rl-q. By examining the DNA sequences at the junction of the rl genes, the complex was shown to be derived by a series of abortive transposition events. The transposable element involved in the gene duplication and rearrangements was characterized and called doppia. Meiotic instability of the R-r complex was also characterized. Loss of P or S function was associated with several structural changes including intrachromosomal recombination and excision of a novel transposable element that appears to show instability only during meiosis.

Dellaporta, Stephen

2000-10-01

265

Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.  

PubMed

Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification. PMID:23265541

Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

2013-05-01

266

Maize Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genetic transformation technologies have brought fundamental changes to both plant biology laboratory research as well\\u000a as to modern agricultural field practices. Once a recalcitrant plant for tissue culture and gene delivery, maize is becoming\\u000a one of the most targeted cereal crops using genetic transformation for both basic and applied purposes. This chapter provides\\u000a a brief review of the history

Kan Wang; Bronwyn Frame; Yuji Ishida; Toshihiko Komari

267

Broadening the genetic base of European maize heterotic pools with US Cornbelt germplasm using field and molecular marker data.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are concerned about the narrowing of the genetic base of elite germplasm. To reverse this trend, elite germplasm from other geographic regions can be introgressed, but due to lack of adaptation it is difficult to assess their breeding potential in the targeted environment. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the relationship between European and US maize germplasm, (2) examine the suitability of different mega-environments and measures of performance to assess the breeding potential of exotics, and (3) study the relationship of genetic distance with mid-parent heterosis (MPH). Eight European inbreds from the Dent and Flint heterotic groups, 11 US inbreds belonging to Stiff Stalk (SS), non-Stiff Stalk (NSS), and CIMMYT Pool 41, and their 88 factorial crosses in F(1) and F(2) generations were evaluated for grain yield and dry matter concentration. The experiments were conducted in three mega-environments: Central Europe (target mega-environment), US Cornbelt (mega-environment where donor lines were developed), and Southeast Europe (an intermediate mega-environment). The inbreds were also fingerprinted with 266 SSR markers. Suitable criteria to identify promising exotic germplasm were F(1) hybrid performance in the targeted mega-environment and F(1) and parental performance in the intermediate mega-environment. Marker-based genetic distances reflected relatedness among the inbreds, but showed no association with MPH. Based on genetic distance, MPH, and F(1) performance, we suggest to introgress SS germplasm into European Dents and NSS into European Flints, in order to exploit the specific adaptation of European flint germplasm and the excellent combining ability of US germplasm in European maize breeding programs. PMID:19436986

Reif, Jochen C; Fischer, Sandra; Schrag, Tobias A; Lamkey, Kendall R; Klein, Dietrich; Dhillon, Baldev S; Utz, H Friedrich; Melchinger, Albrecht E

2010-01-01

268

Hypothetical Link between Infertility and Genetically Modified Food.  

PubMed

It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk associated with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs provides the basis for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been clarified whether the harmful effects is directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or from the transgenesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies have tested the safety of GMFs. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could exist potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

Gao, Mingxia; Li, B; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

2014-10-24

269

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction/membrane hybridization assay for detection of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

To improve detection efficiency and result accuracy, four screening primer pairs, four identifying primer pairs, one common primer pair and corresponding probes were designed for the development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction/membrane hybridization assay (MPCR-MHA) for detection of the foreign genes insert in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). After detecting condition and parameter were optimized and determined, MPCR reactions were developed for amplifying several target genes simultaneously in one tube. Primers were labeled with biotin at the 5'-end; biotinylated MPCR products were detected by hybridization to the oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a membrane with subsequent colorimetric detection to confirm hybridization. The testing of screening primers can judge whether the sample contains GMOs, and that of identifying primers can further judge what kinds of trait genes are contained in the sample. We detected nine soybean samples, six maize samples, seven potato samples and two rice samples by the MPCR-MHA method; at the same time we also detected them with single PCR-MHA method. The results between two methods have good consistency. PMID:14580794

Su, Wenijn; Song, Siyang; Long, Minnan; Liu, Guangming

2003-11-01

270

A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

2014-01-01

271

Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.  

PubMed

A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context. PMID:24971889

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

2014-07-23

272

Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

2014-05-01

273

Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

2014-01-01

274

Strain background effects and genetic modifiers of hearing in mice  

PubMed Central

Genetic modifiers can be detected in mice by looking for strain background differences in inheritance or phenotype of a mutation. They can be mapped by analyses of appropriate linkage crosses and congenic lines, and modifier genes of large effect can be identified by positional-candidate gene testing. Inbred strains of mice vary widely in onset and severity of age-related hearing loss (AHL), an important consideration when assessing hearing in mutant mice. At least 8 mapped loci and a mitochondrial variant (mt-Tr) are known to contribute to AHL in mouse strains; one locus (ahl) has been identified as a variant of the cadherin 23 gene (Cdh23753A/G). This variant also was shown to modify hearing loss associated with the Atp2b2dfw-2J and Mass1frings mutations. The hearing modifier (Moth1) of tubby (Tubtub) mutant mice was shown to be a strain variant of the Mtap1a gene. Human hearing modifiers include DFNM1, which suppresses recessive deafness DFNB26, and a nuclear gene that modulates the severity of hearing loss associated with a mitochondrial mutation. Recently, a variant of the human ATP2B2 gene was shown to exacerbate hearing loss in individuals homozygous for a CDH23 mutation, similar to the Atp2b2dfw-2J–Cdh23753A/G interaction affecting hearing in mice. Because modifier genes and digenic inheritance are not always distinguishable, we also include in this review several examples of digenic inheritance of hearing loss that have been reported in both mice and humans. PMID:16579977

Johnson, Kenneth R.; Zheng, Qing Yin; Noben-Trauth, Konrad

2010-01-01

275

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

276

An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory was used together with established technology foresight techniques in an interdisciplinary and empirical framework. The approach taken in this study established a dialogue between stakeholders and provided a framework for discussions about the future direction of GM crops. PMID:11102658

Borch, K; Rasmussen, B

2000-12-01

277

Safety Assessment and Detection Methods of Genetically Modified Organisms.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection were discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

Jiao, Guanglian; Xu, R; Zheng, Z

2014-10-24

278

Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.  

PubMed

The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance. PMID:24472209

Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

2014-02-01

279

A specific qualitative and real-time PCR detection of MON863 maize based on the 5?-transgene integration sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops are widely grown in the world today. Labeling is required when genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are placed on the market. There is a need to establish a specific method for the detection of genetically modified foods. MON863 transgenic maize containing a Cry3Bb1 sequence that produces insecticidal protein cry3Bb1 is a major GMO crop. In this paper, we

Hong Zhu; Xiao Zhao; Junwei Jia; Jianping Sun; Kai Zhao

2008-01-01

280

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

281

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

282

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

283

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

284

Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

2013-06-15

285

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

286

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

287

Genetic and biochemical differences in populations bred for extremes in maize grain methionine concentration  

PubMed Central

Background Methionine is an important nutrient in animal feed and several approaches have been developed to increase methionine concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. One approach is through traditional breeding using recurrent selection. Using divergent selection, genetically related populations with extreme differences in grain methionine content were produced. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling grain methionine content, we examined seed proteins, transcript levels of candidate genes, and genotypes of these populations. Results Two populations were selected for high or low methionine concentration for eight generations and 40 and 56% differences between the high and low populations in grain methionine concentration were observed. Mean values between the high and low methionine populations differed by greater than 1.5 standard deviations in some cycles of selection. Other amino acids and total protein concentration exhibited much smaller changes. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to these differences, we compared transcript levels of candidate genes encoding high methionine seed storage proteins involved in sulfur assimilation or methionine biosynthesis. In combination, we also explored the genetic mechanisms at the SNP level through implementation of an association analysis. Significant differences in methionine-rich seed storage protein genes were observed in comparisons of high and low methionine populations, while transcripts of seed storage proteins lacking high levels of methionine were unchanged. Seed storage protein levels were consistent with transcript levels. Two genes involved in sulfur assimilation, Cys2 and CgS1 showed substantial differences in allele frequencies when two selected populations were compared to the starting populations. Major genes identified across cycles of selection by a high-stringency association analysis included dzs18, wx, dzs10, and zp27. Conclusions We hypothesize that transcriptional changes alter sink strength by altering the levels of methionine-rich seed storage proteins. To meet the altered need for sulfur, a cysteine-rich seed storage protein is altered while sulfur assimilation and methionine biosynthesis throughput is changed by selection for certain alleles of Cys2 and CgS1. PMID:24552611

2014-01-01

288

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

289

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

290

Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.  

PubMed

Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification. PMID:14656521

Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

2003-12-15

291

Benefits of alternate partial root-zone irrigation on growth, water and nitrogen use efficiencies modified by fertilization and soil water status in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) is a new water-saving technique and may improve crop water use efficiency without\\u000a much yield reduction. We investigated if the benefits of APRI on biomass accumulation, water and nitrogen use efficiencies\\u000a could be modified by different soil fertilization and watering levels in pot-grown maize (Zea mays L. cv. super-sweet No 28,\\u000a a local variety). Three

Fusheng Li; Jihua Liang; Shaozhong Kang; Jianhua Zhang

2007-01-01

292

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

293

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

294

The MaizeGDB Genome Browser  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. As part of an effort to develop MaizeGDB as a more sequence-centric resource, we implemented a genome browser based on information we gathered by surveying the community of maize geneticists. Based on commu...

295

Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food. PMID:16298508

Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

2005-12-01

296

The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

Smyth, Stuart J

2014-07-01

297

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges  

PubMed Central

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

298

Genetic Analysis of Grain Filling Rate Using Conditional QTL Mapping in Maize  

PubMed Central

The grain filling rate (GFR) is an important dynamic trait that determines the final grain yield and is controlled by a network of genes and environment factors. To determine the genetic basis of the GFR, a conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis method was conducted using time-related phenotypic values of the GFR collected from a set of 243 immortalized F2 (IF2) population, which were evaluated at two locations over 2 years. The GFR gradually rose in the 0–15 days after pollination (DAP) and 16–22 DAP, reaching a maximum at 23–29 DAP, and then gradually decreasing. The variation of kernel weight (KW) was mainly decided by the GFR, and not by the grain filling duration (GFD). Thirty-three different unconditional QTLs were identified for the GFR at the six sampling stages over 2 years. Among them, QTLs qGFR7b, qGFR9 and qGFR6d were identified at the same stages at two locations over 2 years. In addition, 14 conditional QTLs for GFR were detected at five stages. The conditional QTL qGFR7c was identified at stage V|IV (37–43 DAP) at two locations over 2 years, and qGFR7b was detected at the sixth stage (44–50 DAP) in all four environments, except at Anyang location in 2009. QTLs qQTL7b and qQTL6f were identified by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping at the same stages, and might represent major QTLs for regulating the GFR in maize in the IF2 population. Moreover, most of the QTLs identified were co-located with QTLs from previous studies that were associated with GFR, enzyme activities of starch synthesis, soluble carbohydrates, and grain filling related genes. These results indicated that the GFR is regulated by many genes, which are specifically expressed at different grain filling stages, and the specific expression of the genes between 16–35 DAP might be very important for deciding the final kernel weight. PMID:23441180

Cui, Zitian; Hu, Yanmin; Wang, Bin; Tang, Jihua

2013-01-01

299

A large maize (Zea Mays L.) SNP genotyping array: development and germplasm genotyping, and genetic mapping to compare with the B73 reference genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

SNP genotyping arrays have been useful for many applications that require a large number of molecular markers such as high-density genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection for accelerated breeding. We report the establishment of a large SNP array for maize and i...

300

Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).  

PubMed

A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1. PMID:25437743

Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

2014-12-10

301

Genetic architecture of maize kernel composition in the nested association mapping and inbred association panels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted quantitative...

302

Maize centromeres expand and adopt a uniform size in the genetic background of oat.  

PubMed

Most existing centromeres may have originated as neocentromeres that activated de novo from noncentromeric regions. However, the evolutionary path from a neocentromere to a mature centromere has been elusive. Here we analyzed the centromeres of nine chromosomes that were transferred from maize into oat as the result of an inter-species cross. Centromere size and location were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone variant CENH3, which is a defining feature of functional centromeres. Two isolates of maize chromosome 3 proved to contain neocentromeres in the sense that they had moved from the original site, whereas the remaining seven centromeres (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) were retained in the same area in both species. In all cases, the CENH3-binding domains were dramatically expanded to encompass a larger area in the oat background (?3.6 Mb) than the average centromere size in maize (?1.8 Mb). The expansion of maize centromeres appeared to be restricted by the transcription of genes located in regions flanking the original centromeres. These results provide evidence that (1) centromere size is regulated; (2) centromere sizes tend to be uniform within a species regardless of chromosome size or origin of the centromere; and (3) neocentromeres emerge and expand preferentially in gene-poor regions. Our results suggest that centromere size expansion may be a key factor in the survival of neocentric chromosomes in natural populations. PMID:24100079

Wang, Kai; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

2014-01-01

303

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Quality in the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many studies have been conducted to identify genes (quantitative trait loci; QTL) underlying kernel quality traits. However, these studies were limited to analyzing two parents at once and often resulted in low resolution mapping of QTL. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population is a r...

304

Genetic and physiological analysis of iron content and bioavailability in maize kernels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biof...

305

Genetic and biochemical differences in populations bred for extremes in maize grain methionine content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methionine is an important nutrient in animal feed and several approaches have been developed to increase methionine concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. One approach is through traditional breeding using recurrent selection. Two populations selected were selected for high and low methionin...

306

Maize centromeres expand and adopt a uniform size in the genetic background of oat  

PubMed Central

Most existing centromeres may have originated as neocentromeres that activated de novo from noncentromeric regions. However, the evolutionary path from a neocentromere to a mature centromere has been elusive. Here we analyzed the centromeres of nine chromosomes that were transferred from maize into oat as the result of an inter-species cross. Centromere size and location were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone variant CENH3, which is a defining feature of functional centromeres. Two isolates of maize chromosome 3 proved to contain neocentromeres in the sense that they had moved from the original site, whereas the remaining seven centromeres (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) were retained in the same area in both species. In all cases, the CENH3-binding domains were dramatically expanded to encompass a larger area in the oat background (?3.6 Mb) than the average centromere size in maize (?1.8 Mb). The expansion of maize centromeres appeared to be restricted by the transcription of genes located in regions flanking the original centromeres. These results provide evidence that (1) centromere size is regulated; (2) centromere sizes tend to be uniform within a species regardless of chromosome size or origin of the centromere; and (3) neocentromeres emerge and expand preferentially in gene-poor regions. Our results suggest that centromere size expansion may be a key factor in the survival of neocentric chromosomes in natural populations. PMID:24100079

Wang, Kai; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R. Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

2014-01-01

307

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

308

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

309

Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann

2012-01-01

310

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized  

E-print Network

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized Clarke cells can rescue axotomized neurons, we transplanted fibroblasts and immortalized neural stem cells in adult rats by T8 hemisection. Rats received transplants of fibroblasts or NSCs genetically modified

Fischer, Itzhak

311

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons  

E-print Network

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Transplants of fibroblasts genetically modified to ex- press BDNF (Fb/BDNF) have been shown to promote­ five weeks later the injury site was exposed and rats received transplants of unmodified fibroblasts

Fischer, Itzhak

312

Assessing the risks of releasing genetically modified virus insecticides: progress to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their speed of kill. Whilst these viruses show considerable promise for improving crop protection, any risks that might be attached to their wide-scale release need to be assessed. The potential hazards of releasing genetically modified baculoviruses are (i) negative effects on susceptible non-target species, and (ii) movement of the introduced gene. One

Jenny S Cory

2000-01-01

313

Predicting the effects of genetically modified organisms - more questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankenstein foods or a more sophisticated and scientific approach to feeding the world? Genetically modified (GM) crops and foods have become one of the main issues of the late 1990s, but are the critics scaremongering or the industry being complacent? The possible effects of releasing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment include those directly associated with the GMO itself,

Sue Mayer

314

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

315

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

316

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

317

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

318

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

319

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

320

Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 (Optimum GAT), near-isogenic control maize grain, or commercial reference maize grains.  

PubMed

A genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait (event DP-Ø9814Ø-6; 98140) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes. The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, respectively. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens. Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides (98140 + Spray). For comparison, additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control (control) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56, 33P66, and 33R77. Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter, grower, and finisher containing 58.5, 64, and 71.5% maize grain, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables, or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control, 98140, and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that 98140 maize grain (unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background. PMID:19038812

McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Rood, T; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

2008-12-01

321

Genetic Modifiers of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Response to Lifestyle Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose Numerous prospective studies indicate that improved cardiorespiratory fitness reduces type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and delays disease progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants modify fitness response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) randomized clinical trial, aimed to detect whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2D compared to a standard of care. Methods Polymorphisms in established fitness genes and in all loci assayed on the Illumina CARe iSelect chip were examined as predictors of change in metabolic equivalent (MET) level, estimated using a treadmill test, in response to a one-year intervention in 3,899 participants. Results We identified a significant signal in previously reported fitness-related gene RUNX1 that was associated with one-year METs response in ILI (0.19±0.04 MET less improvement per minor allele copy; P=1.9×10?5) and genotype-intervention interaction (P=4.8×10?3). In the chip-wide analysis, FKBP7 rs17225700 showed a significant association with ILI response among subjects not receiving beta-blocker medications (0.47±0.09 METs less improvement; P=5.3×10?7), and genotype-treatment interaction (P=5.3×10?5). GRAIL pathway-based analysis identified connections between associated genes, including those influencing vascular tone, muscle contraction, cardiac energy substrate dynamics, and muscle protein synthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to identify genetic variants associated with fitness responses to a randomized lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. RUNX1 and FKBP7, involved in erythropoesis and muscle protein synthesis, respectively, are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness in response to exercise. PMID:23899896

Peter, Inga; Papandonatos, George D.; Belalcazar, L. Maria; Yang, Yao; Erar, Bahar; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Lipkin, Edward W.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Huggins, Gordon S.

2013-01-01

322

Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT)-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-\\/- rat and

Judith Homberg; Isaäc J Nijman; Sylvia Kuijpers; Edwin Cuppen

2010-01-01

323

A modified genetic algorithm for precise determination the geometrical orbital elements of binary stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a modified genetic algorithm called adapted genetic algorithm with adjusting population size (AGA-POP) for precise determination the orbital elements of binary stars. The proposed approach is a simple, robust way that can be considered to be a new member in the class of self organizing genetic algorithms. The proposed AGA-POP is applied on the star ? Bootis

Abdel-Fattah Attia; Eman Mahmoud; H. I. Shahin; A. M. Osman

2009-01-01

324

NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

2013-01-01

325

Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

2013-01-01

326

Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

327

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

328

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

329

AN INTEGRATED MAP FOR MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Mapping Project (MMP) is focused on developing genetic, physical, and database resources for the maize genome. A key resource being developed by the MMP is a well-integrated genetic and physical map that will expedite the identification of DNA sequences underlying key traits that have been...

330

Comparative SNP and Haplotype Analysis Reveals a Higher Genetic Diversity and Rapider LD Decay in Tropical than Temperate Germplasm in Maize  

PubMed Central

Understanding of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in diverse maize germplasm is fundamentally important for maize improvement. A total of 287 tropical and 160 temperate inbred lines were genotyped with 1943 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of high quality and compared for genetic diversity and LD decay using the SNPs and their haplotypes developed from genic and intergenic regions. Intronic SNPs revealed a substantial higher variation than exonic SNPs. The big window size haplotypes (3-SNP slide-window covering 2160 kb on average) revealed much higher genetic diversity than the 10 kb-window and gene-window haplotypes. The polymorphic information content values revealed by the haplotypes (0.436–0.566) were generally much higher than individual SNPs (0.247–0.259). Cluster analysis classified the 447 maize lines into two major groups, corresponding to temperate and tropical types. The level of genetic diversity and subpopulation structure were associated with the germplasm origin and post-domestication selection. Compared to temperate lines, the tropical lines had a much higher level of genetic diversity with no significant subpopulation structure identified. Significant variation in LD decay distance (2–100 kb) was found across the genome, chromosomal regions and germplasm groups. The average of LD decay distance (10–100 kb) in the temperate germplasm was two to ten times larger than that in the tropical germplasm (5–10 kb). In conclusion, tropical maize not only host high genetic diversity that can be exploited for future plant breeding, but also show rapid LD decay that provides more opportunity for selection. PMID:21949770

Lu, Yanli; Shah, Trushar; Hao, Zhuanfang; Taba, Suketoshi; Zhang, Shihuang; Gao, Shibin; Liu, Jian; Cao, Moju; Wang, Jing; Prakash, A. Bhanu; Rong, Tingzhao; Xu, Yunbi

2011-01-01

331

Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies. PMID:24789648

Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

2014-01-01

332

The Genetic Architecture of Response to Long-Term Artificial Selection for Oil Concentration in the Maize Kernel  

PubMed Central

In one of the longest-running experiments in biology, researchers at the University of Illinois have selected for altered composition of the maize kernel since 1896. Here we use an association study to infer the genetic basis of dramatic changes that occurred in response to selection for changes in oil concentration. The study population was produced by a cross between the high- and low-selection lines at generation 70, followed by 10 generations of random mating and the derivation of 500 lines by selfing. These lines were genotyped for 488 genetic markers and the oil concentration was evaluated in replicated field trials. Three methods of analysis were tested in simulations for ability to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). The most effective method was model selection in multiple regression. This method detected ?50 QTL accounting for ?50% of the genetic variance, suggesting that >50 QTL are involved. The QTL effect estimates are small and largely additive. About 20% of the QTL have negative effects (i.e., not predicted by the parental difference), which is consistent with hitchhiking and small population size during selection. The large number of QTL detected accounts for the smooth and sustained response to selection throughout the twentieth century. PMID:15611182

Laurie, Cathy C.; Chasalow, Scott D.; LeDeaux, John R.; McCarroll, Robert; Bush, David; Hauge, Brian; Lai, Chaoqiang; Clark, Darryl; Rocheford, Torbert R.; Dudley, John W.

2004-01-01

333

Choosing a Genome Browser for a Model Organism Database (MOD): Surveying the Maize Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the maize genome sequencing is nearing its completion, the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB), the Model Organism Database for maize, integrated a genome browser to its already existing Web interface and database. The addition of the MaizeGDB Genome Browser to MaizeGDB will allow it ...

334

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Distribution of Retroelements in Centromeres and Neocentromeres of Maize  

E-print Network

and Neocentromeres of Maize Rebecca J. Mroczek* and R. Kelly Dawe*,,1 *Department of Plant Biology and Department, and Tekay/Prem-1 on maize pachytene chromosomes. Retroelement staining in euchromatin was remarkably uniform of large plant genomes like that of maize, where groups can be further subdivided into families

335

Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.  

PubMed Central

We compared the seedbanks, seed rains, plant densities and biomasses of weeds under two contrasting systems of management in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape. Weed seedbank and plant density were measured at the same locations in two subsequent seasons. About 60 fields were sown with each crop. Each field was split, one half being sown with a conventional variety managed according to the farmer's normal practice, the other half being sown with a genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) variety, with weeds controlled by a broad-spectrum herbicide. In beet and rape, plant densities shortly after sowing were higher in the GMHT treatment. Following weed control in conventional beet, plant densities were approximately one-fifth of those in GMHT beet. In both beet and rape, this effect was reversed after the first application of broad-spectrum herbicide, so that late-season plant densities were lower in the GMHT treatments. Biomass and seed rain in GMHT crops were between one-third and one-sixth of those in conventional treatments. The effects of differing weed-seed returns in these two crops persisted in the seedbank: densities following the GMHT treatment were about 20% lower than those following the conventional treatment. The effect of growing maize was quite different. Weed density was higher throughout the season in the GMHT treatment. Late-season biomass was 82% higher and seed rain was 87% higher than in the conventional treatment. The difference was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank because the total seed return was low after both treatments. In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application. PMID:14561316

Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

2003-01-01

336

Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination Is under Genetic Control in the C4 Species Maize with Several Genomic Regions Influencing Trait Expression1[W  

PubMed Central

In plants with C4 photosynthesis, physiological mechanisms underlying variation in stable carbon isotope discrimination (?13C) are largely unknown, and genetic components influencing ?13C have not been described. We analyzed a maize (Zea mays) introgression library derived from two elite parents to investigate whether ?13C is under genetic control in this C4 species. High-density genotyping with the Illumina MaizeSNP50 Bead Chip was used for a detailed structural characterization of 89 introgression lines. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in the field and in the greenhouse for kernel ?13C as well as plant developmental and photosynthesis-related traits. Highly heritable significant genetic variation for ?13C was detected under field and greenhouse conditions. For several introgression library lines, ?13C values consistently differed from the recurrent parent within and across the two phenotyping platforms. ?13C was significantly associated with 22 out of 164 analyzed genomic regions, indicating a complex genetic architecture of ?13C. The five genomic regions with the largest effects were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 and explained 55% of the phenotypic variation for ?13C. Plant development stage had no effect on ?13C expression, as phenotypic as well as genotypic correlations between ?13C, flowering time, and plant height were not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating ?13C to be under polygenic control in the C4 species maize. PMID:24280436

Gresset, Sebastian; Westermeier, Peter; Rademacher, Svenja; Ouzunova, Milena; Presterl, Thomas; Westhoff, Peter; Schön, Chris-Carolin

2014-01-01

337

Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed Central

Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

2003-01-01

338

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2013-06-20

339

Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFN? production from mitogenic stimulated

Maria C. Walsh; Stefan G. Buzoianu; Gillian E. Gardiner; Mary C. Rea; Eva Gelencsér; Anna Jánosi; Michelle M. Epstein; R. Paul Ross; Peadar G. Lawlor

2011-01-01

340

Exploring the Genetic Characteristics of Two Recombinant Inbred Line Populations via High-Density SNP Markers in Maize  

PubMed Central

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43–11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08–0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. PMID:23300772

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

2012-01-01

341

The genetic architecture of grain yield and related traits in Zea maize L. revealed by comparing intermated and conventional populations.  

PubMed

Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F(3) population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F(3) population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F(3) population. The confidence interval around a QTL was on average 2.31 times smaller in the intermated population compared to the F(3) population. One controversy surrounding QTL mapping is whether QTL identified in fact represent single loci. This study identifies two distinct loci for dry grain yield in the intermated population in coupling phase, while the F(3) identifies only a single locus. Surprisingly, fewer QTL were detected in the intermated population than the F(3) (21 vs. 30) and <50% of the detected QTL were shared among the two populations. Cross-validation showed that selection bias was more important in the intermated population than in the F(3) and that each detected QTL explained a lower percentage of the variance. This finding supports the hypothesis that QTL detected in conventional populations correspond mainly to clusters of linked QTL. The actual number of QTL involved in the genetic architecture of complex traits may be substantially larger, with effect sizes substantially smaller than in conventional populations. PMID:20592258

Huang, Yung-Fen; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Ky, Chin Long; Coubriche, Denis; Jamin, Philippe; Jouanne, Sophie; Dumas, Fabrice; Bouty, Ellen; Bertin, Pascal; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

2010-09-01

342

The Genetic Architecture of Grain Yield and Related Traits in Zea maize L. Revealed by Comparing Intermated and Conventional Populations  

PubMed Central

Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F3 population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F3 population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. The confidence interval around a QTL was on average 2.31 times smaller in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. One controversy surrounding QTL mapping is whether QTL identified in fact represent single loci. This study identifies two distinct loci for dry grain yield in the intermated population in coupling phase, while the F3 identifies only a single locus. Surprisingly, fewer QTL were detected in the intermated population than the F3 (21 vs. 30) and <50% of the detected QTL were shared among the two populations. Cross-validation showed that selection bias was more important in the intermated population than in the F3 and that each detected QTL explained a lower percentage of the variance. This finding supports the hypothesis that QTL detected in conventional populations correspond mainly to clusters of linked QTL. The actual number of QTL involved in the genetic architecture of complex traits may be substantially larger, with effect sizes substantially smaller than in conventional populations. PMID:20592258

Huang, Yung-Fen; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Ky, Chin Long; Coubriche, Denis; Jamin, Philippe; Jouanne, Sophie; Dumas, Fabrice; Bouty, Ellen; Bertin, Pascal; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

2010-01-01

343

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

344

Mutation scanning in a single and a stacked genetically modified (GM) event by real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.  

PubMed

Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017×MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G; Brandes, Christian

2014-01-01

345

Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Brandes, Christian

2014-01-01

346

Romanian Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines as a Source of Genetic Diversity in SE Europe, and Their Potential in Future Breeding Efforts  

PubMed Central

Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm. PMID:24392016

Ha?, Voichi?a; Ha?, Ioan; Micl?u?, Mihai

2013-01-01

347

Development of a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for on-site monitoring of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been mainly developed for mass production of agricultural plants; however, there are concerns that transgenic crops might cause side effects on ecosystems and human beings. Therefore, to quantitatively trace the genetically modified products, we constructed a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for the detection of recombinant marker proteins expressed in GMOs, i.e., 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), neomycin phosphotransferase

Hye-Jee Jang; Il-Hoon Cho; Hee-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Jeon; Se-Young Hwang; Se-Hwan Paek

2011-01-01

348

Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Crops: Differentiated Risk Assessment and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risks and benefits of genetically modified crops have varying degrees of certainty. The U.S. regulatory\\u000a system evaluates a suite of hazards for the crops primarily by minimizing type I error. However, genetically modified crops\\u000a vary widely in their potential for environmental harm. We develop a differentiated risk assessment process using three models\\u000a that shift from primary emphasis on

David E. Ervinand; Rick Welsh

349

Psychological concepts, public relations, and scientific responses to genetically modified organisms (GMOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms (e.g., plants, animals, and microorganisms) whose genetic information (i.e., DNA) is modified. Commercialization of GMOs has become an issue for an intense debate between parts of Europe and America, as well as within some developing countries. The main issues involve long-term health and environmental risks of using GMOs, safety assessment for their

Natapom Supanutsetkul; Linnda Caporael

2000-01-01

350

Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as

João Lúcio Azevedo; Welington Luiz Araujo

2003-01-01

351

Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking

A. Springer; Konstadinos Mattas; G. Papastefanou; Asterios Tsioumanis

2002-01-01

352

Maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse. PMID:25300834

Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

2015-01-01

353

Mutant and genetically modified mice as models for studying the relationship between aging and carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest is emerging in using mouse models to assess the genetics of aging and age-related diseases, including cancer. However, only limited information is available regarding the relationship between aging and spontaneous tumor development in genetically modified mice. Analysis of various transgenic and knockout rodent models with either a shortened or an extended life span, provides a unique opportunity to

Vladimir N Anisimov

2001-01-01

354

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat Rubrospinal Axons and  

E-print Network

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat atrophy and death. We studied whether transplants of fibroblasts genetically engineered to produce brain hemisection cavity that completely interrupted one RST. One and two months after lesion and transplantation

Fischer, Itzhak

355

Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outcome of risk

Eric M. Hallerman; Anne R. Kapuscinski

1995-01-01

356

PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND ORGANIC FOODS AND PROCESSES: NORTH DAKOTA COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of genetically modified (GM) and organic food among North Dakota college students were elicited and compared. Participants responded to one of two survey instruments containing identical wording except for reference to genetic modification or organic, after reading a primer defining the term used in their instrument. Participants' indicated their level of agreement with statements in the construct areas of

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

2005-01-01

357

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues

Amar Chiter; J. Michael Forbes; G. Eric Blair

2000-01-01

358

Development of sampling approaches for the determination of the presence of genetically modified organisms at the field level.  

PubMed

In order to comply with the European Union regulatory threshold for the adventitious presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed, it is important to trace GMOs from the field. Appropriate sampling methods are needed to accurately predict the presence of GMOs at the field level. A 2-year field experiment with two maize varieties differing in kernel colour was conducted in Slovenia. Based on the results of data mining analyses and modelling, it was concluded that spatial relations between the donor and receptor field were the most important factors influencing the distribution of outcrossing rate (OCR) in the field. The approach for estimation fitting function parameters in the receptor (non-GM) field at two distances from the donor (GM) field (10 and 25 m) for estimation of the OCR (GMO content) in the whole receptor field was developed. Different sampling schemes were tested; a systematic random scheme in rows was proposed to be applied for sampling at the two distances for the estimation of fitting function parameters for determination of OCR. The sampling approach had already been validated with some other OCR data and was practically applied in the 2009 harvest in Poland. The developed approach can be used for determination of the GMO presence at the field level and for making appropriate labelling decisions. The importance of this approach lies in its possibility to also address other threshold levels beside the currently prescribed labelling threshold of 0.9% for food and feed. PMID:20069281

Sustar-Vozlic, Jelka; Rostohar, Katja; Blejec, Andrej; Kozjak, Petra; Cergan, Zoran; Meglic, Vladimir

2010-03-01

359

Development of a peptide nucleic acid array platform for the detection of genetically modified organisms in food.  

PubMed

Two previously developed platforms, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) array, the former allowing for the simultaneous detection of five transgenes and two endogenous controls in food and feed matrices and the latter for the assessment of the identity of amplified PCR products, were combined in order to develop a PNA array device for the screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food. PNA probes were opportunely designed, synthesized, and deposited on commercial slides. The length of the probes as well as the distance of the probes from the surface were evaluated and found to be critical points. The most suitable probes were found to be 15-mer PNAs linked to the slide surface by means of two 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxyacetic acids as spacers. The device was tested on a model system constituted by flour samples containing a mixture of standards at known concentrations of transgenic material, in particular Roundup Ready soybean and Bt11, Bt176, Mon810, and GA21 maize: The DNA was amplified using the specific multiplex PCR method and tested on the PNA array. The method proposed was found to be able to correctly identify every GMO present in the tested samples. PMID:15884823

Germini, Andrea; Rossi, Stefano; Zanetti, Alessandro; Corradini, Roberto; Fogher, Corrado; Marchelli, Rosangela

2005-05-18

360

Assessment of DNA degradation induced by thermal and UV radiation processing: implications for quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

DNA quality is an important parameter for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Food processing leads to degradation of DNA, which may impair GMO detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of various processing treatments such as heating, baking, microwaving, autoclaving and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the relative transgenic content of MON 810 maize using pRSETMON-02, a dual target plasmid as a model system. Amongst all the processing treatments examined, autoclaving and UV irradiation resulted in the least recovery of the transgenic (CaMV 35S promoter) and taxon-specific (zein) target DNA sequences. Although a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing, DNA could still be reliably quantified by Real-time PCR. The measured mean DNA copy number ratios of the processed samples were in agreement with the expected values. Our study confirms the premise that the final analytical value assigned to a particular sample is independent of the degree of DNA degradation since the transgenic and the taxon-specific target sequences possessing approximately similar lengths degrade in parallel. The results of our study demonstrate that food processing does not alter the relative quantification of the transgenic content provided the quantitative assays target shorter amplicons and the difference in the amplicon size between the transgenic and taxon-specific genes is minimal. PMID:23870938

Ballari, Rajashekhar V; Martin, Asha

2013-12-01

361

Genetic Diversity and Selection in Maize Genes for Amino Acid Pathways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of crop improvement is to enhance a trait phenotype through breeding and/or biotechnology. Most methods used to determine the genetic basis of agronomic traits rely on genetic variation in order to make marker-phenotype associations. If variation at key loci is reduced, however, due ...

362

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

363

Functional Allelic Variation at Key Photoperiod Response QTL in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropical maize represents a valuable genetic resource containing unique alleles not present in elite temperate maize. The strong delay in flowering in response to long daylength photoperiods exhibited by most tropical maize hinders its incorporation into temperate maize breeding programs. We tested ...

364

MaizeGDB's new data types, resources, and activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB is the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. Available at MaizeGDB are diverse data that support maize research including maps, gene product information, loci and their various alleles, phenotypes (both naturally occurring and as a result of directed mutagenesis), stocks, sequences, molecul...

365

ZmCCT and the genetic basis of day-length adaptation underlying the postdomestication spread of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Teosinte, the progenitor of maize, is restricted to tropical environments in Mexico and Central America. The pre-Columbian spread of maize from its center of origin in tropical Southern Mexico to the higher latitudes of the Americas required post-domestication selection for adaptation to longer dayl...

366

Genetic relationships and structure among open pollinated maize varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa using microsatellite markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with the national agricultural systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have developed various stress-tolerant and more nutritious open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize that are suitable for smallholder farmers’ g...

367

Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of oil biosynthesis and accumulation in maize kernel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) on a population of 368 maize inbreds with 1.06 million SNPs was performed and identified 74 highly significantly associated genes influencing maize kernel oil content and fatty acid composition. To validate these findings, three biparental linkage mapping popul...

368

THE GENETIC BASIS OF C-GLYCOSYL FLAVONE B-RING MODIFICATION IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SILKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) has been attributed to high concentrations of C-glycosyl flavones and chlorogenic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) silks. The most common C-glycosyl flavones isolated from maize silks are maysin, apimaysin, and methoxymaysin, which are distinguished by ...

369

Phenotypic Characterization of Quality Protein Maize Endosperm Modifi cation and Amino Acid Contents in a Segregating Recombinant Inbred Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein quality of maize (Zea mays L.) can be improved by replacing normal Opaque2 alleles with nonfunctional recessive alleles (o2). Homozygous o2 kernels have increased levels of lysine and tryptophan. Unfortunately, the asso- ciated soft texture of the o2 kernels causes poor yield and susceptibility to diseases and insects. Breeding has resulted in the development of o2 genotypes with

Andres Gutierrez-Rojas; M. Paul Scott; Otto R. Leyva; Monica Menz; Javier Betrán

370

Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed for 59 maize, 66 beet and 67 spring oilseed rape sites. Fields were split into halves, one being sown with a GMHT crop and the other with the equivalent conventional non-GMHT crop. Margin vegetation was recorded in three components of the field margins. Most differences were in the tilled area, with fewer smaller effects mirroring them in the verge and boundary. In spring oilseed rape fields, the cover, flowering and seeding of plants were 25%, 44% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT uncropped tilled margins. Similarly, for beet, flowering and seeding were 34% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT margins. For maize, the effect was reversed, with plant cover and flowering 28% and 67% greater, respectively, in the GMHT half. Effects on butterflies mirrored these vegetation effects, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape. The likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Few large treatment differences were found for bees, gastropods or other invertebrates. Scorching of vegetation by herbicide-spray drift was on average 1.6% on verges beside conventional crops and 3.7% beside GMHT crops, the difference being significant for all three crops. PMID:14561320

Roy, D B; Bohan, D A; Haughton, A J; Hill, M O; Osborne, J L; Clark, S J; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Firbank, L G

2003-01-01

371

REGULAR ARTICLE Field decomposition of transgenic Bt maize residue  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE Field decomposition of transgenic Bt maize residue and the impact on non modified Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) maize (Zea mays L.) expressing Cry toxins against various of Bt maize expressing the Cry1Ab protein on both the soil community and maize residue decomposition. We

Richner, Heinz

372

Genetic diversity among INERA maize inbred lines with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and their relationship with CIMMYT, IITA, and temperate lines.  

PubMed

BackgroundGenetic diversity provides the capacity for plants to meet changing environments. It is fundamentally important in crop improvement. Fifty-nine local maize lines developed at INERA and 41 exotic (temperate and tropical) inbred lines were characterized using 1057 SNP markers to (1) analyse the genetic diversity in a diverse set of maize inbred lines; (2) determine the level of genetic diversity in INERA inbred lines and patterns of relationships of these inbred lines developed from two sources; and (3) examine the genetic differences between local and exotic germplasms.ResultsRoger¿s genetic distance for about 64% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Sixty one per cent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values of zero. Model-based population structure analysis and principal component analysis revealed the presence of 5 groups that agree, to some extent, with the origin of the germplasm. There was genetic diversity among INERA inbred lines, which were genetically less closely related and showed a low level of heterozygosity. These lines could be divided into 3 major distinct groups and a mixed group consistent with the source population of the lines. Pairwise comparisons between local and exotic germplasms showed that the temperate and some IITA lines were differentiated from INERA lines. There appeared to be substantial levels of genetic variation between local and exotic germplasms as revealed by missing and unique alleles.ConclusionsAllelic frequency differences observed between the germplasms, together with unique alleles identified within each germplasm, shows the potential for a mutual improvement between the sets of germplasm. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in designing inbred-hybrid breeding programs, association mapping population studies and marker assisted breeding. PMID:25421948

Dao, Abdalla; Sanou, Jacob; Mitchell, Sharon E; Gracen, Vernon; Danquah, Eric Y

2014-11-25

373

Comparative biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions on raw and oxalic acid modified maize husk: kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maize husk, an abundant agricultural waste was used to prepare a biosorbent for the biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in a batch process. Equilibrium and kinetics of biosorption of the metals ions were studied at 25 °C. The adsorbtion data were treated with common kinetic and isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with maximum capacity of 8.52 and 7.38 mg g-1 for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on raw biomass (UTCS). The capacity of 9.00 and 9.33 mg g-1 was observed for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on acid modified biomass (ATCS). The study also revealed that the sorption process in both cases depend on biomass dosage, temperature, pH and initial metal ion concentration, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (? G o, ? H o and ? S o) showed that the biosorption of the metal ions onto maize husk is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Idowu, Mopelola Abidemi; Ofudje, Andrew Edwin; Kareem, Sarafadeen Olateju; Ahmed, Sikiru Akinyeye

2013-03-01

374

ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

375

Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy. PMID:24474888

Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

2013-01-01

376

763. Multimodality Imaging of Genetically Modified Lymphocytes In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: the lack of specific trafficking of genetically engineered T cells to tumor sites is one of the major limitations in adoptive immunotherapy. Multimodality imaging represents a powerful tool for repetitive non-invasive assessment of migration, activation and survival of immune effectors in living subjects in pre-clinical models and in patients. Methods: to establish a cancer model for adoptive immunotherapy we

Konstantin Dobrenkov; Malgorzata Dabrowska; Larissa Shenker; Elena Vider; Gertrude Gunset; Michel Sadelain; Vladimir Ponomarev

2006-01-01

377

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect—or may affect—the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability requirement and, hence, liability under the tort of negligence. The article also examines how concern expressed by

Lara Khoury; Stuart Smyth

2007-01-01

378

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

2007-01-01

379

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

380

Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

381

Genetically modified multiuser detection for code division multiple access systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is considered. By combining the theory of multiuser detection (MUD) and evolutionary computation, a hybrid genetic engine is proposed, suitable for the detection of CDMA signals in the presence of MAI and ISI. The proposed hybrid detector structure can be extended

S. Abedi; R. Tafazolli

2002-01-01

382

Suppression of Avian Influenza Transmission in Genetically Modified Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of chickens with avian influenza virus poses a global threat to both poultry production and human health that is not adequately controlled by vaccination or by biosecurity measures. A novel alternative strategy is to develop chickens that are genetically resistant to infection. We generated transgenic chickens expressing a short-hairpin RNA designed to function as a decoy that inhibits and

Jon Lyall; Richard M. Irvine; Adrian Sherman; Trevelyan J. McKinley; Alejandro Núñez; Auriol Purdie; Linzy Outtrim; Ian H. Brown; Genevieve Rolleston-Smith; Helen Sang; Laurence Tiley

2011-01-01

383

Genetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-  

E-print Network

, Ronan Sulpice2 , Sherry Flint-Garcia3 , Michael D. McMullen3 , Mark Stitt2 , Edward S. Buckler1,4 1. Citation: Zhang N, Gur A, Gibon Y, Sulpice R, Flint-Garcia S, et al. (2010) Genetic Analysis of Central

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

384

Extensive genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium within the COMT locus in maize exotic populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Caffeic acid 3-O-methytransferase (COMT) gene is a prime candidate for cell wall digestibility improvement based on the characterization of brown midrib-3 mutants. We compared the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium at COMT locus between populations sampled within the Germplasm Enhance...

385

PREDICT CHROMOSOMAL LOCATIONS OF GENETICALLY MAPPED LOCI IN MAIZE USING THE MORGAN2MCCLINTOCK TRANSLATOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Morgan2McClintock Translator is a web-based tool that enables researchers to automatically convert coordinates from genetic recombination-based linkage maps to predicted positions on meiotic pachytene chromosomes using previously determined recombination nodule frequency distributions. The outpu...

386

THE GENETIC CONTROL AND BIOCHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF CATECHOL OXIDASE IN MAIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isozyme variants of catechol oxidase have been shown to be deter- mined by alleles of a gene, Cz, which has been located on chromosome 10 less than 0.1 recombination units from the endosperm marker &,.-The ex- tractable form of the enzyme is modified by an endogeneous \\

TONY PRYOR

387

Genetic Dissection of Internode Length Above the Uppermost Ear in Four RIL Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) is an important influencing factor for canopy architecture in maize. Analyzing the genetic characteristics of internode length is critical for improving plant population structure and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. However, the genetic control of ILAU has not been determined. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for internode length at five positions above the uppermost ear were identified using four sets of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in three environments. Genetic maps and initial QTL were integrated using meta-analyses across the four populations. Seventy QTL were identified: 16 in population 1; 14 in population 2; 25 in population 3; and 15 in population 4. Individual effects ranged from 5.36% to 26.85% of phenotypic variation, with 27 QTL >10%. In addition, the following common QTL were identified across two populations: one common QTL for the internode length of all five positions; one common QTL for the internode length of three positions; and one common QTL for the internode length of one position. In addition, four common QTL for the internode length of four positions were identified in one population. The results indicated that the ILAU at different positions above the uppermost ear could be affected by one or several of the same QTL. The traits may also be regulated by many different QTL. Of the 70 initial QTL, 46 were integrated in 14 meta-QTL (mQTLs) by meta-analysis, and 17 of the 27 initial QTL with R(2)?>10% were integrated in 7 mQTLs. Four of the key mQTLs (mQTL2-2, mQTL3-2, mQTL5-1, mQTL5-2, and mQTL9) in which the initial QTL displayed R(2) >10% included four to 11 initial QTL for an internode length of four to five positions from one or two populations. These results may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection to improve canopy architecture. PMID:25538101

Ku, Lixia; Cao, Liru; Wei, Xiaomin; Su, Huihui; Tian, Zhiqiang; Guo, Shulei; Zhang, Liangkun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Yuguang; Li, Guohui; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Yanhui

2014-01-01

388

Genetic Dissection of Internode Length Above the Uppermost Ear in Four RIL Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

The internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) is an important influencing factor for canopy architecture in maize. Analyzing the genetic characteristics of internode length is critical for improving plant population structure and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. However, the genetic control of ILAU has not been determined. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for internode length at five positions above the uppermost ear were identified using four sets of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in three environments. Genetic maps and initial QTL were integrated using meta-analyses across the four populations. Seventy QTL were identified: 16 in population 1; 14 in population 2; 25 in population 3; and 15 in population 4. Individual effects ranged from 5.36% to 26.85% of phenotypic variation, with 27 QTL >10%. In addition, the following common QTL were identified across two populations: one common QTL for the internode length of all five positions; one common QTL for the internode length of three positions; and one common QTL for the internode length of one position. In addition, four common QTL for the internode length of four positions were identified in one population. The results indicated that the ILAU at different positions above the uppermost ear could be affected by one or several of the same QTL. The traits may also be regulated by many different QTL. Of the 70 initial QTL, 46 were integrated in 14 meta-QTL (mQTLs) by meta-analysis, and 17 of the 27 initial QTL with R2?>10% were integrated in 7 mQTLs. Four of the key mQTLs (mQTL2-2, mQTL3-2, mQTL5-1, mQTL5-2, and mQTL9) in which the initial QTL displayed R2 >10% included four to 11 initial QTL for an internode length of four to five positions from one or two populations. These results may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection to improve canopy architecture. PMID:25538101

Ku, Lixia; Cao, Liru; Wei, Xiaomin; Su, Huihui; Tian, Zhiqiang; Guo, Shulei; Zhang, Liangkun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Yuguang; Li, Guohui; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Yanhui

2014-01-01

389

Different effects of transgenic maize and nontransgenic maize on nitrogen-transforming archaea and bacteria in tropical soils.  

PubMed

The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is a result of interactions between plant roots, soil, and environmental conditions. The impact of genetic variation in plant species on the composition of the root-associated microbiota remains poorly understood. This study assessed the abundances and structures of nitrogen-transforming (ammonia-oxidizing) archaea and bacteria as well as nitrogen-fixing bacteria driven by genetic modification of their maize host plants. The data show that significant changes in the abundances (revealed by quantitative PCR) of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities occurred as a result of the maize host being genetically modified. In contrast, the structures of the total communities (determined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were mainly driven by factors such as soil type and season and not by plant genotype. Thus, the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities but not structures of those communities were revealed to be responsive to changes in maize genotype, allowing the suggestion that community abundances should be explored as candidate bioindicators for monitoring the possible impacts of cultivation of genetically modified plants. PMID:25107970

Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Seldin, Lucy; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2014-10-01

390

Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic\\u000a engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines\\u000a and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors,\\u000a biotechnology has the potential to make significant

John P. Morrissey; Ultan F. Walsh; Anne O'Donnell; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; Fergal O'Gara

2002-01-01

391

Presence of unintended Agrobacterium tumefaciens cloning vector sequences in genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium transformation was used in the production of genetically modified plants from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). After inoculation stop with the antibiotic timentin, a subsequent one-week treatment eliminated the vector bacterium from the oilseed rape plate explant cultures. From the tobacco, however, we recorded vector-derived signals one week after potting the regenerants in the greenhouse and still 10 weeks later. Genetically modified plants produced through Agrobacterium-transformation therefore cannot be guaranteed to be completely free of unintended vector sequences after antibiotic treatment. PMID:16614922

Björklöf, Katarina; Färdig, Michael; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

2006-03-01

392

Implications of natural propagule flow for containment of genetically modified forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagule flow in populations of virtually all organisms has importance for both the genetic cohesion of the species and for\\u000a its interaction with natural selection. It’s relevance` for the deployment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is that\\u000a propagules can be expected to move, under a wide range of circumstances, and will carry transgenic elements with them. Any\\u000a consideration of the

Peter E. Smouse; Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio; Santiago C. González-Martínez

2007-01-01

393

A PCR-microarray method for the screening of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to screen and to identify genetically modified organisms (GMO) is presented in this paper. It is based on the\\u000a detection of multiple genetic elements common to GMO by their amplification via PCR followed by direct hybridisation of the\\u000a amplicons on microarray. The pattern of the elements is then compared to a database of the composition of EU-approved

Sandrine Hamels; Thomas Glouden; Karine Gillard; Marco Mazzara; Frédéric Debode; Nicoletta Foti; Myriam Sneyers; Teresa Esteve Nuez; Maria Pla; Gilbert Berben; William Moens; Yves Bertheau; Colette Audéon; Guy Van den Eede; José Remacle

2009-01-01

394

Detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize via various isothermal amplification techniques: a practical approach.  

PubMed

In 2003 the European Commission introduced a 0.9% threshold for food and feed products containing genetically modified organism (GMO)-derived components. For commodities containing GMO contents higher than this threshold, labelling is mandatory. To provide a DNA-based rapid and simple detection method suitable for high-throughput screening of GMOs, several isothermal amplification approaches for the 35S promoter were tested: strand displacement amplification, nicking-enzyme amplification reaction, rolling circle amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and helicase-dependent amplification (HDA). The assays developed were tested for specificity in order to distinguish between samples containing genetically modified (GM) maize and non-GM maize. For those assays capable of this discrimination, tests were performed to determine the lower limit of detection. A false-negative rate was determined to rule out whether GMO-positive samples were incorrectly classified as GMO-negative. A robustness test was performed to show reliable detection independent from the instrument used for amplification. The analysis of three GM maize lines showed that only LAMP and HDA were able to differentiate between the GMOs MON810, NK603, and Bt11 and non-GM maize. Furthermore, with the HDA assay it was possible to realize a detection limit as low as 0.5%. A false-negative rate of only 5% for 1% GM maize for all three maize lines shows that HDA has the potential to be used as an alternative strategy for the detection of transgenic maize. All results obtained with the LAMP and HDA assays were compared with the results obtained with a previously reported real-time PCR assay for the 35S promoter in transgenic maize. This study presents two new screening assays for detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize by applying the isothermal amplification approaches HDA and LAMP. PMID:24880871

Zahradnik, Celine; Kolm, Claudia; Martzy, Roland; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Brunner, Kurt

2014-11-01

395

Mining natural variation for maize improvement: Selection on phenotypes and genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is highly genetically and phenotypically diverse. Tropical maize and teosinte are important genetic resources that harbor unique alleles not found in temperate maize hybrids. To access these resources, breeders must be able to extract favorable unique alleles from tropical maize and teosinte f...

396

On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

Farmland biodiversity and food webs were compared in conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops of beet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and both spring and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). GMHT and conventional varieties were sown in a split-field experimental design, at 60-70 sites for each crop, spread over three starting years beginning in 2000. This paper provides a background to the study and the rationale for its design and interpretation. It shows how data on environment, field management and the biota are used to assess the current state of the ecosystem, to define the typical arable field and to devise criteria for selecting, sampling and auditing experimental sites in the Farm Scale Evaluations. The main functional and taxonomic groups in the habitat are ranked according to their likely sensitivity to GMHT cropping, and the most responsive target organisms are defined. The value of the seedbank as a baseline and as an indicator of historical trends is proposed. Evidence from experiments during the twentieth century is analysed to show that large changes in field management have affected sensitive groups in the biota by ca. 50% during a year or short run of years--a figure against which to assess any positive or negative effects of GMHT cropping. The analysis leads to a summary of factors that were, and were not, examined in the first 3 years of the study and points to where modelling can be used to extrapolate the effects to the landscape and the agricultural region. PMID:14561314

Squire, G R; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Champion, G T; Daniels, R E; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Hill, M O; May, M J; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Roy, D B; Woiwod, I P; Firbank, L G

2003-01-01

397

POTENTIAL INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SORGHUM LINES GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOR REDUCED LIGNIN CONTENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential increased resistance to Fusarium species in sorghum lines genetically modified for reduced lignin content. Deanna L. Funnell and Jeffery F. Pedersen, Grain, Forage and Bioenergy Research, USDA-ARS; Departments of Plant Pathology (DLF) and Agronomy (JFP), University of Nebraska. Lincoln, 6...

398

Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A study focusing on genetically modified (GM) foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from 31 different provinces. The study not only revealed important results about the perceptions of

Ali Demirci

2008-01-01

399

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

400

The program for phenotyping of genetically modified animals at AstraZeneca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mice offer a wide range of possibilities in preclinical drug discovery, e.g. for use in target identification, target validation and disease model generation. However, genomic modification and alteration in gene expression may cause unpredicted phenotypic alterations in the organism other than the intended ones. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of establishing the phenotype

Anna-Lena Berg; Mohammad Bohlooly-Y

2006-01-01

401

Gaps, Inexperience, Inconsistencies, and Overlaps: Crisis in the Regulation of Genetically Modified Plants and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified products pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that is passive rather than proactive about risks, has difficulty adapting to biotechnology advances, and is highly fractured and inefficient-transgenic plants and animals are governed by at least twelve different statutes and five different agencies or services. The

Gregory N Mandel

2004-01-01

402

Transplantation of genetically modified cells contributes to repair and recovery from spinal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of transplantation of fibroblasts genetically modified to produce brain derived neurotrophin factor (Fb\\/BDNF) on rescue of axotomized neurons, axonal growth and recovery of function was tested in a lateral funiculus lesion model in adult rats. Operated control animals included those in which the lesion was filled with gelfoam implant (Hx) and those in which the cavity was filled

Marion Murray; D Kim; Y Liu; C Tobias; A Tessler; I Fischer

2002-01-01

403

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

404

Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco

2005-01-01

405

The Adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agricultural biotechnology becomes increasingly commercialised, numerous constraints limit adoption by developing-country producers. These include technology access, impacts on farmers' yields and profits, privatisation of research and intellectual property, biosafety regulatory frameworks, and trade-related market restrictions. This essay analyses development of the genetically modified papaya and its commercialisation in Hawaii as a response to a virulent plant disease, papaya ringspot

C. Gonsalves; D. R. Lee; D. Gonsalves

2007-01-01

406

Assessing Genetically Modified Crops to Minimize the Risk of Increased Food Allergy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the

Richard E. Goodman; Susan L. Hefle; Steven L. Taylor; Ronald van Ree

2005-01-01

407

Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA  

PubMed Central

After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009–2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S.; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.

2015-01-01

408

Consumer Choice of Genetically Modified Products: the Effect of Media Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study into the impact of negative and positive media content on the introduction of a new milk that has been genetically modified to eliminate cholesterol. A sample of 1008 consumers were presented with choice scenarios in which there were four purchase choices (existing, new, organic, no purchase) and randomly assigned to one of three media conditions:

Kate Owen; Jordan Louviere

409

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

410

Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

Ekborg, Margareta

2008-01-01

411

Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

412

TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED  

EPA Science Inventory

Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

413

Reversible biomechano-responsive surface based on green fluorescent protein genetically modified with unnatural amino acids.  

PubMed

GFP has been genetically modified at two specific positions of its molecular architecture. These modifications allow its covalent attachment onto PEG brushes grafted on functionalized silicone surfaces. The stretching of this material leads to a reversible decrease of the fluorescence intensity due to stretch-induced forces applying on GFP molecules. PMID:25407087

Longo, Johan; Yao, Chunyan; Rios, César; Chau, Nguyet Trang Thanh; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Lavalle, Philippe; Schiller, Stefan M; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc

2015-01-01

414

Critical Success Factors for Firms in the Genetically Modified Foods Industry: A Managerial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of consensus that has emerged among various stakeholders as to whether or not the production and commercialisation of genetically modified foods (GMFs) should be encouraged is quite apparent and well documented in the literature. Research also suggests that where firms have opted to produce and commercialise these foods, often very disparate factors have accounted for their success. An

Clare DSouza; Ali Quazi; Robert Rugimbana; P. W. Senarath Yapa; Marthin Nanere

2007-01-01

415

Affective Influences on Risk Perceptions of, and Attitudes Toward, Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about risk perceptions and public understanding of genetically modified (GM) food, yet little if any of the academic writings on this topic take into account the role of feelings or affect in these processes. Here, the available literature on the topic of GM food is explored in order to highlight findings consistent with the notion that

Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

416

Virus-host co-evolution under a modified nuclear genetic code  

PubMed Central

Among eukaryotes with modified nuclear genetic codes, viruses are unknown. However, here we provide evidence of an RNA virus that infects a fungal host (Scheffersomyces segobiensis) with a derived nuclear genetic code where CUG codes for serine. The genomic architecture and phylogeny are consistent with infection by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Totivirus. We provide evidence of past or present infection with totiviruses in five species of yeasts with modified genetic codes. All but one of the CUG codons in the viral genome have been eliminated, suggesting that avoidance of the modified codon was important to viral adaptation. Our mass spectroscopy analysis indicates that a congener of the host species has co-opted and expresses a capsid gene from totiviruses as a cellular protein. Viral avoidance of the host’s modified codon and host co-option of a protein from totiviruses suggest that RNA viruses co-evolved with yeasts that underwent a major evolutionary transition from the standard genetic code. PMID:23638388

Ballinger, Matthew J.; Bowman, Shaun M.; Bruenn, Jeremy A.

2013-01-01

417

Toxicity Studies of Genetically Modified Plants: A Review of the Published Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals

José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

418

Application of triplex PCR for identification of genetically modified organism in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex method for detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) in various foods has been developed based on PCR-identification\\u000a of cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) 35S-promoter. It allows avoiding false positive signals due to contamination of plant raw\\u000a material with CMV.

E. S. Bulygina; M. V. Sukhacheva; B. K. Bumazhkin; B. B. Kuznetsov

2010-01-01

419

Membrane based detection of genetically modified organisms in some representatives food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, DNA-based techniques became very common for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. For rapid and easy detection of GMOs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening methods, which amplify common transgenic elements, are applied in routine analysis. Incorporation of PCR and membrane method introduced in this study offer an alternative detection of GMOs. In this study, a

Yoke-Kqueen Cheah; Radu Son; Wong Vui Ling Michael Clemente

2006-01-01

420

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN FOOD - POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has implemented a set of strict procedures for the approval to utilise genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food or food ingredients. In addition, the European Union assures that the European consumer's rights for information are fully guaranteeed. Analytical methods are necessary in order to show compliance with labelling requirements that have been issued in order to be

VAN DEN EEDE; ANKLAM E

421

KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

422

ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

423

Sharpened cochlear tuning in a mouse with a genetically modified tectorial membrane  

E-print Network

Sharpened cochlear tuning in a mouse with a genetically modified tectorial membrane Ian J Russell membrane contains radially organized collagen fibrils that are imbedded in an unusual striated-sheet matrix the cochlea. The cochlea is the mammalian hearing organ, a sensory organ that detects sound stimuli

Allen, Jont

424

The use of non-hypothetical experimental markets for measuring the acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings from a study measuring consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods are presented. The empirical data were collected in an experimental market, an approach used extensively in experimental economics for measuring the monetary value of goods. The approach has several advantages over standard approaches used in sensory and marketing research (e.g., surveys and focus groups) because of its

Sara R. Jaeger; Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2004-01-01

425

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

426

Trust in sources of information about genetically modified food risks in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of trust have been identified as an important element in the risk communication process. This research is concerned with establishing the degree of trust the general public has in various possible sources of information about the health effects associated with consuming genetically modified food. Participants were asked directly about the degree to which they would trust information about the

Stephen Hunt; Lynn J. Frewer

2001-01-01

427

The consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified foods in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the factors that have influences upon benefit and risk perceptions of applying gene technology to food production, perceptions that may in turn determine the consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified (GM) foods in Taiwan. Results of structural equation modeling analysis give evidence that general attitude toward and trust in institutes and scientists performing gene manipulation have positive

Mei-Fang Chen; Hsiao-Lan Li

2007-01-01

428

Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how consumers could potentially react to the introduction of genetically modified food. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data, however, to date limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implications for policy. This paper contributes to the literature by

José M. Gil; W. Bruce Traill

2008-01-01

429

Trust in governance and the acceptance of genetically modified food in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assumes that trust is a major issue in the interaction between government, citizens and societal organizations. The central question in this paper relates to the specific determinants of public trust. A survey study is reported (n = 1019) which focuses on the role of trust in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Our expectation was that three

Jan Gutteling; Lucien Hanssen; Veer van der Neil; Erwin Seydel

2006-01-01

430

Consumer acceptability of genetically modified foods with special reference to farmed salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM) farmed salmon as a focus for the research. The results identified a small group of “triers” - willing to try any GM food product, and a small group of “refusers” - rejecting the technology and derivative

Sharron Kuznesof; Christopher Ritson

1996-01-01

431

Attitudes about Genetically Modified Foods among Korean and American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, South Korea mandated labeling of foods con- taining genetically modified (GM) ingredients. The issue of labeling in the United States remains largely contentious due to uncertainty regarding consumer response to GM food content information. It is possible that information provided through labeling and recent negative press in Korea may have reduced acceptance of GM foods among Korean consumers.

Michael S. Finke; Heaseon Kim

432

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

433

International sources of environmental policy change in China: the case of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's agricultural biotechnology policy has undergone a profound transformation over the last decade, from a strongly promotional to a more precautionary approach. From the 1980s onwards, China invested heavily in biotechnology development and in the early 1990s emerged as the leading biotech country in the developing world. In the late 1990s, however, it halted the authorization of new genetically modified

Robert Falkner

2006-01-01

434

A Continuum of Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national telephone survey was conducted in the United States in April 2002 to study the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes toward GM foods were examined through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), analyzing the interrelationships among many categorical variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes.

Pierre Ganiere; Wen S. Chern; David E. Hahn

2006-01-01

435

Potential market segments for genetically modified food: Results from cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial success of genetically modified (GM) food may be improved with appropriately targeted marketing. To that end, data from a survey of supermarket shoppers in New Zealand were analysed with a cluster analysis. A six-cluster solution found three clusters with positive intentions to purchase GM apples and three clusters with negative intentions. Positive intentions appeared to result from either

William Kaye-Blake; Anna OConnell; Charles Lamb

2007-01-01

436

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

437

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher

Theodoros H. Varzakas; G. Chryssochoidis; D. Argyropoulos

2007-01-01

438

Comparison of Consumer Responses to Genetically Modified Foods in Asia, North America, and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward genetically modified (GM) food products are complex and differ across cultures. This study uses consumer survey data to compare consumer attitudes towards GM food across Canada, China, Japan, Norway, and the United States. The comparisons are based on the significance of covariates included in country-wise estimations of willingness to pay for GM foods. The Canadian respondents were

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Thomas I. Wahl

439

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

440

Awareness and support of release of genetically modified "sterile" mosquitoes, key west, Florida, USA.  

PubMed

After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009-2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

Ernst, Kacey C; Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H

2015-02-01

441

Genetically Modified Crop Innovations and Product Differentiation: Trade and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology

Andrei Sobolevsky; GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan

2002-01-01

442

The Development and Validation of the GMOAS, an Instrument Measuring Secondary School Students' Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a rapidly evolving area of scientific innovation and an issue receiving global attention. Attempts to devise usable instruments that assess people's attitudes towards this innovation have been rare and non-systematic. The aim of this paper is to present the development and validation of the genetically modified organisms attitudes scale (GMOAS), an instrument measuring secondary school

Christothea Herodotou; Eleni A. Kyza; Iolie Nicolaidou; Andreas Hadjichambis; Dimitris Kafouris; Freda Terzian

2012-01-01

443

The Development and Validation of the GMOAS, an Instrument Measuring Secondary School Students' Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a rapidly evolving area of scientific innovation and an issue receiving global attention. Attempts to devise usable instruments that assess people's attitudes towards this innovation have been rare and non-systematic. The aim of this paper is to present the development and validation of the genetically modified organisms attitudes scale (GMOAS), an instrument measuring secondary school

Christothea Herodotou; Eleni A. Kyza; Iolie Nicolaidou; Andreas Hadjichambis; Dimitris Kafouris; Freda Terzian

2011-01-01

444

Information Based Regulation and International Trade in Genetically Modified Agricultural Products: An Evaluation of The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Essay considers the regulation of international trade in genetically modified agricultural products. Specifically, it addresses both products released into the environment as seeds and products intended for consumption as food. The first part of the Essay describes the significance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture, especially agriculture in the United States. This discussion summarizes the risks and

Michael P. Healy

2002-01-01

445

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

446

Modified genetic algorithm to model crystal structures. I. Benzene, naphthalene and anthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new computational scheme to model crystal structures of organic compounds employing a modified genetic algorithm. The method uses real-valued Cartesian coordinates and Euler angles between molecules in a crystal block as variables identifying the genetic parameters, i.e., genes. The model does not make any assumption on the crystallographic group at which the compound belongs nor to the number of molecules in the unit cell. The method has been implemented in the computer package MGAC (Modified Genetic Algorithm for Crystal and Cluster structures) that allows for optimizations using any arbitrary selection function. The examples presented here for the crystalline structures of benzene, naphthalene and anthracene, using an empirical potential energy function as the selection function, show excellent agreement with the experimental ones. While these examples use the "rigid molecule approximation," the method is quite general and can be extended to take into account any number of intramolecular degrees of freedom.

Bazterra, Victor E.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.

2002-04-01

447

Regulatory options for genetically modified crops in India.  

PubMed

The introduction of semi-dwarfing, high-yielding and nutrients-responsive crop varieties in the 1960s and 1970s alleviated the suffering of low crop yield, food shortages and epidemics of famine in India and other parts of the Asian continent. Two semi-dwarfing genes, Rht in wheat and Sd-1 in rice heralded the green revolution for which Dr. Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. In contrast, the revolutionary new genetics of crop improvement shamble over formidable obstacles of regulatory delays, political interferences and public misconceptions. India benefited immensely from the green revolution and is now grappling to deal with the nuances of GM crops. The development of GM mustard discontinued prematurely in 2001 and insect-resistant Bt cotton varieties were successfully approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 in an evolving nature of regulatory system. However, the moratorium on Bt brinjal by MOEF in 2010 meant a considerable detour from an objective, science-based, rigorous institutional process of regulatory approval to a more subjective, nonscience-driven, political decision-making process. This study examines what ails the regulatory system of GM crops in India and the steps that led to the regulatory logjam. Responding to the growing challenges and impediments of existing biosafety regulation, it suggests options that are critical for GM crops to take roots for a multiplier harvest. PMID:24460889

Choudhary, Bhagirath; Gheysen, Godelieve; Buysse, Jeroen; van der Meer, Piet; Burssens, Sylvia

2014-02-01

448

Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original modification and that might impact primarily on health. The document first deals with the potential for unintended effects caused by the processes of transgene insertion (DNA rearrangements) and makes comparisons with genetic recombination events and DNA rearrangements in traditional breeding. The document then focuses on the potential value of evolving "profiling" or "omics" technologies as non-targeted, unbiased approaches, to detect unintended effects. These technologies include metabolomics (parallel analysis of a range of primary and secondary metabolites), proteomics (analysis of polypeptide complement) and transcriptomics (parallel analysis of gene expression). The technologies are described, together with their current limitations. Importantly, the significance of unintended effects on consumer health are discussed and conclusions and recommendations presented on the various approaches outlined. PMID:15123383

Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I; Constable, A; Davies, H V; Engel, K H; Gatehouse, A M R; Kärenlampi, S; Kok, E J; Leguay, J-J; Lehesranta, S; Noteborn, H P J M; Pedersen, J; Smith, M

2004-07-01

449

Genetic relationships, carbendazim sensitivity and mycotoxin production of the Fusarium graminearum populations from maize, wheat and rice in eastern China.  

PubMed

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are important pathogens on wheat, maize, barley, and rice in China. Harvested grains are often contaminated by mycotoxins, such as the trichothecene nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN), which is a big threat to humans and animals. In this study, 97 isolates were collected from maize, wheat, and rice in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in 2013 and characterized by species- and chemotype-specific PCR. F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) was predominant on maize, while most of the isolates collected from rice and wheat were identified as F. asiaticum. Fusarium isolates from three hosts varied in trichothecene chemotypes. The 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype predominated on wheat and rice population, while 15ADON was prevailing in the remaining isolates. Sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1? and trichodiene synthase indicated the accuracy of the above conclusion. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis suggested four groups with strong correlation with species, chemotype, and host. These isolates were also evaluated for their sensitivity to carbendazim and mycotoxins production. The maize population was less sensitive than the other two. The DON levels were similar in three populations, while those isolates on maize produced more ZEN. More DON was produced in carbendazim resistant strains than sensitive ones, but it seemed that carbendazim resistance had no effect on ZEN production in wheat culture. PMID:25093387

Qiu, Jianbo; Shi, Jianrong

2014-08-01

450

Genetic Relationships, Carbendazim Sensitivity and Mycotoxin Production of the Fusarium Graminearum Populations from Maize, Wheat and Rice in Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are important pathogens on wheat, maize, barley, and rice in China. Harvested grains are often contaminated by mycotoxins, such as the trichothecene nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN), which is a big threat to humans and animals. In this study, 97 isolates were collected from maize, wheat, and rice in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in 2013 and characterized by species- and chemotype-specific PCR. F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) was predominant on maize, while most of the isolates collected from rice and wheat were identified as F. asiaticum. Fusarium isolates from three hosts varied in trichothecene chemotypes. The 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype predominated on wheat and rice population, while 15ADON was prevailing in the remaining isolates. Sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1? and trichodiene synthase indicated the accuracy of the above conclusion. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis suggested four groups with strong correlation with species, chemotype, and host. These isolates were also evaluated for their sensitivity to carbendazim and mycotoxins production. The maize population was less sensitive than the other two. The DON levels were similar in three populations, while those isolates on maize produced more ZEN. More DON was produced in carbendazim resistant strains than sensitive ones, but it seemed that carbendazim resistance had no effect on ZEN production in wheat culture. PMID:25093387

Qiu, Jianbo; Shi, Jianrong

2014-01-01

451

GENETIC MODIFIERS OF LIVER DISEASE IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS  

PubMed Central

Context A subset (~3–5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease (CFLD) with portal hypertension. Objective To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (SERPINA1, ACE, GSTP1, MBL2, and TGFB1) are associated with severe liver disease in CF patients. Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-stage design was used in this case–control study. CFLD subjects were enrolled from 63 U.S., 32 Canadian, and 18 CF centers outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) as the coordinating site. In the initial study, we studied 124 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/1999–12/2004) and 843 CF controls (patients without CFLD) by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously implicated as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/2005–2/2007) and 1088 CF controls. Main Outcome Measures We compared differences in distribution of genotypes in CF patients with severe liver disease versus CF patients without CFLD. Results The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 (also known as ?1-antiprotease and ?1-antitrypsin) Z allele (P value=3.3×10?6; odds ratio (OR) 4.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31–9.61), and with transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGFB1) codon 10 CC genotype (P=2.8×10?3; OR 1.53, CI 1.16–2.03). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.4×10?3; OR 3.42, CI 1.54–7.59), but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.5×10?8; OR 5.04, CI 2.88–8.83). Conclusion The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater odds (OR ~5) to develop severe liver disease with portal hypertension. PMID:19738092

Bartlett, Jaclyn R.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Ling, Simon C.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Bell, Scott C.; Bourke, Billy; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Colombo, John L.; Debray, Dominique; Fernandez, Adriana; Lacaille, Florence; Macek, Milan; Rowland, Marion; Salvatore, Francesco; Taylor, Christopher J.; Wainwright, Claire; Wilschanski, Michael; Zemková, Dana; Hannah, William B.; Phillips, M. James; Corey, Mary; Zielenski, Julian; Dorfman, Ruslan; Wang, Yunfei; Zou, Fei; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Knowles, Michael R.

2013-01-01

452

Do organic consumers oppose genetically modified food stronger than others? Results of a consumer research in Germany Sind Öko-Käufer stärker gegen gentechnisch veränderte Lebensmittel einge- stellt als andere Konsumenten? Ergebnisse einer Konsumentenbefragung in Deutschland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi- cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety

A. Wirthgen

453

Genetic modifiers of the phenotypic level of deoxyribonucleic acid-conferred novobiocin resistance in Haemophilus.  

PubMed

Leidy, Grace (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), Iris Jaffee, and Hattie E. Alexander. Genetic modifiers of the phenotypic level of deoxyribonucleic acid-conferred novobiocin resistance in Haemophilus. J. Bacteriol. 92:1464-1468. 1966.-An apparent increase in novobiocin resistance in Haemophilus aegyptius after a second exposure to a particular H. influenzae transforming deoxyribonucleic acid was shown to be the result not of multi-step transformation but of the action of a gene functioning as an enhancement modifier. The modifier is very closely linked to a streptomycin resistance gene (which is linked to a novobiocin resistance marker); it affects the natural degree of resistance to both novobiocin and kanamycin to a measurable degree. Evidence of a repressor of the enhancement modifier is reported. PMID:5296977

Leidy, G; Jaffee, I; Alexander, H E

1966-11-01

454

Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.  

PubMed

The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

2007-06-13

455

DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: Implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ?100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. PMID:25529662

Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

2015-05-01

456

Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrprd6 identified by quantitative trait locus analysis  

PubMed Central

The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrprd6 mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrprd6 mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrprd6/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrprd6 retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrprd6-associated photoreceptor loss. PMID:24200520

Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R.; Philip, Vivek M.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K.; Krebs, Mark P.; Nishina, Patsy M.

2014-01-01

457

Genetic variability of oxalate oxidase activity and elongation in water-stressed primary roots of diverse maize and rice lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous work on maize primary roots under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. In association with these responses, several proteins related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, part...

458

Molecular-genetic characterization of CMS-S restorer-of-fertility alleles identified in Mexican maize and teosinte.  

PubMed

Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) alleles for S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) are prevalent in Mexican races of maize and teosinte. Forty-five Rf alleles from 26 races of maize and 6 Rf alleles from different accessions of teosinte were found to be homozygous viable, consistent with the hypothesis that they are naturally occurring Rf alleles. Mapping and allelism studies were performed to assess the number of genes represented by these 51 alleles. Forty-two of the Rf alleles mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2 (2L), and 5 of these were further mapped to the whp1-rf3 region. The Rf3 restoring allele, found in some U.S. maize inbred lines, cosegregates with internal processing of CMS-S mitochondrial transcripts. Three of the 5 mapped Rf alleles were associated with a similar RNA processing event. Allelism or tight linkage was confirmed between Rf3 and 2 teosinte alleles (Rf K-69-6 and Rf 9477) and between Rf3 and the Cónico Norteño allele Rf C-N (GTO 22). The rf3 region of 2L potentially encodes a complex of linked rf genes. The prevalence of restoring alleles in this chromosomal region, among normal-cytoplasm accessions of Mexican maize and teosinte, supports the conclusion that these alleles have functions in normal mitochondrial gene expression that by chance allow them to restore male fertility in S cytoplasm. PMID:15020480

Gabay-Laughnan, Susan; Chase, Christine D; Ortega, Victor M; Zhao, Liming

2004-02-01

459

Predicting Chromosomal Locations of Genetically Mapped Loci in Maize Using the Morgan2McClintock Translator  

PubMed Central

The Morgan2McClintock Translator permits prediction of meiotic pachytene chromosome map positions from recombination-based linkage data using recombination nodule frequency distributions. Its outputs permit estimation of DNA content between mapped loci and help to create an integrated overview of the maize nuclear genome structure. PMID:16387866

Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Bass, Hank W.; Anderson, Lorinda K.

2006-01-01

460

Predicting chromosomal locations of genetically mapped loci in maize using the Morgan2McClintock Translator.  

PubMed

The Morgan2McClintock Translator permits prediction of meiotic pachytene chromosome map positions from recombination-based linkage data using recombination nodule frequency distributions. Its outputs permit estimation of DNA content between mapped loci and help to create an integrated overview of the maize nuclear genome structure. PMID:16387866

Lawrence, Carolyn J; Seigfried, Trent E; Bass, Hank W; Anderson, Lorinda K

2006-03-01

461

Localized stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation and delineation of pathogen ingress in maize genetically resistant to Bipolaris maydis race O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is a continuation of our characterization of phenolic compound metabolism that occurs in the expression of resistance by maize with the recessiverhmgene for resistance toBipolaris maydis. We show that a final stage of resistance expression involves the accumulation of a pigment in uninfected, healthy epidermal cells that surround restricted lesions on leaves of the resistant cultivar. The

J. Hipskind; K. Wood; R. L. Nicholson

1996-01-01

462

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

463

MAIZEGDB.ORG, the Maize Genetics Cooperation and the 2500 MB B73 Genome-Generated Tsunami  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Advances in sequencing technology have made it possible to sequence the 2500 MB B73 maize genome, both cheaply and in a relatively short time. Nearly simultaneously, other sequencing-based data are on the leading edge of a data tsunami: sequenced differences (currently >300,000 SNP for >1000 inbre...

464

Investigating the molecular genetic basis of heterosis for internode expansion in maize by microRNA transcriptomic deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Heterosis has been used widely in the breeding of maize and other crops and plays an important role in increasing yield, improving quality, and enhancing stress resistance, but its molecular mechanism is far from clear. To determine whether microRNA (miRNA)-dependent gene regulation is responsible for heterosis of elongating internodes below the ear and ear height in maize, a deep-sequencing strategy was applied to the elite hybrid Xundan20, which is currently cultivated widely in China, and its two parents. RNA was extracted from the eighth internode because it shows clear internode length heterosis. A total of 99 conserved maize miRNAs were detected in both the hybrid and parental lines. Most of these miRNAs were expressed nonadditively in the hybrid compared with its parental lines. These results indicated that miRNAs might participate in heterosis during internode expansion in maize and exert an influence on ear and plant height via the repression of their target genes. In total, eight novel miRNAs belonging to four miRNA families were predicted in the expanding internode. Global repression of miRNAs in the hybrid, which might result in enhanced gene expression, might be one reason why the hybrid shows longer internodes and taller seedlings compared with its parental lines. PMID:25394807

Zhao, Peng; Ding, Dong; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yadong; Li, Weihua; Fu, Zhiyuan; Li, Haochuan; Tang, Jihua

2014-11-14

465

Genetic Association Mapping Identifies Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Genes that Affect Abscisic Acid Levels in Maize Floral Tissues During Drought  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In maize, development of the female inflorescence and its floral parts is vulnerable to water stress at flowering, which causes loss of kernel set and productivity. While changes in the levels of sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) are thought to play a role in this stress response, the mechanistic basi...

466

Physiological and genetic characterization of end-of-day far-red light response in maize seedlings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield gains observed in maize hybrids are primarily associated with increased tolerance to high planting density rather than grain yield per plant, and suggest that components of light signaling such as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) were the target of selection. To gain a better understanding o...

467

Genetic modifiers of chromatin acetylation antagonize the reprogramming of epi-polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Natural populations are known to differ not only in DNA but also in their chromatin-associated epigenetic marks. When such inter-individual epigenomic differences (or "epi-polymorphisms") are observed, their stability is usually not known: they may or may not be reprogrammed over time or upon environmental changes. In addition, their origin may be purely epigenetic, or they may result from regulatory variation encoded in the DNA. Studying epi-polymorphisms requires, therefore, an assessment of their nature and stability. Here we estimate the stability of yeast epi-polymorphisms of chromatin acetylation, and we provide a genome-by-epigenome map of their genetic control. A transient epi-drug treatment was able to reprogram acetylation variation at more than one thousand nucleosomes, whereas a similar amount of variation persisted, distinguishing "labile" from "persistent" epi-polymorphisms. Hundreds of genetic loci underlied acetylation variation at 2,418 nucleosomes either locally (in cis) or distantly (in trans), and this genetic control overlapped only partially with the genetic control of gene expression. Trans-acting regulators were not necessarily associated with genes coding for chromatin modifying enzymes. Strikingly, "labile" and "persistent" epi-polymorphisms were associated with poor and strong genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results estimate the amount of natural epigenomic variation that can be lost after