Sample records for genetically modified maize

  1. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for four genetically modified maize varieties and maize DNA content in food.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Peter D; Ilg, Evelyn C; Berthoud, Hélène; Herrmann, Andre

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative detection methods are needed for enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients. This labeling threshold, which is set to 1% in the European Union and Switzerland, must be applied to all approved GMOs. Four different varieties of maize are approved in the European Union: the insect-resistant Bt176 maize (Maximizer), Btl 1 maize, Mon810 (YieldGard) maize, and the herbicide-tolerant T25 (Liberty Link) maize. Because the labeling must be considered individually for each ingredient, a quantitation system for the endogenous maize content is needed in addition to the GMO-specific detection systems. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection methods were developed for the 4 approved genetically modified maize varieties and for an endogenous maize (invertase) gene system. PMID:12083257

  2. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended. PMID:23904260

  3. Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.

    PubMed

    Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

  4. Monitoring of MON810 genetically modified maize in foods in Brazil from 2005 to 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andréia Zilio Dinon; Jaqueline Elis de Melo; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

    2008-01-01

    Regulations for the use and labeling of genetically modified (GM) products and derived ingredients were implemented in Brazil in 2003. In 2008, GM maize line MON810 was approved for commercialization in Brazil; nevertheless, maize Bt11, Bt176 and MON810 were found in Brazilian market products sold in 2000 and 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the

  5. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system. PMID:11383153

  6. Empirical Modeling of Genetically Modified Maize Grain Production Practices to Achieve European Union Labeling Thresholds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I Gustafson; Ivo O. Brants; Michael J. Horak; Kirk M. Remund; Eric W. Rosenbaum; John K. Soteres

    2006-01-01

    An empirical approach is given for specifying co-existence requirements for genetically-modified (GM) maize production, in order to ensure compliance with the 0.9% labeling threshold for food and feed in the Eur opean Union. Field data were considered in which pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) was measured within maize receptor fields at a series of distances from source fi elds having a

  7. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  8. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Bartsch; Yann Devos; Rosie Hails; Jozsef Kiss; Paul Henning Krogh; Sylvie Mestdagh; Marco Nuti; Angela Sessitsch; Jeremy Sweet; Achim Gathmann

    \\u000a \\u000a For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and\\u000a Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental\\u000a risk assessments (ERA) has been assembled on the potential environmental impact of Cry1 expressing maize. The available literature\\u000a so far suggests only minor environmental

  9. Novel reference molecules for quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, Hideo; Shindo, Yoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Takubo, Ken; Futo, Satoshi; Aoki, Nobutaro; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Hino, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    New quantitation methods based on a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique were developed for 5 lines of genetically modified (GM) maize, including MON810, Event176, Bt11, T25, and GA21, and a GM soy, Roundup Ready. Oligonucleotide DNA, including specific primers and fluorescent dye-labeled probes, were designed for PCRs. Two plasmids were constructed as reference molecules (RMs) for the detection of GM maize and GM soy. The molecules contain the DNA sequences of a specific region found in each GM line, universal sequences used in various GM lines, such as cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthase terminator, and the endogenous DNA sequences of maize or soy. By using these plasmids, no GM maize and GM soy were required as reference materials for the qualitative and quantitative PCR technique. Test samples containing 0, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 5.0, and 10% GM maize or GM soy were quantitated. At the 5.0% level, the bias (mean-true value) ranged from 2.8 to 19.4% and the relative standard deviation was <5.2%. These results show that our method involving the use of these plasmids as RMs is reliable and practical for quantitation of GM maize and GM soy. PMID:12374407

  10. Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Vergucht, Sofie; Bulcke, Robert; Haesaert, Geert; Steurbaut, Walter; Reheul, Dirk

    2008-12-01

    With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes currently used with non-GMHR maize in Belgium was calculated and compared with that of possible herbicide regimes applied in GMHR maize. Impacts on human health and the environment were calculated through the pesticide occupational and environmental risk (POCER) indicator. Results showed that the environmental impact of herbicide regimes solely relying on the active ingredients glyphosate (GLY) or glufosinate-ammonium (GLU) is lower than that of herbicide regimes applied in non-GMHR maize. Due to the lower potential of GLY and GLU to contaminate ground water and their lower acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, the POCER exceedence factor values for the environment were reduced approximately by a sixth when GLY or GLU is used alone. However, the environmental impact of novel herbicide regimes tested may be underestimated due to the assumption that active ingredients used with GMHR maize would be used alone. Data retrieved from literature suggest that weed control efficacy is increased and resistance development delayed when GLY or GLU is used together with other herbicides in the GMHR system. Due to the partial instead of complete replacement of currently used herbicide regimes, the beneficial environmental impact of novel herbicide regimes might sometimes be reduced or counterbalanced. Despite the high weed control efficacy provided by the biotechnology-based weed management strategy, neither indirect harmful effects on farmland biodiversity through losses in food resources and shelter, nor shifts in weed communities have been demonstrated in GMHR maize yet. However, with the increasing adoption rate of GMHR maize and their associated novel herbicide regimes, this situation is expected to change in the short-term. PMID:18404410

  11. Effect on soil chemistry of genetically modified (GM) vs. non-GM maize.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Kang, Lingsheng; Gao, Hongjun; Clarke, Nicholas J; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2010-01-01

    The effects of genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Fa2 protein (Bt) and phosphinothricin or glyphosate herbicide tolerance on soil chemistry (organic matter, N, P, K and pH), compared with non-GM controls, were assessed in field and pot experiments. In the field experiment, NH(4)(+) was significantly higher in soil under the crop modified for herbicide tolerance compared to the control (mean values of 11 and 9.6 mg N/kg respectively) while P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 6.9 and 6.4 dg P/kg, respectively). No significant differences were found as a result of growing Bt/herbicide tolerant maize. In the pot experiment, using soils from three sites (Gongzhuling, Dehui and Huadian), significant effects of using Bt maize instead of conventional maize were found for all three soils. In the Gongzhuling soil, P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 4.8 and 4.0 dg P/kg, respectively). For the Dehui soil, the pH was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values for {H(+)} of 1.1 and 2.4 ?M for the control and the GM crop respectively). In the Huadian soil, organic matter and total N were both higher in soil under the GM crop than under the control. For organic matter, the mean values were 3.0 and 2.9% for the GM crop and the control, respectively, while for total nitrogen the mean values were 2.02 and 1.96% for the GM crop and the control respectively. Our results indicate that growing GM crops instead of conventional crops may alter soil chemistry, but not greatly, and that effects will vary with both the specific genetic modification and the soil. PMID:21844670

  12. A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Rita H

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars. PMID:23668783

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

  14. Genotypic and Environmental Impact on Natural Variation of Nutrient Composition in 50 Non Genetically Modified Commercial Maize Hybrids in North America.

    PubMed

    Cong, Bin; Maxwell, Carl; Luck, Stanley; Vespestad, Deanne; Richard, Keith; Mickelson, James; Zhong, Cathy

    2015-06-10

    This study was designed to assess natural variation in composition and metabolites in 50 genetically diverse non genetically modified maize hybrids grown at six locations in North America. Results showed that levels of compositional components in maize forage were affected by environment more than genotype. Crude protein, all amino acids except lysine, manganese, and ?-carotene in maize grain were affected by environment more than genotype; however, most proximates and fibers, all fatty acids, lysine, most minerals, vitamins, and secondary metabolites in maize grain were affected by genotype more than environment. A strong interaction between genotype and environment was seen for some analytes. The results could be used as reference values for future nutrient composition studies of genetically modified crops and to expand conventional compositional data sets. These results may be further used as a genetic basis for improvement of the nutritional value of maize grain by molecular breeding and biotechnology approaches. PMID:25971869

  15. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize offers an additional means of control against W...

  16. Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt-maize.

    PubMed

    Rauschen, Stefan; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Gathmann, Achim

    2010-10-01

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically modified Bt-maize varieties (Ostrinia-resistant MON810 and Diabrotica-resistant MON88017) on the occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera, especially the two families Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae. Based on a statistical analysis aimed at establishing whether Bt-maize varieties are equivalent to their near-isogenic counterparts, we discuss the limitations of using field experiments to assess the effects of Bt-maize on these two beetle families. The densities of most of the beetle families recorded in the herb layer were very low in all growing seasons. Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae were comparatively abundant and diverse, but still low in numbers. Based on their role as biological control agents, Coccinellidae should be a focus in the ERA of Bt-plants, but given the large natural variability in ladybird densities in the field, most questions need to be addressed in low-tier laboratory tests. Chrysomelidae should play a negligible role in the ERA of Bt-plants, since they occur on-crop as secondary pests only. Species occurring off-crop, however, can be addressed in a similar fashion as non-target Lepidoptera in Cry1Ab expressing Bt-maize. PMID:20012775

  17. Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Prokisch, J; Zeleny, R; Trapmann, S; Le Guern, L; Schimmel, H; Kramer, G N; Pauwels, J

    2001-08-01

    Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special importance if the reference material is prepared by dry mixing, a dilution technique which is used for the production of the new and third generation of genetically modified (GMO) plant certified reference materials. For the production of dry mixed PMON 810 maize reference material a computer program was developed to calculate the theoretically smallest uncertainty for a selected sample intake. This model was used to compare three differently milled maize samples, and the effect of dilution on the uncertainty of the DNA content of GMO maize was estimated as well. In the case of a 50-mg sample mass the lowest achievable standard deviation was 2% for the sample containing 0.1% GMO and the minimum deviation was less than 0.5% for the sample containing 5% GMO. PMID:11569879

  18. Temporal dynamics of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of two genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids in tropical agrosystems.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) plants still raises concerns about their environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of GM maize, in comparison to the parental line, on the structure and abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the effect of soil type was addressed. For this purpose, the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the rhizosphere of GM plants were compared by culture-independent methodologies to the near-isogenic parental line. Two different soils and three stages of plant development in two different periods of the year were included. As evidenced by principal components analysis (PCA) of the PCR-DGGE profiles of evaluated community, clear differences occurred in these rhizosphere communities between soils and the periods of the year that maize was cultivated. However, there were no discernible effects of the GM lines as compared to the parental line. For all microbial communities evaluated, soil type and the period of the year that the maize was cultivated were the main factors that influenced their structures. No differences were observed in the abundances of total bacteria between the rhizospheres of GM and parental plant lines. PMID:23124960

  19. Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)

    PubMed Central

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/non-GM), (ii) non-GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/GM), (iii) GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (GM/non-GM), and (iv) GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (GM/GM). Offspring of GM maize-fed sows had higher counts of fecal total anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae at days 70 and 100 postweaning, respectively. At day 115 postweaning, GM/non-GM offspring had lower ileal Enterobacteriaceae counts than non-GM/non-GM or GM/GM offspring and lower ileal total anaerobes than pigs on the other treatments. GM maize-fed offspring also had higher ileal total anaerobe counts than non-GM maize-fed offspring, and cecal total anaerobes were lower in non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM offspring than in those from the non-GM/non-GM treatment. The only differences observed for major bacterial phyla using 16S rRNA gene sequencing were that fecal Proteobacteria were less abundant in GM maize-fed sows prior to farrowing and in offspring at weaning, with fecal Firmicutes more abundant in offspring. While other differences occurred, they were not observed consistently in offspring, were mostly encountered for low-abundance, low-frequency bacterial taxa, and were not associated with pathology. Therefore, their biological relevance is questionable. This confirms the lack of adverse effects of GM maize on the intestinal microbiota of pigs, even following transgenerational consumption. PMID:24096421

  20. Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yann Devos; Mathias Cougnon; Sofie Vergucht; Robert Bulcke; Geert Haesaert; Walter Steurbaut; Dirk Reheul

    2008-01-01

    With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns\\u000a of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for\\u000a a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this\\u000a hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes

  1. High-Throughput Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Weanling Pigs Fed Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (Bt Maize) for 31 Days

    PubMed Central

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if feeding genetically modified (GM) MON810 maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein (Bt maize) had any effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota. Eighteen pigs were weaned at ?28 days and, following a 6-day acclimatization period, were assigned to diets containing either GM (Bt MON810) maize or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days (n = 9/treatment). Effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota were assessed through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Fecal, cecal, and ileal counts of total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus were not significantly different between pigs fed the isogenic or Bt maize-based diets. Furthermore, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed few differences in the compositions of the cecal microbiotas. The only differences were that pigs fed the Bt maize diet had higher cecal abundance of Enterococcaceae (0.06 versus 0%; P < 0.05), Erysipelotrichaceae (1.28 versus 1.17%; P < 0.05), and Bifidobacterium (0.04 versus 0%; P < 0.05) and lower abundance of Blautia (0.23 versus 0.40%; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the isogenic maize diet. A lower enzyme-resistant starch content in the Bt maize, which is most likely a result of normal variation and not due to the genetic modification, may account for some of the differences observed within the cecal microbiotas. These results indicate that Bt maize is well tolerated by the porcine intestinal microbiota and provide additional data for safety assessment of Bt maize. Furthermore, these data can potentially be extrapolated to humans, considering the suitability of pigs as a human model. PMID:22467509

  2. Estimating Mexican Farmers’ Valuation of Milpa Diversity and Genetically Modified Maize: A Choice Experiment Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekin Birol; Eric Rayn Villalba

    2006-01-01

    The milpa is a traditional intercropping system of maize, bean, and squash. Milpas are repositories of agrobiodiversity in México, not only rich in inter- and infra-crop species diversity, but also in landraces of maize, which are building blocks for future improvements in this globally important staple crop. Even though they are still widely cultivated across México, sustainability of milpa cultivation

  3. Randomly detected genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) near a transport route revealed a fragile 45S rDNA phenotype.

    PubMed

    Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed. PMID:24040165

  4. Randomly Detected Genetically Modified (GM) Maize (Zea mays L.) near a Transport Route Revealed a Fragile 45S rDNA Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a “beads-on-a-string” fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed. PMID:24040165

  5. Genetically Modified, Insect Resistant Maize: Implications for Management of Ear and Stalk Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    G. P. Munkvold (Iowa State University; )

    2000-09-12

    This article summarizes six years of research that indicate that Bt transformation of maize hybrids enhances the safety of grain for livestock and human food products by reducing the plants' vulnerability to mycotoxin-producing Fusarium fungi.

  6. A new PCR-CGE (size and color) method for simultaneous detection of genetically modified maize events.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Anna; Coll, Anna; La Paz, Jose-Luis; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

    2006-10-01

    We present a novel multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of multiple transgenic events in maize. Initially, five PCR primers pairs specific to events Bt11, GA21, MON810, and NK603, and Zea mays L. (alcohol dehydrogenase) were included. The event specificity was based on amplification of transgene/plant genome flanking regions, i.e., the same targets as for validated real-time PCR assays. These short and similarly sized amplicons were selected to achieve high and similar amplification efficiency for all targets; however, its unambiguous identification was a technical challenge. We achieved a clear distinction by a novel CGE approach that combined the identification by size and color (CGE-SC). In one single step, all five targets were amplified and specifically labeled with three different fluorescent dyes. The assay was specific and displayed an LOD of 0.1% of each genetically modified organism (GMO). Therefore, it was adequate to fulfill legal thresholds established, e.g., in the European Union. Our CGE-SC based strategy in combination with an adequate labeling design has the potential to simultaneously detect higher numbers of targets. As an example, we present the detection of up to eight targets in a single run. Multiplex PCR-CGE-SC only requires a conventional sequencer device and enables automation and high throughput. In addition, it proved to be transferable to a different laboratory. The number of authorized GMO events is rapidly growing; and the acreage of genetically modified (GM) varieties cultivated and commercialized worldwide is rapidly increasing. In this context, our multiplex PCR-CGE-SC can be suitable for screening GM contents in food. PMID:16972302

  7. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize. PMID:23470871

  8. Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is provided each year to our stakeholders in the maize genetic community. In this report, we describe the five-year plan for MaizeGDB reviewed in early 2008 by the USDA-ARS peer review process and which was developed with inputs from our Working Group and the Allerton 2007 Report (MNL 82...

  9. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Vijay; Guertler, Patrick; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relative degradation and fragmentation pattern of the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dairy cows, a 25 months GM maize feeding study was conducted on 36 lactating Bavarian Fleckvieh cows allocated into two groups (18 cows per group) fed diets containing either GM maize MON810 or nearly isogenic non-GM maize as the respective diet components. All cows were fed a partial total mixed ration (pTMR). During the feeding trial, 8 feed (4 transgenic (T) and 4 non-transgenic (NT) pTMR) and 42 feces (26 T and 18 NT) samples from the subset of cows fed T and NT diets, and at the end of the feeding trial, digesta contents of rumen, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and cecum were collected after the slaughter of six cows of each feeding group. Samples were analyzed for Cry1Ab protein and total protein using Cry1Ab specific ELISA and bicinchoninic acid assay, respectively. Immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the integrity of Cry1Ab protein in feed, digesta and feces samples. A decrease to 44% in Cry1Ab protein concentration from T pTMR to the voided feces (9.40 versus 4.18 ?g/g of total proteins) was recorded. Concentrations of Cry1Ab protein in GIT digesta of cows fed T diets varied between the lowest 0.38 ?g/g of total proteins in abomasum to the highest 3.84 ?g/g of total proteins in rumen. Immunoblot analysis revealed the extensive degradation of recombinant Cry1Ab protein into a smaller fragment of around 34 kDa in GIT. The results of the present study indicate that the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from MON810 is increasingly degraded into a small fragment during dairy cow digestion. PMID:19888668

  10. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  11. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genetic, genomic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website...

  12. New Analysis of a Rat Feeding Study with a Genetically Modified Maize Reveals Signs of Hepatorenal Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles-Eric Séralini; Dominique Cellier; Joël Spiroux de Vendomois

    2007-01-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the\\u000a world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies\\u000a performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from\\u000a regulatory reviewers in Europe,

  13. Genetically modified.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Dennis J; Brazeau, Dan

    2015-05-01

    SINCE THE 1990s, and certainly since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, the need for nurses to understand genetic information has become increasingly evident. Knowledge of genetics, genomics, pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, the study of heredity, gene function and how medication targets genes, continues to increase and is important in the nursing care of patients. PMID:26014775

  14. THE MAIZE GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE. THE COMMUNITY RESOURCE FOR ACCESS TO DIVERSE MAIZE DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays) research community by making a wealth of genetics and genomics data available through an intuitive Web-based interface. The goals of the MaizeGDB project are three-fold: to provide a central repository for public maize ...

  15. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

  16. Real-time quantitative PCR detection of genetically modified Maximizer maize and Roundup Ready soybean in some representative foods.

    PubMed

    Vaïtilingom, M; Pijnenburg, H; Gendre, F; Brignon, P

    1999-12-01

    A fast and quantitative method was developed to detect transgenic "Maximizer" maize "event 176" (Novartis) and "Roundup Ready" soybean (Monsanto) in food by real-time quantitative PCR. The use of the ABI Prism 7700 sequence detection system allowed the determination of the amplified product accumulation through a fluorogenic probe (TaqMan). Fluorescent dyes were chosen in such a way as to coamplify total and transgenic DNA in the same tube. Using real-time quantitative PCR, 2 pg of transgenic or total DNA per gram of starting sample was detected in 3 h after DNA extraction and the relative amounts of "Maximizer" maize and "Roundup Ready" soybean in some representative food products were quantified. PMID:10606606

  17. Genetic Characterization of a Core Set of a Tropical Maize Race Tuxpeño for Further Use in Maize Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Tovar, Victor H.; Yan, Jianbing; Taba, Suketoshi

    2012-01-01

    The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants). Clustering analyses (CA) based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD) clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size) representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community. PMID:22412898

  18. COMPARISON OF TRANSCRIPT PROFILES IN WILD-TYPE AND 02 MAIZE ENDOSPERM IN DIFFERENT GENETIC BACKGROUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in the Opaque2 (O2) gene of maize (Zea mays L.) improve the nutritional value of maize by reducing the level of zeins in the kernel. The phenotype of o2 grain is controlled by many modifier genes and is, therefore, strongly dependent on genetic background. We propose two hypotheses to expl...

  19. The Genetic Architecture Of Maize Height

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Romay, Maria C.; Gore, Michael A.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J.; Gardner, Candice A. C.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Bradbury, Peter J.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population’s variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy. PMID:24514905

  20. Quantitation of 35S promoter in maize DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction, part 2: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Max; Fernandez, Sophie; Cassard, Sylvanie; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Network of GMO Working Laboratories have proposed development of a modular strategy for stepwise validation of complex analytical techniques. When applied to the quantitation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products, the instrumental quantitation step of the technique is separately validated from the DNA extraction step to better control the sources of uncertainty and facilitate the validation of GMO-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory study on the quantitation step of the method standardized by CEN for the detection of a regulatory element commonly inserted in GMO maize-based foods. This is focused on the quantitation of P35S promoter through using the quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Fifteen French laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study of the P35S quantitation operating procedure on DNA extract samples using either the thermal cycler ABI Prism 7700 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) or Light Cycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Attention was focused on DNA extract samples used to calibrate the method and unknown extract samples. Data were processed according to the recommendations of ISO 5725 standard. Performance criteria, obtained using the robust algorithm, were compared to the classic data processing after rejection of outliers by the Cochran and Grubbs tests. Two laboratories were detected as outliers by the Grubbs test. The robust precision criteria gave values between the classical values estimated before and after rejection of the outliers. Using the robust method, the relative expanded uncertainty by the quantitation method is about 20% for a 1% Bt176 content, whereas it can reach 40% for a 0.1% Bt176. The performances of the quantitation assay are relevant to the application of the European regulation, which has an accepted tolerance interval of about +/-50%. These data were fitted to a power model (r2 = 0.96). Thanks to this model, it is possible to propose an estimation of uncertainty of the QRT-PCR quantitation step and an uncertainty budget depending on the analytical conditions. PMID:15859084

  1. Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...

  2. Genetic perturbation of the maize methylome.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Eichten, Steven R; Hermanson, Peter J; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Song, Jawon; Wendt, Jennifer; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Madzima, Thelma F; Sloan, Amy E; Huang, Ji; Burgess, Daniel L; Richmond, Todd A; McGinnis, Karen M; Meeley, Robert B; Danilevskaya, Olga N; Vaughn, Matthew W; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Springer, Nathan M

    2014-12-01

    DNA methylation can play important roles in the regulation of transposable elements and genes. A collection of mutant alleles for 11 maize (Zea mays) genes predicted to play roles in controlling DNA methylation were isolated through forward- or reverse-genetic approaches. Low-coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-coverage sequence-capture bisulfite sequencing were applied to mutant lines to determine context- and locus-specific effects of these mutations on DNA methylation profiles. Plants containing mutant alleles for components of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway exhibit loss of CHH methylation at many loci as well as CG and CHG methylation at a small number of loci. Plants containing loss-of-function alleles for chromomethylase (CMT) genes exhibit strong genome-wide reductions in CHG methylation and some locus-specific loss of CHH methylation. In an attempt to identify stocks with stronger reductions in DNA methylation levels than provided by single gene mutations, we performed crosses to create double mutants for the maize CMT3 orthologs, Zmet2 and Zmet5, and for the maize DDM1 orthologs, Chr101 and Chr106. While loss-of-function alleles are viable as single gene mutants, the double mutants were not recovered, suggesting that severe perturbations of the maize methylome may have stronger deleterious phenotypic effects than in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25527708

  3. Genetically Modified Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Nelson; Ali A. Poorani; Justin E. Crews

    2004-01-01

    This study outlines the controversy surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and how it impacts North American based food service companies' marketing policies. Recent developments have made foods derived from GMOs a strategic marketing challenge for food service franchise and chain operations. Headlines such as “Why McDonalds Pulled Frankenfries from Menus” have unwittingly put restaurants on the frontline of the battle

  4. Entering the second century of maize quantitative genetics

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J G; Larsson, S J; Buckler, E S

    2014-01-01

    Maize is the most widely grown cereal in the world. In addition to its role in global agriculture, it has also long served as a model organism for genetic research. Maize stands at a genetic crossroads, as it has access to all the tools available for plant genetics but exhibits a genetic architecture more similar to other outcrossing organisms than to self-pollinating crops and model plants. In this review, we summarize recent advances in maize genetics, including the development of powerful populations for genetic mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and the insights these studies yield on the mechanisms underlying complex maize traits. Most maize traits are controlled by a large number of genes, and linkage analysis of several traits implicates a ‘common gene, rare allele' model of genetic variation where some genes have many individually rare alleles contributing. Most natural alleles exhibit small effect sizes with little-to-no detectable pleiotropy or epistasis. Additionally, many of these genes are locked away in low-recombination regions that encourage the formation of multi-gene blocks that may underlie maize's strong heterotic effect. Domestication left strong marks on the maize genome, and some of the differences in trait architectures may be due to different selective pressures over time. Overall, maize's advantages as a model system make it highly desirable for studying the genetics of outcrossing species, and results from it can provide insight into other such species, including humans. PMID:23462502

  5. Coexistence costs for genetically modified crops for Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Albisser Vögeli; Daniel Wolf; Markus Lips

    2010-01-01

    The ban on the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) wheat and maize in Switzerland is expected to remain in force until 2013. Coexistence regulations in Switzerland and their resulting impacts on profitability will then require examination. In this paper we present time and cost calculations for what we consider to be the most critical of these coexistence measures. Coexistence

  6. Metabolite profiling of maize kernels--genetic modification versus environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Frank, Thomas; Röhlig, Richard M; Davies, Howard V; Barros, Eugenia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2012-03-28

    A metabolite profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to investigate the metabolite profiles of genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize (DKC78-15B, TXP 138F) and Roundup Ready-maize (DKC78-35R). For the comparative investigation of the impact of genetic modification versus environmental influence on the metabolite profiles, GM maize was grown together with the non-GM near-isogenic comparators under different environmental conditions, including several growing locations and seasons in Germany and South Africa. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between GM and non-GM maize grown in Germany and South Africa. For the factor genotype, 4 and 3%, respectively, of the total number of peaks detected by GC-MS showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in peak heights as compared to the respective isogenic lines. However, ANOVA for the factor environment (growing location, season) revealed higher numbers of significant differences (p < 0.01) between the GM and the non-GM maize grown in Germany (42%) and South Africa (10%), respectively. This indicates that the majority of differences observed are related to natural variability rather than to the genetic modifications. In addition, multivariate data assessment by means of principal component analysis revealed that environmental factors, that is, growing locations and seasons, were dominant parameters driving the variability of the maize metabolite profiles. PMID:22375597

  7. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

  8. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term. PMID:21464072

  9. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Stalk Strength

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; De Leon, Natalia; McMullen, Michael D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,692 recombinant inbreds (RILs) comprising the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel derived from crosses of diverse inbreds to the inbred, B73. An intermated B73×Mo17 family (IBM) of 196 RILs and a panel of 2,453 diverse inbreds from the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were also evaluated. We measured RPR in three environments. Family-nested QTL were identified by joint-linkage mapping in the NAM panel. We also performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) in each panel. Broad sense heritability computed on a line means basis was low for RPR. Only 8 of 26 families had a heritability above 0.20. The NCRPIS diversity panel had a heritability of 0.54. Across NAM and IBM families, 18 family-nested QTL and 141 significant GWAS associations were identified for RPR. Numerous weak associations were also found in the NCRPIS diversity panel. However, few were linked to loci involved in phenylpropanoid and cellulose synthesis or vegetative phase transition. Using an identity-by-state (IBS) relationship matrix estimated from 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RPR measures from 20% of the NAM panel, genomic prediction by GBLUP explained 64±2% of variation in the remaining RILs. In the NCRPIS diversity panel, an IBS matrix estimated from 681,257 SNPs and RPR measures from 20% of the panel explained 33±3% of variation in the remaining inbreds. These results indicate the high genetic complexity of stalk strength and the potential for genomic prediction to hasten its improvement. PMID:23840585

  10. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.

    PubMed

    Wills, David M; Whipple, Clinton J; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E; Shannon, Laura M; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F

    2013-06-01

    A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize. PMID:23825971

  11. From Many, One: Genetic Control of Prolificacy during Maize Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wills, David M.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E.; Shannon, Laura M.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F.

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb “causative region” upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize. PMID:23825971

  12. Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Maize.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial genome encodes proteins essential for mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Nuclear gene products, however, are required for the expression of mitochondrial genes and the elaboration of functional mitochondrial protein complexes. We are exploiting a unique collection of maiz...

  13. Maize (Zea mays L.) genetic factors for preventing fumonisin contamination.

    PubMed

    Butrón, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Mansilla, Pedro; Pintos-Varela, Cristina; Ordas, Amando; Malvar, Rosa Ana

    2006-08-01

    Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum are the most frequently isolated fungi from maize (Zea mays L.) in Spain. Both Fusarium species produce toxins potentially dangerous for animals and humans, the fumonisins being the most significant of those toxins. White maize is preferred for human consumption, and extra care should be taken to avoid kernel mycotoxin contamination. The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify kernel infection by Fusarium spp. and contamination by fumonisin on white maize hybrids, to search for white maize sources of resistance to infection by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin contamination, and to preliminarily study the genetics involved in such resistances. Ten F(1) single crosses derived from a diallel mating design among five white maize inbreds were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2002 at two locations. Fusarium verticilloides and F. proliferatum were detected on kernels of white maize hybrids cultivated in northwestern Spain. No differences in fungal infection were found among maize genotypes, but differences in fumonisin contamination were significant and could be related, in part, to differences in husk tightness. Among the genotypes studied, general combining ability (GCA) effects were the most important for resistance to fumonisin contamination. Inbreds EP10 and EC22 showed the most favorable GCA effects for husk tightness and fumonisin content, and the cross between them, EP10 x EC22, had the most favorable specific combining ability (SCA) effect for husk tightness. Inbreds EP10 and EC22 showed favorable GCA effects for fumonisin contamination and husk tightness, and the cross EP10 x EC22 was the only one with an average fumonisin level below 1 mug/g. Although this should be confirmed with more extensive studies, white maize inbreds developed from white maize landraces could be sources of resistance to fumonisin contamination. PMID:16881725

  14. THE MAIZE MAPPING PROJECT: COMPREHENSIVE GENETIC, PHYSICAL AND DATABASE RESOURCES FOR MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress in preparing an integrated genetic and physical map of maize is described. The strategy is to fingerprint bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) fragments and assemble the fragments in a deep-coverage resource, accompanied by pegging with markers to confirm and to intercalate the assembled c...

  15. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  16. GENETIC ASSOCIATION MAPPING AND GENOME ORGANIZATION OF MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping, a high-resolution method for mapping QTL based on linkage disequilibrium, holds great promise for the dissection of complex genetic traits. Recent assembly and characterization of maize association mapping panels, development of improved statistical methods, and successful asso...

  17. GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

  18. Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

  19. A Modified Sourdough Procedure for Non-Wheat Bread from Maize Meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojisola O. Edema

    This study developed a procedure for the production of sour bread from 100% maize meal. The modified method combined sponge\\u000a and dough methods in two mixing stages to form a batter rather than stiff dough. The baking quality of the maize meal was\\u000a improved by using starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria selected from indigenous micro-flora of the maize meal.

  20. Cultural and genetic approaches to managing mycotoxins in maize.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2003-01-01

    Infection of maize kernels by toxigenic fungi remains a challenging problem despite decades of research progress. Cultural practices, including crop rotation, tillage, planting date, and management of irrigation and fertilization, have limited effects on infection and subsequent mycotoxin accumulation. Current infrastructure and grain storage practices in developed countries can prevent postharvest development of mycotoxins, but this aspect remains a threat in developing countries, especially in tropical areas. Because most mycotoxin problems develop in the field, strategies are needed to prevent infection of growing plants by toxigenic fungi. Developing genetic resistance to Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella zeae, and Fusarium spp. (particularly F. verticillioides) in maize is a high priority. Sources of resistance to each of these pathogens have been identified and have been incorporated into public and private breeding programs. However, few, if any, commercial cultivars have adequate levels of resistance. Efforts to control infection or mycotoxin development through conventional breeding and genetic engineering are reviewed. The role of transgenic insect control in the prevention of mycotoxins in maize is discussed. PMID:12730397

  1. Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke Saher; Marjaana Lindeman; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

    2006-01-01

    Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods

  2. Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

  3. A BAC POOLING STRATEGY: POWERFUL TOOL FOR THE MAIZE INTEGRATED GENETIC AND PHYSICAL MAP CONSTRUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of the maize genome (2500 Mbp) is the primary goal of our ongoing maize genome project. To accomplish this goal, we have used a BAC pooling strategy combined with a high-throughput PCR-based screening method to facilitate anchoring of the m...

  4. Genetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-

    E-print Network

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41), in which we identified a novel amino-acidGenetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-Dependent Isocitrate

  5. Evaluating the nutritional impact of maize varieties genetically improved for protein quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilupa S Gunaratna

    2007-01-01

    Biofortification, or the genetic improvement of the nutritional quality of food crops, is a promising technology to combat childhood undernutrition in developing countries. Significant progress has been made to develop maize varieties with improved protein quality, collectively known as quality protein maize (QPM). However, debate still continues over whether this agricultural technology will have a significant public health impact. A

  6. Genetically Modified Animals and Pharmacological Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic J. Wells

    \\u000a This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the\\u000a domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of\\u000a the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in\\u000a generating affordable models of human disease although

  7. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

  8. Potential anthranilate modifying enzymes of maize mutant bf-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlings of maize mutant bf-1 exhibit blue fluorescence and a distinct grape odor due to an accumulation of methyl anthranilate and other anthranilate related compounds. The bf-1 also expresses a feedback insensitive anthranilate synthase. Previously, we identified a unique mutation in anthranila...

  9. GENETIC, PHYSICAL, AND INFORMATICS RESOURCES FOR MAIZE: ON THE ROAD TO AN INTEGRATED MAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop an integrated genetic and physical map resource for maize, the strategy and progress are presented on a comprehensive approach that includes three core components. The first is a high-resolution genetic map that provides essential genetic anchor points for ordering the physical map and f...

  10. Maize Authentication: Quality Control Methods and Multivariate Analysis (Chemometrics)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

    2009-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important cereals because of its numerous applications in processed foods where it is the major or minor component. Apart from maize authenticity issues related to cultivar and geographical origin (national and\\/or international level), there is another important issue related to genetically modified maize. Various objective parameters such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, pigments, heavy

  11. Advances in Maize Genomics and Their Value for Enhancing Genetic Gains from Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J.; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Crouch, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products. PMID:19688107

  12. Genetically Modified Pigs for Medicine and Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANDALL S. PRATHER; MIAODA SHEN; YIFAN DAI

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into

  13. Electron beam technology for modifying the functional properties of maize starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemţanu, M. R.; Minea, R.; Kahraman, K.; Koksel, H.; Ng, P. K. W.; Popescu, M. I.; Mitru, E.

    2007-09-01

    Maize starch is a versatile biopolymer with a wide field of applications (e.g. foods, pharmaceutical products, adhesives, etc.). Nowadays there is a continuous and intensive search for new methods and techniques to modify its functional properties due to the fact that native form of starch may exhibit some disadvantages in certain applications. Radiation technology is frequently used to change the properties of different polymeric materials. Thus, the goal of the work is to discuss the application of accelerated electron beams on maize starch in the view of changing some of its functional properties. Maize starch has been irradiated with doses up to 52.15 kGy by using electron beam technology and the modifications of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pasting characteristics, paste clarity, freezing and thawing stability as well as colorimetric characteristics have been investigated. The results of the study revealed that the measured properties can be modified by electron beam treatment and, therefore, this method can be an efficient and ecological alternative to obtain modified maize starch.

  14. Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Champion; M. J. May; S. Bennett; D. R. Brooks; S. J. Clark; R. E. Daniels; L. G. Firbank; A. J. Haughton; C. Hawes; M. S. Heard; J. N. Perry; Z. Randle; M. J. Rossall; P. Rothery; M. P. Skellern; R. J. Scott; G. R. Squire; M. R. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial prac- tice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and

  15. Effects of genetics and environment on the metabolome of commercial maize hybrids: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Asiago, Vincent M; Hazebroek, Jan; Harp, Teresa; Zhong, Cathy

    2012-11-21

    This study was designed to elucidate the biological variation in expression of many metabolites due to environment, genotype, or both, and to investigate the potential utility of metabolomics to supplement compositional analysis for substantial equivalence assessments of genetically modified (GM) crops. A total of 654 grain and 695 forage samples from 50 genetically diverse non-GM DuPont Pioneer maize hybrids grown at six locations in the U.S. and Canada were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). A total of 156 and 185 metabolites were measured in grain and forage samples, respectively. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed extensively to compare and correlate the metabolite profiles. We show that the environment had far more impact on the forage metabolome compared to the grain metabolome, and the environment affected up to 50% of the metabolites compared to less than 2% by the genetic background. The findings from this study demonstrate that the combination of GC/TOF-MS metabolomics and comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis is a powerful approach to identify the sources of natural variation contributed by the environment and genotype. PMID:23113862

  16. Genetic basis of resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus in European maize germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Melchinger; L. Kuntze; R. K. Gumber; T. Lübberstedt; E. Fuchs

    1998-01-01

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) causes considerable damage to maize (Zea mays L.) in Europe. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic basis of resistance to SCMV in European maize\\u000a germplasm and to compare it with that of U.S. inbred Pa405. Three resistant European inbreds D21, D32, and FAP1360A were crossed\\u000a with four susceptible inbreds F7, KW1292,

  17. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Micha?; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jaros?aw

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

  18. Genetic diversity of maize germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Betty Cristiane; López-Ribera, Ignacio; da Silva Machado, Maria de Fátima Pires; Vicient, Carlos M

    2014-07-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and also a model for grass genome research. Transposable elements comprise over 78% of the maize genome and their ability to generate new copies makes them good potential markers. Interretrotransposon-amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) protocols were used for the first time in maize to study the genetic variability between maize cultivars. Ten PCR primers were selected based on a systematic analysis of the sequence conservation in the extremities of different high copy number transposable elements, whereas one primer was chosen based on a microsatellite sequence. Of the 16 primer combinations tested, 14 produced polymorphic bands. These markers were used to identify genetic similarity among 20 maize cultivars selected by their different kernel oil content. Genetic similarity analysis was performed based on the polymorphic band profiles and dendrograms were developed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages. Clustering technique revealed that samples were grouped into three clusters that differed in their kernel oil content and size, and in their relative embryo size. In the current investigation, there is evidence that IRAP/REMAP may be useful as markers in maize. PMID:24634146

  19. Frankenfoods? The Debate Over Genetically Modified Crops

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Rhodes

    2001-01-01

    This discussion case, in which a university research laboratory is vandalized by environmental activists opposed to genetic engineering, focuses on the science and ethics of genetically modified crops. Students consider both the risks and benefits of biotechnology and explore the positions of various stakeholders, including environmentalists, conservationists, agricultural businesses, research scientists, and farmers. Originally written for a vegetable crops course, the case would be appropriate for a wide variety of courses in which biotechnology is discussed.

  20. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods: A Brief Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farrukh Jamal; Q. S. Haque; Tabish Qidwai; U. P. India

    Due to ever-increasing population burden, genetically modified (GM) foods promised great potential, to solve many of the world's hunger and malnutrition problems, and also to preserve the environment. The authentic GM foods may not only have better nutritional and pharmaceutical values but are also resistant to pest and diseases, tolerant to extreme temperatures and herbicides. Yet they pose many challenges

  1. Genetically modified foods: the effect of information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

  2. Strategic environmental assessments for genetically modified organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Linacre; Joanne Gaskell; Mark W. Rosegrant; Jose Falck-Zepeda; Hector Quemada; Mark Halsey; Regina Birner

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified crops appear to provide a promising option in finding sustainable solutions to end global hunger and poverty, but strategic decisions need to be made on how to spend limited agricultural research funds. Potentially, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) may be used as part of an environmental management system to introduce mainstreaming of environmental considerations in the policy research and

  3. Genetically modified plants: public and scientific perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rastogi Verma, Smita

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  4. ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

  5. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  6. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE AB10 CHROMOSOME ON PRESERVATION OF MAIZE GENETIC RESOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 18,000 maize accessions are maintained by the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS). To ensure preservation of the original genetic profile of populations, stocks are propagated using the following methods. A balanced sample from 100 ears provides the seed for planting...

  7. Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etten van J

    2006-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study, are at present used on roughly half of the tropical acreage of this crop. Several

  8. Copyright 0 1992 by the Genetics Societyof America Comparative Genome Mappingof Sorghum and Maize

    E-print Network

    Whitkus, Richard

    from tomato. Thispaperpresents acomparativegenome map- ping analysis of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (LCopyright 0 1992 by the Genetics Societyof America Comparative Genome Mappingof Sorghum and Maize of Sorghumbicolor ssp. bicolor X S. bicolor ssp.arundinaceum. Thirteen linkage groups were defined,three more than

  9. Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from maize in Italy: fumonisin production, pathogenicity and genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Covarelli, Lorenzo; Stifano, Simonetta; Beccari, Giovanni; Raggi, Lorenzo; Lattanzio, Veronica Maria Teresa; Albertini, Emidio

    2012-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is the main fungal agent of ear and kernel rot of maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, including Italy. F.verticillioides is a highly toxigenic species since it is able to produce the carcinogenic mycotoxins fumonisins. In this study, 25 F. verticillioides strains, isolated from maize in different regions of Italy were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisins, their pathogenicity and their genetic variability. A further referenced strain of G. moniliformis isolated from maize in USA was also used as outgroup. The fumonisins B?, B?, and B? were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by symptom observation and determination of growth parameters after inoculation of maize seeds, seedlings and wounded detached leaves. Total genomic DNA was used for Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. About 20% of the analyzed strains were unable to produce fumonisins in in vitro experiments on inoculated maize flour, while, among fumonisin producers, a great variability was observed, with values ranging from 1 to 115 mg kg?¹. The different analyzed strains showed a wide range of pathogenicity in terms of effect on seed germination, seedling development and of symptoms produced on detached leaves, which were not correlated with the different in vitro fumonisin production. AFLP analysis indicated the presence of genetic diversity not only between the Italian strains and the American reference but also among the Italian isolates. PMID:22475938

  10. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

  11. GMEnzy: A Genetically Modified Enzybiotic Database

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hairong; Li, Guodong; Huang, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    GMEs are genetically modified enzybiotics created through molecular engineering approaches to deal with the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance prevalence. We present a fully manually curated database, GMEnzy, which focuses on GMEs and their design strategies, production and purification methods, and biological activity data. GMEnzy collects and integrates all available GMEs and their related information into one web based database. Currently GMEnzy holds 186 GMEs from published literature. The GMEnzy interface is easy to use, and allows users to rapidly retrieve data according to desired search criteria. GMEnzy’s construction will increase the efficiency and convenience of improving these bioactive proteins for specific requirements, and will expand the arsenal available for researches to control drug-resistant pathogens. This database will prove valuable for researchers interested in genetically modified enzybiotics studies. GMEnzy is freely available on the Web at http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/gmenzy/. PMID:25084271

  12. Bulk genetic characterization of Ghanaian maize landraces using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays) was first introduced into Ghana over 5 centuries ago and remains the most important cereal staple, grown in all agro-ecologies across the country. Yield from farmers’ fields are low, which is attributed in part to farmer’s preferences and/or reliance on local landraces for cultivati...

  13. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  14. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  15. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    PubMed

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. PMID:23205714

  16. Genetically Modified T Cells to Target Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Simone; Rodríguez-Cruz, Tania G.; DeRenzo, Christopher; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical procedures, radiation, and chemotherapy the outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. While GBM cells express antigens that are potentially recognized by?T cells, GBMs prevent the induction of GBM-specific immune responses by creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The advent of gene transfer has allowed the rapid generation of antigen-specific?T cells as well as?T cells with enhanced effector function. Here we review recent advances in the field of cell therapy with genetically modified?T cells and how these advances might improve outcomes for patients with GBM in the future. PMID:24427741

  17. Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Roy; D. A. Bohan; A. J. Haughton; M. O. Hill; J. L. Osborne; S. J. Clark; J. N. Perry; P. Rothery; R. J. Scott; D. R. Brooks; G. T. Champion; C. Hawes; M. S. Heard; L. G. Firbank

    2003-01-01

    The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed for 59 maize, 66 beet and 67 spring oilseed rape sites. Fields were split into halves, one being sown with a GMHT crop and the other with the equivalent conventional non-GMHT crop. Margin vegetation was recorded in three components of the field margins. Most

  18. The role of culture in risk regulations: a comparative case study of genetically modified corn in the United States of America and European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas P. Guehlstorf; Lars K. Hallstrom

    2005-01-01

    According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), herbicide tolerant (Roundup Ready or RR) and insect resistant (Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt) corn has “no significant impact” on human health and environmental integrity. In Europe, genetically modified (GM) maize strains – the identical Bt and RR biotech crops used in the USA – are

  19. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  20. Genetic manipulation of lysine catabolism in maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Allan R; Bonin, Christopher P; Houmard, Nancy M; Huang, Shihshieh; Malvar, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    In plants, lysine catabolism is thought to be controlled by a bifunctional enzyme, lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH). Lysine is converted to saccharopine, through condensation with alpha-ketoglutarate, by LKR, and subsequently to glutamate and alpha-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde by SDH. To investigate lysine catabolism in maize kernels, we generated transgenic plants with suppressed LKR/SDH activity in either endosperm or embryo. We found that the suppression of LKR/SDH in endosperm induced an increase in free lysine in developing endosperm, which peaked at 32 days after pollination. At later stages of kernel development, most of the free lysine was found in the embryo along with an elevated level of saccharopine. By combining endosperm LKR/SDH suppression with embryo LKR/SDH suppression through crosses, the saccharopine level in embryo was reduced and resulted in higher lysine accumulation in mature kernels. These results reveal new insights into how free lysine level is regulated and distributed in developing maize kernels and demonstrate the possibility of engineering high lysine corn via the suppression of lysine catabolism. PMID:18839315

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES ISOLATES FROM MAIZE IN IRAN BASED ON VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY GROUPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mirzadi Gohari; M. Javan-Nikkhah; G. A. Hedjaroude; M. Abbasi; V. Rahjoo; N. Sedaghat

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic diversity among Fusarium verticillioides iso- lates was analyzed using vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Forty-four isolates of F. verticilliodes from stalks and seeds were recovered in maize-producing ar- eas in Iran during 2004-2005. Chlorate-resistant nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were recovered from select- ed isolates of F. verticillioides and used in complementa- tion (heterokaryon) tests. Vegetative compatibility tests by pairing

  2. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. PMID:20213690

  3. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by chemically modified maize straw.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Zhang, Shufen; Kou, Zinong; Zhai, Shangru; Ma, Wei; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-22

    A new regenerable adsorbent was successfully prepared by modifying maize straw (MS) with succinic anhydride in xylene. The succinylated-maize straw (S-MS) was characterized by FTIR, solid-state MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and point of zero charge analysis. NaS-MS was successfully obtained after deprotonating the carboxylic acid groups of S-MS by Na2CO3 solution. Batch experiments were carried out with NaS-MS for the removal of Cd(II). The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental data were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, and ?S) were also calculated from data obtained from experiments performed to study the effect of temperatures. NaS-MS could be regenerated at least five times in saturated NaCl solution without any loss. Furthermore, ?97% of adsorbed Cd(II) ions could be recovered as the metal oxide. Finally, the adsorption mechanism of NaS-MS was discussed. PMID:25439883

  4. Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species.

    PubMed Central

    Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on 12 weed species. We sampled the seedbank before and after cropping. During the season we counted plants and measured seed rain and biomass. Ratios of densities were used to calculate emergence, survival, reproduction and seedbank change. Treatments significantly affected the biomass of six species in beet, eight in maize and five in spring oilseed rape. The effects were generally consistent, with biomass lower in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape and higher in GMHT maize. With few exceptions, emergence was higher in GMHT crops. Subsequent survival was significantly lowered for eight species in beet and six in spring oilseed rape in the GMHT treatments. It was increased for five species in maize and one in spring oilseed rape. Significant effects on seedbank change were found for four species. However, for many species in beet and spring oilseed rape (19 out of 24 cases), seed densities were lower in the seedbank after GMHT cropping. These differences compounded over time would result in large decreases in population densities of arable weeds. In maize, populations may increase. PMID:14561317

  5. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

  6. High-resolution genetic mapping of maize pan-genome sequence anchors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fei; Romay, Maria C.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Bradbury, Peter J.; Elshire, Robert J.; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu; Li, Yongxiang; Semagn, Kassa; Zhang, Xuecai; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Mikel, Mark A.; Soifer, Ilya; Barad, Omer; Buckler, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms, structural variation is abundant in many plant genomes. The structural variation across a species can be represented by a ‘pan-genome', which is essential to fully understand the genetic control of phenotypes. However, the pan-genome's complexity hinders its accurate assembly via sequence alignment. Here we demonstrate an approach to facilitate pan-genome construction in maize. By performing 18 trillion association tests we map 26 million tags generated by reduced representation sequencing of 14,129 maize inbred lines. Using machine-learning models we select 4.4 million accurately mapped tags as sequence anchors, 1.1 million of which are presence/absence variations. Structural variations exhibit enriched association with phenotypic traits, indicating that it is a significant source of adaptive variation in maize. The ability to efficiently map ultrahigh-density pan-genome sequence anchors enables fine characterization of structural variation and will advance both genetic research and breeding in many crops. PMID:25881062

  7. Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

    2001-01-01

    al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

  8. [Genetic study on two maize male sterile mutants obtained by space mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ling; Yu, Yong-Liang; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xue-Hui; Fu, Jia-Feng

    2007-06-01

    Two maize male sterile mutants were selected from the offspring of four maize inbred lines, which were carried into space by the Shenzhou spaceship 4. Their genetic characteristic and stability was analyzed in present study. Crosses were made between the male sterile plants and fertile plants from the same line, and other inbred lines with normal cytoplasm. The ratios of the sterile plants with the fertile plants in their F1, F2 generations, and their reciprocal backcross generations with the male sterile plants were calculated. The results showed that the characteristic in male sterility was stable in different years, different seasons and different locations, and was inheritable from generation to generation. This male sterile was controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. Since no pollens or a few malformed pollens existed in the anther of the sterile plants, it was a completely sterile type. PMID:17650492

  9. Unlocking the Genetic Diversity of Maize Landraces with Doubled Haploids Opens New Avenues for Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Strigens, Alexander; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Reif, Jochen C.; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2013-01-01

    Landraces are valuable genetic resources for broadening the genetic base of elite germplasm in maize. Extensive exploitation of landraces has been hampered by their genetic heterogeneity and heavy genetic load. These limitations may be overcome by the in-vivo doubled haploid (DH) technique. A set of 132 DH lines derived from three European landraces and 106 elite flint (EF) lines were genotyped for 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and evaluated in field trials at five locations in Germany in 2010 for several agronomic traits. In addition, the landraces were compared with synthetic populations produced by intermating DH lines derived from the respective landrace. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the phenotypic and molecular diversity captured within DH lines derived from European landraces, (2) assess the breeding potential (usefulness) of DH lines derived from landraces to broaden the genetic base of the EF germplasm, and (3) compare the performance of each landrace with the synthetic population produced from the respective DH lines. Large genotypic variances among DH lines derived from landraces allowed the identification of DH lines with grain yields comparable to those of EF lines. Selected DH lines may thus be introgressed into elite germplasm without impairing its yield level. Large genetic distances of the DH lines to the EF lines demonstrated the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to broaden the genetic base of the EF germplasm. The comparison of landraces with their respective synthetic population showed no yield improvement and no reduction of phenotypic diversity. Owing to the low population structure and rapid decrease of linkage disequilibrium within populations of DH lines derived from landraces, these would be an ideal tool for association mapping. Altogether, the DH technology opens new opportunities for characterizing and utilizing the genetic diversity present in gene bank accessions of maize. PMID:23451190

  10. Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Lea

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

  11. Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L Taylor

    1997-01-01

    Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens

  12. Construction of a reference plasmid containing ten targets for the detection of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Xi, Di; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Standard reference molecules play a significant role for the detection of genetically modified (GM) crops and products. The newest reference molecules should catch up with the rapid development of GM crops in the world. In this work, a reference plasmid containing ten targets from GM soybean, maize and cotton was constructed on the basis of the pTLE8 harboring eight targets only from GM soybean and cotton. Three target segments of the Bt176 event-specific 3'-junction (Bt176G3'), MON810 event-specific 3'-junction (MON810G3') and the endogenous maize Hmg genes, were fused into the 890 bp fragment by overlap extension PCR. The CP4 EPSPS gene in the plasmid pTLE8 previously constructed in our laboratory was replaced with above fusion fragment, thus generating a new plasmid pTLH10 containing ten target genes from GM soybean, maize and cotton. The PCR efficiencies with pTLH10 as a calibrator ranged from 93.3% to 99.9% for the standard curves of the Bt176G3', MON810G3' and Hmg genes. The standard deviation (SD) values of repeatability were from 0.04 to 0.8 for three different days and from 0.12 to 1.14 for one day, respectively. These results indicated that the reference plasmid constructed in this work is also suitable for the identification of GM maize, and would be an important tool to establish a feasible identification management for various GM crops components. PMID:23085154

  13. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  14. Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2014-03-01

    The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. PMID:24607250

  15. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  16. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  17. Methodological scheme for designing the monitoring of genetically modified crops at the regional scale.

    PubMed

    Graef, F; Züghart, W; Hommel, B; Heinrich, U; Stachow, U; Werner, A

    2005-12-01

    According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g. unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods. These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used to develop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks. PMID:16311819

  18. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

  19. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javed Akhter; Mohammed Qutub; Norman Burnham

    2001-01-01

    For thousands of years, humans have taken advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation within species to selectively breed organisms with desirable traits. Many of the characteristics of domestic animals and agricultural crops have been developed through selective breeding. What is revolutionary about genetic engineering is that it involves the transfer of genetic material between organisms that would never be able

  20. Genetic Control of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Addie M.; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Springer, Nathan M.; Scanlon, Michael J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We measured meristem height, width, plastochron internode length, and associated traits from 86 individuals of the intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred line population. For meristem height-related traits, the parents exhibited markedly different phenotypes, with B73 being very tall, Mo17 short, and the population distributed between. In the outer cell layer, differences appeared to be related to number of cells rather than cell size. In contrast, B73 and Mo17 were similar in meristem width traits and plastochron internode length, with transgressive segregation in the population. Multiple loci (6?9 for each trait) were mapped, indicating meristem architecture is controlled by many regions; none of these coincided with previously described mutants impacting meristem development. Major loci for height and width explaining 16% and 19% of the variation were identified on chromosomes 5 and 8, respectively. Significant loci for related traits frequently coincided, whereas those for unrelated traits did not overlap. With the use of three near-isogenic lines, a locus explaining 16% of the parental variation in meristem height was validated. Published expression data were leveraged to identify candidate genes in significant regions. PMID:24855316

  1. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

  2. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in proteolysis in yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P < 0.05) concentration of lactic and acetic acids in comparison with that of MWMSY and the CY up to day 14, thereafter, the product showed a decrease in lactic acid content in all 3 batches until the end of storage. The level of syneresis was the lowest (2.14%) in MWMSY as compared with that of GOSY (2.35%) and CY (2.53%). There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. PMID:23278467

  3. EXPRESSION AND INHERITANCE PATTERNS OF A MODIFIED PORCINE A-LACTALBUMIN TRANSGENE IN MAIZE KERNELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A codon-adjusted version of a gene encoding the porcine milk protein alpha-lactalbumin was synthesized to create maize with improved nutritional quality. Three expression vectors containing the synthetic gene were constructed and transformed into maize callus by particle bombardment. The constructs ...

  4. Influence of Genetic Background on Anthocyanin and Copigment Composition and Behavior during Thermoalkaline Processing of Maize.

    PubMed

    Collison, Amy; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Murray, Seth; Awika, Joseph M

    2015-06-10

    Visual color is a primary quality factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. Twenty-four genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) were used to investigate the effect of pigment and copigment composition on color stability during nixtamalization and tortilla chip processing. The red/blue and blue samples generally contained higher proportions of acylated anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-(6?-malonylglucoside)) than the red and purple color classes. Phenolic amides were the major extractable copigments in all samples (450-764 ?g/g), with red samples containing the most putrescines and blue samples containing the most spermidines. Even though samples with higher proportions of acylated anthocyanins retained more pigments during processing, this did not relate to final product color quality. In general, the red/blue samples retained their color quality the best and thus are good candidates for genetic improvement for direct processing into alkalized products. PMID:26010030

  5. Genetic factors required to maintain repression of a paramutagenic maize pl1 allele.

    PubMed Central

    Hollick, J B; Chandler, V L

    2001-01-01

    A genetic screen identified two novel gene functions required to maintain mitotically and meiotically heritable gene silencing associated with paramutation of the maize purple plant 1 (pl1) locus. Paramutation at pl1 leads to heritable alterations of pl1 gene regulation; the Pl-Rhoades (Pl-Rh) allele, which typically confers strong pigmentation to juvenile and adult plant structures, changes to a lower expression state termed Pl'-mahogany (Pl'). Paramutation spontaneously occurs at low frequencies in Pl-Rh homozygotes but always occurs when Pl-Rh is heterozygous with Pl'. We identified four mutations that caused increased Pl' pigment levels. Allelism tests revealed that three mutations identified two new maize loci, required to maintain repression 1 (rmr1) and rmr2 and that the other mutation represents a new allele of the previously described mediator of paramutation 1 (mop1) locus. RNA levels from Pl' are elevated in rmr mutants and genetic tests demonstrate that Pl' can heritably change back to Pl-Rh in rmr mutant individuals at variable frequencies. Pigment levels controlled by two pl1 alleles that do not participate in paramutation are unaffected in rmr mutants. These results suggest that RMR functions are intimately involved in maintaining the repressed expression state of paramutant Pl' alleles. Despite strong effects on Pl' repression, rmr mutant plants have no gross developmental abnormalities even after several generations of inbreeding, implying that RMR1 and RMR2 functions are not generally required for developmental homeostasis. PMID:11139517

  6. Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathway in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Combinatorial nuclear transformation is a novel method for the rapid production of multiplex-transgenic plants, which we have used to dissect and modify a complex metabolic pathway. To demonstrate the principle, we transferred 5 carotenogenic genes controlled by different endosperm-specific promoters into a white maize variety deficient for endosperm carotenoid synthesis. We recovered a diverse population of transgenic plants expressing different enzyme combinations and showing distinct metabolic phenotypes that allowed us to identify and complement rate-limiting steps in the pathway and to demonstrate competition between ?-carotene hydroxylase and bacterial ?-carotene ketolase for substrates in 4 sequential steps of the extended pathway. Importantly, this process allowed us to generate plants with extraordinary levels of ?-carotene and other carotenoids, including complex mixtures of hydroxycarotenoids and ketocarotenoids. Combinatorial transformation is a versatile approach that could be used to modify any metabolic pathway and pathways controlling other biochemical, physiological, or developmental processes. PMID:19011084

  7. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

  8. Review: genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara; Kazuki Saito

    2006-01-01

    Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the “first generation” were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent

  9. Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

    SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

  10. Trends in genetic diversity among European maize cultivars and their parental components during the past 50 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen C. Reif; Sonia Hamrit; Martin Heckenberger; Wolfgang Schipprack; Hans Peter Maurer; Martin Bohn; Albrecht E. Melchinger

    2005-01-01

    It has been claimed that the system that delivers the products of plant breeding reduces the diversity of cultivated varieties\\u000a leading to an increased genetic vulnerability. The main goal of our study was to monitor the temporal trends in genetic diversity\\u000a over the past five decades among maize cultivars with the largest acreage in Central Europe. Our objectives were to

  11. Genetic diversity and trichothecene chemotypes of the Fusarium graminearum clade isolated from maize in Nepal and identification of a putative new lineage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Desjardins; Robert H. Proctor

    2011-01-01

    On smallholder farms in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, fungi of the Fusarium graminearum clade cause Gibberella ear rot of maize and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Previous DNA marker analyses of the F. graminearum clade from maize in Nepal found a high level of genetic diversity but were limited in detail or scope. The present

  12. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%. PMID:22843069

  13. REGISTRATION OF MAIZE GERMPLASM LINE GEMS-0067

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 is a partially inbred germplasm line released by Truman State University (TSU) in accordance with the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) protocol. This line is being released for use in the development of genetically diverse, elite, amylomaize class VII parental lines possessing modifie...

  14. Transcriptional silencing of heterologous anther promoters in maize: a genetic method to replace detasseling for seed production.

    PubMed

    Cigan, A Mark; Haug-Collet, Kristin; Clapp, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The promoter of the maize male fertility gene ZmMs45, and other anther-specific maize promoters, was previously shown to be transcriptionally silenced by constitutively expressed promoter-inverted repeat RNAs (pIRs). In addition, ZmMS45pIR-mediated male sterility was reversed by co-expression of Ms45 transcribed by promoters not targeted by pIR RNA silencing. In this report, male fertility was restored to ms45 maize by fusing non-maize inflorescence promoters to the ZmMS45 coding region. This complementation assay also established that these rice or Arabidopsis promoters, when expressed as pIRs, functioned to silence sequence identical promoters. These observations were exploited to develop a genetic method to replace maize detasseling during hybrid seed production. In this system, the ZmMS45 coding region was fused to one of two dissimilar non-maize promoters to generate paired sets of ms45 recessive inbred parents which could be self-pollinated and maintained independently. Linked to each unique Ms45 gene was a non-maize pIR which targeted the promoter transcribing the Ms45 copy contained in the paired inbred parent plant. A cross of these pairs brings the dissimilar pIR cassettes together and resulted in silencing both transformed copies of Ms45. The net result uncovers the ms45 allele carried by the inbreds yielding male sterile progeny. The application of heterologous promoters and transcriptional silencing in plants provides an alternative to post-transcriptional gene silencing as a means to restore and silence gene function in plants. PMID:24966130

  15. Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?

    PubMed

    Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades. PMID:21865874

  16. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Neal Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green

  17. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  18. Huntingtin Interacting Proteins Are Genetic Modifiers of Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Becklin, Robert R; Chettier, Rakesh; Bell, Russell; Phansalkar, Amit; Strand, Andrew; Torcassi, Cameron; Savage, Justin; Hurlburt, Anthony; Cha, Guang-Ho; Ukani, Lubna; Chepanoske, Cindy Lou; Zhen, Yuejun; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Olson, James; Kurschner, Cornelia; Ellerby, Lisa M; Peltier, John M; Botas, Juan; Hughes, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%–4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to co-immunoprecipitate with full-length Htt from mouse brain. These studies demonstrate that high-throughput screening for protein interactions combined with genetic validation in a model organism is a powerful approach for identifying novel candidate modifiers of polyglutamine toxicity. PMID:17500595

  19. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive ...

  20. Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

  1. Genetic Modifiers of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Joshua W.; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex, multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental determinants. Experimental investigation of the effects of these determinants on the development and progression of atherosclerosis has been greatly facilitated by the use of targeted mouse models of the disease, particularly those resulting from the absence of functional genes for apolipoprotein E or the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). This review focuses on the influence on atherosclerosis of combining apoE or LDLR deficiencies with factors affecting atherogenesis, including (1) inflammatory processes, (2) glucose metabolism, (3) blood pressure, and (4) coagulation and fibrinolysis. We also discuss the general problem of using the mouse to test the effects on atherogenesis of human polymorphic variations and future ways of enhancing the usefulness of these mouse models. PMID:11073835

  2. Broadening the genetic base of European maize heterotic pools with US Cornbelt germplasm using field and molecular marker data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen C. Reif; Sandra Fischer; Tobias A. Schrag; Kendall R. Lamkey; Dietrich Klein; Baldev S. Dhillon; H. Friedrich Utz; Albrecht E. Melchinger

    2010-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are concerned about the narrowing of the genetic base of elite germplasm. To reverse this trend, elite germplasm\\u000a from other geographic regions can be introgressed, but due to lack of adaptation it is difficult to assess their breeding\\u000a potential in the targeted environment. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the relationship between

  3. Genetic changes from introgression of highland Mexican germ plasm into a Corn Belt Dent population of maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Eagles; A. K. Hardacre

    1990-01-01

    A backcross population (NZS1) of maize (Zea mays L.) was produced by crossing a highland Mexican population with the elite Corn Belt Dent synthetic AS3, and then by backcrossing to AS3. S1 lines, S2 lines, and S2 testcrosses with an elite tester were used to compare the means, correlations, genetic variances, and predicted gains from selection of NZS1 and AS3

  4. Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renee B Kim

    2009-01-01

    Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

  5. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

  6. Response Dimensions Towards Genetically Modified Foods: A Consumer Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Quazi; Gamini Herath

    2002-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of genetically modified (GM) foods and their availability on retail store shelves has resulted in profound cleavages of opinions amongst various interest groups regarding the possible risks they pose to consumers and their ethical implications. This paper proposes that response patterns of consumers may depend upon their moral and ethical orientations. This paper suggests that clearer groupings

  7. On consumers’ willingness to purchase nutritionally enhanced genetically modified food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Canavari; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses consumers' willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food products with two different types of benefits: an input (i.e., reduced pesticides) and an output trait benefit (i.e., nutritionally enhanced). Data were collected using a telephone survey of an Italian households sample. Discrete choice approach is used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Four separate probit models

  8. Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Constable

    2002-01-01

    The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context,

  9. Consumer demands for organic and genetically modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

    2003-01-01

    Issues concerning consumer demands for genetically modified and organic food remain topical. It is unclear how consumers perceive issues associated with food production such as food safety, environmental impacts or animal welfare. It is also unclear how consumers might value potential changes in those issues in regional and metropolitan centres. This paper reports on research using the choice modelling technique

  10. Changing Consumer Perceptions About Genetically Modified Food Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl J. Wachenheim

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of college students about genetically modified (GM) food products and the role of agriculture and biotechnology in the environment were elicited. Perceptions were influenced bias in selection of information provided about environmental impacts of growing GM crop varieties. Information increased self-perceived level of knowledge among students and had unintended effects on perceptions of other crop production practices. Perceived risk

  11. CONSENSUS CONFERENCES ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD IN NORWAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alf J. Mørkrid

    2001-01-01

    The report goes on to review the introduction and evolution of the use of consensus conferences in Norway, as well as their evaluation. The specific case of the 1996 consensus conference on genetically modified food is described in terms of its organisation, process and results. The key findings of the independent evaluation report on the consensus conference, issued in 1997,

  12. Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

  13. Huntingtin Interacting Proteins Are Genetic Modifiers of Neurodegeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S Kaltenbach; Eliana Romero; Robert R Becklin; Rakesh Chettier; Russell Bell; Amit Phansalkar; Andrew Strand; Cameron Torcassi; Justin Savage; Anthony Hurlburt; Guang-Ho Cha; Lubna Ukani; Cindy Lou Chepanoske; Yuejun Zhen; Sudhir Sahasrabudhe; James Olson; Cornelia Kurschner; Lisa M Ellerby; John M Peltier; Juan Botas; Robert E Hughes

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea,

  14. Genetically modified crops and country image of food exporting countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Many countries have held back from planting genetically modified (GM) food crops due to perceived negative reaction in export and domestic markets. Three lines of research have tested the reality of this fear. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth interviews were conducted in European countries with key companies and organisations in the European food sector. Supermarket intercepts were used to ascertain

  15. LABELING, TRADE AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOS): A PROPOSED SOLUTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ford Runge; Lee Ann Jackson

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this brief article is to assess the current controversy over Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and its potential implications for the global trading system. More importantly, it offers a solution to the serious potential for injury to this system, to be developed below. The remainder of this article is divided into three sections. The next section

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Seed bank persistence of genetically modified canola

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Seed bank persistence of genetically modified canola in California Douglas J of glyphosate. Methods Volunteer from dormant canola seeds produced thousands of plants per hectare in the fourth year (2011) following a 2007 crop harvest. This occurred with no addi- tional canola seed

  17. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judhiastuty Februhartanty; Tri Nisa Widyastuti; Dwi Nastiti Iswarawanti

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in

  18. Detection of genetically modified soybean by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    RationaleThe safety of Genetically modified (GM) soy still remains controversial despite its advantages in cultivation. Since soy has been consumed commonly in Korea, it is necessary to investigate for developing detection methods of GM soy which carries the added gene and express 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in foods.

  19. Use of Genetically Modified Viruses and Genetically Engineered Virus-vector Vaccines: Environmental Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian S. W. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number

  20. [Genetics and modifier genes, atypical and rare forms].

    PubMed

    Férec, C; Scotet, V; Beucher, J; Corvol, H

    2012-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is defined as the most common life shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian populations. The cloning of the gene responsible for the disease - the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator) gene - twenty years ago has greatly improved our knowledge of the pathophysiology of CF. That disease is characterized by a highly phenotypic variability and the CFTR mutations cannot explain all the variability observed in the disease severity. The possible influence of the environment and modifier genes has therefore been evocated. Several genetic variants coding for genes involved in the physiopathology of the disease have been studied, like genes involve in the immunity and the inflammatory response. Some of these genes have indeed been shown to influence the disease severity. A new approach has also been developed, analyzing the whole genome. This review summarizes the genetic basis of CF in its classical and atypical forms, as well as the work performed in the field of modifier genes. PMID:22682487

  1. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  2. The relationship between parental genetic or phenotypic divergence and progeny variation in the maize nested association mapping population

    PubMed Central

    Hung, H-Y; Browne, C; Guill, K; Coles, N; Eller, M; Garcia, A; Lepak, N; Melia-Hancock, S; Oropeza-Rosas, M; Salvo, S; Upadyayula, N; Buckler, E S; Flint-Garcia, S; McMullen, M D; Rocheford, T R; Holland, J B

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate selection of parents for the development of mapping populations is pivotal to maximizing the power of quantitative trait loci detection. Trait genotypic variation within a family is indicative of the family's informativeness for genetic studies. Accurate prediction of the most useful parental combinations within a species would help guide quantitative genetics studies. We tested the reliability of genotypic and phenotypic distance estimators between pairs of maize inbred lines to predict genotypic variation for quantitative traits within families derived from biparental crosses. We developed 25 families composed of ?200 random recombinant inbred lines each from crosses between a common reference parent inbred, B73, and 25 diverse maize inbreds. Parents and families were evaluated for 19 quantitative traits across up to 11 environments. Genetic distances (GDs) among parents were estimated with 44 simple sequence repeat and 2303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. GDs among parents had no predictive value for progeny variation, which is most likely due to the choice of neutral markers. In contrast, we observed for about half of the traits measured a positive correlation between phenotypic parental distances and within-family genetic variance estimates. Consequently, the choice of promising segregating populations can be based on selecting phenotypically diverse parents. These results are congruent with models of genetic architecture that posit numerous genes affecting quantitative traits, each segregating for allelic series, with dispersal of allelic effects across diverse genetic material. This architecture, common to many quantitative traits in maize, limits the predictive value of parental genotypic or phenotypic values on progeny variance. PMID:22027895

  3. Genetic, evolutionary and plant breeding insights from the domestication of maize

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Sarah; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of maize began nine thousand years ago when Mexican farmers started to collect the seeds of the wild grass, teosinte. Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance. Genome comparisons between varieties of maize, teosinte and other grasses are beginning to identify the genes responsible for the domestication of modern maize and are also providing ideas for the breeding of more hardy varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05861.001 PMID:25807085

  4. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated Annealing employs and instead we used a global technique based on grammatical evolution.

  5. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

  7. Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants used for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Caprioara-Buda, M; Meyer, W; Jeynov, B; Corbisier, P; Trapmann, S; Emons, H

    2012-07-01

    The reliable quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by real-time PCR requires, besides thoroughly validated quantitative detection methods, sustainable calibration systems. The latter establishes the anchor points for the measured value and the measurement unit, respectively. In this paper, the suitability of two types of DNA calibrants, i.e. plasmid DNA and genomic DNA extracted from plant leaves, for the certification of the GMO content in reference materials as copy number ratio between two targeted DNA sequences was investigated. The PCR efficiencies and coefficients of determination of the calibration curves as well as the measured copy number ratios for three powder certified reference materials (CRMs), namely ERM-BF415e (NK603 maize), ERM-BF425c (356043 soya), and ERM-BF427c (98140 maize), originally certified for their mass fraction of GMO, were compared for both types of calibrants. In all three systems investigated, the PCR efficiencies of plasmid DNA were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the genomic DNA extracted from seed powders rather than those of the genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although the mean DNA copy number ratios for each CRM overlapped within their uncertainties, the DNA copy number ratios were significantly different using the two types of calibrants. Based on these observations, both plasmid and leaf genomic DNA calibrants would be technically suitable as anchor points for the calibration of the real-time PCR methods applied in this study. However, the most suitable approach to establish a sustainable traceability chain is to fix a reference system based on plasmid DNA. PMID:22638881

  8. Genetic variation modifies risk for neurodegeneration based on biomarker status

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, Timothy J.; Koran, Mary Ellen I.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While a great deal of work has gone into understanding the relationship between Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, brain atrophy, and disease progression, less work has attempted to investigate how genetic variation modifies these relationships. The goal of this study was two-fold. First, we sought to identify high-risk vs. low-risk individuals based on their CSF tau and A? load and characterize these individuals with regard to brain atrophy in an AD-relevant region of interest. Next, we sought to identify genetic variants that modified the relationship between biomarker classification and neurodegeneration. Methods: Participants were categorized based on established cut-points for biomarker positivity. Mixed model regression was used to quantify longitudinal change in the left inferior lateral ventricle. Interaction analyses between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and biomarker group status were performed using a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the Bonferroni procedure. Results: One intergenic SNP (rs4866650) and one SNP within the SPTLC1 gene (rs7849530) modified the association between amyloid positivity and neurodegeneration. A transcript variant of WDR11-AS1 gene (rs12261764) modified the association between tau positivity and neurodegeneration. These effects were consistent across the two sub-datasets and explained approximately 3% of variance in ventricular dilation. One additional SNP (rs6887649) modified the association between amyloid positivity and baseline ventricular volume, but was not observed consistently across the sub-datasets. Conclusions: Genetic variation modifies the association between AD biomarkers and neurodegeneration. Genes that regulate the molecular response in the brain to oxidative stress may be particularly relevant to neural vulnerability to the damaging effects of amyloid-?. PMID:25140149

  9. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Svobodová, Zde?ka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Hutchison, William D.; Hussein, Hany M.; Sehnal, František

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009–2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G) and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86). Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017) and non-Bt (DK315) untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability. PMID:26083254

  10. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Zde?ka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Hutchison, William D; Hussein, Hany M; Sehnal, František

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G) and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86). Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017) and non-Bt (DK315) untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability. PMID:26083254

  11. Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Víctor M.; Velasco, Pablo; Garrido, José L.; Revilla, Pedro; Ordás, Amando; Butrón, Ana

    2013-01-01

    In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

  12. Analysis of genetic and epigenetic effects of maize seeds in response to heavy metal (Zn) stress.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Agar, Guleray; Arslan, Esra; Nardemir, Gokce

    2015-07-01

    Conditions of environmental stress are known to lead genetic and epigenetic variability in plants. DNA methylation is one of the important epigenetic mechanisms and plays a critical role in epigenetic control of gene expression. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the alteration of genome methylation induced by zinc stress by using coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) technique in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. In addition, to determine the effect of zinc on mitotic activity and phytohormone level, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mitotic index analysis were utilized. According to the results, mitotic index decreased in all concentrations of zinc except for 5 mM dose and chromosome aberrations such as c-mitosis, stickiness, and anaphase bridges were determined. It was also observed that increasing concentrations of zinc caused an increase in methylation patterns and decrease in gibberellic acid (GA), zeatin (ZA), and indole acetic acid (IAA) levels in contrast to abscisic acid (ABA) level. Especially increasing of ABA levels under zinc stress may be a part of the defense system against heavy metal accumulation in plants. PMID:25703614

  13. GENETIC VARIANCE AND BREEDING POTENTIAL OF PHYTATE AND INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS IN A MAIZE POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed phosphorus (P) is predominantly bound in the organic compound phytate making the bioavailability of P in maize-based diets poor. Decreasing phytate and increasing inorganic P (Pi; an available form of P) concentrations in maize grain would be desirable to help solve associated environmental an...

  14. Genetic Combining Analysis of Food-Grade Maize: Colored and Quality Protein 

    E-print Network

    Mahan, Adam Lyle

    2012-10-19

    practiced and quality protein cereals are non-existent. These two diverse maize categories have been the subject of little breeding research compared to normal maize and the potential for high phenolic content as well as the characterization of these QPM...

  15. Genetic Variation in Fusarium Section Liseola from No-Till Maize in Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Chulze; M. L. Ramirez; A. Torres; J. F. Leslie

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective

  16. Molecular genetics of the R complex of maize. Final technical report DE-FG02-86ER13627

    SciTech Connect

    Dellaporta, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    A molecular genetic characterization of the maize R-r complex of maize was completed during the period of support. The complex was shown to consist of two main regions: the P region, containing the r-p gene which controlled pigmentation of plant parts, and the S subcomplex, containing two rl-s genes in head-to-head orientation and a nonfunctional component termed rl-q. By examining the DNA sequences at the junction of the rl genes, the complex was shown to be derived by a series of abortive transposition events. The transposable element involved in the gene duplication and rearrangements was characterized and called doppia. Meiotic instability of the R-r complex was also characterized. Loss of P or S function was associated with several structural changes including intrachromosomal recombination and excision of a novel transposable element that appears to show instability only during meiosis.

  17. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of maize (Zea mays L.) stalk rot resistant gene Rfg1.

    PubMed

    Yang, D E; Zhang, C L; Zhang, D S; Jin, D M; Weng, M L; Chen, S J; Nguyen, H; Wang, B

    2004-02-01

    One single pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schw. was inoculated to maize inbred lines 1,145 (Resistant) and Y331 (Susceptive), and their progenies of F(1), F(2) and BC(1)F(1) populations. Field statistical data revealed that all of the F(1) individuals were resistant to the disease and that the ratio of resistant plants to susceptive plants was 3:1 in the F(2) population, and 1:1 in the BC(1)F(1 )population. The results revealed that a single dominant gene controls the resistance to F. graminearum Schw. The resistant gene to F. graminearum Schw. was denominated as Rfg1 according to the standard principle of the nomenclature of the plant disease resistant genes. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) analysis was carried out in the developed F(2) and BC(1)F(1 )populations, respectively. Three RAPD products screened from the RAPD analysis with 820 Operon 10-mer primers showed the linkage relation with the resistant gene Rfg1. The three RAPD amplification products (OPD-20(1000), OPA-04(1100) and OPY-04(900)) were cloned and their copy numbers were determined. The results indicated that only OPY-04(900) was a single-copy sequence. Then, OPY-04(900) was used as a probe to map the Rfg1 gene with a RIL F(7) mapping population provided by Henry Nguyen, which was developed from the cross "S3xMo17". Rfg1 was primarily mapped on chromosome 6 between the two linked markers OPY-04(900) and umc21 (Bin 6.04-6.05). In order to confirm the primary mapping result, 25 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and six RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers in the Rfg1 gene-encompassing region were selected, and their linkage relation with Rfg1 was analyzed in our F(2) population. Results indicated that SSR marker mmc0241 and RFLP marker bnl3.03 are flanking the Rfg1 gene with a genetic distance of 3.0 cM and 2.0 cM, respectively. This is the first time to name and to map a single resistant gene of maize stalk rot through a single pathogen inoculation and molecular marker analysis. PMID:14647897

  18. Genetically modified organisms in agriculture: can regulations work?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kothamasi; Saskia Vermeylen

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been recognised to be economically beneficial to subsistence farmers and have been projected\\u000a as essential tools for addressing challenges in hunger, environmental sustainability and international development. Yet the\\u000a uncertainty of their effects on human health and the undesirable ecological consequences of these organisms have raised concerns\\u000a on the rapid pace of their production. Regulating the

  19. Genetic and molecular characterization of submergence response identifies Subtol6 as a major submergence tolerance locus in maize.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Malachy T; Proctor, Christopher A; Dou, Yongchao; Schmitz, Aaron J; Phansak, Piyaporn; Kruger, Greg R; Zhang, Chi; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-01-01

    Maize is highly sensitive to short term flooding and submergence. Early season flooding reduces germination, survival and growth rate of maize seedlings. We aimed to discover genetic variation for submergence tolerance in maize and elucidate the genetic basis of submergence tolerance through transcriptional profiling and linkage analysis of contrasting genotypes. A diverse set of maize nested association mapping (NAM) founder lines were screened, and two highly tolerant (Mo18W and M162W) and sensitive (B97 and B73) genotypes were identified. Tolerant lines exhibited delayed senescence and lower oxidative stress levels compared to sensitive lines. Transcriptome analysis was performed on these inbreds to provide genome level insights into the molecular responses to submergence. Tolerant lines had higher transcript abundance of several fermentation-related genes and an unannotated Pyrophosphate-Dependent Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase gene during submergence. A coexpression network enriched for CBF (C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR: C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR) genes, was induced by submergence in all four inbreds, but was more activated in the tolerant Mo18W. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from Mo18W and B73 was screened for submergence tolerance. A major QTL named Subtol6 was mapped to chromosome 6 that explains 22% of the phenotypic variation within the RIL population. We identified two candidate genes (HEMOGLOBIN2 and RAV1) underlying Subtol6 based on contrasting expression patterns observed in B73 and Mo18W. Sources of tolerance identified in this study (Subtol6) can be useful to increase survival rate during flooding events that are predicted to increase in frequency with climate change. PMID:25806518

  20. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Submergence Response Identifies Subtol6 as a Major Submergence Tolerance Locus in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malachy T.; Proctor, Christopher A.; Dou, Yongchao; Schmitz, Aaron J.; Phansak, Piyaporn; Kruger, Greg R.; Zhang, Chi; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-01-01

    Maize is highly sensitive to short term flooding and submergence. Early season flooding reduces germination, survival and growth rate of maize seedlings. We aimed to discover genetic variation for submergence tolerance in maize and elucidate the genetic basis of submergence tolerance through transcriptional profiling and linkage analysis of contrasting genotypes. A diverse set of maize nested association mapping (NAM) founder lines were screened, and two highly tolerant (Mo18W and M162W) and sensitive (B97 and B73) genotypes were identified. Tolerant lines exhibited delayed senescence and lower oxidative stress levels compared to sensitive lines. Transcriptome analysis was performed on these inbreds to provide genome level insights into the molecular responses to submergence. Tolerant lines had higher transcript abundance of several fermentation-related genes and an unannotated Pyrophosphate-Dependent Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase gene during submergence. A coexpression network enriched for CBF (C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR: C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR) genes, was induced by submergence in all four inbreds, but was more activated in the tolerant Mo18W. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from Mo18W and B73 was screened for submergence tolerance. A major QTL named Subtol6 was mapped to chromosome 6 that explains 22% of the phenotypic variation within the RIL population. We identified two candidate genes (HEMOGLOBIN2 and RAV1) underlying Subtol6 based on contrasting expression patterns observed in B73 and Mo18W. Sources of tolerance identified in this study (Subtol6) can be useful to increase survival rate during flooding events that are predicted to increase in frequency with climate change. PMID:25806518

  1. Genetic variation and quantitative trait loci associated with developmental stability and the environmental correlation between traits in maize.

    PubMed

    Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Hill, William G

    2008-10-01

    There is limited experimental information about the genetic basis of micro-environmental variance (V(E)) (developmental stability) and environmental correlations. This study, by using a population of maize recombinant inbred lines (RIL) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphic markers, aims at the following: firstly, to quantify the genetic component of the V(E) or developmental stability for four traits in maize and the environmental correlation between these traits, and secondly, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence these quantities. We found that, when estimating variances and correlations and testing their homogeneity, estimates and tests are needed that are not highly dependent on normality assumptions. There was significant variation among the RILs in V(E) and in the environmental correlation for some of the traits, implying genetic heterogeneity in the V(E) and environmental correlations. The genetic coefficient of variation of the environmental variance (GCV(V(E))) was estimated to be 20%, which is lower than estimates obtained for other species. A few genomic regions involved in the stability of one trait or two traits were detected, and these did not have an important influence on the mean of the trait. One region that could be associated with the environmental correlations between traits was also detected. PMID:19061529

  2. The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kate?ina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

  3. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance. PMID:24472209

  4. Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Foods in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Chege Kimenju; Hugo de Groote

    2005-01-01

    A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi to determine attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for GM maize meal. WTP was estimated using the double-bounded logit model. Overall, 38% are aware of GM crops. Most consumers believe in the technology's positive impacts, but are concerned about environmental and health risks. Majority (68%) would buy GM maize meal at

  5. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  6. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Fanjun; Cai, Hongguang; Liu, Jianchao; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Zhigang; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-06-01

    That root system architecture (RSA) has an essential role in nitrogen acquisition is expected in maize, but the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits remains to be elucidated. Here, the genetic basis of RSA and NUE traits was investigated in maize using a recombination inbred line population that was derived from two lines contrasted for both traits. Under high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen conditions, 10 NUE- and 9 RSA-related traits were evaluated in four field environments and three hydroponic experiments, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NutE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NupE) had significant phenotypic correlations with RSA, particularly the traits of seminal roots (r = 0.15-0.31) and crown roots (r = 0.15-0.18). A total of 331 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, including 184 and 147 QTLs for NUE- and RSA-related traits, respectively. These QTLs were assigned into 64 distinct QTL clusters, and ~70% of QTLs for nitrogen-efficiency (NUE, NupE, and NutE) coincided in clusters with those for RSA. Five important QTLs clusters at the chromosomal regions bin1.04, 2.04, 3.04, 3.05/3.06, and 6.07/6.08 were found in which QTLs for both traits had favourable effects from alleles coming from the large-rooted and high-NupE parent. Introgression of these QTL clusters in the advanced backcross-derived lines conferred mean increases in grain yield of ~14.8% for the line per se and ~15.9% in the testcross. These results reveal a significant genetic relationship between RSA and NUE traits, and uncover the most promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection of RSA to improve NUE in maize. PMID:25873660

  7. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Fanjun; Cai, Hongguang; Liu, Jianchao; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Zhigang; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-01-01

    That root system architecture (RSA) has an essential role in nitrogen acquisition is expected in maize, but the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits remains to be elucidated. Here, the genetic basis of RSA and NUE traits was investigated in maize using a recombination inbred line population that was derived from two lines contrasted for both traits. Under high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen conditions, 10 NUE- and 9 RSA-related traits were evaluated in four field environments and three hydroponic experiments, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NutE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NupE) had significant phenotypic correlations with RSA, particularly the traits of seminal roots (r = 0.15–0.31) and crown roots (r = 0.15–0.18). A total of 331 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, including 184 and 147 QTLs for NUE- and RSA-related traits, respectively. These QTLs were assigned into 64 distinct QTL clusters, and ~70% of QTLs for nitrogen-efficiency (NUE, NupE, and NutE) coincided in clusters with those for RSA. Five important QTLs clusters at the chromosomal regions bin1.04, 2.04, 3.04, 3.05/3.06, and 6.07/6.08 were found in which QTLs for both traits had favourable effects from alleles coming from the large-rooted and high-NupE parent. Introgression of these QTL clusters in the advanced backcross-derived lines conferred mean increases in grain yield of ~14.8% for the line per se and ~15.9% in the testcross. These results reveal a significant genetic relationship between RSA and NUE traits, and uncover the most promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection of RSA to improve NUE in maize. PMID:25873660

  8. Copyright 01993 by the Genetics Society of Arllericd Inheritanceof the Morphological Differences Between Maize and Teosinte

    E-print Network

    Doebley, John

    . It is suggested that loci with large effects on morphology may not be a specific feature of crop evolution competition. MAIZE (Zea mays ssp. mays) and its probable wild ancestor,teosinte (2. mays ssp. mexicana

  9. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:23549349

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

  11. Barriers to application of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Verrips, C T; van den Berg, D J

    1996-10-01

    To increase the acceptability of food products containing genetically modified microorganisms it is necessary to provide in an early stage to the consumers that the product is safe and that the product provide a clear benefit to the consumer. To comply with the first requirement a systematic approach to analyze the probability that genetically modified lactic acid bacteria will transform other inhabitants of the gastro- intestinal (G/I) tract or that these lactic acid bacteria will pick up genetic information of these inhabitants has been proposed and worked out to some degree. From this analysis it is clear that reliable data are still missing to carry out complete risk assessment. However, on the basis of present knowledge, lactic acid bacteria containing conjugative plasmids should be avoided. Various studies show that consumers in developed countries will accept these products when they offer to them health or taste benefits or a better keepability. For the developing countries the biggest challenge for scientists is most likely to make indigenous fermented food products with strongly improved microbiological stability due to broad spectra bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, these lactic acid bacteria may contribute to health. PMID:8879412

  12. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

  13. Genetic and biochemical differences in populations bred for extremes in maize grain methionine concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methionine is an important nutrient in animal feed and several approaches have been developed to increase methionine concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. One approach is through traditional breeding using recurrent selection. Using divergent selection, genetically related populations with extreme differences in grain methionine content were produced. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling grain methionine content, we examined seed proteins, transcript levels of candidate genes, and genotypes of these populations. Results Two populations were selected for high or low methionine concentration for eight generations and 40 and 56% differences between the high and low populations in grain methionine concentration were observed. Mean values between the high and low methionine populations differed by greater than 1.5 standard deviations in some cycles of selection. Other amino acids and total protein concentration exhibited much smaller changes. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to these differences, we compared transcript levels of candidate genes encoding high methionine seed storage proteins involved in sulfur assimilation or methionine biosynthesis. In combination, we also explored the genetic mechanisms at the SNP level through implementation of an association analysis. Significant differences in methionine-rich seed storage protein genes were observed in comparisons of high and low methionine populations, while transcripts of seed storage proteins lacking high levels of methionine were unchanged. Seed storage protein levels were consistent with transcript levels. Two genes involved in sulfur assimilation, Cys2 and CgS1 showed substantial differences in allele frequencies when two selected populations were compared to the starting populations. Major genes identified across cycles of selection by a high-stringency association analysis included dzs18, wx, dzs10, and zp27. Conclusions We hypothesize that transcriptional changes alter sink strength by altering the levels of methionine-rich seed storage proteins. To meet the altered need for sulfur, a cysteine-rich seed storage protein is altered while sulfur assimilation and methionine biosynthesis throughput is changed by selection for certain alleles of Cys2 and CgS1. PMID:24552611

  14. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czy?ewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

  15. Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

  16. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society. PMID:22267031

  17. [Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops. PMID:24645345

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  19. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  20. Identification and Characterization of Novel Maize Mirnas Involved in Different Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lei; Chai, Wenbo; Gong, Xuefeng; Zhou, Lingyan; Cai, Ronghao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yang; Jiang, Haiyang; Cheng, Beijiu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression by guiding target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition in plants and animals. At present there is relatively little information regarding the role of miRNAs in the response to drought stress in maize. In this study, two small RNA libraries were sequenced, and a total of 11,973,711 and 14,326,010 raw sequences were generated from growing leaves of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive maize seedlings, respectively. Further analysis identified 192 mature miRNAs, which include 124 known maize (zma) miRNAs and 68 potential novel miRNA candidates. Additionally, 167 target genes (259 transcripts) of known and novel miRNAs were predicted to be differentially expressed between two maize inbred lines. Of these, three novel miRNAs were up-regulated and two were down-regulated under drought stress. The expression of these five miRNAs and nine target genes was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The expression of three of the miRNAs and their putative target genes exhibited an inverse correlation, and expression analysis suggested that all five may play important roles in maize leaves. Finally, GO annotations of the target genes indicated a potential role in photosynthesis, may therefore contribute to the drought stress response. This study describes the identification and characterization of novel miRNAs that are the differentially expressed in drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive inbred maize lines. This provides the foundation for further investigation into the mechanism of miRNA function in response to drought stress in maize.

  1. Detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms using very short, locked nucleic acid TaqMan probes.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Sergio; D'Orso, Fabio; Morelli, Giorgio

    2008-06-25

    Many countries have introduced mandatory labeling requirements on foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based upon the TaqMan probe chemistry has become the method mostly used to support these regulations; moreover, event-specific PCR is the preferred method in GMO detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of the exogenous integrant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of very short (eight-nucleotide long), locked nucleic acid (LNA) TaqMan probes in 5'-nuclease PCR assays for the detection and quantification of GMOs. Classic TaqMan and LNA TaqMan probes were compared for the analysis of the maize MON810 transgene. The performance of the two types of probes was tested on the maize endogenous reference gene hmga, the CaMV 35S promoter, and the hsp70/cryIA(b) construct as well as for the event-specific 5'-integration junction of MON810, using plasmids as standard reference molecules. The results of our study demonstrate that the LNA 5'-nuclease PCR assays represent a valid and reliable analytical system for the detection and quantification of transgenes. Application of very short LNA TaqMan probes to GMO quantification can simplify the design of 5'-nuclease assays. PMID:18494480

  2. Weed seed resources for birds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, David W; Bohan, David A; Rothery, Peter; Stuart, Rick C; Haughton, Alison J; Scott, Rod J; Wilson, Jeremy D; Perry, Joe N; Clark, Suzanne J; Dawson, Robert J.G; Firbank, Les G

    2006-01-01

    The UK Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) have shown that the use of broad spectrum herbicides on genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops can have dramatic effects on weed seed production compared to management of conventional varieties. Here, we use FSE data and information on bird diets to determine how GMHT cropping might change the food resources available to farmland birds. More than 60 fields of each of four crops, spring- and winter-sown oilseed rape, beet and maize, were split, one half being sown with a conventional variety, the other with a GMHT variety. Seed rain from weeds known to be important in the diets of 17 granivorous farmland bird species was measured under the two treatments. In beet and spring oilseed rape, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of 16 bird species was significantly reduced in GMHT compared to conventional halves; for no species did it increase. In winter oilseed rape, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of 10 species was significantly reduced in GMHT halves; for only one species did it increase significantly. By contrast, in maize, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of seven species was significantly greater in GMHT halves; for no species was it reduced. Treatment effects for the total weed seed energy available to each bird species were very similar to those for seed rain alone. Measuring the effects on individual bird species was outside the scope of this study. Despite this, these results suggest that should beet, spring and winter rape crops in the UK be largely replaced by GMHT varieties and managed as in the FSEs, this would markedly reduce important food resources for farmland birds, many of which declined during the last quarter of the twentieth century. By contrast, GMHT maize would be beneficial to farmland birds. PMID:16822753

  3. Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

  4. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods. Effects of different information strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Frewer; Joachim Scholderer; Clive Downs; Lone Bredahl

    2000-01-01

    The research reported here aimed to investigate the effects of different types of information about genetically modified foods on both consumer attitudes towards genetic modification and their tendency to choose genetically modified products (compared to more traditionally manufactured alternatives). The impact of information strategy (balanced, or product specific), attributed information source (The “European Association of Consumers”, the “European Association of

  5. Reforming the WTO to Defuse Potential Trade Conflicts in Genetically Modified Goods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr Shelburne; Jill E. Hobbs

    2001-01-01

    Arguably genetic modification is one of the most important technological change seen to date. Its effects on both human health and the environment are both profound and controversial. In particular consumers, mainly in the EU, have concerns regarding the long term effects of consuming genetically modified foods on their health. They are also concerned regarding the effect that genetically modified

  6. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

    2008-01-01

    The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

  7. Mucosal vaccination and therapy with genetically modified lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vehicles that overcome the problem of delivering functional proteins to the mucosal tissues. By the intranasal route, both live and killed LAB vaccine strains have been shown to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses that afford protection against infectious challenges. To be effective via oral administration, frequent dosing over several weeks is required but new targeting and adjuvant strategies have clearly demonstrated the potential to increase the immunogenicity and protective immunity of LAB vaccines. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis has been shown to induce antigen-specific oral tolerance (OT) to secreted recombinant antigens. LAB delivery is more efficient at inducing OT than the purified antigen, thus avoiding the need for purification of large quantities of antigen. This approach holds promise for new therapeutic interventions in allergies and antigen-induced autoimmune diseases. Several clinical and research reports demonstrate considerable progress in the application of genetically modified L. lactis for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New medical targets are on the horizon, and the approval by several health authorities and biosafety committees of a containment system for a genetically modified L. lactis that secretes Il-10 should pave the way for new LAB delivery applications in the future. PMID:22129390

  8. Genetic diversity and trichothecene chemotypes of the Fusarium graminearum clade isolated from maize in Nepal and identification of a putative new lineage.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Anne E; Proctor, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    On smallholder farms in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, fungi of the Fusarium graminearum clade cause Gibberella ear rot of maize and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Previous DNA marker analyses of the F. graminearum clade from maize in Nepal found a high level of genetic diversity but were limited in detail or scope. The present study incorporated a collection of 251 field strains from a wide geographic distribution in Nepal and utilized sequencing of the MAT1-1-3 gene of the mating type locus to determine the number and frequency of lineages and species of the F. graminearum clade. The frequency of nivalenol and deoxynivalenol chemotypes was determined by chemical analysis and by TRI13 deletion-marker analysis. We found that Gibberella ear rot of maize in Nepal is associated with a complex of species of the F. graminearum clade - mainly Fusarium asiaticum and Fusarium meridionale, but also Fusarium boothii and a putative new lineage, which we have designated the 'Nepal lineage'. Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, which dominates in maize elsewhere in Asia and worldwide, was not detected in Nepal. Although nivalenol production has been associated experimentally with lower virulence in maize ear rot and wheat head blight, this collection of the F. graminearum clade from maize in Nepal is dominated (4:1) by nivalenol producers, suggesting that traits other than crop plant pathogenesis affect population structure in this complex agroecosystem. PMID:21215953

  9. Molecular scissors and their application in genetically modified farm animals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-06-01

    Molecular scissors (MS), incl. Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN), Transcription-activator like endoncleases (TALENS) and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These molecular scissors mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, MS can increase the targeting rate 10,000-fold, and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair is stimulated at a similar frequency. The successful application of different MS has been shown in different organisms, including insects, amphibians, plants, nematodes, and mammals, including humans. Recently, another novel class of molecular scissors was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN, especially by its easy design. MS can be successfully employed for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, incl. creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on molecular scissors, their underlying mechanism and focuses on new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals. PMID:25603988

  10. A large maize (Zea Mays L.) SNP genotyping array: development and germplasm genotyping, and genetic mapping to compare with the B73 reference genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SNP genotyping arrays have been useful for many applications that require a large number of molecular markers such as high-density genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection for accelerated breeding. We report the establishment of a large SNP array for maize and i...

  11. Insertion-deletion polymorphisms in 3? regions of maize genes occur frequently and can be used as highly informative genetic markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinakar Bhattramakki; Maureen Dolan; Mike Hanafey; Robin Wineland; Dave Vaske; James C. Register; Scott V. Tingey; Antoni Rafalski

    2002-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent variations in the genome of any organism. SNP discovery approaches such as resequencing or data mining enable the identification of insertion deletion (indel) polymorphisms. These indels can be treated as biallelic markers and can be utilized for genetic mapping and diagnostics. In this study 655 indels have been identified by resequencing 502 maize

  12. Rare genetic variation at Zea mays crtRB1 increases ?-carotene in maize grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbing Yan; Catherine Bermudez Kandianis; Carlos E Harjes; Ling Bai; Eun-Ha Kim; Xiaohong Yang; Debra J Skinner; Zhiyuan Fu; Sharon Mitchell; Qing Li; Maria G Salas Fernandez; Maria Zaharieva; Raman Babu; Yang Fu; Natalia Palacios; Jiansheng Li; Dean DellaPenna; Thomas Brutnell; Edward S Buckler; Marilyn L Warburton; Torbert Rocheford

    2010-01-01

    Breeding to increase ?-carotene levels in cereal grains, termed provitamin A biofortification, is an economical approach to address dietary vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. Experimental evidence from association and linkage populations in maize (Zea mays L.) demonstrate that the gene encoding ?-carotene hydroxylase 1 (crtRB1) underlies a principal quantitative trait locus associated with ?-carotene concentration and conversion in

  13. Genetic analysis and characterization of a new maize association mapping panel for quantitative trait loci dissesction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium provides a promising method to identify genes responsible for quantitative variation underlying complex traits. Presented here is a maize association mapping panel consisting of 155 diverse (mainly temperate inbred lines) suitable for marker-trait ...

  14. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A MAIZE SYNTHETIC: THE ROLE OF DOMINANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In selection programs, the covariance between parents and offspring largely determines the success of selection. We have estimated the variances and covariances between noninbred individuals and both their inbred and outbred progeny in the non-stiff stalk maize population BSCB1(R)C13. Estimation o...

  15. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE RP3 RUST RESISTANCE LOCUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In maize, the Rp3 gene confers resistance to common rust caused by Puccinia sorghi. Flanking marker analysis of rust-susceptible rp3 variants suggested that most of them arose via unequal crossing over, indicating that rp3 is a complex locus like rp1. The PIC13 probe identifies a nucleotide binding ...

  16. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

  17. Genetic and physiological analysis of iron content and bioavailability in maize kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biof...

  18. Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Beneficial to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize stover has been identified as an important feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Our objectives were to measure hybrid effect and combining ability patterns of traits related to cellulosic ethanol production, determine if germplasm and mutations used for silage production would a...

  19. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the Ga1-S gene region conferring cross-incompatibility in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yu'e; Jiang, Chuan; Cui, Dezhou; Liu, Huaihua; Li, Detao; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Ning, Lihua; Ma, Xia; Chen, Huabang

    2012-02-01

    Cross-incompatibility genes known as gametophyte factors (ga) are numerous in maize. Many popcorn strains carry these genes and cannot be fertilized by pollen of dent and flint maize strains although the reciprocal crosses are successful. A Chinese popcorn strain SDGa25 carries the strongest allele of Ga1 (Ga1-S) and the majority of Chinese dent and flint maize germplasm are incompatible with SDGa25. The incompatibility is due to pollen tube growth obstruction 2 h after pollination. The pollen tube is arrested in the silk segment 5.5 cm distal to the pollination area and never reaches the ovule. The Ga1-S carried by SDGa25 behaves as a single dominant gene. This gene was mapped between markers SD3 on BAC AC200747 0.827 cM apart on the telomere side and SD12 on BAC AC204382 0.709 cM apart on the centromere side. The genetic region mapped spanning the Ga1-S locus was estimated to be 1.5 cM in length and the physical distance is 2,056,343 bp on ctg156 based on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence. Gametophyte factors influence gene flow direction and the strongest Ga1-S allele is useful for isolating one category of commercial varieties from another. The eight tightly linked markers to Ga1-S developed in this study would greatly improve marker-assisted introgression efficiency and the fine mapping would facilitate the isolation of the Ga1-S. PMID:22009288

  20. Evaluation of Argentine maize hybrids and exotic x temperate testcrosses across environments

    E-print Network

    Ochs, Brett Allen

    2005-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is grown in a wide range of environments and altitudes worldwide. Maize has transitioned from open pollinated varieties to single cross hybrids over the last century. While maize production and genetic gain has increased, genetic...

  1. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  2. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  3. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

  4. Passenger Mutations Confound Interpretation of All Genetically Modified Congenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berghe, Tom; Hulpiau, Paco; Martens, Liesbet; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Van Wonterghem, Elien; Perry, Seth W; Bruggeman, Inge; Divert, Tatyana; Choi, Sze Men; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Shestopalov, Valery I; Libert, Claude; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2015-07-21

    Targeted mutagenesis in mice is a powerful tool for functional analysis of genes. However, genetic variation between embryonic stem cells (ESCs) used for targeting (previously almost exclusively 129-derived) and recipient strains (often C57BL/6J) typically results in congenic mice in which the targeted gene is flanked by ESC-derived passenger DNA potentially containing mutations. Comparative genomic analysis of 129 and C57BL/6J mouse strains revealed indels and single nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in alternative or aberrant amino acid sequences in 1,084 genes in the 129-strain genome. Annotating these passenger mutations to the reported genetically modified congenic mice that were generated using 129-strain ESCs revealed that nearly all these mice possess multiple passenger mutations potentially influencing the phenotypic outcome. We illustrated this phenotypic interference of 129-derived passenger mutations with several case studies and developed a Me-PaMuFind-It web tool to estimate the number and possible effect of passenger mutations in transgenic mice of interest. PMID:26163370

  5. Genetic modifiers of cognitive maintenance among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Evans, Daniel S; Coppola, Giovanni; Kramer, Joel H; Tranah, Gregory J; Yaffe, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify genetic factors associated with cognitive maintenance in late life and assess their association with gray matter (GM) volume in brain networks affected in aging. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study of ?2.4 M markers to identify modifiers of cognitive trajectories in Caucasian participants (N?=?7,328) from two population-based cohorts of non-demented elderly. Standardized measures of global cognitive function (z-scores) over 10 and 6 years were calculated among participants and mixed model regression was used to determine subject-specific cognitive slopes. “Cognitive maintenance” was defined as a change in slope of???0 and was compared with all cognitive decliners (slope?genetic scores to assess whether carrying more cognitive maintenance alleles was associated with greater GM volume in specific brain networks using voxel-based morphometry. Results The most significant association was on chromosome 11 (rs7109806, P?=?7.8 × 10?8) near RIC3. RIC3 modulates activity of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and beta-amyloid binding. In the neuroimaging cohort, carrying more cognitive maintenance alleles was associated with greater volume in the right executive control network (RECN; PFWE?=?0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that there may be genetic loci that promote healthy cognitive aging and that they may do so by conferring robustness to GM in the RECN. Future work is required to validate top candidate genes such as RIC3 for involvement in cognitive maintenance. PMID:24616004

  6. Genetic diversity and performance of maize varieties from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi 

    E-print Network

    Magorokosho, Cosmos

    2007-04-25

    maize arrived in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with such names as Boone County, Leaming, Golden King, Iowa Silver Mine, Hickory King and Horsetooth (Weinamann, 1972). Many of these varieties were characterized by large... such as Hickory King and Horsetooth that were introduced into the region by the British from the late nineteenth century (Weinamann, 1972). Depending on the farming area, different kernel textures are chosen by different groups of farmers. In Malawi and some...

  7. Genetic mapping in maize with hybrid progeny across testers and generations: plant height and flowering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Austin; M. Lee; L. R. Veldboom

    2001-01-01

    DNA markers were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for plant height, ear height, and three flowering traits\\u000a in hybrid progeny of two generations (F2:3, F6:8) of lines from a Mo17×H99 maize population. For both generations, testcross (TC) progeny were developed by crossing the lines\\u000a to three inbred testers (B91, A632, B73). The hybrid progeny from the two generations

  8. Genetic variation in Fusarium section Liseola from no-till maize in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Chulze, S N; Ramirez, M L; Torres, A; Leslie, J F

    2000-12-01

    Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective population number for mating population A (N(e)) and found that the N(e) for mating type was 89% of the count (total population) and that the N(e) for male or hermaphrodite status was 36%. Thus, the number of strains that can function as the female parent limits N(e), and sexual reproduction needs to occur only once every 54 to 220 asexual generations to maintain this level of sexual fertility. Our results indicate that the fungal populations isolated from no-till maize are similar to those recovered from maize managed with conventional tillage. We placed 36 strains from mating population A into 28 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Of the 13 strains belonging to five multimember VCGs, only 2 isolates belonging to one VCG were clones based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. Members of the other four multimember VCGs had an average similarity index of 0.89, and members of one VCG were no more closely related to other members of the same VCG than they were to other members of the population as a whole. This finding suggests that the common assumption that strains in the same VCG are either clonal or very closely related needs to be examined in more detail. The variability observed with AFLPs and VCGs suggests that sexual reproduction may occur more frequently than estimated by N(e). PMID:11097907

  9. Multielemental analysis of genetically modified food using ANAA and PIXE techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilca Marli; Moitinho Amaral; Cibele Bugno Zamboni Medeiros; Jos ´ e; Agostinho Goncalves de Medeiros; Marcia de Almeida Rizzutto

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of two techniques, ANAA and PIXE, used in the analyses of some availa- ble commercial food containing regular and genetically modified ingredients, as well as soybens cultivated with regular and genetically modified seeds (GMS). The aim of this work is determine their elemental composition to perform a comparative analysis. The elemental composition results of both

  10. Quasi-option values for enhanced information regarding genetically modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

    2004-01-01

    Issues concerning the long-term environmental and health risks associated with the production of genetically modified foods remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers values for a precautionary approach to the release of genetically modified crops compares to the opportunity costs of forgoing economic growth associated with the use of these technologies. In this paper, an application of

  11. Evaluating the Behavioural Impact of the Australian and New Zealand Genetically Modified Food Labelling Provisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Macpherson; Zane Kearns; Duncan Hedderley; Simon Sharland

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a choice experiment that encompassed the labelling options outlined in the Australian and New Zealand government's recently finalized mandatory labelling system for genetically modified foods (GMF's) and foods that contain genetically modified ingredients. The labelling scheme is to be implemented across both countries from December 2001 onwards. Results suggest difficulties ahead for manufacturers and

  12. Agricultural Deskilling and the Spread of Genetically Modified Cotton in Warangal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is a key cotton-growing area in one of the most closely watched arenas of the global struggle over genetically modified crops. In 2005 farmers adopted India's first genetically modified crop, Bt cotton, in numbers that resemble a fad. Various parties, including the biotechnology firm behind the new technology, interpret the spread as the result of

  13. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics. PMID:25716164

  14. Genetic Modifiers of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Response to Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; Papandonatos, George D.; Belalcazar, L. Maria; Yang, Yao; Erar, Bahar; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Lipkin, Edward W.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Huggins, Gordon S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Numerous prospective studies indicate that improved cardiorespiratory fitness reduces type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and delays disease progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants modify fitness response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) randomized clinical trial, aimed to detect whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2D compared to a standard of care. Methods Polymorphisms in established fitness genes and in all loci assayed on the Illumina CARe iSelect chip were examined as predictors of change in metabolic equivalent (MET) level, estimated using a treadmill test, in response to a one-year intervention in 3,899 participants. Results We identified a significant signal in previously reported fitness-related gene RUNX1 that was associated with one-year METs response in ILI (0.19±0.04 MET less improvement per minor allele copy; P=1.9×10?5) and genotype-intervention interaction (P=4.8×10?3). In the chip-wide analysis, FKBP7 rs17225700 showed a significant association with ILI response among subjects not receiving beta-blocker medications (0.47±0.09 METs less improvement; P=5.3×10?7), and genotype-treatment interaction (P=5.3×10?5). GRAIL pathway-based analysis identified connections between associated genes, including those influencing vascular tone, muscle contraction, cardiac energy substrate dynamics, and muscle protein synthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to identify genetic variants associated with fitness responses to a randomized lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. RUNX1 and FKBP7, involved in erythropoesis and muscle protein synthesis, respectively, are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness in response to exercise. PMID:23899896

  15. Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination Is under Genetic Control in the C4 Species Maize with Several Genomic Regions Influencing Trait Expression1[W

    PubMed Central

    Gresset, Sebastian; Westermeier, Peter; Rademacher, Svenja; Ouzunova, Milena; Presterl, Thomas; Westhoff, Peter; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-01-01

    In plants with C4 photosynthesis, physiological mechanisms underlying variation in stable carbon isotope discrimination (?13C) are largely unknown, and genetic components influencing ?13C have not been described. We analyzed a maize (Zea mays) introgression library derived from two elite parents to investigate whether ?13C is under genetic control in this C4 species. High-density genotyping with the Illumina MaizeSNP50 Bead Chip was used for a detailed structural characterization of 89 introgression lines. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in the field and in the greenhouse for kernel ?13C as well as plant developmental and photosynthesis-related traits. Highly heritable significant genetic variation for ?13C was detected under field and greenhouse conditions. For several introgression library lines, ?13C values consistently differed from the recurrent parent within and across the two phenotyping platforms. ?13C was significantly associated with 22 out of 164 analyzed genomic regions, indicating a complex genetic architecture of ?13C. The five genomic regions with the largest effects were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 and explained 55% of the phenotypic variation for ?13C. Plant development stage had no effect on ?13C expression, as phenotypic as well as genotypic correlations between ?13C, flowering time, and plant height were not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating ?13C to be under polygenic control in the C4 species maize. PMID:24280436

  16. NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

  17. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule. PMID:23143480

  18. Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-06-23

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited. PMID:21247941

  19. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria. PMID:12083279

  20. Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BAO-RONG LU and ALLISON A. SNOW (; )

    2005-08-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the environmental consequences of genetically modified rice. Within the next few years, many types of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) will be ready for commercialization, including varieties with higher yields, greater tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, resistance to herbicides, improved nutritional quality, and novel pharmaceutical proteins. Although rice is primarily self-pollinating, its transgenes are expected to disperse to nearby weedy and wild relatives through pollen-mediated gene flow. Sexually compatible Oryza species often co-occur with the crop, especially in tropical countries, but little is known about how quickly fitness-enhancing transgenes will accumulate in these populations and whether this process will have any unwanted environmental consequences. For example, weedy rice could become much more difficult to manage if it acquires herbicide resistance, produces more seeds, or occurs in a wider range of habitats because of the spread of certain transgenes. Rice-growing countries urgently need publicly available ecological assessments of the risks and benefits of transgenic rice before new varieties are released.

  1. Method of detecting genetically modified chicken containing human erythropoietin gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) chickens carrying the human erythropoietin (hEpo) gene have been developed to produce recombinant hEpo protein in eggs. However, such animals have not been approved as food sources in Japan. We developed a method for detecting the hEpo gene in chicken meat using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The hEpo gene was clearly detected in genomic DNA extracted from magnum and heart of a chimeric chicken containing the hEpo gene. A plasmid containing the hEpo gene was used as a standard reference molecule as well. The results clearly showed that our method was capable of detecting the hEpo gene contained in the plasmid in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from a raw chicken meat sample. We successfully used this method to test six samples of raw chicken meat and six samples of chicken meat in processed foods. This method will be useful for monitoring chicken meat that might have originated from GM chickens carrying the hEpo gene to assure food safety. PMID:23995657

  2. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price. PMID:16834625

  3. RFLP analyses of early-maturing European maize germ plasm : I. Genetic diversity among flint and dent inbreds.

    PubMed

    Messmer, M M; Melchinger, A E; Boppenmaier, J; Herrmann, R G; Brunklaus-Jung, E

    1992-05-01

    Thirty inbred lines representing a wide range of early-maturing European elite germ plasm of maize (Zea mays L.) were assayed for RFLPs using 203 clone-enzyme combinations (106 DNA clones with restriction enzymes EcoR1 and HindIII). The genetic materials comprised 14 flint, 12 dent, and 4 lines of miscellaneous origin. Objectives were to (1) characterize the genetic diversity for RFLPs in these materials, (2) compare the level of genetic diversity found within and between the flint and the dent heterotic groups, and (3) examine the usefulness of RFLPs for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups. All but two DNA clones yielded polymorphism with at least one restriction enzyme. A total of 82 and 121 clone-enzyme combinations gave single-banded and multiple-banded RFLP patterns, respectively, with an average of 3.9 and 7.7 RFLP patterns per clone-enzyme combination across all 30 inbreds, respectively. Genetic similarity (GS) between lines, estimated from RFLP data as Dice's similarity coefficient, showed considerable variation (0.32 to 0.58) among unrelated inbreds. The mean GS for line combinations of type flint x dent (0.41) was significantly smaller than for unrelated flint lines (0.46) and dent lines (0.46), but there was considerable variation in GS estimates of individual line combinations within each group. Cluster and principal coordinate analyses based on GS values resulted in separate groupings of flint and dent lines in accordance with phylogenetic information. Positioning of lines of miscellaneous origin was generally consistent with expectations based on known breeding behavior and pedigrees. Results from this study corroborated that RFLP data can be used for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups and revealing pedigree relationships among inbreds. PMID:24202927

  4. Reduced fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize genetically engineered for European corn borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, G P; Hellmich, R L; Showers, W B

    1997-10-01

    ABSTRACT Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp-tomless Fusarium infection in kernels of maize hybrids genetically engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding for the delta-endotoxin CryIA(b). Treatments included manual infestation with European corn borer (ECB) larvae and insecticide applications to limit ECB activity to specific maize growth stages or mimic standard ECB control practices. Fusarium symptoms and infection were affected by the specific cryIA(b) transformation used in each hybrid that determines tissue-specific expression of CryIA(b). In hybrids expressing CryIA(b) in kernels, incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and incidence of symptomless kernel infection were reduced compared with near-isogenic hybrids lacking cryIA(b) genes. In plants that were manually infested with ECB, ear rot incidence was reduced by 87, 58, and 68%; severity was reduced by 96, 54, and 64%; and incidence of kernel infection by Fusarium species was reduced by 17, 38, and 38% in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively. Results were similar in treatments that were not manually infested, but differences between transgenic and nontransgenic hybrids were smaller. Most kernel infection was due to F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans (section Liseola) collectively, and it was within this group that transgenic hybrids exhibited reduced infection. Expression of CryIA(b) in plant tissues other than kernels did not consistently affect Fusarium symptoms or infection. Disease incidence was positively correlated with ECB damage to kernels. Insecticide applications also reduced Fusarium symptoms and infection when applied to nontransgenic plants. PMID:18945043

  5. Romanian Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines as a Source of Genetic Diversity in SE Europe, and Their Potential in Future Breeding Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ha?, Voichi?a; Ha?, Ioan; Micl?u?, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm. PMID:24392016

  6. Single-Kernel Ionomic Profiles Are Highly Heritable Indicators of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Elemental Accumulation in Maize Grain (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan R.; Ziegler, Gregory; Lahner, Brett; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Foley, Rachel; Danku, John; Armstrong, Paul; Salt, David E.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

    2014-01-01

    The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel can be viewed in at least two distinct ways. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food and feed for people and animals. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can summarize the life history of a plant, combining genetic programs and environmental interactions. We assert that single-kernel-based phenotyping of the ionome is an effective method of analysis, as it represents a reasonable compromise between precision, efficiency, and power. Here, we evaluate potential pitfalls of this sampling strategy using several field-grown maize sample sets. We demonstrate that there is enough genetically determined diversity in accumulation of many of the elements assayed to overcome potential artifacts. Further, we demonstrate that environmental signals are detectable through their influence on the kernel ionome. We conclude that using single kernels as the sampling unit is a valid approach for understanding genetic and environmental effects on the maize kernel ionome. PMID:24489944

  7. An integrated statistical analysis of the genetic variability of nitrogen metabolism in the ear of three maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Cañas, Rafael A; Amiour, Nardjis; Quilleré, Isabelle; Hirel, Bertrand

    2011-04-01

    During the grain-filling period of maize, the changes in metabolite content, enzyme activities, and transcript abundance of marker genes of amino acid synthesis and interconversion and carbon metabolism in three lines F2, Io, and B73 have been monitored in the cob and in the kernels. An integrative statistical approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering of physiological and transcript abundance data in the three maize lines was performed to determine if it was possible to link the expression of a physiological trait and a molecular biomarker to grain yield and its components. In this study, it was confirmed that, in maize, there was a genetic and organ-specific control of the main steps of nitrogen (N) and carbon metabolism in reproductive sink organs during the grain-filling period. PCA analysis allowed the identification of groups of physiological and molecular markers linked to either a genotype, an organ or to both biological parameters. A hierarchical clustering analysis was then performed to identify correlative relationships existing between these markers and agronomic traits related to yield. Such a clustering approach provided new information on putative marker traits that could be used to improve yield in a given genetic background. This can be achieved using either genetic manipulation or breeding to increase transcript abundance for the genes encoding the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine amino transferase (AlaAT), aspartate amino transferase (AspAT), and ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS). PMID:21112957

  8. DIFFERENCES IN YIELDS, RESIDUE COMPOSITION, AND N MINERALIZATION DYNAMICS OF BT AND NON-BT MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of genetically modified crops may have several direct and indirect effects on soil ecosystem processes, such as soil nitrogen (N) transformations. Field studies were initiated in Northeast Missouri in 2002 and 2003 to examine the effects of application of crop residues from five Bt maize...

  9. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  10. Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Cummings; Levis W. Handley; Bruce Macbryde; Shelagh K. Tupper; Scott J. Werner; Zachary J. Byram

    2008-01-01

    To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract,

  11. MaizeGDB Becomes Sequence-centric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the maize research community’s central repository for genetic and genomic information about the crop plant and research model Zea mays ssp. mays. The MaizeGDB team endeavors to meet research needs as they evolve based on researcher feedback and guidance. Recent work has focused on bett...

  12. Genetic Perspectives on Loss of Diversity in Elite Maize Breeding Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection and genetic drift are two processes that are very well understood if treated separately, but very poorly understood when acting in concert. As a result, existing quantitative genetic theory does not provide any good methods for developing optimal strategies for maintaining sustainable sel...

  13. Comparison of whole-genome prediction models for traits with contrasting genetic architecture in a diversity panel of maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing empirical evidence that whole-genome prediction (WGP) is a powerful tool for predicting line and hybrid performance in maize. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of WGP models towards the genetic architecture of the trait. Whereas previous studies exclusively focused on highly polygenic traits, important agronomic traits such as disease resistances, nutrifunctional or climate adaptational traits have a genetic architecture which is either much less complex or unknown. For such cases, information about model robustness and guidelines for model selection are lacking. Here, we compared five WGP models with different assumptions about the distribution of the underlying genetic effects. As contrasting model traits, we chose three highly polygenic agronomic traits and three metabolites each with a major QTL explaining 22 to 30% of the genetic variance in a panel of 289 diverse maize inbred lines genotyped with 56,110 SNPs. Results We found the five WGP models to be remarkable robust towards trait architecture with the largest differences in prediction accuracies ranging between 0.05 and 0.14 for the same trait, most likely as the result of the high level of linkage disequilibrium prevailing in elite maize germplasm. Whereas RR-BLUP performed best for the agronomic traits, it was inferior to LASSO or elastic net for the three metabolites. We found the approach of genome partitioning of genetic variance, first applied in human genetics, as useful in guiding the breeder which model to choose, if prior knowledge of the trait architecture is lacking. Conclusions Our results suggest that in diverse germplasm of elite maize inbred lines with a high level of LD, WGP models differ only slightly in their accuracies, irrespective of the number and effects of QTL found in previous linkage or association mapping studies. However, small gains in prediction accuracies can be achieved if the WGP model is selected according to the genetic architecture of the trait. If the trait architecture is unknown e.g. for novel traits which only recently received attention in breeding, we suggest to inspect the distribution of the genetic variance explained by each chromosome for guiding model selection in WGP. PMID:22947126

  14. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

  15. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  16. Development of a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for on-site monitoring of genetically modified organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Jee Jang; Il-Hoon Cho; Hee-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Jeon; Se-Young Hwang; Se-Hwan Paek

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been mainly developed for mass production of agricultural plants; however, there are concerns that transgenic crops might cause side effects on ecosystems and human beings. Therefore, to quantitatively trace the genetically modified products, we constructed a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for the detection of recombinant marker proteins expressed in GMOs, i.e., 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), neomycin phosphotransferase

  17. A Modified Genetic Algorithm Applied to Horizontal Well Placement Optimization in Gas Condensate Reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Morales, Adrian

    2011-02-22

    A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO HORIZONTAL WELL PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ADRIAN NICOLAS MORALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Condensate Reservoirs Copyright 2010 Adrian Nicolas Morales A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO HORIZONTAL WELL PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ADRIAN NICOLAS MORALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  18. Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Crops: Differentiated Risk Assessment and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Ervinand; Rick Welsh

    The environmental risks and benefits of genetically modified crops have varying degrees of certainty. The U.S. regulatory\\u000a system evaluates a suite of hazards for the crops primarily by minimizing type I error. However, genetically modified crops\\u000a vary widely in their potential for environmental harm. We develop a differentiated risk assessment process using three models\\u000a that shift from primary emphasis on

  19. A Modified Genetic Algorithm Applied to Horizontal Well Placement Optimization in Gas Condensate Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Morales, Adrian

    2011-02-22

    A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO HORIZONTAL WELL PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ADRIAN NICOLAS MORALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Condensate Reservoirs Copyright 2010 Adrian Nicolas Morales A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO HORIZONTAL WELL PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ADRIAN NICOLAS MORALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  20. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N = 8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. PMID:25063421

  1. In vivo characterization of skeletal phenotype of genetically modified mice.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hua Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified mouse models provide an important tool for understanding of the roles of specific gene in skeletal growth, development, and aging. Appropriate study design is essential for characterization of skeletal phenotype of these mice. It is important to characterize the bone status of the different phases of skeletal development including the early rapid growth, attainment of peak bone mass, and age-related bone loss phases. In C57BL/6 strain mice, cancellous and cortical bone mass rapidly increases with age before 3 months of age, and reaches the peak cancellous bone mass at approximately 6-8 months of age, while cortical bone mass continuously increases until 12 months of age. Thereafter, age-related decrease in bone mass occurs. According to these observations, at least three different age groups need to be evaluated for bone status to cover the different phases of the life span: 1-3 months of age for rapid growth, 6-9 months for peak bone mass, and >12 months for aged phases. Furthermore, bone resorption and formation activities on all bone surfaces (periosteal, endocortical, intracortical, and cancellous) need to be evaluated. In this article, we briefly summarize our findings in the estrogen receptor-beta knockout (BERKO) and the P2X7 receptor (an ATP-gated ion channel) knockout mice. In BERKO female mice, bone status at 6, 13, and 21 months of ages was evaluated as compared with the wild-type littermate controls. We found that estrogen receptor-beta plays an inhibitory role in periosteal bone formation and longitudinal and radial growth during the growth period, whereas it plays a role in stimulation of bone resorption, bone turnover, and bone loss on cancellous and endocortical bone surfaces during the aging process. We also found that ER-beta knockout improves the survival rate between 6 and 21 months of age. In P2X7R knockout mice, bone status at 2, 5, 9, and 15 months of age was evaluated for both sexes as compared with their wild-type littermate controls. We found that P2X7R plays a role in stimulating periosteal and cancellous bone formation and inhibiting cancellous bone resorption during the growth period. PMID:15984421

  2. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431

  3. Assessment of DNA degradation induced by thermal and UV radiation processing: implications for quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ballari, Rajashekhar V; Martin, Asha

    2013-12-01

    DNA quality is an important parameter for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Food processing leads to degradation of DNA, which may impair GMO detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of various processing treatments such as heating, baking, microwaving, autoclaving and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the relative transgenic content of MON 810 maize using pRSETMON-02, a dual target plasmid as a model system. Amongst all the processing treatments examined, autoclaving and UV irradiation resulted in the least recovery of the transgenic (CaMV 35S promoter) and taxon-specific (zein) target DNA sequences. Although a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing, DNA could still be reliably quantified by Real-time PCR. The measured mean DNA copy number ratios of the processed samples were in agreement with the expected values. Our study confirms the premise that the final analytical value assigned to a particular sample is independent of the degree of DNA degradation since the transgenic and the taxon-specific target sequences possessing approximately similar lengths degrade in parallel. The results of our study demonstrate that food processing does not alter the relative quantification of the transgenic content provided the quantitative assays target shorter amplicons and the difference in the amplicon size between the transgenic and taxon-specific genes is minimal. PMID:23870938

  4. Implications of Genetically Modified Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

    2004-01-01

    The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ?golden rice,? which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

  5. PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND ORGANIC FOODS AND PROCESSES: NORTH DAKOTA COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

    2005-01-01

    Perceptions of genetically modified (GM) and organic food among North Dakota college students were elicited and compared. Participants responded to one of two survey instruments containing identical wording except for reference to genetic modification or organic, after reading a primer defining the term used in their instrument. Participants' indicated their level of agreement with statements in the construct areas of

  6. A comparative analysis of media reporting of perceived risks and benefits of genetically modified crops and foods in Kenyan and international newspapers.

    PubMed

    DeRosier, Christopher; Sulemana, Iddisah; James, Harvey S; Valdivia, Corinne; Folk, William; Smith, Randall D

    2015-07-01

    We empirically examine the reporting on biotechnology in Kenyan and international newspapers between 2010 and early 2014. We identify news articles that reported on biotechnology and analyze their use of words to determine whether there is a balance in the reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We also consider how the sources used in news articles and how the publication of the Séralini study of rats fed genetically modified maize affect the balance of reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We find that in Kenyan news reporting, more articles mention perceived benefits than risks, but when risks are mentioned, new articles contain more references to risks than to benefits. We also find that sources affect the reporting of perceived risks and benefits and that the Séralini study increased the likelihood that perceived risks are reported in Kenyan news reporting, but not in international newspapers. PMID:25605748

  7. THE GENETIC BASIS OF C-GLYCOSYL FLAVONE B-RING MODIFICATION IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SILKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) has been attributed to high concentrations of C-glycosyl flavones and chlorogenic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) silks. The most common C-glycosyl flavones isolated from maize silks are maysin, apimaysin, and methoxymaysin, which are distinguished by ...

  8. Genetic relationships and structure among open pollinated maize varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with the national agricultural systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have developed various stress-tolerant and more nutritious open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize that are suitable for smallholder farmers’ g...

  9. Comparative biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions on raw and oxalic acid modified maize husk: kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Idowu, Mopelola Abidemi; Ofudje, Andrew Edwin; Kareem, Sarafadeen Olateju; Ahmed, Sikiru Akinyeye

    2013-03-01

    Maize husk, an abundant agricultural waste was used to prepare a biosorbent for the biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in a batch process. Equilibrium and kinetics of biosorption of the metals ions were studied at 25 °C. The adsorbtion data were treated with common kinetic and isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with maximum capacity of 8.52 and 7.38 mg g-1 for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on raw biomass (UTCS). The capacity of 9.00 and 9.33 mg g-1 was observed for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on acid modified biomass (ATCS). The study also revealed that the sorption process in both cases depend on biomass dosage, temperature, pH and initial metal ion concentration, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (? G o, ? H o and ? S o) showed that the biosorption of the metal ions onto maize husk is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  10. Do You Really Know What You're Eating? A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wayne Shew

    2007-01-01

    Starting from a fictional “news” report about an apparent allergic reaction to a taco tainted by genetically modified corn, students consider some of the techniques and procedures used in modern molecular genetics and microbiology as well as some of the issues associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Originally designed for role-play and PowerPoint assignments, suggestions for a shortened version are also provided. Suitable for a general microbiology course, the case could also be used in an introductory molecular biology course with appropriate modifications. Various levels of coverage of the topic of recombinant DNA are possible.

  11. Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, D B; Bohan, D A; Haughton, A J; Hill, M O; Osborne, J L; Clark, S J; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Firbank, L G

    2003-01-01

    The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed for 59 maize, 66 beet and 67 spring oilseed rape sites. Fields were split into halves, one being sown with a GMHT crop and the other with the equivalent conventional non-GMHT crop. Margin vegetation was recorded in three components of the field margins. Most differences were in the tilled area, with fewer smaller effects mirroring them in the verge and boundary. In spring oilseed rape fields, the cover, flowering and seeding of plants were 25%, 44% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT uncropped tilled margins. Similarly, for beet, flowering and seeding were 34% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT margins. For maize, the effect was reversed, with plant cover and flowering 28% and 67% greater, respectively, in the GMHT half. Effects on butterflies mirrored these vegetation effects, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape. The likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Few large treatment differences were found for bees, gastropods or other invertebrates. Scorching of vegetation by herbicide-spray drift was on average 1.6% on verges beside conventional crops and 3.7% beside GMHT crops, the difference being significant for all three crops. PMID:14561320

  12. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

  13. Extensive genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium within the COMT locus in maize exotic populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caffeic acid 3-O-methytransferase (COMT) gene is a prime candidate for cell wall digestibility improvement based on the characterization of brown midrib-3 mutants. We compared the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium at COMT locus between populations sampled within the Germplasm Enhance...

  14. Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of tra...

  15. Estimating the Market Effect of a Food Scare: The Case of Genetically Modified StarLink Corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin A. Carter; Aaron D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Genetic modification of crops has revolutionized food production, but it remains controversial due to food safety and environmental concerns. A recent food safety scare provides a natural experiment on the corn market's willingness to accept unapproved genetically modified organisms. In 2000, a genetically modified corn variety called StarLink was discovered in the food-corn supply, even though it was not approved

  16. Genetic Dissection of Internode Length Above the Uppermost Ear in Four RIL Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Lixia; Cao, Liru; Wei, Xiaomin; Su, Huihui; Tian, Zhiqiang; Guo, Shulei; Zhang, Liangkun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Yuguang; Li, Guohui; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    The internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) is an important influencing factor for canopy architecture in maize. Analyzing the genetic characteristics of internode length is critical for improving plant population structure and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. However, the genetic control of ILAU has not been determined. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for internode length at five positions above the uppermost ear were identified using four sets of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in three environments. Genetic maps and initial QTL were integrated using meta-analyses across the four populations. Seventy QTL were identified: 16 in population 1; 14 in population 2; 25 in population 3; and 15 in population 4. Individual effects ranged from 5.36% to 26.85% of phenotypic variation, with 27 QTL >10%. In addition, the following common QTL were identified across two populations: one common QTL for the internode length of all five positions; one common QTL for the internode length of three positions; and one common QTL for the internode length of one position. In addition, four common QTL for the internode length of four positions were identified in one population. The results indicated that the ILAU at different positions above the uppermost ear could be affected by one or several of the same QTL. The traits may also be regulated by many different QTL. Of the 70 initial QTL, 46 were integrated in 14 meta-QTL (mQTLs) by meta-analysis, and 17 of the 27 initial QTL with R2?>10% were integrated in 7 mQTLs. Four of the key mQTLs (mQTL2-2, mQTL3-2, mQTL5-1, mQTL5-2, and mQTL9) in which the initial QTL displayed R2 >10% included four to 11 initial QTL for an internode length of four to five positions from one or two populations. These results may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection to improve canopy architecture. PMID:25538101

  17. MaizeGDB: everything old is new again! [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of genetic, genomic, and breeding research evolves over time, making it necessary to continually redefine the paradigm for data access and data analysis tools. Here we report the reinvention of MaizeGDB, the maize genetics and genomics database, to meet maize researchers’ ever changing nee...

  18. Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity by enhanced photosynthetic rate and modified bundle sheath's cell chloroplasts ultrastructure in maize.

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Pavlovi?, Andrej; Lux, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Silicon was shown to alleviate the negative effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth. Although the positive role of Si on toxic and heavy metal Cd has been already described, the mechanisms have been explained only partially and still remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of Si on photosynthetic-related processes in maize exposed to two different levels of Cd via measurements of net photosynthetic rate (AN), chlorophyll a fluorescence and pigment analysis, as well as studies of leaf tissue anatomy and cell ultrastructure using bright-field and transmission electron microscopy. We found that Si actively alleviated the toxic syndromes of Cd by increasing AN, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (?PSII) and content of assimilation pigments, although did not decrease the concentration of Cd in leaf tissues. Cadmium did not affect the leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of leaf mesophyll's cell chloroplasts; however, Cd negatively affected thylakoid formation in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells, and this was alleviated by Si. Improved thylakoid formation in bundle sheath's cell chloroplasts may contribute to Si-induced enhancement of photosynthesis and related increase in biomass production in C4 plant maize. PMID:26036417

  19. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  20. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  1. Creating genetically modified pigs by using nuclear transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangxue Lai; Randall S Prather

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) is a procedure by which genetically identical individuals can be created. The technology of pig somatic NT, including in vitro maturation of oocytes, isolation and treatment of donor cells, artificial activation of reconstructed oocytes, embryo culture and embryo transfer, has been intensively studied in recent years, resulting in birth of cloned pigs in many labs. While it

  2. Environmental and genetic modifiers of squint penetrance during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuhong Pei; P. Huw Williams; Matthew D. Clark; Derek L. Stemple; Benjamin Feldman

    2007-01-01

    The Nodal-related subgroup of the TGF? superfamily of secreted cytokines regulates the specification of the mesodermal and endodermal germ layers during gastrulation. Two Nodal-related proteins – Squint (Sqt) and Cyclops (Cyc) – are expressed during germ-layer specification in zebrafish. Genetic sqt mutant phenotypes have defined a variable requirement for zygotic Sqt, but not for maternal Sqt, in midline mesendoderm development.

  3. Chemical and flavor profiles of genetically modified peanut varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop throughout the world. It is susceptible to many types of fungal pathogens. Genetic engineering offers great potential for developing peanut cultivars resistant to a broad spectrum of pathogens that pose a recurring threat to peanut hea...

  4. Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

  5. Effect of Genetically Modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r on the Fungal Rhizosphere Microflora of Field-Grown Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORA C. M. GLANDORF; Patrick Verheggen; Timo Jansen; JAN-WILLEM JORRITSMA; Eric Smit; Paula Leeflang; Karel Wernars; LINDA S. THOMASHOW; Eric Laureijs; JANE E. THOMAS-OATES; PETER A. H. M. BAKKER; L. C. van Loon

    2001-01-01

    We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The\\u000atwo genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the\\u000aphz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the antifungal compound\\u000aphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In the springs of 1997 and 1998 we sowed wheat seeds treated with either

  6. Response to aflatoxin and grain composition of exotic maize germplasm 

    E-print Network

    Corn, Rebecca Joann

    2009-06-02

    Exotic germplasm has potential to provide new alleles for disease and insect resistance. US maize (Zea mays L.) currently lacks genetic resistance to Aspergillus flavus, a fungal pathogen that produces aflatoxin in maize kernels. Aflatoxin is one...

  7. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of cauliflower mosaic virus to complement the 35S screening assay for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Katarina; Ravnikar, Maja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Toplak, Natasa

    2005-01-01

    Labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is now in place in many countries, including the European Union, in order to guarantee the consumer's choice between GM and non-GM products. Screening of samples is performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of regulatory sequences frequently introduced into genetically modified plants. Primers for the 35S promoter from Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) are those most frequently used. In virus-infected plants or in samples contaminated with plant material carrying the virus, false-positive results can consequently occur. A system for real-time PCR using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe was designed that allows recognition of virus coat protein in the sample, thus allowing differentiation between transgenic and virus-infected samples. We measured the efficiency of PCR amplification, limits of detection and quantification, range of linearity, and repeatability of the assay in order to assess the applicability of the assay for routine analysis. The specificity of the detection system was tested on various virus isolates and plant species. All 8 CaMV isolates were successfully amplified using the designed system. No cross-reactivity was detected with DNA from 3 isolates of the closely related Carnation etched ring virus. Primers do not amplify plant DNA from available genetically modified maize and soybean lines or from different species of Brassicaceae or Solanaceae that are natural hosts for CaMV. We evaluated the assay for different food matrixes by spiking CaMV DNA into DNA from food samples and have successfully amplified CaMV from all samples. The assay was tested on rapeseed samples from routine GMO testing that were positive in the 35S screening assay, and the presence of the virus was confirmed. PMID:16001857

  8. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Bub; Jutta Möseneder; Gerhard Wenzel; Gerhard Rechkemmer; Karlis Briviba

    2008-01-01

    The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However,\\u000a zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding\\u000a or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk\\u000a of age-related macular degeneration.

  9. Genetic Relationships, Carbendazim Sensitivity and Mycotoxin Production of the Fusarium Graminearum Populations from Maize, Wheat and Rice in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jianbo; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are important pathogens on wheat, maize, barley, and rice in China. Harvested grains are often contaminated by mycotoxins, such as the trichothecene nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN), which is a big threat to humans and animals. In this study, 97 isolates were collected from maize, wheat, and rice in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in 2013 and characterized by species- and chemotype-specific PCR. F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) was predominant on maize, while most of the isolates collected from rice and wheat were identified as F. asiaticum. Fusarium isolates from three hosts varied in trichothecene chemotypes. The 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype predominated on wheat and rice population, while 15ADON was prevailing in the remaining isolates. Sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1? and trichodiene synthase indicated the accuracy of the above conclusion. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis suggested four groups with strong correlation with species, chemotype, and host. These isolates were also evaluated for their sensitivity to carbendazim and mycotoxins production. The maize population was less sensitive than the other two. The DON levels were similar in three populations, while those isolates on maize produced more ZEN. More DON was produced in carbendazim resistant strains than sensitive ones, but it seemed that carbendazim resistance had no effect on ZEN production in wheat culture. PMID:25093387

  10. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Naveed, Muhammad; Jehl, Marc-André; Sessitsch, Angela; Rattei, Thomas; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7, and S8), which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7), commensal (S8), to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6) in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed. PMID:26029184

  11. Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Ben (Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept) [Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept

    2006-03-16

    Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

  12. On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Squire, G R; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Champion, G T; Daniels, R E; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Hill, M O; May, M J; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Roy, D B; Woiwod, I P; Firbank, L G

    2003-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity and food webs were compared in conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops of beet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and both spring and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). GMHT and conventional varieties were sown in a split-field experimental design, at 60-70 sites for each crop, spread over three starting years beginning in 2000. This paper provides a background to the study and the rationale for its design and interpretation. It shows how data on environment, field management and the biota are used to assess the current state of the ecosystem, to define the typical arable field and to devise criteria for selecting, sampling and auditing experimental sites in the Farm Scale Evaluations. The main functional and taxonomic groups in the habitat are ranked according to their likely sensitivity to GMHT cropping, and the most responsive target organisms are defined. The value of the seedbank as a baseline and as an indicator of historical trends is proposed. Evidence from experiments during the twentieth century is analysed to show that large changes in field management have affected sensitive groups in the biota by ca. 50% during a year or short run of years--a figure against which to assess any positive or negative effects of GMHT cropping. The analysis leads to a summary of factors that were, and were not, examined in the first 3 years of the study and points to where modelling can be used to extrapolate the effects to the landscape and the agricultural region. PMID:14561314

  13. Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat Rubrospinal Axons and

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Itzhak

    CNS neurons do not normally regenerate their severed axons. This failure has been attributed to scar tracing with fluorogold showed that 7% of RST neurons regenerated axons at least three to four segmentsTransplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat

  14. Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Itzhak

    promote axon regeneration from supraspinal neurons in the chronically injured spinal cord with accompaTransplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons Following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Ying Jin,*,1 Itzhak Fischer, Alan Tessler,, and John

  15. Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A study focusing on genetically modified (GM) foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Demirci

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from 31 different provinces. The study not only revealed important results about the perceptions of

  16. Labelling genetically modified food products: consumers’ concern in the United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arbindra Rimal; Wanki Moon; Siva Balasubramanian

    2007-01-01

    AbstractAn online survey method was used to collect data regarding the concern and attitude of UK consumers towards genetically modified (GM) food labelling. Questionnaires were sent to 9000 participants of the online panel via emails, and 2568 consumers completed the online survey. The response rate was 29%. This study found that more than 75% of the consumers questioned were concerned

  17. Measuring The Attitudes Of Australian Food Manufacturers Towards Genetically Modified (GM) Foods - A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Woodside; Gabriel Ogunmokun; Leslie R. Brown

    Consumer acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) foods varies amongst countries, Europeans generally show low levels of acceptance and US consumers are seen as divided in attitudes. As acceptance is essential for the adoption of new technologies in food production and the ultimate market success of new food products, this study, unlike prior Australian research, which has focused on consumer attitudes

  18. The effect of consumer risk perceptions on the propensity to purchase genetically modified foods in Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kynda R. Curtis; Klaus Moeltner

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates consumer purchase propensity for genetically modified (GM) food products in Romania, shedding light on consumer preferences in developing Eastern European nations. Results based on a bivariate probit model of purchase propensity for GM sunflower oil and table potatoes show that consumers in Romania are generally opposed to GM food consumption, similar to consumers in Western Europe, but

  19. CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY: WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin M. Onyango; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Brian J. Schilling; William K. Hallman

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology is often viewed as the defining technology for the future of food and agriculture with the potential to deliver a wide range of economic and health benefits. Public acceptance of genetically modified food products is a critical factor for this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study examines public acceptance of food biotechnology by modeling consumers?'

  20. An integrated research framework to understand consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Fang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Given that the increased marketing of genetically modified (GM) food products and the attitudes of the public have a strong impact on the progress of this emerging gene technology, this study aims to shed light on the antecedents relating to the extent of both the adoption and the purchase intention of GM foods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This work is

  1. Analysis of consumer responses to health threat of genetically modified foods: A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayla ÖZHAN DEDEO?LU; Keti VENTURA

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the perception of threat of Genetically Modified Foods (GMFs), consequent emotions and coping responses of Turkish consumers. A survey methodology that enables analysis of consumer fear in a naturalistic setting is embraced, so that the call of Hastings, Stead and Webb (2004) for a literature also focusing on generalizability of findings to external settings

  2. Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods with Health Benefits: A Study in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José I. Rojas-Méndez; Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Rodrigo Claro-Riethmüller; Achim Spiller

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out in Germany in order to assess consumers' acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods with health benefits (bread, yohurt and eggs). Acceptability of GM foods increases when its source does not involve animal products such as eggs. Three factors have been identified as direct antecedents of the acceptance of GM foods: respondents' attitude towards biotechnology, health

  3. GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS: A NORTH\\/SOUTH PERSPECTIVE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berndt H. Brikell

    The use of Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs) is considered a controversial issue. On the one hand GMPs seem to promise a way to increase planetary food production, while on the other it seems to open Pandora's box with no hope to erase the impact of un-controlled GMP spread. Those who advocate Research & Demonstration (R&D) of GMPs argue that these

  4. Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – Contributions to nutritional and safety assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Flachowsky; K. Aulrich; H. Böhme; I. Halle

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, 18 studies with feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) in the nutrition of dairy cows, growing bulls, growing and finishing pigs, laying hens, chicken for finishing as well as growing and laying quails were conducted at the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig (Germany).The majority of the experiments (16) were undertaken with GMP of the so-called first

  5. The environmental feature in consumer purchasing preferences: The case of Genetically Modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Macario Rodriguez-Entrena; Samir Sayadi

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Biotechnology (Gene Revolution) tends to be compared with that of the Green Revolution in the sixties and seventies. This process is developing in a context of increasing concern by the consumers for food safety and environmental conservation, stirring controversy in the scientific community and society about the potential benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In

  6. Disaggregating consumer demands for organic and genetically modified foods using the Choice Modelling technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

    2002-01-01

    Issues concerning consumer demands for genetically modified and organic food remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers perceive issues associated with food production such as food safety, environmental impacts or animal welfare. It is also unclear how consumers might value potential changes in those issues. This paper reports on research using the choice modelling technique to estimate

  7. Weed and arthropod populations in conventional and genetically modified herbicide tolerant fodder beet fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beate Strandberg; Marianne Bruus Pedersen; Niels Elmegaard

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops has raised concerns from both scientists and non-governmental organisations about possible effects on arable flora and fauna due to the changes in herbicide application and management that such crops involve. Three consecutive studies were performed, covering flora and fauna in fields of GMHT and conventional fodder beets over the season, at

  8. Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

  9. TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

  10. Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekborg, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

  11. Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

    2001-06-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

  12. Assessing Genetically Modified Crops to Minimize the Risk of Increased Food Allergy: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Goodman; Susan L. Hefle; Steven L. Taylor; Ronald van Ree

    2005-01-01

    The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the

  13. Protection of the Neostriatum against Excitotoxic Damage by Neurotrophin-Producing, Genetically Modified Neural Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Martinez-Serrano; Anders Bjorklund

    1996-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative dis- ease that affects the striatum, above all, the GABAergic striatal projection neurons. In the present study, we have explored the use of genetically modified neural stem cell lines producing nerve growth factor (NGF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a means to protect the striatal neurons against excitotoxic damage after transplantation to the

  14. Modeling and optimization of viscosity in enzyme-modified cheese by fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohebbi; J. Barouei; M. R. Akbarzadeh-T; A. R. Rowhanimanesh; M. B. Habibi-Najafi; M. Yavarmanesh

    2008-01-01

    In the food industry, there is an increasing emphasis on the need for an economic and an additional cheese flavor to prepared food. In this paper a Genetic Fuzzy Rule Base System (GFRS) for modeling of viscosity in enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) is described based on experimental data. Using data obtained via measurement of viscosity in EMC prepared with different dosage

  15. Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

  16. Competitors co-operating: establishing a supply chain to manage genetically modified canola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart J. Smyth; Peter W. B. Phillips

    2001-01-01

    Identity preserving production and marketing (IPPM) systems are used extensively in the Canadian canola industry to segregate varieties with different traits from the commodity stream. This paper examines one use of identify preserved production and marketing systems for genetically modified (GM) canola. A number of transgenic herbicide tolerant (HT) varieties have been approved for release in Canada since 1995 but

  17. Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S.; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009–2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

  18. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Judy

    , 2000 (received for review January 24, 2000) Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliverGenetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens compartment of mammalian cells. The engineered anthrax toxin vaccine appears unlikely to induce an antibody

  19. Approaches to Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Novel Proteins in Food from Genetically Modified Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Kimber; Rebecca J. Dearman

    2002-01-01

    The safety assessment of food derived from genetically modified plants continues to attract considerable attention. Among the important issues that need to be considered is whether the prod- ucts of novel genes introduced into crop plants will have the potential to induce allergic sensitization or to elicit allergic disease. Hierarchical approaches to allergenicity testing have been pro- posed, and these

  20. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enoch M. Kikulwe; Justus Wesseler; Jose Falck-Zepeda

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify

  1. A Survey of Genetically Modified Foods Consumed, Health Implications and Recommendations for Public Health Food Safety in Trinidad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deryck Damian Pattron

    Genetically modified foods provide one of the major challenges facing the food industry in the twenty-first century worldwide. The safety of genetically modified foods are being questioned by scientists, researchers and doctors as it is believed that these foods may pose a serious public health risk, especially for the young, aged, pregnant and immunocompromised persons. The present study investigated the

  2. Information Based Regulation and International Trade in Genetically Modified Agricultural Products: An Evaluation of The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Healy

    2002-01-01

    This Essay considers the regulation of international trade in genetically modified agricultural products. Specifically, it addresses both products released into the environment as seeds and products intended for consumption as food. The first part of the Essay describes the significance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture, especially agriculture in the United States. This discussion summarizes the risks and

  3. Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic algorithm

    E-print Network

    Wang, Le

    from a modified genetic algorithm (GA). Model performance was evaluated between the empirical landscapeSpatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic algorithm J. TANG, L. WANG* and Z. YAO Texas Center for Geographic Information Science, Department

  4. Modified alpha-amylase activity among insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Lopes, K V G; Silva, L B; Reis, A P; Oliveira, M G A; Guedes, R N C

    2010-09-01

    Fitness cost is usually associated with insecticide resistance and may be mitigated by increased energy accumulation and mobilization. Preliminary evidence in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggested possible involvement of amylases in such phenomenon. Therefore, alpha-amylases were purified from an insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant strains (one with fitness cost [resistant cost strain], and the other without it [resistant no-cost strain]). The main alpha-amylase of each strain was purified by glycogen precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography (>or=70-fold purification,

  5. Genetic modificationTransgene introgression from genetically modified crops to their wild relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Halfhill; Suzanne I. Warwick; C. Neal Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Transgenes engineered into annual crops could be unintentionally introduced into the genomes of their free-living wild relatives. The fear is that these transgenes might persist in the environment and have negative ecological consequences. Are some crops or transgenic traits of more concern than others? Are there natural genetic barriers to minimize gene escape? Can the genetic transformation process be exploited

  6. Genetic engineering of maize (Zea mays) for high-level tolerance to treatment with the herbicide dicamba.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingxia; Sato, Shirley J; Behrens, Mark; Jiang, Wen Z; Clemente, Thomas E; Weeks, Donald P

    2011-06-01

    Herbicide-tolerant crops have been widely and rapidly adopted by farmers in several countries due to enhanced weed control, lower labor and production costs, increased environmental benefits, and gains in profitability. Soon to be introduced transgenic soybean and cotton varieties tolerant to treatments with the herbicide dicamba offer prospects for excellent broadleaf weed control in these broadleaf crops. Because monocots such as maize (Zea mays) can be treated with dicamba only during a limited window of crop development and because crop injury is sometimes observed when conditions are unfavorable, transgenic maize plants have been produced and tested for higher levels of tolerance to treatment with dicamba. Maize plants expressing the gene encoding dicamba monooxygenase (DMO) linked with an upstream chloroplast transit peptide (CTP) display greatly enhanced tolerance to dicamba applied either pre-emergence or postemergence. Comparisons of DMO coupled to CTPs derived from the Rubisco small subunit from either Arabidopsis thaliana or Z. mays showed that both allowed production of transgenic maize plants tolerant to treatment with levels of dicamba (i.e., 27 kg/ha) greatly exceeding the highest recommended rate of 0.56 kg/ha. PMID:21133415

  7. Investigating the molecular genetic basis of heterosis for internode expansion in maize by microRNA transcriptomic deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Ding, Dong; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yadong; Li, Weihua; Fu, Zhiyuan; Li, Haochuan; Tang, Jihua

    2015-05-01

    Heterosis has been used widely in the breeding of maize and other crops and plays an important role in increasing yield, improving quality, and enhancing stress resistance, but its molecular mechanism is far from clear. To determine whether microRNA (miRNA)-dependent gene regulation is responsible for heterosis of elongating internodes below the ear and ear height in maize, a deep-sequencing strategy was applied to the elite hybrid Xundan20, which is currently cultivated widely in China, and its two parents. RNA was extracted from the eighth internode because it shows clear internode length heterosis. A total of 99 conserved maize miRNAs were detected in both the hybrid and parental lines. Most of these miRNAs were expressed nonadditively in the hybrid compared with its parental lines. These results indicated that miRNAs might participate in heterosis during internode expansion in maize and exert an influence on ear and plant height via the repression of their target genes. In total, eight novel miRNAs belonging to four miRNA families were predicted in the expanding internode. Global repression of miRNAs in the hybrid, which might result in enhanced gene expression, might be one reason why the hybrid shows longer internodes and taller seedlings compared with its parental lines. PMID:25394807

  8. Identification of susceptibility genes and genetic modifiers of human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Kenneth; Kammerer, Stefan; Hoyal, Carolyn; Reneland, Rikard; Marnellos, George; Nelson, Matthew R.; Braun, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    The completion of the human genome sequence enables the discovery of genes involved in common human disorders. The successful identification of these genes is dependent on the availability of informative sample sets, validated marker panels, a high-throughput scoring technology, and a strategy for combining these resources. We have developed a universal platform technology based on mass spectrometry (MassARRAY) for analyzing nucleic acids with high precision and accuracy. To fuel this technology, we generated more than 100,000 validated assays for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering virtually all known and predicted human genes. We also established a large DNA sample bank comprised of more than 50,000 consented healthy and diseased individuals. This combination of reagents and technology allows the execution of large-scale genome-wide association studies. Taking advantage of MassARRAY"s capability for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids, allele frequencies are estimated in sample pools containing large numbers of individual DNAs. To compare pools as a first-pass "filtering" step is a tremendous advantage in throughput and cost over individual genotyping. We employed this approach in numerous genome-wide, hypothesis-free searches to identify genes associated with common complex diseases, such as breast cancer, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis, and genes involved in quantitative traits like high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and central fat. Access to additional well-characterized patient samples through collaborations allows us to conduct replication studies that validate true disease genes. These discoveries will expand our understanding of genetic disease predisposition, and our ability for early diagnosis and determination of specific disease subtype or progression stage.

  9. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A.; Monteiro, G.

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  10. Ban on triazine herbicides likely to reduce but not negate relative benefits of GMHT maize cropping.

    PubMed

    Perry, J N; Firbank, L G; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Heard, M S; May, M J; Hawes, C; Squire, G R; Rothery, P; Woiwod, I P; Pidgeon, J D

    2004-03-18

    The UK Farm-Scale Evaluations (FSE) compared the effects on biodiversity of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) spring-sown crops with conventional crop management. The FSE reported larger weed abundance under GMHT management for fodder maize, one of three crops studied. Increased seed production may be important for the long-term persistence of these arable weeds and may benefit invertebrates, small mammals and seed-eating birds. In three-quarters of FSE maize fields, growers used atrazine on the conventionally managed half, reflecting contemporary commercial practice. Withdrawal of the triazine herbicides atrazine, simazine and cyanazine from approved lists of EU chemicals could therefore reduce or even reverse the reported benefits of GMHT maize. Here we analyse effects of applications of triazine herbicides in conventional maize regimes on key indicators, using FSE data. Weed abundances were decreased greatly relative to all other regimes whenever atrazine was applied before weeds emerged. Here, we forecast weed abundances in post-triazine herbicide regimes. We predict weed abundances under future conventional herbicide management to be considerably larger than that for atrazine used before weeds emerged, but still smaller than for the four FSE sites analysed that used only non-triazine herbicides. Our overall conclusion is that the comparative benefits for arable biodiversity of GMHT maize cropping would be reduced, but not eliminated, by the withdrawal of triazines from conventional maize cropping. PMID:15001990

  11. The Search for Genetic Modifiers of Disease Severity in the ?-Hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Lettre, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) and ?-thalassemia, two monogenic diseases caused by mutations in the ?-globin gene, affect millions of individuals worldwide. These hemoglobin disorders are characterized by extreme clinical heterogeneity, complicating patient management and treatment. A better understanding of this patient-to-patient clinical variability would dramatically improve care and might also guide the development of novel therapies. Studies of the natural history of these ?-hemoglobinopathies have identified fetal hemoglobin levels and concomitant ?-thalassemia as important modifiers of disease severity. Several small-scale studies have attempted to identify additional genetic modifiers of SCD and ?-thalassemia, without much success. Fortunately, improved knowledge of the human genome and the development of new genomic tools, such as genome-wide genotyping arrays and next-generation DNA sequencers, offer new opportunities to use genetics to better understand the causes of the many complications observed in ?-hemoglobinopathy patients. Here I discuss the most important factors to consider when planning an experiment to find associations between ?-hemoglobinopathy-related complications and DNA sequence variants, with a focus on how to successfully perform a genome-wide association study. I also review the literature and explain why most published findings in the field of SCD modifier genetics are likely to be false-positive reports, with the goal to draw lessons allowing investigators to design better genetic experiments. PMID:23028136

  12. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  13. Allelic variants of the amylose extender mutation of maize demonstrate phenotypic variation in starch structure resulting from modified protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fushan; Ahmed, Zaheer; Lee, Elizabeth A; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang; Ahmed, Regina; Morell, Matthew K; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J

    2012-02-01

    Amylose extender (ae(-)) starches characteristically have modified starch granule morphology resulting from amylopectin with reduced branch frequency and longer glucan chains in clusters, caused by the loss of activity of the major starch branching enzyme (SBE), which in maize endosperm is SBEIIb. A recent study with ae(-) maize lacking the SBEIIb protein (termed ae1.1 herein) showed that novel protein-protein interactions between enzymes of starch biosynthesis in the amyloplast could explain the starch phenotype of the ae1.1 mutant. The present study examined an allelic variant of the ae(-) mutation, ae1.2, which expresses a catalytically inactive form of SBEIIb. The catalytically inactive SBEIIb in ae1.2 lacks a 28 amino acid peptide (Val272-Pro299) and is unable to bind to amylopectin. Analysis of starch from ae1.2 revealed altered granule morphology and physicochemical characteristics distinct from those of the ae1.1 mutant as well as the wild-type, including altered apparent amylose content and gelatinization properties. Starch from ae1.2 had fewer intermediate length glucan chains (degree of polymerization 16-20) than ae1.1. Biochemical analysis of ae1.2 showed that there were differences in the organization and assembly of protein complexes of starch biosynthetic enzymes in comparison with ae1.1 (and wild-type) amyloplasts, which were also reflected in the composition of starch granule-bound proteins. The formation of stromal protein complexes in the wild-type and ae1.2 was strongly enhanced by ATP, and broken by phosphatase treatment, indicating a role for protein phosphorylation in their assembly. Labelling experiments with [?-(32)P]ATP showed that the inactive form of SBEIIb in ae1.2 was phosphorylated, both in the monomeric form and in association with starch synthase isoforms. Although the inactive SBEIIb was unable to bind starch directly, it was strongly associated with the starch granule, reinforcing the conclusion that its presence in the granules is a result of physical association with other enzymes of starch synthesis. In addition, an Mn(2+)-based affinity ligand, specific for phosphoproteins, was used to show that the granule-bound forms of SBEIIb in the wild-type and ae1.2 were phosphorylated, as was the granule-bound form of SBEI found in ae1.2 starch. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the complement of heteromeric complexes of proteins involved in amylopectin synthesis contributes to the fine structure and architecture of the starch granule. PMID:22121198

  14. Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Diels; Mario Cunha; Célia Manaia; Bernardo Sabugosa-Madeira; Margarida Silva

    2011-01-01

    Since the first commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops in 1994, the rapidly expanding market of genetically modified seeds has given rise to a multibillion dollar industry. This fast growth, fueled by high expectations towards this new commercial technology and shareholder trust in the involved industry, has provided strong incentives for further research and development of new genetically modified plant

  15. Movable genetic elements: detection of changes in maize DNA at the Shrunken locus due to the intervention of Ds elements

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1980-05-28

    This report describes our initial attempts at the molecular characterization of a maize controlling element. We have prepared a cDNA probe and used it to detect changes at a locus where Ds elements are found. Evidence of their presence are indicated by changes in the restriction patterns, but there is as yet no information on the physical nature of the controlling elements nor on the kinds of rearrangements they cause.

  16. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  17. Evaluation of Genetic Variations in Maize Seedlings Exposed to Electric Field Based on Protein and DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    AL-Huqail, Asma A.; Abdelhaliem, Ekram

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzed proteins and nuclear DNA of electric fields (ELF) exposed and nonexposed maize seedlings for different exposure periods using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and comet assay, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed total of 46 polypeptides bands with different molecular weights ranging from 186.20 to 36.00?KDa. It generated distinctive polymorphism value of 84.62%. Leucine-aminopeptidase, peroxidase, and catalase isozymes showed the highest values of polymorphism (100%) based on zymograms number, relative front (Rf), and optical intensity while esterase isozyme generated polymorphism value of 83.33%. Amino acids were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, which revealed the presence of 17 amino acids of variable contents ranging from 22.65% to 28.09%. RAPD revealed that 78 amplified DNA products had highly polymorphism value (95.08%) based on band numbers, with variable sizes ranging from 120 to 992 base pairs and band intensity. Comet assay recorded the highest extent of nuclear DNA damage as percentage of tailed DNA (2.38%) and tail moment unit (5.36) at ELF exposure of maize nuclei for 5 days. The current study concluded that the longer ELF exposing periods had genotoxic stress on macromolecules of maize cells and biomarkers used should be augmented for reliable estimates of genotoxicity after exposure of economic plants to ELF stressors. PMID:26180815

  18. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of LY038 maize in mixed samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Zhang; Wentao Xu; Weibin Bai; Zhifang Zhai; Yunbo Luo; Xinghua Yan; Jing He; Kunlun Huang

    2011-01-01

    With the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), labeling regulations have been introduced, which require appropriate detection methods. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods have become the internationally agreed state-of-art. This paper describes the characterization and event-specific quantitative detection of LY038 maize insert with the application of reference molecule. The flanking regions were characterized by Inverse-PCR (I-PCR). Furthermore, the

  19. Ban on triazine herbicides likely to reduce but not negate relative benefits of GMHT maize cropping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Perry; L. G. Firbank; G. T. Champion; S. J. Clark; M. S. Heard; M. J. May; C. Hawes; G. R. Squire; P. Rothery; I. P. Woiwod; J. D. Pidgeon

    2004-01-01

    The UK Farm-Scale Evaluations (FSE) compared the effects on biodiversity of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) spring-sown crops with conventional crop management. The FSE reported larger weed abundance under GMHT management for fodder maize, one of three crops studied. Increased seed production may be important for the long-term persistence of these arable weeds and may benefit invertebrates, small mammals

  20. Is the German suspension of MON810 maize cultivation scientifically justified?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnès Ricroch; Jean Baptiste Bergé; Marcel Kuntz

    2010-01-01

    We examined the justifications invoked by the German government in April 2009 to suspend the cultivation of the genetically\\u000a modified maize varieties containing the Bt insect-resistance trait MON810. We have carried out a critical examination of the alleged new data on a potential environmental\\u000a impact of these varieties, namely two scientific papers describing laboratory force-feeding trials on ladybirds and daphnia,

  1. Is the German suspension of MON810 maize cultivation scientifically justified?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Ricroch; Jean Baptiste Berge; Marcel Kuntz

    2009-01-01

    We examined the justifications invoked by the German government in April 2009 to suspend the cultivation of the genetically modified maize varieties containing the Bt insect-resistance trait MON810. We have carried out a critical examination of the alleged new data on a potential environmental impact of these varieties, namely two scientific papers describing laboratory force-feeding trials on ladybirds and daph-

  2. Genome Wide Association Studies Using a New Nonparametric Model Reveal the Genetic Architecture of 17 Agronomic Traits in an Enlarged Maize Association Panel

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohong; Huang, Juan; Zhou, Yang; Ali, Farhan; Wen, Weiwei; Liu, Jie; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits using high-density SNP markers in maize. Here, we expanded our association panel size from 368 to 513 inbred lines with 0.5 million high quality SNPs using a two-step data-imputation method which combines identity by descent (IBD) based projection and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were carried out for 17 agronomic traits with a panel of 513 inbred lines applying both mixed linear model (MLM) and a new method, the Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Ten loci for five traits were identified using the MLM method at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold ?log10 (P) >5.74 (??=?1). Many loci ranging from one to 34 loci (107 loci for plant height) were identified for 17 traits using the A-D test at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold ?log10 (P) >7.05 (??=?0.05) using 556809 SNPs. Many known loci and new candidate loci were only observed by the A-D test, a few of which were also detected in independent linkage analysis. This study indicates that combining IBD based projection and KNN algorithm is an efficient imputation method for inferring large missing genotype segments. In addition, we showed that the A-D test is a useful complement for GWAS analysis of complex quantitative traits. Especially for traits with abnormal phenotype distribution, controlled by moderate effect loci or rare variations, the A-D test balances false positives and statistical power. The candidate SNPs and associated genes also provide a rich resource for maize genetics and breeding. PMID:25211220

  3. Bringing policy relevance and scientific discipline to environmental risk assessment for genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Layton, Raymond; Raybould, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Although public opinion is important in deciding what is valued by society, governments have determined that scientific expertise is required to evaluate potential environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. We suggest how to evaluate rigorously the environmental effects of GM crops in the context of a scientific investigation. Following a disciplined scientific approach to environmental risk assessment (ERA) for GM crops should help resolve controversy in identifying and addressing risk. PMID:23973171

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities in a Genetically Modified (GM) Rice Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Hoon Lee; Chang-Gi Kim; Hojeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a soil ecosystem supporting genetically modified\\u000a (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L., ABC-TPSP; fusion of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase). Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism\\u000a analysis and real-time quantitative PCR, we compared bacterial and fungal communities in the soils underlying GM rice (ABC-TPSP),\\u000a and its host cultivar (Nakdong) during growing

  5. A Microarray-based Detection System for Genetically Modified (GM) Food Ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Leimanis; Marta Hernández; Sophie Fernández; Francine Boyer; Malcolm Burns; Shirin Bruderer; Thomas Glouden; Neil Harris; Othmar Kaeppeli; Patrick Philipp; Maria Pla; Pere Puigdomènech; Marc Vaitilingom; Yves Bertheau; José Remacle

    2006-01-01

    A multiplex DNA microarray chip was developed for simultaneous identification of nine genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a five plant species and three GMO screening elements, i.e. the 35S promoter, the nos terminator and the nptII gene. The chips also include several controls, such as that for the possible presence of CaMV. The on-chip detection was\\u000a performed directly with PCR amplified products.

  6. Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods: Traits, Labels and Diverse Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wallace E. Huffman

    2010-01-01

    New experimental economic methods are described and used to assess consumers' willingness to pay for food products that might be made from new transgenic and intragenic genetically modified (GM) traits. Participants in auctions are randomly chosen adult consumers in major US metropolitan areas and not college students. Food labels are kept simple and focus on key attributes of experimental goods. Diverse private information from

  7. Suggested Improvements for the Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants Used in Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Goodman; Afua O. Tetteh

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population\\u000a has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather\\u000a patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding,\\u000a random mutagenesis, increased pesticide

  8. An overview of general features of risk assessments of genetically modified crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Craig; Mark Tepfer; Giuliano Degrassi; Decio Ripandelli

    2008-01-01

    The intentional introduction into the environment or market of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is nearly always governed\\u000a by a framework of science-based risk assessment and risk management measures. This is usually implemented through the integration\\u000a of hazard identification and characterisation of all of the elements of risk associated with a new GM crop or derived product.\\u000a Typical categories of hazards

  9. Report of the Questionnaire Survey for Consumers' Recognition to Genetically Modified Food in Beijing, China 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayuan XUE; Yuqing WANG

    Summary: Based on the questionnaire surveys to 1000 consumers from 12 supermarkets in Beijing, China, 2004, this paper revealed consumers' attitudes on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM foods. The results show that 64.9% interviewees are not acquaintance to GMOs and GM products, while only 2.3% of respondents have a good understanding. With respect to GMOs labeling, 45.3% of interviewees

  10. Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant Retrovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Liu; B. T. Himes; J. Solowska; J. Moul; S. Y. Chow; K. I. Park; A. Tessler; M. Murray; E. Y. Snyder; I. Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Neural stem cells have been shown to participate in the repair of experimental CNS disorders. To examine their potential in spinal cord repair, we used retroviral vectors to genetically modify a clone of neural stem cells, C17, to overproduce neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The cells were infected with a retrovirus construct containing the NT-3.IRES.lacZ\\/neo sequence and cloned by limiting dilution and selection

  11. General surveillance of genetically modified plants in the EC and the need for controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom J. de Jong

    2010-01-01

    Post market environmental monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) after their deliberate release is a legal obligation in the European Union (Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC and EC-Regulation 1829\\/2003). It has been introduced in order to identify direct or indirect, immediate and\\/or delayed adverse effects of GMOs after their release on the market. The monitoring of environmental effects is subdivided in two parts:

  12. Identifying indicator species for post-release monitoring of genetically modified, herbicide resistant crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Armin Benzler

    2008-01-01

    In Europe, regulations for release and placing-on-the-market of genetically modified (GM) crops require post-release monitoring\\u000a of their impact on the environment. Monitoring potential adverse effects of GM crops includes direct effects as well as indirect\\u000a effects, e.g. GM crop specific changes in land and pest management. Currently, there is a gap in the pre-release risk assessments\\u000a conducted for regulatory approval

  13. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) in Manitoba, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis L. Knispel; Stéphane M. McLachlan

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) was approved for commercial cultivation in Canada in 1995 and currently represents over 95% of the OSR grown in western\\u000a Canada. After a decade of widespread cultivation, GMHT volunteers represent an increasing management problem in cultivated\\u000a fields and are ubiquitous in adjacent ruderal habitats, where they contribute

  14. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  15. Approaches for the Identification of Genetic Modifiers of Nutrient Dependent Phenotypes: Examples from Folate

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, John W. R.; MacFarlane, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    By combining the sciences of nutrition, bioinformatics, genomics, population genetics, and epidemiology, nutrigenomics is improving our understanding of how diet and nutrient intake can interact with or modify gene expression and disease risk. In this review, we explore various approaches to examine gene–nutrient interactions and the modifying role of nutrient consumption, as they relate to nutrient status and disease risk in human populations. Two common approaches include the use of SNPs in candidate genes to identify their association with nutritional status or disease outcomes, or genome-wide association studies to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with a given phenotype. Here, we examine the results of various gene–nutrient interaction studies, the association of genetic polymorphisms with disease expression, and the identification of nutritional factors that modify gene-dependent disease phenotypes. We have focused on specific examples from investigations of the interactions of folate, B-vitamin consumption, and polymorphisms in the genes of B-vitamin dependent enzymes and their association with disease risk, followed by an examination of the strengths and limitations of the methods employed. We also present suggestions for future studies, including an approach from an on-going large scale study, to examine the interaction of nutrient intake and genotypic variation and their impact on nutritional status. PMID:25988111

  16. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-01

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty. PMID:23414177

  17. Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perelló, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress. PMID:23882175

  18. Adaptation of Maize to Temperate Climates: Mid-Density Genome-Wide Association Genetics and Diversity Patterns Reveal Key Genomic Regions, with a Major Contribution of the Vgt2 (ZCN8) Locus

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Bertin, Pascal; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Dumas, Fabrice; Brunel, Dominique; Laborde, Jacques; Charcosset, Alain; Nicolas, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The migration of maize from tropical to temperate climates was accompanied by a dramatic evolution in flowering time. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of this adaptive trait, we conducted a 50K SNP-based genome-wide association and diversity investigation on a panel of tropical and temperate American and European representatives. Eighteen genomic regions were associated with flowering time. The number of early alleles cumulated along these regions was highly correlated with flowering time. Polymorphism in the vicinity of the ZCN8 gene, which is the closest maize homologue to Arabidopsis major flowering time (FT) gene, had the strongest effect. This polymorphism is in the vicinity of the causal factor of Vgt2 QTL. Diversity was lower, whereas differentiation and LD were higher for associated loci compared to the rest of the genome, which is consistent with selection acting on flowering time during maize migration. Selection tests also revealed supplementary loci that were highly differentiated among groups and not associated with flowering time in our panel, whereas they were in other linkage-based studies. This suggests that allele fixation led to a lack of statistical power when structure and relatedness were taken into account in a linear mixed model. Complementary designs and analysis methods are necessary to unravel the architecture of complex traits. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimates corrected for population structure, we concluded that the number of SNPs genotyped should be at least doubled to capture all QTLs contributing to the genetic architecture of polygenic traits in this panel. These results show that maize flowering time is controlled by numerous QTLs of small additive effect and that strong polygenic selection occurred under cool climatic conditions. They should contribute to more efficient genomic predictions of flowering time and facilitate the dissemination of diverse maize genetic resources under a wide range of environments. PMID:24023610

  19. METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE QUESTIONS: -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants? -How can it be measured? -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities? RESEARCH: The objectives ...

  20. Tissue-specific expression in transgenic maize of four endosperm promoters from maize and rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Russell; Michael E. Fromm

    1997-01-01

    The tissue-specific, developmental, and genetic control of four endosperm-active genes was studied via expression of GUS reporter genes in transgenic maize plants. The transgenes included promoters from the maize granule-bound starch synthase (Waxy) gene (zmGBS), a maize 27 kDa zein gene (zmZ27), a rice small subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (osAGP) and the rice glutelin 1 gene (osGT1). Most plants had

  1. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    PubMed

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. PMID:24426015

  2. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary gel electrophoresis: a promising tool for GMO screening--assay for simultaneous detection of five genetically modified cotton events and species.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Anna; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay coupled to capillary gel electrophoresis for amplicon identification by size and color (multiplex PCR-CGE-SC) was developed for simultaneous detection of cotton species and 5 events of genetically modified (GM) cotton. Validated real-time-PCR reactions targeting Bollgard, Bollgard II, Roundup Ready, 3006-210-23, and 281-24-236 junction sequences, and the cotton reference gene acp1 were adapted to detect more than half of the European Union-approved individual or stacked GM cotton events in one reaction. The assay was fully specific (<1.7% of false classification rate), with limit of detection values of 0.1% for each event, which were also achieved with simulated mixtures at different relative percentages of targets. The assay was further combined with a second multiplex PCR-CGE-SC assay to allow simultaneous detection of 6 cotton and 5 maize targets (two endogenous genes and 9 GM events) in two multiplex PCRs and a single CGE, making the approach more economic. Besides allowing simultaneous detection of many targets with adequate specificity and sensitivity, the multiplex PCR-CGE-SC approach has high throughput and automation capabilities, while keeping a very simple protocol, e.g., amplification and labeling in one step. Thus, it is an easy and inexpensive tool for initial screening, to be complemented with quantitative assays if necessary. PMID:19610365

  3. Development and validation of real-time PCR screening methods for detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes in genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Dinon, Andréia Z; Prins, Theo W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Kok, Esther J

    2011-05-01

    Primers and probes were developed for the element-specific detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes, based on their DNA sequence as present in GM maize MON89034. Cry genes are present in many genetically modified (GM) plants and they are important targets for developing GMO element-specific detection methods. Element-specific methods can be of use to screen for the presence of GMOs in food and feed supply chains. Moreover, a combination of GMO elements may indicate the potential presence of unapproved GMOs (UGMs). Primer-probe combinations were evaluated in terms of specificity, efficiency and limit of detection. Except for specificity, the complete experiment was performed in 9 PCR runs, on 9 different days and by testing 8 DNA concentrations. The results showed a high specificity and efficiency for cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 detection. The limit of detection was between 0.05 and 0.01 ng DNA per PCR reaction for both assays. These data confirm the applicability of these new primer-probe combinations for element detection that can contribute to the screening for GM and UGM crops in food and feed samples. PMID:21445662

  4. Use of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, Robert D.; Dunbar, Gary L.; Rossignol, Julien

    2014-01-01

    The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating neurodegenerative disorders has received growing attention recently because these cells are readily available, easily expanded in culture, and when transplanted, survive for relatively long periods of time. Given that such transplants have been shown to be safe in a variety of applications, in addition to recent findings that MSCs have useful immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, the use of these cells as vehicles for delivering or producing beneficial proteins for therapeutic purposes has been the focus of several labs. In our lab, the use of genetic modified MSCs to release neurotrophic factors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is of particular interest. Specifically, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been recognized as therapeutic trophic factors for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases, respectively. The aim of this literature review is to provide insights into: (1) the inherent properties of MSCs as a platform for neurotrophic factor delivery; (2) the molecular tools available for genetic manipulation of MSCs; (3) the rationale for utilizing various neurotrophic factors for particular neurodegenerative diseases; and (4) the clinical challenges of utilizing genetically modified MSCs. PMID:24463293

  5. Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified foods - Results of a cross-national survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lone Bredahl

    2000-01-01

    1. Previous research has shown consumers to be highly sceptical towards genetic modification in food production. So far, however, little research has tried to explain how consumers form attitudes and make decisions with regard to genetically modified foods. 2. The paper presents the results of a survey which was carried out in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom to

  6. Evaluation of Detection Methods for Genetically Modified Traits in Genotypes Resistant to European Corn Borer and Herbicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. MA; K. SUBEDI; L. EVENSON; G. STEWART

    2005-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified (GM) traits in corn (Zea mays L.) is urgently needed for preservation of genetic identity and marketing GM products. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency, accuracy, and reliability of different analytical methods to detect GM traits in corn. Samples with known fractions of GM concentrations (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt], Liberty Link [LL] and stacked

  7. Agro-environmental effects due to altered cultivation practices with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape and implications for monitoring. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Graef

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape or canola (Brassica napus L.) is at the forefront of being introduced into European agriculture. Concerns have been raised about how genetically modified\\u000a oilseed rape cultivation and the modified cropping practices might impair the agro-environment. The present review compiles\\u000a and categorises evidenced and potential agro-environmental effects of cultivating genetically modified oilseed rape and assesses\\u000a the

  8. Piezoelectric Sensor for Determination of Genetically Modified Soybean Roundup Ready® in Samples not Amplified by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Cie?la, Jaros?aw M.; Janowska, Beata; Tudek, Barbara; Radecka, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    The chemically modified piezoelectrodes were utilized to develop relatively cheap and easy to use biosensor for determination of genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean (RR soybean). The biosensor relies on the immobilization onto gold piezoelectrodes of the 21-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probes) related to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, which is an active component of an insert integrated into RR soybean genome. The hybridization reaction between the probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The system was optimized using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were applied for EPSPS gene detection in DNA samples extracted from animal feed containing 30% RR soybean amplified by the PCR and nonamplified by PCR. The detection limit for genomic DNA was in the range of 4.7·105 numbers of genom copies contained EPSPS gene in the QCM cell. The properties such as sensitivity and selectivity of piezoelectric senor presented here indicated that it could be applied for the direct determination of genetically modified RR soybean in the samples non-amplified by PCR.

  9. Genetic control of the leaf angle and leaf orientation value as revealed by ultra-high density maps in three connected maize populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhui; Li, Yongxiang; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Zhang, Dengfeng; Buckler, Edward S; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor for high productivity maize because ideal plant architecture with an erect leaf angle and optimum leaf orientation value allow for more efficient light capture during photosynthesis and better wind circulation under dense planting conditions. To extend our understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in leaf-related traits, three connected recombination inbred line (RIL) populations including 538 RILs were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method and phenotyped for the leaf angle and related traits in six environments. We conducted single population quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and joint linkage analysis based on high-density recombination bin maps constructed from GBS genotype data. A total of 45 QTLs with phenotypic effects ranging from 1.2% to 29.2% were detected for four leaf architecture traits by using joint linkage mapping across the three populations. All the QTLs identified for each trait could explain approximately 60% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTLs were located on small genomic regions where candidate genes were found. Genomic predictions from a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model explained 45±9% to 68±8% of the variation in the remaining RILs for the four traits. These results extend our understanding of the genetics of leaf traits and can be used in genomic prediction to accelerate plant architecture improvement. PMID:25807369

  10. Post-Domestication Selection in the Maize Starch Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longjiang Fan; Jiandong Bao; Yu Wang; Jianqiang Yao; Yijie Gui; Weiming Hu; Jinqing Zhu; Mengqian Zeng; Yu Li; Yunbi Xu; Pär K. Ingvarsson

    2009-01-01

    Modern crops have usually experienced domestication selection and subsequent genetic improvement (post-domestication selection). Chinese waxy maize, which originated from non-glutinous domesticated maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), provides a unique model for investigating the post-domestication selection of maize. In this study, the genetic diversity of six key genes in the starch pathway was investigated in a glutinous population that included 55

  11. A CYTOGENETIC MAP OF MAIZE IN OAT ADDITION LINES USING SORGHUM BACS AS FISH PROBES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing a pachytene cytogenetic FISH map of the maize genome using sorghum BACs corresponding to the 90 maize Core Bin Marker (CBM) loci. These loci were chosen because they are uniformly distributed and they delineate the genetic bins derived from the UMC98 (Genetic 2005) maize linkage ma...

  12. Using multiple genetic variants as instrumental variables for modifiable risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Tom M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Sheehan, Nuala A; Tobias, Jon H; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2012-01-01

    Mendelian randomisation analyses use genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to estimate causal effects of modifiable risk factors on disease outcomes. Genetic variants typically explain a small proportion of the variability in risk factors; hence Mendelian randomisation analyses can require large sample sizes. However, an increasing number of genetic variants have been found to be robustly associated with disease-related outcomes in genome-wide association studies. Use of multiple instruments can improve the precision of IV estimates, and also permit examination of underlying IV assumptions. We discuss the use of multiple genetic variants in Mendelian randomisation analyses with continuous outcome variables where all relationships are assumed to be linear. We describe possible violations of IV assumptions, and how multiple instrument analyses can be used to identify them. We present an example using four adiposity-associated genetic variants as IVs for the causal effect of fat mass on bone density, using data on 5509 children enrolled in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. We also use simulation studies to examine the effect of different sets of IVs on precision and bias. When each instrument independently explains variability in the risk factor, use of multiple instruments increases the precision of IV estimates. However, inclusion of weak instruments could increase finite sample bias. Missing data on multiple genetic variants can diminish the available sample size, compared with single instrument analyses. In simulations with additive genotype-risk factor effects, IV estimates using a weighted allele score had similar properties to estimates using multiple instruments. Under the correct conditions, multiple instrument analyses are a promising approach for Mendelian randomisation studies. Further research is required into multiple imputation methods to address missing data issues in IV estimation. PMID:21216802

  13. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. PMID:21704665

  14. Modifying Behavioral Phenotypes in Fmr1 KO Mice: Genetic Background Differences Reveal Autistic-Like Responses

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Corinne M.; Alekseyenko, Olga; Hamilton, Shannon M.; Thomas, Alexia M.; Serysheva, Ekaterina; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Paylor, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in humans. In addition to cognitive impairment, patients may exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties and anxiety, and autistic-like behaviors. The degree to which patients display these behaviors varies considerably and is influenced by family history, suggesting that genetic modifiers play a role in the expression of behaviors in FXS. Several studies have examined behavior in a mouse model of FXS in which the Fmr1 gene has been ablated. Most of those studies were done in Fmr1 knockout mice on a pure C57BL/6 or FVB strain background. To gain a better understanding of the effects of genetic background on behaviors resulting from the loss of Fmr1 gene expression, we generated F1 hybrid lines from female Fmr1 heterozygous mice on a pure C57BL/6J background bred with male Fmr1 wild-type mice of various background strains (A/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, 129S1/SvImJ and CD-1). Male Fmr1 knockout and wild-type littermates from each line were examined in an extensive behavioral test battery. Results clearly indicate that multiple behavioral responses are dependent on genetic background, including autistic-like traits that are present on limited genetic backgrounds. This approach has allowed us to identify improved models for different behavioral symptoms present in FXS including autistic-like traits. PMID:21268289

  15. Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M

    2013-01-01

    Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types. PMID:23549345

  16. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

  17. Impact of Bt maize pollen (MON810) on lepidopteran larvae living on accompanying weeds.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Achim; Wirooks, Ludger; Hothorn, Ludwig A; Bartsch, Detlef; Schuphan, Ingolf

    2006-08-01

    Environmental risks of Bt maize, particularly pollen drift from Bt maize, were assessed for nontarget lepidopteran larvae in maize field margins. In our experimental approach, we carried out 3-year field trials on 6 ha total. Three treatments were used in a randomized block design with eight replications resulting in 24 plots: (i) near-isogenic control variety without insecticide (control), (ii) near-isogenic control variety with chemical insecticide (Baytroid) and (iii) Bt maize expressing the recombinant toxin. We established a weed strip (20 x 1 m) in every plot consisting of a Chenopodium album (goosefoot)/Sinapis alba (mustard) mixture. In these strips we measured diversity and abundance of lepidopteran larvae during maize bloom and pollen shed. C. album hosted five species but all in very low densities; therefore data were not suitable for statistical analysis. S. alba hosted nine species in total. Most abundant were Plutella xylostella and Pieris rapae. For these species no differences were detected between the Bt treatment and the control, but the chemical insecticide treatment reduced larval abundance significantly. Conclusions regarding experimental methodology and results are discussed in regard to environmental risk assessment and monitoring of genetically modified organisms. PMID:16842436

  18. Multiple Genetic Modifiers of Bilirubin Metabolism Involvement in Significant Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Patients of Chinese Descent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Lin, Min; Zheng, Xiang-bin; Lin, Fen

    2015-01-01

    The potential for genetic variation to modulate neonatal hyperbilirubinemia risk is increasingly being recognized. A case-control study was designed to assess comprehensive contributions of the multiple genetic modifiers of bilirubin metabolism on significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese descendents. Eleven common mutations and polymorphisms across five bilirubin metabolism genes, namely those encoding UGT1A1, HMOX1, BLVRA, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3, were determined using the high resolution melt (HRM) assay or PCR-capillary electrophoresis analysis. A total of 129 hyperbilirubinemic infants and 108 control subjects were evaluated. Breastfeeding and the presence of the minor A allele of rs4148323 (UGTA*6) were correlated with an increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia (OR=2.17, P=0.02 for breastfeeding; OR=9.776, P=0.000 for UGTA*6 homozygote; OR=3.151, P=0.000 for UGTA*6 heterozygote); whereas, increasing gestational age and the presence of –TA7 repeat variant of UGT1A1 decreased the risk (OR=0.721, P=0.003 for gestational age; OR=0.313, P=0.002 for heterozygote TA6/TA7). In addition, the SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms also contributed to an increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia. This detailed analysis revealed the impact of multiple genetic modifiers on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This may support the use of genetic tests for clinical risk assessment. Furthermore, the established HRM assay can serve as an effective method for large-scale investigation. PMID:26146841

  19. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate-or more abundant and more nutritional-biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds-somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants-as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  20. Male gametophytic selection in maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ottaviano; M. Sari Gorla; E. Pe

    1982-01-01

    There is evidence that male gametophyte selection is a widespread phenomenon in higher plants. The pollen tube growth rate is one of the main components of gametophyte selective value; genetic variability for this trait, due to the effect of single genes or to quantitative variation, has been described in maize. However, indication of gametophytic selection has been indirectly obtained; its

  1. Reshaping of the maize transcriptome by domestication

    PubMed Central

    Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; Briskine, Roman; Schaefer, Robert; Hufford, Matthew B.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Myers, Chad L.; Tiffin, Peter; Springer, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Through domestication, humans have substantially altered the morphology of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (teosinte) into the currently recognizable maize. This system serves as a model for studying adaptation, genome evolution, and the genetics and evolution of complex traits. To examine how domestication has reshaped the transcriptome of maize seedlings, we used expression profiling of 18,242 genes for 38 diverse maize genotypes and 24 teosinte genotypes. We detected evidence for more than 600 genes having significantly different expression levels in maize compared with teosinte. Moreover, more than 1,100 genes showed significantly altered coexpression profiles, reflective of substantial rewiring of the transcriptome since domestication. The genes with altered expression show a significant enrichment for genes previously identified through population genetic analyses as likely targets of selection during maize domestication and improvement; 46 genes previously identified as putative targets of selection also exhibit altered expression levels and coexpression relationships. We also identified 45 genes with altered, primarily higher, expression in inbred relative to outcrossed teosinte. These genes are enriched for functions related to biotic stress and may reflect responses to the effects of inbreeding. This study not only documents alterations in the maize transcriptome following domestication, identifying several genes that may have contributed to the evolution of maize, but highlights the complementary information that can be gained by combining gene expression with population genetic analyses. PMID:22753482

  2. Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Miyako; Redestig, Henning; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  3. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  4. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  5. Unveiling the roles of the glutathione redox system in vivo by analyzing genetically modified mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Junichi; Ito, Jun-itsu; Zhang, Xuhong; Kurahashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Redox status affects various cellular activities, such as proliferation, differentiation, and death. Recent studies suggest pivotal roles of reactive oxygen species not only in pathogenesis under oxidative insult but also in intracellular signal transduction. Glutathione is present in several millimolar concentrations in the cytoplasm and has multiple roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Two enzymes, ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, constitute the de novo synthesis machinery, while glutathione reductase is involved in the recycling of oxidized glutathione. Multidrug resistant proteins and some other transporters are responsible for exporting oxidized glutathione, glutathione conjugates, and S-nitrosoglutathione. In addition to antioxidation, glutathione is more positively involved in cellular activity via its sulfhydryl moiety of a molecule. Animals in which genes responsible for glutathione metabolism are genetically modified can be used as beneficial and reliable models to elucidate roles of glutathione in vivo. This review article overviews recent progress in works related to genetically modified rodents and advances in the elucidation of glutathione-mediated reactions. PMID:21980221

  6. Endpoint Visual Detection of Three Genetically Modified Rice Events by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaofu; Jin, Nuo; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Sainan; Miao, Qingmei; Zhu, Qing; Xu, Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice KMD1, TT51-1, and KF6 are three of the most well known transgenic Bt rice lines in China. A rapid and sensitive molecular assay for risk assessment of GM rice is needed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), currently the most common method for detecting genetically modified organisms, requires temperature cycling and relatively complex procedures. Here we developed a visual and rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify three GM rice event-specific junction sequences. Target DNA was amplified and visualized by two indicators (SYBR green or hydroxy naphthol blue [HNB]) within 60 min at an isothermal temperature of 63 °C. Different kinds of plants were selected to ensure the specificity of detection and the results of the non-target samples were negative, indicating that the primer sets for the three GM rice varieties had good levels of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP, with detection limits at low concentration levels (0.01%–0.005% GM), was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. Additionally, the LAMP assay coupled with an indicator (SYBR green or HNB) facilitated analysis. These findings revealed that the rapid detection method was suitable as a simple field-based test to determine the status of GM crops. PMID:23203072

  7. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  8. Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Xing, Da; Zhang, Chunsun

    2009-02-01

    The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the copper. On this device, the P35S and Tnos sequences were successfully amplified within 9min, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was estimated to be 0.005 ng microl(-1). Furthermore, a duplex continuous-flow PCR was also reported for the detection of the P35S and Tnos sequences in GMOs simultaneously. This method was coupled with the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Using this method, temperature differences were identified by the specific melting temperature values of two sequences, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was assessed to be 0.01 ng microl(-1). Therefore, our results demonstrated that the continuous-flow PCR assay could discriminate the GMOs in a cost-saving and less time-consuming way. PMID:19010299

  9. Chemometric discrimination of genetically modified Coffea arabica cultivars using spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ivanira; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2013-03-30

    Multivariate statistical design and principal component analysis (PCA) applied to RP-HPLC-DAD and FTIR spectroscopic data were performed to investigate the fingerprints of four coffee cultivars, traditional red bourbon and three genetically modified cultivars. The design and response surface results showed that extraction dependence on solvent composition of one of the genetically modified cultivars, IAPAR 59, was very similar to that found for the red bourbon standard. PCA of the FTIR spectra obtained from all the simplex centroid design mixtures indicated that the 1:1 binary ethanol-dichloromethane solution resulted in the best separation of the four cultivars. The IPR 108 cultivar has more intense vibrational bands in the 3200-3,600 cm(-1) and 1100-1,600 cm(-1) regions indicating higher acid and fat levels than those of the other cultivars. The UV absorptions close to 275 nm of the RP-HPLC-DAD spectra are correlated with the strengths of the infrared absorptions between 3400 and 3,460 cm(-1) and can be explained by varying caffeine concentrations in the four cultivars. PMID:23598243

  10. Lymphocytes genetically modified to express tumor antigens target DCs in vivo and induce antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Vincenzo; Cipponi, Arcadi; Raccosta, Laura; Rainelli, Cristina; Fontana, Raffaella; Maggioni, Daniela; Lunghi, Francesca; Mukenge, Sylvain; Ciceri, Fabio; Bregni, Marco; Bordignon, Claudio; Traversari, Catia

    2007-01-01

    The exploitation of the physiologic processing and presenting machinery of DCs by in vivo loading of tumor-associated antigens may improve the immunogenic potential and clinical efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines. Here we show that lymphocytes genetically modified to express self/tumor antigens, acting as antigen carriers, efficiently target DCs in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. The infusion of tyrosinase-related protein 2–transduced (TRP-2–transduced) lymphocytes induced the establishment of protective immunity and long-term memory in tumor-bearing mice. Analysis of the mechanism responsible for the induction of such an immune response allowed us to demonstrate that cross-presentation of the antigen mediated by the CD11c+CD8?+ DC subset had occurred. Furthermore, we demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that DCs had undergone activation upon phagocytosis of genetically modified lymphocytes, a process mediated by a cell-to-cell contact mechanism independent of CD40 triggering. Targeting and activation of secondary lymphoid organ–resident DCs endowed antigen-specific T cells with full effector functions, which ultimately increased tumor growth control and animal survival in a therapeutic tumor setting. We conclude that the use of transduced lymphocytes represents an efficient method for the in vivo loading of tumor-associated antigens on DCs. PMID:17885685

  11. Potential allergenicity research of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Dai, Yunqing; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-07-01

    With the development of genetically modified crops, there has been a growing interest in available approaches to assess the potential allergenicity of novel gene products. We were not sure whether Cry1C could induce allergy. We examined the protein with three other proteins to determine the potential allergenicity of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice. Female Brown Norway (BN) rats received 0.1 mg peanut agglutinin (PNA), 1mg potato acid phosphatase (PAP), 1mg ovalbumin (OVA) or 5 mg purified Cry1C protein dissolved in 1 mL water by daily gavage for 42 days to test potential allergenicity. Ten days after the last gavage, rats were orally challenged with antigens, and physiologic and immunologic responses were studied. In contrast to sensitization with PNA, PAP and OVA Cry1C protein did not induce antigen-specific IgG2a in BN rats. Cytokine expression, serum IgE and histamine levels and the number of eosinophils and mast cells in the blood of Cry1C group rats were comparable to the control group rats, which were treated with water alone. As Cry1C did not show any allergenicity, we make the following conclusion that the protein could be safety used in rice or other plants. PMID:22504668

  12. Immunological and Metabolomic Impacts of Administration of Cry1Ab Protein and MON 810 Maize in Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Adel-Patient; Valeria D. Guimaraes; Alain Paris; Marie-Françoise Drumare; Sandrine Ah-Leung; Patricia Lamourette; Marie-Claire Nevers; Cécile Canlet; Jérôme Molina; Hervé Bernard; Christophe Créminon; Jean-Michel Wal; Michael Fessler

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the immunological and metabolomic impacts of Cry1Ab administration to mice, either as a purified protein or as the Cry1Ab-expressing genetically modified (GM) MON810 maize. Humoral and cellular specific immune responses induced in BALB\\/cJ mice after intra-gastric (i.g.) or intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of purified Cry1Ab were analyzed and compared with those induced by proteins of various immunogenic and

  13. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights. PMID:22892687

  14. Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, K J; Rather, P N; Hare, R S; Miller, G H

    1993-01-01

    The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. Dissemination of these genes is aided by a variety of genetic elements including integrons, transposons, and broad-host-range plasmids. As knowledge of the molecular structure of these enzymes increases, progress can be made in our understanding of how resistance to new aminoglycosides emerges. Images PMID:8385262

  15. Applicability of plasmid calibrant pTC1507 in quantification of TC1507 maize: an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2012-01-11

    To enforce the labeling regulations of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the application of DNA plasmids as calibrants is becoming essential for the practical quantification of GMOs. This study reports the construction of plasmid pTC1507 for a quantification assay of genetically modified (GM) maize TC1507 and the collaborative ring trial in international validation of its applicability as a plasmid calibrant. pTC1507 includes one event-specific sequence of TC1507 maize and one unique sequence of maize endogenous gene zSSIIb. A total of eight GMO detection laboratories worldwide were invited to join the validation process, and test results were returned from all eight participants. Statistical analysis of the returned results showed that real-time PCR assays using pTC1507 as calibrant in both GM event-specific and endogenous gene quantifications had high PCR efficiency (ranging from 0.80 to 1.15) and good linearity (ranging from 0.9921 to 0.9998). In a quantification assay of five blind samples, the bias between the test values and true values ranged from 2.6 to 24.9%. All results indicated that the developed pTC1507 plasmid is applicable for the quantitative analysis of TC1507 maize and can be used as a suitable substitute for dried powder certified reference materials (CRMs). PMID:22148678

  16. Genetic diversity and trichothecene chemotypes of the Fusarium graminearum clade isolated from maize in Nepal and identification of a putative new lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On smallholder farms in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, Fusarium graminearum causes Gibberella ear rot of maize and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Previous DNA marker analyses of F. graminearum populations from maize in Nepal found a hig...

  17. Genetic diversity and trichothecene chemotypes of the Fusarium graminearum clade isolated from maize in Nepal and identification of a putative new lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On smallholder farms in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, fungi of the Fusarium graminearum clade cause Gibberella ear rot of maize and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Previous DNA marker analyses of the F. graminearum clade from maize in Ne...

  18. Physiological and Genetic Characterization of End-of-Day Far-Red Light Response in Maize Seedlings1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Patrice G.; Olsefski, Gregory T.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Setter, Tim L.; Hoekenga, Owen A.; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental responses associated with end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR) signaling were investigated in maize (Zea mays subspecies mays) seedlings. A survey of genetically diverse inbreds of temperate and tropical/semitropical origins, together with teosinte (Zea mays subspecies parviglumis) and a modern hybrid, revealed distinct elongation responses. A mesocotyl elongation response to the EOD-FR treatment was largely absent in the tropical/semitropical lines, but both hybrid and temperate inbred responses were of the same magnitude as in teosinte, suggesting that EOD-FR-mediated mesocotyl responses were not lost during the domestication or breeding process. The genetic architecture underlying seedling responses to EOD-FR was investigated using the intermated B73 × Mo17 mapping population. Among the different quantitative trait loci identified, two were consistently detected for elongation and responsiveness under EOD-FR, but none were associated with known light signaling loci. The central role of phytochromes in mediating EOD-FR responses was shown using a phytochromeB1 phytochromeB2 (phyB1 phyB2) mutant series. Unlike the coleoptile and first leaf sheath, EOD-FR-mediated elongation of the mesocotyl appears predominantly controlled by gibberellin. EOD-FR also reduced abscisic acid (ABA) levels in the mesocotyl for both the wild type and phyB1 phyB2 double mutants, suggesting a FR-mediated but PHYB-independent control of ABA accumulation. EOD-FR elongation responses were attenuated in both the wild type and phyB1 phyB2 double mutants when a chilling stress was applied during the dark period, concomitant with an increase in ABA levels. We present a model for the EOD-FR response that integrates light and hormonal control of seedling elongation. PMID:20668057

  19. Changes in Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Relationship to Genetic and Paclobutrazol-Induced Chilling Tolerance of Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Pinhero, R. G.; Rao, M. V.; Paliyath, G.; Murr, D. P.; Fletcher, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of antioxidant enzymes in protecting maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings from chilling injury was examined by analyzing enzyme activities and isozyme profiles of chilling-susceptible (CO 316) and chilling-tolerant (CO 328) inbreds. Leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in CO 316 was nearly one-half that of CO 328, in which the high activity was maintained during the chilling and postchilling periods. Activity of glutathione reductase (GR) was much higher in roots than in leaves. CO 328 also possessed a new GR isozyme that was absent in roots of CO 316. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was considerably lower in leaves of CO 328 than in CO 316, and nearly similar in roots. Paclobutrazol treatment of CO 316 induced several changes in the antioxidant enzyme profiles and enhanced their activities, especially those of SOD and APX, along with the induction of chilling tolerance. These results suggest that increased activities of SOD in leaves and GR in roots of CO 328, as well as SOD and APX in leaves and roots of paclobutrazol-treated CO 316, contribute to their enhanced chilling tolerance. PMID:12223737

  20. The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their first commercialization, the diversity of taxa and the genetic composition of transgene sequences in genetically modified plants (GMOs) are constantly increasing. To date, the detection of GMOs and derived products is commonly performed by PCR-based methods targeting specific DNA sequences introduced into the host genome. Information available regarding the GMOs’ molecular characterization is dispersed and not appropriately organized. For this reason, GMO testing is very challenging and requires more complex screening strategies and decision making schemes, demanding in return the use of efficient bioinformatics tools relying on reliable information. Description The GMOseek matrix was built as a comprehensive, online open-access tabulated database which provides a reliable, comprehensive and user-friendly overview of 328 GMO events and 247 different genetic elements (status: 18/07/2013). The GMOseek matrix is aiming to facilitate GMO detection from plant origin at different phases of the analysis. It assists in selecting the targets for a screening analysis, interpreting the screening results, checking the occurrence of a screening element in a group of selected GMOs, identifying gaps in the available pool of GMO detection methods, and designing a decision tree. The GMOseek matrix is an independent database with effective functionalities in a format facilitating transferability to other platforms. Data were collected from all available sources and experimentally tested where detection methods and certified reference materials (CRMs) were available. Conclusions The GMOseek matrix is currently a unique and very valuable tool with reliable information on GMOs from plant origin and their present genetic elements that enables further development of appropriate strategies for GMO detection. It is flexible enough to be further updated with new information and integrated in different applications and platforms. PMID:23965170

  1. Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Prokisch; R. Zeleny; S. Trapmann; L. Le Guern; H. Schimmel; G. N. Kramer; J. Pauwels

    2001-01-01

    Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference\\u000a materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration\\u000a distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special\\u000a importance if the reference material is prepared by dry

  2. Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants

    PubMed Central

    Wolt, Jeffrey D.; Keese, Paul; Raybould, Alan; Burachik, Moisés; Gray, Alan; Olin, Stephen S.; Schiemann, Joachim; Sears, Mark; Wu, Felicia

    2009-01-01

    Problem formulation is the first step in environmental risk assessment (ERA) where policy goals, scope, assessment endpoints, and methodology are distilled to an explicitly stated problem and approach for analysis. The consistency and utility of ERAs for genetically modified (GM) plants can be improved through rigorous problem formulation (PF), producing an analysis plan that describes relevant exposure scenarios and the potential consequences of these scenarios. A properly executed PF assures the relevance of ERA outcomes for decision-making. Adopting a harmonized approach to problem formulation should bring about greater uniformity in the ERA process for GM plants among regulatory regimes globally. This paper is the product of an international expert group convened by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Research Foundation. PMID:19757133

  3. A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit.

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Alan M; May, Mike J; Woiwod, Ian P; Haylock, Lisa A; Champion, Gillian T; Garner, Beulah H; Sands, Richard J N; Qi, Aiming; Pidgeon, John D

    2003-01-01

    The proposed introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops, with claims of improved weed control, has prompted fears about possible environmental impacts of their widespread adoption, particularly on arable weeds, insects and associated farmland birds. In response to this, we have developed a novel weed-management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered by the broad-spectrum partner herbicides. Here, we show the results from two series of field experiments which, taken together, demonstrate that, by using this system, crops can be managed for enhanced weed and insect biomass without compromising yield, thus potentially offering food and shelter to farmland birds and other wildlife. These results could be applicable widely to other row crops, and indicate that creative use of GMHT technology could be a powerful tool for developing more sustainable farming systems in the future. PMID:12639311

  4. Blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis: lessons from genetically-modified mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Zheng, Wei; Yin, Shi; Wang, Zheng; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is found between adjacent Sertoli cells in the testis where it creates a unique microenvironment for the development and maturation of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in seminiferous tubes. It is a compound proteinous structure, composed of several types of cell junctions including tight junctions (TJs), adhesion junctions and gap junctions (GJs). Some of the junctional proteins function as structural proteins of BTB and some have regulatory roles. The deletion or functional silencing of genes encoding these proteins may disrupt the BTB, which may cause immunological or other damages to meiotic and postmeiotic cells and ultimately lead to spermatogenic arrest and infertility. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the BTB structure and function from genetically-modified mouse models and discuss the future perspectives. PMID:24713828

  5. Evaluating the 2008 consensus conference on genetically modified foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Genetically modified foods have become one of the most popular topics for deliberative exercises involving ordinary citizens worldwide. This paper examines the Taiwanese consensus conference on GM foods held in June 2008, and the implications and limitations of the public deliberations. The consensus conference facilitated multiparty dialogues and enhanced citizens' knowledge, and affected their attitudes. This study demonstrates the ways contextual factors have influenced the outcome of the citizens' deliberative practices, including the government's conventional technocratic decision-making style, the strong influence of the U.S. government, the political and technological culture, the government's framing of economic development concerns, and a lack of pressure from civil society to compel the government to formally respond to their concerns. The consensus conference had a limited effect on policy decision-making, and seemed to serve as a socio-political experiment. PMID:24068183

  6. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes. PMID:25743587

  7. A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Alan M; May, Mike J; Woiwod, Ian P; Haylock, Lisa A; Champion, Gillian T; Garner, Beulah H; Sands, Richard J N; Qi, Aiming; Pidgeon, John D

    2003-02-22

    The proposed introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops, with claims of improved weed control, has prompted fears about possible environmental impacts of their widespread adoption, particularly on arable weeds, insects and associated farmland birds. In response to this, we have developed a novel weed-management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered by the broad-spectrum partner herbicides. Here, we show the results from two series of field experiments which, taken together, demonstrate that, by using this system, crops can be managed for enhanced weed and insect biomass without compromising yield, thus potentially offering food and shelter to farmland birds and other wildlife. These results could be applicable widely to other row crops, and indicate that creative use of GMHT technology could be a powerful tool for developing more sustainable farming systems in the future. PMID:12639311

  8. Imaging physiologic dysfunction of individual hippocampal subregions in humans and genetically modified mice.

    PubMed

    Small, S A; Wu, E X; Bartsch, D; Perera, G M; Lacefield, C O; DeLaPaz, R; Mayeux, R; Stern, Y; Kandel, E R

    2000-12-01

    We have developed a variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) designed to be sensitive to static neuronal function. This method is based on resting instead of dynamic changes in oxygen-dependent signal and therefore allows for a spatial resolution that can detect signal from different hippocampal subregions in human subjects as well as in mice. We found that hippocampal signal was significantly diminished in elderly subjects with memory decline compared to age-matched controls, and different subjects showed dysfunction in different subregions. Among healthy elders, signal intensity from the subiculum was correlated selectively with memory performance. This method does not require an activation task; it can be used in anesthetized normal and in genetically modified and cognitively impaired mice. In mice the signal was found to be sufficiently sensitive to detect functional changes in the absence of underlying anatomical changes. PMID:11163257

  9. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety. PMID:21487714

  10. Genetic?Genomic Replication to Identify Candidate Mouse Atherosclerosis Modifier Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genetics plays a large role in atherosclerosis susceptibility in humans and mice. We attempted to confirm previously determined mouse atherosclerosis?associated loci and use bioinformatics and transcriptomics to create a catalog of candidate atherosclerosis modifier genes at these loci. Methods and Results A strain intercross was performed between AKR and DBA/2 mice on the apoE?/? background generating 166 F2 progeny. Using the phenotype log10 of the aortic root lesion area, we identified 3 suggestive atherosclerosis quantitative trait loci (Ath QTLs). When combined with our prior strain intercross, we confirmed 3 significant Ath QTLs on chromosomes 2, 15, and 17, with combined logarithm of odds scores of 5.9, 5.3, and 5.6, respectively, which each met the genome?wide 5% false discovery rate threshold. We identified all of the protein coding differences between these 2 mouse strains within the Ath QTL intervals. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on macrophages and endothelial cells from this intercross to identify expression QTLs (eQTLs), the loci that are associated with variation in the expression levels of specific transcripts. Cross tissue eQTLs and macrophage eQTLs that replicated from a prior strain intercross were identified. These bioinformatic and eQTL analyses produced a comprehensive list of candidate genes that may be responsible for the Ath QTLs. Conclusions Replication studies for clinical traits as well as gene expression traits are worthwhile in identifying true versus false genetic associations. We have replicated 3 loci on mouse chromosomes 2, 15, and 17 that are associated with atherosclerosis. We have also identified protein coding differences and multiple replicated eQTLs, which may be useful in the identification of atherosclerosis modifier genes. PMID:23525445

  11. ETHICAL ISSUES IN FIELD TRIALS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED DISEASE-RESISTANT MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23279283

  12. Extensive genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium within the COMT locus in Germplasm Enhancement of Maize populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caffeic acid 3-O-methytransferase (COMT) gene is a prime candidate for cell wall digestibility improvement based on the characterization of brown midrib-3 mutants. We compared the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium at COMT locus between populations sampled within the Germplasm Enhance...

  13. Rapid decomposition of maize detritus in agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Natalie A; Tank, Jennifer L; Royer, Todd V; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Whiles, Matt R; Chambers, Catherine P; Frauendorf, Therese C; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Headwater streams draining agricultural landscapes receive maize leaves (Zea mays L.) via wind and surface runoff, yet the contribution of maize detritus to organic-matter processing in agricultural streams is largely unknown. We quantified decomposition and microbial respiration rates on conventional (non-Bt) and genetically engineered (Bt) maize in three low-order agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA. We also examined how substrate quality and in-stream nutrient concentrations influenced microbial respiration on maize by comparing respiration on maize and red maple leaves (Acer rubrum) in three nutrient-rich agricultural streams and three low-nutrient forested streams. We found significantly higher rates of microbial respiration on maize vs. red maple leaves and higher rates in agricultural vs. forested streams. Thus both the elevated nutrient status of agricultural streams and the lability of maize detritus (e.g., low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and low lignin content) result in a rapid incorporation of maize leaves into the aquatic microbial food web. We found that Bt maize had a faster decomposition rate than non-Bt maize, while microbial respiration rates did not differ between Bt and non-Bt maize. Decomposition rates were not negatively affected by genetic engineering, perhaps because the Bt toxin does not adversely affect the aquatic microbial assemblage involved in maize decomposition. Additionally, shredding caddisflies, which are known to have suppressed growth rates when fed Bt maize, were depauperate in these agricultural streams, and likely did not play a major role in maize decomposition. Overall, the conversion of native vegetation to row-crop agriculture appears to have altered the quantity, quality, and predictability of allochthonous carbon inputs to headwater streams, with unexplored effects on stream ecosystem structure and function. PMID:19323178

  14. Inactivation of a DNA Methylation Pathway in Maize Reproductive Organs Results in Apomixis-Like Phenotypes C W

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Inactivation of a DNA Methylation Pathway in Maize Reproductive Organs Results in Apomixis and fertilization. Although apomixis is genetically regulated, its core genetic component(s) has not been determined yet. Using profiling experiments comparing sexual development in maize (Zea mays) to apomixis in maize

  15. CONSTRUCTING A CYTOGENETIC MAP OF MAIZE CORE BIN MARKERS IN OAT ADDITION LINES USING SORGHUM BACS AS FISH PROBES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing a pachytene cytogenetic FISH map of the maize genome using sorghum BACs corresponding to the 90 maize Core Bin Marker (CBM) loci. These loci were chosen because they are uniformly distributed and they delineate the genetic bins derived from the UMC98 (Genetic 2005) maize linkage ma...

  16. Allergenicity assessment of genetically-modified tobacco expressing salt tolerance cbl gene.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Tuteja, Narendra; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-09-01

    It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there was no significant sequence homology with known allergens. Also, no difference between the protein digestibility profiles of GM and WT tobacco was found. Rapid digestion of CBL protein (Mol Wt 35 kDa) by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated reduced chances of this protein to induce allergenicity. In addition, BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of WT and GM tobacco protein showed comparable levels of clinical score, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine level, similar effect on different organs as well as IgE binding proteins. These findings indicate that insertion of cbl gene in tobacco did not cause any additional allergic risk to consumer and the GM and native tobacco proteins behave similarly in both in vitro and in vivo situations even after genetic modification. PMID:25106468

  17. Risk assessment of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria using the concept of substantial equivalence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Sesma, Fernando; de Giori, Graciela Savoy

    2010-12-01

    The use of food-grade microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most promising methods for delivering health promoting compounds. Since it is not always possible to obtain strains that have the ability to produce specific compounds naturally or that produce them in sufficient quantities to obtain physiological responses, genetic modifications can be performed to improve their output. The objective of this study was to evaluate if previously studied genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB), with proven in vivo beneficial effects, are just as safe as the progenitor strain from which they were derived. Mice received an elevated concentration of different GM-LAB or the native parental strain from which they were derived during a prolonged period of time, and different health parameters were evaluated. Similar growth rates, hematological values, and other physiological parameters were obtained in the animals that received the GM-LAB compared to those that were fed with the native strain. These results demonstrate that the GM-LAB used in this study are just as safe as the native strains from which they were derived and thus merit further studies to include them into the food chain. PMID:20449592

  18. Genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharifnia, Tanaz; Rusu, Victor; Piccioni, Federica; Bagul, Mukta; Imielinski, Marcin; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Wong, Bang; Wilson, Frederick H.; Garraway, Levi A.; Altshuler, David; Golub, Todd R.; Root, David E.; Subramanian, Aravind; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represent a common molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. EGFR mutations predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thus represent a dependency in NSCLCs harboring these alterations, but the genetic basis of EGFR dependence is not fully understood. Here, we applied an unbiased, ORF-based screen to identify genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. This approach identified 18 kinase and kinase-related genes whose overexpression can substitute for EGFR in EGFR-dependent PC9 cells, and these genes include seven of nine Src family kinase genes, FGFR1, FGFR2, ITK, NTRK1, NTRK2, MOS, MST1R, and RAF1. A subset of these genes can complement loss of EGFR activity across multiple EGFR-dependent models. Unbiased gene-expression profiling of cells overexpressing EGFR bypass genes, together with targeted validation studies, reveals EGFR-independent activation of the MEK-ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways. Combined inhibition of PI3K-mTOR and MEK restores EGFR dependence in cells expressing each of the 18 EGFR bypass genes. Together, these data uncover a broad spectrum of kinases capable of overcoming dependence on EGFR and underscore their convergence on the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK signaling axes in sustaining EGFR-independent survival. PMID:25512530

  19. Genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharifnia, Tanaz; Rusu, Victor; Piccioni, Federica; Bagul, Mukta; Imielinski, Marcin; Cherniack, Andrew D; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Wong, Bang; Wilson, Frederick H; Garraway, Levi A; Altshuler, David; Golub, Todd R; Root, David E; Subramanian, Aravind; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-12-30

    Lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represent a common molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. EGFR mutations predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thus represent a dependency in NSCLCs harboring these alterations, but the genetic basis of EGFR dependence is not fully understood. Here, we applied an unbiased, ORF-based screen to identify genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. This approach identified 18 kinase and kinase-related genes whose overexpression can substitute for EGFR in EGFR-dependent PC9 cells, and these genes include seven of nine Src family kinase genes, FGFR1, FGFR2, ITK, NTRK1, NTRK2, MOS, MST1R, and RAF1. A subset of these genes can complement loss of EGFR activity across multiple EGFR-dependent models. Unbiased gene-expression profiling of cells overexpressing EGFR bypass genes, together with targeted validation studies, reveals EGFR-independent activation of the MEK-ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways. Combined inhibition of PI3K-mTOR and MEK restores EGFR dependence in cells expressing each of the 18 EGFR bypass genes. Together, these data uncover a broad spectrum of kinases capable of overcoming dependence on EGFR and underscore their convergence on the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK signaling axes in sustaining EGFR-independent survival. PMID:25512530

  20. The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wiesinger, Christoph; Eichler, Florian S; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD). A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs. PMID:25999754

  1. The influence of biocomposites containing genetically modified flax fibers on gene expression in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Dominiak, Marzena; Gedrange, Tomasz; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2010-12-01

    In many studies, natural flax fibers have been proven to be resistant and surgically suitable. Genetically modified flax fibers, derived from transgenic flax expressing three bacterial genes for the synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have better mechanical properties than unmodified flax fibers. The aim of this study was to examine the biocompatibility of composites containing flax fibers from transgenic polyhydroxybutyrate producing (M50) and control (wt-NIKE) plants in a polylactide (PLA) matrix in rat Musculus latissimus dorsi. For this purpose, effects of biocomposites on the expression of growth factors and osteogenic differentiation, in particular the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin like growth factor 1, insulin like growth factor 2, collagen-1, collagen-2 and myostatin, were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. The biocomposites did not show any inflammation response after subcutaneous insertion. The results following subcutaneous insertion of PLA alone and PLA-M50 showed no significant changes on the gene expression of all tested genes, whereas PLA-wt-NIKE reduced the mRNA amount of myostatin, VEGFA and IGF2, respectively. It can be asserted that modified flax membranes with PHB and other organic substances have a good biocompatibility to the muscle and they do not disrupt the muscle function. Furthermore, composites from transgenic flax plants producing PHB did not differ from composites of non-transgenic flax plants. PMID:20973615

  2. Subchronic feeding study of grain from herbicide-tolerant maize DP-Ø9814Ø-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Laura M; Munley, Susan M; Hoban, Denise; Sykes, Greg P; Malley, Linda A; Delaney, Bryan

    2009-09-01

    This 13-week feeding study conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats evaluated the potential health effects from long-term consumption of a rodent diet formulated with grain from genetically modified (GM), herbicide-tolerant maize DP-Ø9814Ø-6 (98140; trade name Optimum GAT (Optimum GAT is a registered trademark of Pioneer Hi-Bred)). Metabolic inactivation of the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate was conferred by genomic integration and expression of a gene-shuffled acetylase coding sequence, gat4621, from Bacillus licheniformis; tolerance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides was conferred by overexpression of a modified allele (zm-hra) of the endogenous maize ALS enzyme that is resilient to inactivation. Milled maize grain from untreated (98140) and herbicide-treated (98140+Gly/SU) plants, the conventional non-transgenic, near-isogenic control (091), and three commercial non-transgenic reference hybrids (33J56, 33P66, and 33R77) was substituted at concentrations of 35-38% w/w into a common rodent chow formula (PMI) Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet 5002) and fed to rats (12/sex/group) for at least 91 consecutive days. Compared with rats fed diets containing grain from the conventional near-isogenic control maize, no adverse effects were observed in rats fed diets containing grain from 98140 or 98140+Gly/SU maize with respect to standard nutritional performance metrics and OECD 408-compliant toxicological response variables [OECD, 1998. Section 4 (Part 408), Health Effects: Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents, Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals. Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France]. These results support the comparative safety and nutritional value of maize grain from genetically modified Optimum GAT and conventional, non-transgenic hybrid field corn. PMID:19524635

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Modify the Neurobehavioral Effects of Mercury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James S.; Heyer, Nicholas J.; Russo, Joan E.; Martin, Michael D.; Pillai, Pradeep B.; Bammler, Theodor K.; Farin, Federico M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8–12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene–Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure. PMID:24593143

  4. Classification of Peruvian highland maize races using plant traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ortiz; José Crossa; Jorge Franco; Ricardo Sevilla; Juan Burgueño

    2008-01-01

    The maize of Latin America, with its enormous diversity, has played an important role in the development of modern maize cultivars\\u000a of the American continent. Peruvian highland maize shows a high degree of variation stemming from its history of cultivation\\u000a by Andean farmers. Multivariate statistical methods for classifying accessions have become powerful tools for classifying\\u000a genetic resources conservation and the

  5. Direct genetic selection of a maize cDNA for dihydrodipicolinate synthase in an Escherichia coli dapA ? auxotroph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Frisch; Andrew M. Tommey; Burle G. Gengenbach; David A. Somers

    1991-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS; EC 4.2.1.52) is the first committed enzyme in the lysine branch of the aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis pathway and is common to bacteria and plants. Due to feedback inhibition by lysine, DHPS serves in a regulatory role for this pathway in plant metabolism. To elucidate the molecular genetic characteristics of DHPS, we isolated a putative full-length cDNA

  6. The integration of mutant loci affecting maize endosperm development in a dense genetic map using an AFLP-based procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Pasini; Maria Rosaria Stile; Enrico Puja; Rita Valsecchi; Priscilla Francia; Giorgia Carletti; Francesco Salamini; Adriano Marocco

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 10 mutations conditioning the appearance of defective, miniature or collapsed endosperm, but with normal sporophyte\\u000a development, were considered. Homozygous mutant kernels have reduced grain weight, kernel size, density and, in some of these,\\u000a higher than normal seed protein content. The mutant loci were integrated into a high-resolution genetic map in order to associate\\u000a them to specific genes.

  7. Thin porridges (atoles) prepared from maize and sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Vivas Rodriguez, Nancy Esther

    1985-01-01

    were evaluated in atoles prepared following modified traditional methods. Commercial atole flours from maize were used as standards for the preparation of the experimental atole flours and atoles. Flours and atoles were prepared in the laboratory... Prepared from Sorghum and Maize Evaluated in a Taste Panel. . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table XX Sensory Evaluation by Latin Americans of Experimental Atoles Prepared from Maize and Sorghum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table XXI Sensory Evaluation...

  8. Landscape refuges delay resistance of the European corn borer to Bt-maize: a demo-genetic dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Tyutyunov, Yuri; Zhadanovskaya, Ekaterina; Bourguet, Denis; Arditi, Roger

    2008-08-01

    We constructed a reaction-diffusion model of the development of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt crops in pest populations. Kostitzin's demo-genetic model describes local interactions between three competing pest genotypes with alleles conferring resistance or susceptibility to transgenic plants, the spatial spread of insects being modelled by diffusion. This new approach makes it possible to combine a spatial demographic model of population dynamics with classical genetic theory. We used this model to examine the effects of pest dispersal and of the size and shape of the refuge on the efficiency of the "high-dose/refuge" strategy, which was designed to prevent the development of resistance in populations of insect pests, such as the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). We found that, with realistic combinations of refuge size and pest dispersal, the development of resistance could be considerably delayed. With a small to medium-sized farming area, contiguous refuge plots are more efficient than a larger number of smaller refuge patches. We also show that the formal coupling of classical Fisher-Haldane-Wright population genetics equations with diffusion terms inaccurately describes the development of resistance in a spatially heterogeneous pest population, notably overestimating the speed with which Bt resistance is selected in populations of pests targeted by Bt crops. PMID:18572213

  9. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Matheus Costa; Pádua, José Maria Villela; Abreu, Guilherme Barbosa; Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Balbi, Rodrigo Vieira; de Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0) and in the third cycle (C3) of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22) and interpopulation (P12 and P21) from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10 × 10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk) and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (??2) and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovA?) found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs. PMID:25009831

  10. Why does Monsanto introduce genetically modified seeds in every country differently? An inquiry into the worldwide commercialization of Bt Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMIRA CHAKLATTI; UMR GAEL INRA; SHYAMA V. RAMANI; Bd de Brandebourg

    Monsanto, a leading firm in agrobiotechnology has commercialized its genetically modified varieties in many countries of the world, including developing countries. This paper tries to identify the different commercialization strategies pursued by Monsanto. Then it proposes a simple sequential model of technology transfer between an upstream agbiotech firm and a downstream seed firm. The agbiotech chooses between a license, a

  11. Genetically modified foods: What are they, and are they good or bad for consumers and the environment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Tabe

    Plant gene technology is a new technique in plant breeding. It involves the introduction of a pure gene, from any source, into a plant in order to achieve a particular improvement in agricultural performance or product quality. Farmers in many countries have embraced genetically modified (GM) crops enthusiastically because they offer advantages for agricultural production. However, concerns about the implications

  12. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods III: Evaluation using a panel of reference foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory evaluation of four functional components of a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods in a concordance study. Two independent raters assigned concern levels to 20 reference GM foods using a rating form based on the proposed RBCS. The four components of evaluation were: (1) degree of concordance, (2) distribution across

  13. In search of a depressed mouse: utility of models for studying depression-related behavior in genetically modified mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Cryan; C Mombereau

    2004-01-01

    The ability to modify mice genetically has been one of the major breakthroughs in modern medical science affecting every discipline including psychiatry. It is hoped that the application of such technologies will result in the identification of novel targets for the treatment of diseases such as depression and to gain a better understanding of the molecular pathophysiological mechanisms that are

  14. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  15. Quantitative analysis of cefalexin based on artificial neural networks combined with modified genetic algorithm using short near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Yanfu; Feng, Guodong; Wang, Bin; Ren, Yulin; Fei, Qiang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a novel chemometric method was developed for rapid, accurate, and quantitative analysis of cefalexin in samples. The experiments were carried out by using the short near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with artificial neural networks. In order to enhancing the predictive ability of artificial neural networks model, a modified genetic algorithm was used to select fixed number of wavelength.

  16. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten Poulsen; Stine Kroghsbo; Malene Schrøder; Andrea Wilcks; Helene Jacobsen; Andreas Miller; Thomas Frenzel; Jürgen Danier; Michael Rychlik; Qingyao Shu; Kaveh Emami; Duraialagraja Sudhakar; Angharad Gatehouse; Karl-Heinz Engel; Ib Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective

  17. Use of genetically modified mouse models to assess pathways of benzene-induced bone marrow cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Recio; Alison Bauer; Brenda Faiola

    2005-01-01

    Benzene induces bone marrow cytotoxicity and chromosomal breaks as a primary mode of action for the induction of bone marrow toxicity. Our research group has used genetically modified mouse models to examine metabolic and genomic response pathways involved in benzene induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We review our studies using NQO1?\\/? mice

  18. Environmental and human health impacts of growing genetically modified herbicide-tolerant sugar beet: a life-cycle assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bennett; Richard Phipps; Alison Strange; Peter Grey

    Summary There is ongoing debate concerning the possible environmental and human health impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we report the results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) comparing the environmental and human health impacts of conventional sugar beet growing regimes in the UK and Germany with those that might be expected if GM herbicide-tolerant (to glyphosate) sugar beet

  19. Potent Vaccine Therapy with Dendritic Cells Genetically Modified by the Gene-Silencing-Resistant Retroviral Vector GCDNsap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Nabekura; Makoto Otsu; Toshiro Nagasawa; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Masafumi Onodera

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) genetically modified to express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) would be promising tools in cancer immunotherapy. However, the use of retroviral vectors for such modifications is still a challenge because of low transduction efficiency and gene silencing in DCs. We have established an efficient method to prepare such DCs by in vitro differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells transduced with

  20. Patterns of Selection and Tissue-Specific Expression among Maize Domestication and Crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina M. Hufford; Payan Canaran; Doreen H. Ware; Michael D. McMullen; Brandon S. Gaut

    2007-01-01

    The domestication of maize (Zea mays sp. mays) from its wild progenitors represents an opportunity to investigate the timing and genetic basis of morphological divergence resulting from artificial selection on target genes. We compared sequence diver- sity of 30 candidate selected and 15 reference loci between the three populations of wild teosintes, maize landraces, and maize inbred lines. We inferred

  1. Comparative transcription of heritage maize lines to identify new insect resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding of maize, Zea mays, has improved insect resistance, but the genetic and biochemical basis of many of these improvements is unknown. Maize oligonucleotide microarrays were utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in leaves of three maize inbreds, parents Oh40B and W8 and progeny O...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL-IMPACT INFORMATION ON CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR PRODUCTS LABELED AS FREE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED INGREDIENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl J. Wachenheim; Tamara Vanwechel

    2004-01-01

    Limited information is available about consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food products. This information is of immediate interest to the food industry. An experimental auction was conducted to assess willingness to pay for food items labeled as free of genetically modified ingredients and to evaluate the influence of positive and negative information about the impact of biotechnology on

  3. Evaluation of subtropical and tropical quality protein maize hybrids in Texas for agronomic performance, resistance to aflatoxin and quality 

    E-print Network

    Bhatnagar, Sandeep

    2001-01-01

    Common maize is deficient in essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, and has a low nutritive value compared to other cereals. Opaque-2, a regulatory gene, genetically enhances lysine content in normal maize endosperm ...

  4. Diversity in global maize germplasm: characterization and utilization.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, B M

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. 'Seeds of Discovery' (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this is expected to aid in effective identification and use of novel alleles and haplotypes for maize improvement. Multi-institutional efforts are required at the global level to systematically explore the maize germplasm to diversify the genetic base of elite breeding materials, create novel varieties and counter the effects of global climate changes. PMID:23107920

  5. Production and characterization of maize chromosome 9 radiation hybrids derived from an oat-maize addition line.

    PubMed Central

    Riera-Lizarazu, O; Vales, M I; Ananiev, E V; Rines, H W; Phillips, R L

    2000-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays L., 2n = 2x = 20), map-based cloning and genome organization studies are often complicated because of the complexity of the genome. Maize chromosome addition lines of hexaploid cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42), where maize chromosomes can be individually manipulated, represent unique materials for maize genome analysis. Maize chromosome addition lines are particularly suitable for the dissection of a single maize chromosome using radiation because cultivated oat is an allohexaploid in which multiple copies of the oat basic genome provide buffering to chromosomal aberrations and other mutations. Irradiation (gamma rays at 30, 40, and 50 krad) of a monosomic maize chromosome 9 addition line produced maize chromosome 9 radiation hybrids (M9RHs)-oat lines possessing different fragments of maize chromosome 9 including intergenomic translocations and modified maize addition chromosomes with internal and terminal deletions. M9RHs with 1 to 10 radiation-induced breaks per chromosome were identified. We estimated that a panel of 100 informative M9RHs (with an average of 3 breaks per chromosome) would allow mapping at the 0. 5- to 1.0-Mb level of resolution. Because mapping with maize chromosome addition lines and radiation hybrid derivatives involves assays for the presence or absence of a given marker, monomorphic markers can be quickly and efficiently mapped to a chromosome region. Radiation hybrid derivatives also represent sources of region-specific DNA for cloning of genes or DNA markers. PMID:10978296

  6. Resistance to gray leaf spot of maize: genetic architecture and mechanisms elucidated through nested association mapping and near-isogenic line analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jacqueline M; Poland, Jesse A; Benson, Brent M; Stromberg, Erik L; Nelson, Rebecca J

    2015-03-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most important diseases of maize worldwide. The pathogen has a necrotrophic lifestyle and no major genes are known for GLS. Quantitative resistance, although poorly understood, is important for GLS management. We used genetic mapping to refine understanding of the genetic architecture of GLS resistance and to develop hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying quantitative disease resistance (QDR) loci. Nested association mapping (NAM) was used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for QDR to GLS, including seven novel QTL, each of which demonstrated allelic series with significant effects above and below the magnitude of the B73 reference allele. Alleles at three QTL, qGLS1.04, qGLS2.09, and qGLS4.05, conferred disease reductions of greater than 10%. Interactions between loci were detected for three pairs of loci, including an interaction between iqGLS4.05 and qGLS7.03. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm and fine-map three of the 16 QTL, and to develop hypotheses regarding mechanisms of resistance. qGLS1.04 was fine-mapped from an interval of 27.0 Mb to two intervals of 6.5 Mb and 5.2 Mb, consistent with the hypothesis that multiple genes underlie highly significant QTL identified by NAM. qGLS2.09, which was also associated with maturity (days to anthesis) and with resistance to southern leaf blight, was narrowed to a 4-Mb interval. The distance between major leaf veins was strongly associated with resistance to GLS at qGLS4.05. NILs for qGLS1.04 were treated with the C. zeae-maydis toxin cercosporin to test the role of host-specific toxin in QDR. Cercosporin exposure increased expression of a putative flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) gene, a candidate detoxification-related gene underlying qGLS1.04. This integrated approach to confirming QTL and characterizing the potential underlying mechanisms advances the understanding of QDR and will facilitate the development of resistant varieties. PMID:25764179

  7. A single molecule scaffold for the maize genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 85% of the maize genome consists of highly repetitive Sequences that are interspersed by low copy, gene-coding sequences. The maize community has dealt with this genomic complexity by the Construction of an integrated genetic and physical map (iMap), but this resource alone was not sufficient ...

  8. Variation of Starch Granule Size in Tropical Maize Germ Plasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. CAMPBELL; J. LI; T. G. BERKE; D. V. GLOVER

    Granule size is an important characteristic of starch that can influence its functional and wet-milling extraction properties. Genetic variation for granule size has been found among maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes pos- sessing single gene mutations affecting starch synthesis. In a previous study, 35 tropical and semitropical maize populations were examined for starch thermal properties. The purpose of this study

  9. No Adjuvant Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-Maize on Allergic Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize (MON810) on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:25084284

  10. An approach for post-market monitoring of potential environmental effects of Bt -maize expressing Cry1Ab on natural enemies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Sanvido; J. Romeis; F. Bigler

    2009-01-01

    Post-market monitoring (PMM) consistent with Swiss and European Union legislation should ensure the detection and prevention of adverse effects on the environment possibly deriving from commercial cultiva- tion of genetically modified (GM) crops. Insect-resistant GM crops (such as Bt-maize) raise particular questions regarding disturbances of biologi- cal control functions provided by beneficial insects such as predators and parasitoids (so-called natural

  11. The use of genetically modified mice in cancer risk assessment: Challenges and limitations*

    PubMed Central

    Eastmond, David A.; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V.; French, John E.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) mice to assess carcinogenicity is playing an increasingly important role in the safety evaluation of chemicals. While progress has been made in developing and evaluating mouse models such as the Trp53+/?, Tg.AC and the rasH2, the suitability of these models as replacements for the conventional rodent cancer bioassay and for assessing human health risks remains uncertain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of accelerated cancer bioassays with GM mice for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic agents. We compared the published results from the GM bioassays to those obtained in the National Toxicology Program’s conventional chronic mouse bioassay for their potential use in risk assessment. Our analysis indicates that the GM models are less efficient in detecting carcinogenic agents but more consistent in identifying non-carcinogenic agents. We identified several issues of concern related to the design of the accelerated bioassays (e.g., sample size, study duration, genetic stability and reproducibility) as well as pathway-dependency of effects, and different carcinogenic mechanisms operable in GM and non-GM mice. The use of the GM models for dose-response assessment is particularly problematic as these models are, at times, much more or less sensitive than the conventional rodent cancer bioassays. Thus, the existing GM mouse models may be useful for hazard identification, but will be of limited use for dose-response assessment. Hence, caution should be exercised when using GM mouse models to assess the carcinogenic risks of chemicals. PMID:23985072

  12. The use of genetically modified mice in cancer risk assessment: challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Eastmond, David A; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V; French, John E; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2013-09-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) mice to assess carcinogenicity is playing an increasingly important role in the safety evaluation of chemicals. While progress has been made in developing and evaluating mouse models such as the Trp53?/?, Tg.AC and the rasH2, the suitability of these models as replacements for the conventional rodent cancer bioassay and for assessing human health risks remains uncertain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of accelerated cancer bioassays with GM mice for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic agents. We compared the published results from the GM bioassays to those obtained in the National Toxicology Program's conventional chronic mouse bioassay for their potential use in risk assessment. Our analysis indicates that the GM models are less efficient in detecting carcinogenic agents but more consistent in identifying non-carcinogenic agents. We identified several issues of concern related to the design of the accelerated bioassays (e.g., sample size, study duration, genetic stability and reproducibility) as well as pathway-dependency of effects, and different carcinogenic mechanisms operable in GM and non-GM mice. The use of the GM models for dose-response assessment is particularly problematic as these models are, at times, much more or less sensitive than the conventional rodent cancer bioassays. Thus, the existing GM mouse models may be useful for hazard identification, but will be of limited use for dose-response assessment. Hence, caution should be exercised when using GM mouse models to assess the carcinogenic risks of chemicals. PMID:23985072

  13. Identification of genetic modifiers of CagA-induced epithelial disruption in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Reid, David W.; Muyskens, Jonathan B.; Neal, James T.; Gaddini, Gino W.; Cho, Lucy Y.; Wandler, Anica M.; Botham, Crystal M.; Guillemin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains containing the CagA protein are associated with high risk of gastric diseases including atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. CagA is injected into host cells via a Type IV secretion system where it activates growth factor-like signaling, disrupts cell-cell junctions, and perturbs host cell polarity. Using a transgenic Drosophila model, we have shown that CagA expression disrupts the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues such as the adult eye. Here we describe a genetic screen to identify modifiers of CagA-induced eye defects. We determined that reducing the copy number of genes encoding components of signaling pathways known to be targeted by CagA, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), modified the CagA-induced eye phenotypes. In our screen of just over half the Drosophila genome, we discovered 12 genes that either suppressed or enhanced CagA's disruption of the eye epithelium. Included in this list are genes involved in epithelial integrity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. We investigated the mechanism of one suppressor, encoding the epithelial polarity determinant and junction protein Coracle, which is homologous to the mammalian Protein 4.1. We found that loss of a single copy of coracle improved the organization and integrity of larval retinal epithelia expressing CagA, but did not alter CagA's localization to cell junctions. Loss of a single copy of the coracle antagonist crumbs enhanced CagA-associated disruption of the larval retinal epithelium, whereas overexpression of crumbs suppressed this phenotype. Collectively, these results point to new cellular pathways whose disruption by CagA are likely to contribute to H. pylori-associated disease pathology. PMID:22919616

  14. Comparison of Life History Characteristics of the Genetically Modified OX513A Line and a Wild Type Strain of Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irka Bargielowski; Derric Nimmo; Luke Alphey; Jacob C. Koella

    2011-01-01

    The idea of implementing genetics-based insect control strategies modelled on the traditional SIT (Sterile Insect Technique), such as RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal), is becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we compare a genetically modified line of Aedes aegypti carrying a tetracycline repressible, lethal positive feedback system (OX513A) with a genetically similar, unmodified counterpart and their respective

  15. Impact of 9 years of Bt-maize cultivation on the distribution of maize viruses.

    PubMed

    Achon, Maria Angeles; Alonso-Dueñas, Natalia

    2009-06-01

    This study assesses the effect of Bt-maize on the distribution of maize viruses. Random surveys were conducted in Spain between 2001 and 2006 to evaluate the occurrence of maize viruses in Bt-maize cultivation areas and in areas where this crop had not been introduced. Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) was the predominant virus in Bt-areas, and Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) was the most predominant one in non-Bt-areas, with MRDV an emergent virus in both types of areas. A decline in the occurrence of MDMV and an increase in that of Sugarcane mosaic virus was observed in Bt-areas. Additionally, data obtained over 6 years in experimental fields showed non-significant differences between the infection rates exhibited by two generations of Bt varieties and the non-transformed isogenics varieties for any of the viruses. Our data suggest that differences in virus distribution are linked to the genetic background of the maize varieties and the distribution of virus reservoirs rather than to Bt-maize cultivation. PMID:19067216

  16. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  17. Genetically modified flax expressing NAP-SsGT1 transgene: examination of anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-? did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  18. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin

    2010-11-30

    The potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops on income, poverty and nutrition in developing countries continue to be the subject of public controversy. Here, a review of the evidence is given. As an example of a first-generation GM technology, the effects of insect-resistant Bt cotton are analysed. Bt cotton has already been adopted by millions of small-scale farmers, in India, China, and South Africa among others. On average, farmers benefit from insecticide savings, higher effective yields and sizeable income gains. Insights from India suggest that Bt cotton is employment generating and poverty reducing. As an example of a second-generation technology, the likely impacts of beta-carotene-rich Golden Rice are analysed from an ex ante perspective. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious nutritional problem, causing multiple adverse health outcomes. Simulations for India show that Golden Rice could reduce related health problems significantly, preventing up to 40,000 child deaths every year. These examples clearly demonstrate that GM crops can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries. To realise such social benefits on a larger scale requires more public support for research targeted to the poor, as well as more efficient regulatory and technology delivery systems. PMID:20643233

  19. Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

  20. A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR-Based Detection Methods for Authorized Genetically Modified Cotton Events in India.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rashmi; Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Singh, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative diagnostics for all five commercialized genetically modified (GM) cotton events for insect resistance in India is being reported for the first time in this paper. The cost-effective and robust multiplex PCR (MPCR)-based detection assay, distinguishing the insect resistant transgenic Bt cotton events, viz., MON531, MON15985, Event 1, GFM-cry1A, and MLS-9124, has been developed. This decaplex PCR assay targets nine transgenic elements, viz., sequences of four transgenes, three transgene constructs, and two event-specific sequences along with one endogenous reference gene. The LOD of the qualitative MPCR assay was up to 0.1%. A quantitative detection method for four widely commercially cultivated GM cotton events, namely, MON531, MON15985, Event 1, and GFM-cry1A, covering 99.5% of the total area under GM cultivation in the country, is also reported. A construct-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed for quantification of these GM cotton events with LOQ <0.05% and LOD <0.025%. The developed assays will be of great use to screen for the presence/absence of authorized GM cotton events in unknown samples and to check the authenticity of GM cotton seed samples. PMID:25902979

  2. Genetically Modified Flax Expressing NAP-SsGT1 Transgene: Examination of Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-? did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  3. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  4. Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is an environmental factor modifying genetic risk of atopic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Saltykova, Irina V; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Bragina, Elena Yu; Puzyrev, Valery P; Freidin, Maxim B

    2014-11-01

    According to epidemiological observations, Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is negatively associated with the development and severity of allergic diseases in endemic regions of Russia. We hypothesized that the invasion is an important factor in gene-environmental interactions (GEI) underlying allergy. To prove this, we tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms of immune response modifying genes in 428 individuals stratified by atopic bronchial asthma presence and O. felineus invasion. Using regression models, a statistically significant interaction between the rs6737848 polymorphism of SOCS5 gene and O. felineus invasion was observed (pint=0.001, OR=5.66, 95% CI 1.96-16.31 for dominant model; pint=0.003; OR=4.38, 95% CI 1.68-11.45 for additive model). The interaction is based on the statistically significant association between the SOCS5 gene and atopic bronchial asthma in patients without O. felineus infection, while no such association is seen in patients infected by the helminth. These data confirm for the first time the importance of the helminth invasion as an environmental factor influencing the association between genetic factors and atopic bronchial asthma. In particular, O. felineus diminishes the risk of atopic bronchial asthma associated with the SOCS5 gene polymorphism. PMID:25017311

  5. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. PMID:25873489

  6. Improved Lower Bounds of DNA Tags Based on a Modified Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Wei, Xiaopeng; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The well-known massively parallel sequencing method is efficient and it can obtain sequence data from multiple individual samples. In order to ensure that sequencing, replication, and oligonucleotide synthesis errors do not result in tags (or barcodes) that are unrecoverable or confused, the tag sequences should be abundant and sufficiently different. Recently, many design methods have been proposed for correcting errors in data using error-correcting codes. The existing tag sets contain small tag sequences, so we used a modified genetic algorithm to improve the lower bound of the tag sets in this study. Compared with previous research, our algorithm is effective for designing sets of DNA tags. Moreover, the GC content determined by existing methods includes an imprecise range. Thus, we improved the GC content determination method to obtain tag sets that control the GC content in a more precise range. Finally, previous studies have only considered perfect self-complementarity. Thus, we considered the crossover between different tags and introduced an improved constraint into the design of tag sets. PMID:25693135

  7. Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing.

    PubMed

    Song, Shangxin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Liangyan; Dai, Sifa; Xu, Xinglian; Xiao, Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of DNA by alkaline lysis method were higher than by CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. For sweet rice wine, CAMV35S (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter and NOS (nopaline synthase) terminator were degraded by the third day, whereas the exogenous gene Bar (bialaphos resistance) remained unaffected. For rice crackers, boiling, drying and microwaving contributed to the initial degradations of DNA. Baking resulted in further degradations, and frying led to the most severe changes. These results indicated that the stability of DNA in GM rice was different under different processing conditions. For sweet rice wine, Bar was most stable, followed by NOS, CAMV35S, and SPS. For rice crackers, CAMV35S was most stable, followed by SPS, NOS, and Bar. PMID:21871942

  8. Co-occurrence of Distinct Ciliopathy Diseases in Single Families Suggests Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Maha S; Sattar, Shifteh; Massoudi, Rustin A; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2011-01-01

    Disorders within the “ciliopathy” spectrum include Joubert (JS), Bardet–Biedl syndromes (BBS), and nephronophthisis (NPHP). Although mutations in single ciliopathy genes can lead to these different syndromes between families, there have been no reports of phenotypic discordance within a single family. We report on two consanguineous families with discordant ciliopathies in sibling. In Ciliopathy-672, the older child displayed dialysis-dependent NPHP whereas the younger displayed the pathognomonic molar tooth MRI sign (MTS) of JS. A second branch displayed two additional children with NPHP. In Ciliopathy-1491, the oldest child displayed classical features of BBS whereas the two younger children displayed the MTS. Importantly, the children with BBS and NPHP lacked MTS, whereas children with JS lacked obesity or NPHP, and the child with BBS lacked MTS and NPHP. Features common to all three disorders included intellectual disability, postaxial polydactyly, and visual reduction. The variable phenotypic expressivity in this family suggests that genetic modifiers may determine specific clinical features within the ciliopathy spectrum. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22002901

  9. A built-in strategy to mitigate transgene spreading from genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

  10. Severe presentation of WDR62 mutation: is there a role for modifying genetic factors?

    PubMed

    Poulton, Cathryn J; Schot, Rachel; Seufert, Katja; Lequin, Maarten H; Accogli, Andrea; Annunzio, Giuseppe D'; Villard, Laurent; Philip, Nicole; de Coo, René; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene; Grasshoff, Ute; Kattentidt-Mouravieva, Anja; Calf, Hans; de Vreugt-Gronloh, Erika; van Unen, Leontine; Verheijen, Frans W; Galjart, Niels; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J; Mancini, Grazia M S

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in WDR62 are associated with primary microcephaly; however, they have been reported with wide phenotypic variability. We report on six individuals with novel WDR62 mutations who illustrate this variability and describe three in greater detail. Of the three, one lacks neuromotor development and has severe pachygyria on MRI, another has only delayed speech and motor development and moderate polymicrogyria, and the third has an intermediate phenotype. We observed a rare copy number change of unknown significance, a 17q25qter duplication, in the first severely affected individual. The 17q25 duplication included an interesting candidate gene, tubulin cofactor D (TBCD), crucial in microtubule assembly and disassembly. Sequencing of the non-duplicated allele showed a TBCD missense mutation, predicted to cause a deleterious p.Phe1121Val substitution. Sequencing of a cohort of five patients with WDR62 mutations, including one with an identical mutation and different phenotype, plus 12 individuals with diagnosis of microlissencephaly and another individual with mild intellectual disability (ID) and a 17q25 duplication, did not reveal TBCD mutations. However, immunostaining with tubulin antibodies of cells from patients with both WDR62 and TBCD mutation showed abnormal tubulin network when compared to controls and cells with only the WDR62 mutation. Therefore, we propose that genetic factors contribute to modify the severity of the WDR62 phenotype and, although based on suggestive evidence, TBCD could function as one of such factors. PMID:24842779

  11. Proteomic analysis of endosomes from genetically modified p14/MP1 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Stasyk, Taras; Holzmann, Johann; Stumberger, Sonja; Ebner, Hannes L; Hess, Michael W; Bonn, Guenther K; Mechtler, Karl; Huber, Lukas A

    2010-11-01

    The p14/MP1 scaffold complex binds MEK1 and ERK1/2 on late endosomes, thus regulating the strength, duration and intracellular location of MAPK signaling. By organelle proteomics we have compared the protein composition of endosomes purified from genetically modified p14?/?, p14+/? and p14(rev) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The latter ones were reconstituted retrovirally from p14?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts by reexpression of pEGFP-p14 at equimolar ratios with its physiological binding partner MP1, as shown here by absolute quantification of MP1 and p14 proteins on endosomes by quantitative MS using the Equimolarity through Equalizer Peptide strategy. A combination of subcellular fractionation, 2-D DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS revealed 31 proteins differentially regulated in p14?/? organelles, which were rescued by reexpression of pEGFP-p14 in p14?/? endosomes. Regulated proteins are known to be involved in actin remodeling, endosomal signal transduction and trafficking. Identified proteins and their in silico interaction networks suggested that endosomal signaling might regulate such major cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. PMID:21080497

  12. Computational allergenicity prediction of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Misra, Amita; Subash, Swarna; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-09-01

    Development of genetically modified (GM) crops is on increase to improve food quality, increase harvest yields, and reduce the dependency on chemical pesticides. Before their release in marketplace, they should be scrutinized for their safety. Several guidelines of different regulatory agencies like ILSI, WHO Codex, OECD, and so on for allergenicity evaluation of transgenics are available and sequence homology analysis is the first test to determine the allergenic potential of inserted proteins. Therefore, to test and validate, 312 allergenic, 100 non-allergenic, and 48 inserted proteins were assessed for sequence similarity using 8-mer, 80-mer, and full FASTA search. On performing sequence homology studies, ~94% the allergenic proteins gave exact matches for 8-mer and 80-mer homology. However, 20 allergenic proteins showed non-allergenic behavior. Out of 100 non-allergenic proteins, seven qualified as allergens. None of the inserted proteins demonstrated allergenic behavior. In order to improve the predictability, proteins showing anomalous behavior were tested by Algpred and ADFS separately. Use of Algpred and ADFS softwares reduced the tendency of false prediction to a great extent (74-78%). In conclusion, routine sequence homology needs to be coupled with some other bioinformatic method like ADFS/Algpred to reduce false allergenicity prediction of novel proteins. PMID:20964517

  13. Genetic Modifier Screens Reveal New Components that Interact with the Drosophila Dystroglycan-Dystrophin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yatsenko, Andriy S.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.; Fischer, Karin A.; Maksymiv, Dariya V.; Chernyk, Yaroslava I.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    The Dystroglycan-Dystrophin (Dg-Dys) complex has a capacity to transmit information from the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton inside the cell. It is proposed that this interaction is under tight regulation; however the signaling/regulatory components of Dg-Dys complex remain elusive. Understanding the regulation of the complex is critical since defects in this complex cause muscular dystrophy in humans. To reveal new regulators of the Dg-Dys complex, we used a model organism Drosophila melanogaster and performed genetic interaction screens to identify modifiers of Dg and Dys mutants in Drosophila wing veins. These mutant screens revealed that the Dg-Dys complex interacts with genes involved in muscle function and components of Notch, TGF-? and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, components of pathways that are required for cellular and/or axonal migration through cytoskeletal regulation, such as Semaphorin-Plexin, Frazzled-Netrin and Slit-Robo pathways show interactions with Dys and/or Dg. These data suggest that the Dg-Dys complex and the other pathways regulating extracellular information transfer to the cytoskeletal dynamics are more intercalated than previously thought. PMID:18545683

  14. Inferences from genetically modified mouse models on the skeletal actions of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Goltzman, D

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D has pleiotropic extra-skeletal effects which have been noted in mouse models of deletion of either the 25-hydroxy vitamin D 1?-hydroxylase enzyme, cyp27b1 (1OHase(-/-) mice) or of the vitamin D receptor (Vdr(-/-) mice); these may be preventable or reversible by either restoring normal signaling of the 1,25(OH)2D/VDR system, or in some cases by restoring normal mineral homeostasis. However, effects on skeletal and mineral homeostasis are clearly the major phenotype observed in humans with loss-of-function mutations in either CYP27B1 or VDR. In mouse phenocopies of these human disorders, correction of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia reduce elevated circulating parathyroid hormone concentrations and normalize impaired bone mineralization, but restoration of normal 1,25(OH)2D/VDR signaling may be required for optimal bone formation. Induction of high endogenous 1,25(OH)2D concentrations in genetically modified mouse models may cause increased bone resorption and decreased mineralization. Transgenic Vdr overexpression and conditional Vdr deletion in cells of the osteoblastic lineage have also provided insights into the stages of osteoblast differentiation which may mediate these actions. These anabolic and catabolic effects of the 1,25(OH)2D system on bone may therefore be a function of both the ambient concentration of circulating 1,25(OH)2D and the stage of differentiation of the osteoblast. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25237033

  15. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ib Knudsen; Morten Poulsen

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel,

  16. Similarity of maize and sorghum genomes as revealed by maize RFLP probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Binelli; L. Gianfranceschi; M. E. Pè; G. Taramino; C. Busso; J. Stenhouse; E. Ottaviano

    1992-01-01

    Densely saturated genetic maps of neutral genetic markers are a prerequisite either for plant breeding programs to improve quantitative traits in crops or for evolutionary studies. cDNA and genomic clones from maize were utilized to initiate the construction of a RFLP linkage map in Sorghum bicolor. To this purpose, an F2 population was produced from starting parental lines IS 18729

  17. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038. PMID:19650633

  18. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic material that should try to protect from patenting and commercialisation. Finally, we should be aware of the requirements of movement of GMOs within borders, i.e. GMOs grown or used in other countries but which are not intended to cross into Greece, since Greece is very close to countries that are non-EU. This is where the development of a new, integrated, trustworthy and transparent food quality control system will help to satisfy the societal demands for safe and quality products. On the other hand, Greece should not be isolated from any recent scientific technological development and should assess the possible advantages for some cultivation using a case by case approach. Finally, the safety assessment of GM foods and feed has been discussed according to the risk assessment methodology applied by EFSA. PMID:17275157

  19. Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons Following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Jin; Itzhak Fischer; Alan Tessler; John D. Houle

    2002-01-01

    Transplants of fibroblasts genetically modified to express BDNF (Fb\\/BDNF) have been shown to promote regeneration of rubrospinal axons and recovery of forelimb function when placed acutely into the injured cervical spinal cord of adult rats. Here we investigated whether Fb\\/BDNF cells could stimulate supraspinal axon regeneration and recovery after chronic (4 week) injury. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats received a complete

  20. A MULTI-COUNTRY ASSESSMENT OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR NEW LABELING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Seok Kim; Kwansoo Kim

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates the willingness to pay (WTP) for non-genetically modified (GM) vegetable oil and tofu in Korea by using contingent valuation (CV) method and compares this WTP with Japan, Norway, Taiwan and the U.S. It also recovers the distribution of WTP by using a bootstrapping approach to provide a better measure of consumer's WTP on non-GM foods. Especially, we

  1. Development of a qualitative, multiplex real-time PCR kit for screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Henno Dörries; Ivonne Remus; Astrid Grönewald; Cordt Grönewald; Kornelia Berghof-Jäger

    2010-01-01

    The number of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and therefore the diversity of possible target\\u000a sequences for molecular detection techniques are constantly increasing. As a result, GMO laboratories and the food production\\u000a industry currently are forced to apply many different methods to reliably test raw material and complex processed food products.\\u000a Screening methods have become more and more relevant

  2. Establishment and evaluation of event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean DP356043-5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Tao Xu; Nan Zhang; Yun Bo Luo; Zhi Fang Zhai; Ying Shang; Xing Hua Yan; Juan Juan Zheng; Kun Lun Huang

    With the increasing development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), labeling regulations have been introduced, which\\u000a require appropriate detection methods. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection,\\u000a especially for event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods, which have become the internationally agreed\\u000a state-of-art. This paper describes the character and event-specific quantitative detection method of DP-356043-5

  3. DNA Biosensor Prepared by Electrodeposited Pt-nanoparticles for the Detection of Specific Deoxyribonucleic Acid Sequence in Genetically Modified Soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao-Qing WANG; Xiao-Yan DU; li-Yan LIU; Qian SUN; Xian-Chen JIANG

    2008-01-01

    DNA biosensors were prepared by electrodepositing platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nano) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A 19-mer ssDNA of promoter 35S, which was specific to most inserted sequences in genetically modified food, was immobilized on the Pt nanoparticle-deposited GC electrode. The morphology of the surface of Pt nanoparticle-deposited GC electrodes (Pt-nano\\/GCE) was investigated under a scanning electron

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Methods for Event-specific Detection of Genetically Modified Cotton Mon1445 and Mon531

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litao Yang; Aihu Pan; Kewei Zhang; Changsong Yin; Bingjun Qian; Jianxiu Chen; Cheng Huang; Dabing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the DNA sequences of the junctions between recombinant and cotton genomic DNA of the two genetically modified (GM)\\u000a cotton varieties, herbicide-tolerance Mon1445 and insect-resistant Mon531, event-specific primers and probes for qualitative\\u000a and quantitative PCR detection for both GM cotton varieties were designed, and corresponding detection methods were developed.\\u000a In qualitative PCR detection, the simplex and multiplex PCR detection

  5. ELISA method for monitoring human serum IgE specific for Cry1Ab introduced into genetically modified corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Nakajima; Reiko Teshima; Kayoko Takagi; Haruyo Okunuki; Jun-ichi Sawada

    2007-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most convenient method of monitoring the occurrence of IgE antibodies specific for novel proteins in genetically modified (GM) foods. The levels of IgE specific for a recombinant protein, Cry1Ab, were determined using an ELISA method. A soluble form of the Cry1Ab protein purified from pCold1 vector-transformed Escherichia coli pTf16\\/BL21 was used as the ELISA

  6. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. Methods The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Results The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated that GT seedcake preparations have no harmful effect on human skin. Moreover, GT seedcake preparations exhibited inhibitory properties toward two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusions We suggest that preparations derived from the new GT flax are an effective source of phenylopropanoids and that their glycoside derivatives and might be promising natural products with both healing and bacteriostatic effects. This flax-derived product is a good candidate for application in the repair and regeneration of human skin and might also be an alternative to antibiotic therapy for infected wounds. PMID:23228136

  7. Biolistic Protocol Organism: Maize

    E-print Network

    Raizada, Manish N.

    Biolistic Protocol Organism: Maize In vivo/in vitro/in situ: in vitro Target tissue: Callus Instrument: PDS-1000/He System Tissue preparation: Maize, callus 28°C (N6 salts). Callus is initiated on high

  8. Systematic mapping of genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans identifies common modifiers of diverse signaling pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Lehner; Catriona Crombie; Julia Tischler; Angelo Fortunato; Andrew G Fraser

    2006-01-01

    Most heritable traits, including disease susceptibility, are affected by interactions between multiple genes. However, we understand little about how genes interact because very few possible genetic interactions have been explored experimentally. We have used RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans to systematically test ?65,000 pairs of genes for their ability to interact genetically. We identify ?350 genetic interactions between genes functioning

  9. Does wheat genetically modified for disease resistance affect root-colonizing pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Song-Wilson, Yi; Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology. PMID:23372672

  10. Different Selective Effects on Rhizosphere Bacteria Exerted by Genetically Modified versus Conventional Potato Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Silja Emilia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cássia; Salles, Joana Falcão; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study, we assessed the actively metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of potato using two potato cultivars, i.e. the genetically-modified (GM) cultivar Modena (having tubers with altered starch content) and the near-isogenic non-GM cultivar Karnico. To achieve our aims, we pulse-labelled plants at EC90 stage with 13C-CO2 and analysed their rhizosphere microbial communities 24 h, 5 and 12 days following the pulse. In the analyses, phospholipid fatty acid/stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) as well as RNA-SIP followed by reverse transcription and PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis, were used to determine the bacterial groups that actively respond to the root-released 13C labelled carbonaceous compounds. Methodology/Principal findings The PLFA-SIP data revealed major roles of bacteria in the uptake of root-released 13C carbon, which grossly increased with time. Gram-negative bacteria, including members of the genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, were strong accumulators of the 13C-labeled compounds at the two cultivars, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were lesser responders. PCR-DGGE analysis of cDNA produced from the two cultivar types showed that these had selected different bacterial, alpha- and betaproteobacterial communities at all time points. Moreover, an effect of time was observed, indicating dynamism in the structure of the active bacterial communities. PCR-DGGE as well as clone library analyses revealed that the main bacterial responders at cultivar Karnico were taxonomically affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, next to Gluconacetobacter and Paracoccus. Cultivar Modena mainly attracted Burkholderia, next to Moraxella-like (Moraxellaceae family) and Sphingomonas types. Conclusions/Significance Based on the use of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia as proxies for differentially-selected bacterial genera, we conclude that the selective forces exerted by potato cultivar Modena on the active bacterial populations differed from those exerted by cultivar Karnico. PMID:23844136

  11. Validation of PCR methods for quantitation of genetically modified plants in food.

    PubMed

    Hübner, P; Waiblinger, H U; Pietsch, K; Brodmann, P

    2001-01-01

    For enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients, quantitative detection methods such as quantitative competitive (QC-PCR) and real-time PCR are applied by official food control laboratories. The experiences of 3 European food control laboratories in validating such methods were compared to describe realistic performance characteristics of quantitative PCR detection methods. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of GMO-specific, real-time PCR was experimentally determined to reach 30-50 target molecules, which is close to theoretical prediction. Starting PCR with 200 ng genomic plant DNA, the LOQ depends primarily on the genome size of the target plant and ranges from 0.02% for rice to 0.7% for wheat. The precision of quantitative PCR detection methods, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied from 10 to 30%. Using Bt176 corn containing test samples and applying Bt176 specific QC-PCR, mean values deviated from true values by -7to 18%, with an average of 2+/-10%. Ruggedness of real-time PCR detection methods was assessed in an interlaboratory study analyzing commercial, homogeneous food samples. Roundup Ready soybean DNA contents were determined in the range of 0.3 to 36%, relative to soybean DNA, with RSDs of about 25%. Taking the precision of quantitative PCR detection methods into account, suitable sample plans and sample sizes for GMO analysis are suggested. Because quantitative GMO detection methods measure GMO contents of samples in relation to reference material (calibrants), high priority must be given to international agreements and standardization on certified reference materials. PMID:11767156

  12. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject. PMID:15504704

  13. Nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor for visual detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Kalogianni, Despina P; Koraki, Theodora; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2006-01-15

    Although screening of raw ingredients and food products for genetically modified organisms (GMO) may be accomplished by detecting either the exogenous DNA or the novel protein, DNA is the preferred analyte because of its superior stability during food processing. The development of DNA biosensors is of increasing importance due to the growing demand for rapid and reliable methods for GMO detection. We report the first DNA biosensor in a dry-reagent dipstick configuration for visual detection and confirmation of GMO-related sequences by hybridization within minutes. The sensor is disposable and does not require special instrumentation. It detects the 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences that are present in the majority of transgenic plants. The target sequences are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridized (7min) with probes bearing oligo(dA) tail. The biotinylated product is applied to the sensor followed by immersion in the appropriate buffer. Migration of the buffer rehydrates gold nanoparticles conjugated to oligo(dT), which hybridize with the oligo(dA) tails. The hybrids are captured by immobilized streptavidin at the test zone of the sensor giving a characteristic red line due to the accumulation of the nanoparticles. The excess of nanoparticle conjugates are captured at the control zone by immobilized oligo(dA) strands. Amplified 35S or NOS DNA is detectable at 0.16nM. Soybean powder certified reference material with 0.1% GMO content is clearly detectable after 35 and 40 amplification cycles for 35S and NOS sequence, respectively. The sensor was also applied to real samples from various sources. PMID:15935636

  14. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    SciTech Connect

    Purchase, Iain F.H. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ifhp@chadzombe.u-net.com

    2005-09-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalisation (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

  15. Genetically modified hairy roots of Withania somnifera Dunal: a potent source of rejuvenating principles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Bhamid, Suresh; Sudha, C G; Ravishankar, Gokare A

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic hairy roots were induced from Withania somnifera Dunal, by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Polymerase chain reaction for rol A gene and Southern blot confirmed the integration of T-DNA in the genome. Cultures were grown in Murashige and Skoog solid as well as in liquid medium. The antioxidant activity was assayed in roots grown in solid media and liquid media. Hairy roots grown in liquid media found to possess highly significant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-pecryl-hydrazyl radical, beta-carotene linoleic acid model system. The activity was 57.34%, 75.64%, and 93.41% in case DPPH model and 55.3%, 76.3%, and 90.5% in case of b-CLAMS in 25, 50, and 100 mg L(-1) concentration, respectively. In case of hydroxyl radical trapping and brain lipid peroxidation assay, the activity was more significant in hairy roots grown on solid medium in comparison with commercial formulation prepared using normal roots and standard withanaloids. Root extract grown in solid medium has shown 93.2% hydroxyl radical trapping activity at 100 mg L(-1) concentration, and 500 mg L(-1) has shown 83.6% in case of brain lipid peroxidation assay. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated the presence of withanaloids in the hairy root extracts. The results of the study clearly indicate that there is enhancement of secondary metabolites in hairy roots, which is indicated through significant enhancement of the antioxidant activity, since these are the major constituents responsible for the activity. This is the first report on the presence of antioxidant principles in genetically modified roots of W. somnifera. These results of the present study may aid in utilization of the W. somnifera hairy roots for its rejuvenating principles. PMID:15798373

  16. DNA Barcoding Simplifies Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Biodiverse Regions

    PubMed Central

    Nzeduru, Chinyere V.; Ronca, Sandra; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored. PMID:22567120

  17. Does Wheat Genetically Modified for Disease Resistance Affect Root-Colonizing Pseudomonads and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi?

    PubMed Central

    Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology. PMID:23372672

  18. New insights into the pathogenesis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum and related soft tissue calcification disorders by identifying genetic interactions and modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Hendig, Doris; Knabbe, Cornelius; Götting, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Screening of the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter protein subfamily C member 6 gene (ABCC6) in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) revealed a mutation detection rate of approximately 87%. Although 25% of the unidentified disease alleles underlie deletions/insertions, there remain several PXE patients with no clear genotype. The recent identification of PXE-related diseases and the high intra-familiar and inter-individual clinical variability of PXE led to the assumption that secondary genetic co-factors exist. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the genetics underlying PXE and PXE-related disorders based on human and animal studies. Furthermore, we discuss the role of genetic interactions and modifier genes in PXE and PXE-related diseases characterized by soft tissue calcification. PMID:23802012

  19. Modified H5 promoter improves stability of insert genes while maintaining immunogenicity during extended passage of genetically engineered MVA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde; Martinez, Joy; Zhou, Wendi; La Rosa, Corinna; Srivastava, Tumul; Dasgupta, Anindya; Rawal, Ravindra; Li, Zhongqui; Britt, William J; Diamond, Don

    2010-02-10

    We have engineered recombinant (r) Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) to express multiple antigens under the control of either of two related vaccinia synthetic promoters (pSyn) with early and late transcriptional activity or the modified H5 (mH5) promoter which has predominant early activity. We sequentially passaged these constructs and analyzed their genetic stability by qPCR, and concluded that rMVA expressing multiple antigens using the mH5 promoter exhibit remarkable genetic stability and maintain potent immunogenicity after serial passage. In contrast, rMVA expressing antigens using engineered vaccinia synthetic E/L (pSyn I or II) promoters are genetically unstable. Progressive accumulation of antigen loss variants resulted in a viral preparation with lower immunogenicity after serial passage. Metabolic labeling, followed by cold chase revealed little difference in stability of proteins expressed from mH5 or pSyn promoter constructs. We conclude that maintenance of genetic stability which is achieved using mH5, though not with pSyn promoters, is linked to timing, not the magnitude of expression levels of foreign antigen, which is more closely associated with immunogenicity of the vaccine. PMID:19969118

  20. Genetic and physical fine mapping of the novel brown midrib gene bm6 in maize to a 180 kb region on chromosome 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown midrib mutants in maize are known to be associated with reduced lignin content and increased cell wall digestibility, which leads to better forage quality and higher efficiency of cellulosic biomass conversion into ethanol. Four well known brown midrib mutants, named bm1-4, were identified sev...