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1

PCR detection of genetically modified soya and maize in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genetically modified foodstuffs is becoming both a food sales and legal necessity. This study reports a rapid DNA extraction\\/PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified soya (GMS) and maize (GMM) in mixed samples of transgenic and unmodified soybeans and maize kernels, and a variety of processed samples including soya flour, soya protein isolates, extruded defatted soya,

Carolyn D. Hurst; Angus Knight; Ian J. Bruce

1999-01-01

2

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Chemical Composition and Nutritional Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the composition and the nutritional value of parental and transgenic maize seeds fed to pigs. The parental maize line was genetically modified to incorporate a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressing a toxin against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Both (parental and transgenic) maize lines were analyzed for crude nutrients,

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk; G. Flachowsky

2002-01-01

3

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

4

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize  

E-print Network

is the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. On one hand, GM crops have genetical charateristicsSMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize for the assessment of coexistence between genetically modified and conventional maize. The assessment is based

Bohanec, Marko

5

96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize (Bt corn) and  

E-print Network

to produce their own pesticides or insecticides. The engineering of genetically modified food is a rel96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize the short-term effects of genetically modified (GM) maize, specifically MON810 and MON863, on laboratory

Thaxton, Christopher S.

6

Effect of Feeding Cows Genetically Modified Maize on the Bacterial Community in the Bovine Rumen?  

PubMed Central

Rumen-cannulated cows (n = 4) were fed successively silage made from either conventional or genetically modified (GM) maize. Results revealed no effects of GM maize on the dynamics of six ruminal bacterial strains (investigated by real-time PCR) compared to the conventional maize silage. PMID:17933942

Wiedemann, S.; Gürtler, P.; Albrecht, C.

2007-01-01

7

[Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].  

PubMed

Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize. PMID:19602862

Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

2009-06-01

8

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

PubMed

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

9

Monitoring of MON810 genetically modified maize in foods in Brazil from 2005 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations for the use and labeling of genetically modified (GM) products and derived ingredients were implemented in Brazil in 2003. In 2008, GM maize line MON810 was approved for commercialization in Brazil; nevertheless, maize Bt11, Bt176 and MON810 were found in Brazilian market products sold in 2000 and 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the

Andréia Zilio Dinon; Jaqueline Elis de Melo; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

2008-01-01

10

Laboratory Exercises A Simple Method for Detecting Genetically Modified Maize in Common Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially available leaf DNA extraction and amplification kit has been adapted for the detection of genetically modified material in common food products containing maize. Amplification using published primer pairs specific for the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and maize invertase genes results in a 226-bp invertase PCR product in all samples (an internal positive control) plus a 184-bp product in samples

Chris Brinegar; Darcy Levee

11

Presence of genetically modified maize and soy in food products sold commercially in Brazil from 2000 to 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based methods to detect genetically modified soy (RoundupReady™ soy) and maize (Bt176 Maximizer™ maize, Bt11 maize, MON810 YieldGard™ corn, T25 LibertyLink™ maize) were applied to processed foods sold commercially in Brazil. From 2000 to 2005, 100 food products containing maize and 100 food products containing soy were analysed every single year. The presence of genetically

Ralf Greiner; Ursula Konietzny

2008-01-01

12

DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE FOOD PRODUCTS BY THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION DETECCIÓN DE PRODUCTOS DE MAIZ GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS POR LA REACCIÓN EN CADENA DE LA POLIMERASA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and soybean food product, using specific 35S promoter primers for inserted chimerical genes in maize or soybean. The PCR detected food products that include ingredients obtained from GMOs in maize grains and flour, as well as processed in foods such as tortillas (Mexican crepe), corn chips, corn

A. Mendoza; S. Fernández; M. A. Cruz; M. A. Rodríguez-Perez; D. Resendez-Perez; H. A. Barrera Saldaña

2006-01-01

13

Empirical Modeling of Genetically Modified Maize Grain Production Practices to Achieve European Union Labeling Thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical approach is given for specifying co-existence requirements for genetically-modified (GM) maize production, in order to ensure compliance with the 0.9% labeling threshold for food and feed in the Eur opean Union. Field data were considered in which pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) was measured within maize receptor fields at a series of distances from source fi elds having a

David I Gustafson; Ivo O. Brants; Michael J. Horak; Kirk M. Remund; Eric W. Rosenbaum; John K. Soteres

2006-01-01

14

Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy.  

PubMed

Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This debate, which addresses both safety and ethical aspects, has raised questions about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the biodiversity of traditional landraces and on the environment. Here, we review some of the key points of maize genetic history as well as the methods used to stably transform this cereal. We describe the genetically engineered Bt-maizes available for field cultivation and we investigate the controversial reports on their impacts on non-target insects such as the monarch butterfly and on the flow of transgenes into Mexican maize landraces. PMID:12595137

Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Massonneau, Agnès; Dumas, Christian

2002-11-01

15

Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready®; GM-soy) and maize (MON810®Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal

A. M. Bakke-McKellep; M. Sanden; A. Danieli; R. Acierno; G.-I. Hemre; M. Maffia; Å. Krogdahl

2008-01-01

16

Evaluation of modified PCR quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean using reference molecules: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative methods were previously developed and validated for genetically modified (GM) maize or soy. In this study, the quantification step of the validated methods was modified, and an interlaboratory study was conducted. The modification included the introduction of the PCR system SSIIb 3 instead of SSIIb 1 for the detection of the taxon-specific sequence of maize, as well as the adoption of colE1 as a carrier included in a reference plasmid solution as a replacement for salmon testis. The interlaboratory study was conducted with the ABI PRISM 7700 and consisted of 2 separate stages: (1) the measurement of conversion factor (Cf) value, which is the ratio of recombinant DNA (r-DNA) sequence to taxon-specific sequence in each genuine GM seed, and (2) the quantification of blind samples. Additionally, Cf values of other instruments, such as the ABI PRISM 7900 and the ABI PRISM 7000, were measured in a multilaboratory trial. After outlier laboratories were eliminated, the repeatability and reproducibility for 5.0% samples were <15.8 and 20.6%, respectively. The quantitation limits of these methods were 0.5% for Bt11, T25, and MON810, and 0.1% for GA21, Event176, and RR soy. The quantitation limits, trueness, and precision of the current modified methods were equivalent to those of the previous methods. Therefore, it was concluded that the modified methods would be a suitable replacement for the validated methods. PMID:19382580

Kodama, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2009-01-01

17

Nutritional Evaluation of Genetically Modified Maize Corn Performed on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15g.kg m

Mária Chrenková; A. Sommer; Zuzana ?ereš?áková; So?a Nitrayová; Miroslava Prostredná

2002-01-01

18

Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

19

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

20

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.  

PubMed

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-11-01

21

Reliable Detection and Identification of Genetically Modified Maize, Soybean, and Canola by Multiplex PCR Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiplex PCR procedures were developed for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified (GM) soybean (Roundup Ready), maize (event 176, Bt11, Mon810, T14\\/25), and canola (GT73, HCN92\\/28, MS8\\/RF3, Oxy 235). Internal control targets (invertase gene in corn, lectin and ‚-actin genes in soybean, and cruciferin gene in canola) were included as appropriate to assess the efficiency of all reactions,

Delano James; Anna-mary Schmidt; Erika Wall; Margaret Green; Saad Masri

2003-01-01

22

Growth performance and organ development in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. parr fed genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the inclusion of genetically modified (GM) plants in diets fed to fish is a contentious issue, there are few empirical data. The present study addressed nutritional value and potential risks of four maize types (two traditional and two GM maize varieties) and two soy types (one traditional and one Roundup Readysoy) included at moderate levels in diets fed to

M. SANDEN; A. KROGDAHL; A. M. BAKKE-MCKELLEP; R. K. BUDDINGTON; G.-I. HEMRE

2006-01-01

23

Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.  

PubMed

The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed. PMID:19902949

Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

2009-12-01

24

Qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified maize and soy in processed foods sold commercially in Brazil by PCR-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction-based methods to detect genetically modified (gm) soy (RoundupReadyTM soy) and maize (Bt176 Maximizer maize; Bt11 maize, MON810 Yield Gard corn, T25 LibertyR Link maize) were applied to processed foods sold commercially in Brazil. In total 100 foods containing maize and 100 foods containing soy were analysed in 2000 and again in 2001. In 2000, 13% of

Ralf Greiner; Ursula Konietzny; Anna L. C. H. Villavicencio

2005-01-01

25

Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically

Jean-Pierre Wisniewski; Nathalie Frangne; Agnès Massonneau; Christian Dumas

2002-01-01

26

Lack of Detectable Allergenicity in Genetically Modified Maize Containing “Cry” Proteins as Compared to Native Maize Based on In Silico & In Vitro Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically modified, (GM) crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release. Objective To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize. Methods An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE) and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39) to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed. Results In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05) variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF. Conclusion Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize. PMID:25706412

Mathur, Chandni; Kathuria, Pooran C.; Dahiya, Pushpa; Singh, Anand B.

2015-01-01

27

A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.  

PubMed

Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars. PMID:23668783

Mumm, Rita H

2013-09-01

28

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations.  

PubMed

Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready; GM-soy) and maize (MON810 Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal Na+-dependent d-glucose uptake and SGLT1 protein level in the region pyloric caeca in which the highest values were found in the GM-soy, intermediate in the nGM-soy, and lowest in the standard FM fed groups. Data from this study confirm that GM soybeans (RRS) and maize (MON810) at inclusion levels of about 6% appear to be as safe as commercially available nGM soy and maize in diets for Atlantic salmon parr. Results from studies with higher inclusion levels and with non-modified, isogenic or near-isogenic parental lines as control groups are pending. PMID:18561390

Bakke-McKellep, A M; Sanden, M; Danieli, A; Acierno, R; Hemre, G-I; Maffia, M; Krogdahl, A

2008-06-01

29

Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

2013-01-01

30

Assessing the risk posed to free-living soil nematodes by a genetically modified maize expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before pest-resistant genetically modified maize can be grown commercially, the risks for soil-beneficial, non-target organisms must be determined. Here, a tiered approach was used to assess the risk to free-living soil nematodes posed by maize genetically modified to express the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein (event Mon88017), which confers resistance towards western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera; Coleoptera). The toxicity of purified Cry3Bb1

S. Höss; H. T. Nguyen; R. Menzel; S. Pagel-Wieder; R. Miethling-Graf; C. C. Tebbe; J. A. Jehle; W. Traunspurger

2011-01-01

31

Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate if genetically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, event MON810) compared with the near-isogenic non-modified (nGM) maize variety, added as a starch source at low or high inclusions, affected fish health of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. To evaluate the health impact, selected stress- and immune-response biomarkers were quantified at the gene transcript (mRNA) level, and some also at the protein level. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize, and its near-isogenic nGM parental line, were compared to a control diet containing GM-free suprex maize (reference diet) as the only starch source. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver and distal intestine was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed nGM maize and with the reference diet group. Fish fed GM maize showed significantly lower catalase (CAT) activity in liver compared with fish fed nGM maize and to the reference diet group. In contrast, CAT activity in distal intestine was significantly higher for fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed reference diet. Protein level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in liver was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed the reference diet. No diet-related differences were found in normalized gene expression of SOD, CAT or HSP70 in liver or distal intestine. Normalized gene expression of interleukin-1 beta in spleen and head-kidney did not vary significantly between diet groups. Interestingly, fish fed high GM maize showed a significantly larger proportion of plasma granulocytes, a significantly larger sum of plasma granulocyte and monocyte proportions, but a significantly smaller proportion of plasma lymphocytes, compared with fish fed high nGM maize. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon fed GM maize showed some small changes in stress protein levels and activities, but none of these changes were comparable to the normalized gene expression levels analysed for these stress proteins. GM maize seemed to induce significant changes in white blood cell populations which are associated with an immune response. PMID:17394522

Sagstad, A; Sanden, M; Haugland, Ø; Hansen, A-C; Olsvik, P A; Hemre, G-I

2007-04-01

32

Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize offers an additional means of control against W...

33

The determination of avidin in genetically modified maize by voltammetric techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality assurance is a major issue in the food industry. The authenticity of food ingredients and their traceability are required by consumers and authorities. Plant species such as barley (Hordeum vulgare), rice (Oryza sativa), sun- flower (Helianthus annus), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) are very common objects of interest of genetic modification (GMO); therefore the development of specific

J. Petrlová; S. K?ížková; V. Šupálková; M. Masa?ík; V. Adam; L. Havel; K. J. Kramer; R. Kizek

34

Maize Genetic Resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

35

Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt-maize.  

PubMed

Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically modified Bt-maize varieties (Ostrinia-resistant MON810 and Diabrotica-resistant MON88017) on the occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera, especially the two families Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae. Based on a statistical analysis aimed at establishing whether Bt-maize varieties are equivalent to their near-isogenic counterparts, we discuss the limitations of using field experiments to assess the effects of Bt-maize on these two beetle families. The densities of most of the beetle families recorded in the herb layer were very low in all growing seasons. Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae were comparatively abundant and diverse, but still low in numbers. Based on their role as biological control agents, Coccinellidae should be a focus in the ERA of Bt-plants, but given the large natural variability in ladybird densities in the field, most questions need to be addressed in low-tier laboratory tests. Chrysomelidae should play a negligible role in the ERA of Bt-plants, since they occur on-crop as secondary pests only. Species occurring off-crop, however, can be addressed in a similar fashion as non-target Lepidoptera in Cry1Ab expressing Bt-maize. PMID:20012775

Rauschen, Stefan; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Gathmann, Achim

2010-10-01

36

Representative taxa in field trials for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

When assessing the benefits and risks of transgenic crops, one consideration is their relative effects on non-target arthropod (NTA) abundance and functions within agroecosystems. Several laboratory and field trials have been conducted in Spain since the late 1990s to assess this issue. A consideration in the design of field trials is whether it is necessary to sample most NTAs living in the crop or only representative taxa that perform main ecological functions and have a good capacity to detect small changes in their abundance. Small changes in the field abundance of an effective representative taxon should be detectable using standard experimental protocols. The ability of a species to reveal differences across treatments may be analysed by examining the detectable treatment effects for surveyed non-target organisms. Analysis of data from several NTAs recorded in 14 field trials conducted over 10 years using complete block designs allowed us to select a number of representative taxa capable of detecting changes in the density or activity of arthropod herbivores, predators, parasitoids and decomposers in transgenic and non-transgenic maize varieties. The most suitable NTA as representative taxa (with detectable treatment effects below 50%) included leafhoppers among arthropod herbivores, Orius spp., Araneae, and Carabidae among predators, chalcidids, particularly the family Mymaridae, among parasitoids and Chloropidae as decomposer. Details of sampling techniques for each sampled taxa and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is concluded that abundance of taxa is the most influential factor determining their capacity to detect changes caused by genetically modified varieties. PMID:23987801

Albajes, R; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Comas, J

2013-12-01

37

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment  

PubMed Central

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes. PMID:24937207

Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

38

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment.  

PubMed

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes. PMID:24937207

Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

39

Screening of genetically modified organisms and specific detection of Bt176 maize in flours and starches by PCR-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) targeting either the 35S promoter or the Bt176 specific junction sequence were developed to screen for the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and specifically detect Bt176 maize in flours and starches. Two additional PCR-ELISA assays were developed to validate the results: one, based on the detection of the maize alcohol dehydrogenase

Laetitia Petit; Fabienne Baraige; Anne-Marie Balois; Yves Bertheau; Patrick Fach

2003-01-01

40

A general multiplex-PCR assay for the general detection of genetically modified soya and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for the detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with

V. T. Forte; A. Di Pinto; C. Martino; G. M. Tantillo; G. Grasso; F. P. Schena

2005-01-01

41

Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)  

PubMed Central

The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/non-GM), (ii) non-GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/GM), (iii) GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (GM/non-GM), and (iv) GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (GM/GM). Offspring of GM maize-fed sows had higher counts of fecal total anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae at days 70 and 100 postweaning, respectively. At day 115 postweaning, GM/non-GM offspring had lower ileal Enterobacteriaceae counts than non-GM/non-GM or GM/GM offspring and lower ileal total anaerobes than pigs on the other treatments. GM maize-fed offspring also had higher ileal total anaerobe counts than non-GM maize-fed offspring, and cecal total anaerobes were lower in non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM offspring than in those from the non-GM/non-GM treatment. The only differences observed for major bacterial phyla using 16S rRNA gene sequencing were that fecal Proteobacteria were less abundant in GM maize-fed sows prior to farrowing and in offspring at weaning, with fecal Firmicutes more abundant in offspring. While other differences occurred, they were not observed consistently in offspring, were mostly encountered for low-abundance, low-frequency bacterial taxa, and were not associated with pathology. Therefore, their biological relevance is questionable. This confirms the lack of adverse effects of GM maize on the intestinal microbiota of pigs, even following transgenerational consumption. PMID:24096421

Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2013-01-01

42

High-Throughput Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Weanling Pigs Fed Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (Bt Maize) for 31 Days  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate if feeding genetically modified (GM) MON810 maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein (Bt maize) had any effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota. Eighteen pigs were weaned at ?28 days and, following a 6-day acclimatization period, were assigned to diets containing either GM (Bt MON810) maize or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days (n = 9/treatment). Effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota were assessed through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Fecal, cecal, and ileal counts of total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus were not significantly different between pigs fed the isogenic or Bt maize-based diets. Furthermore, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed few differences in the compositions of the cecal microbiotas. The only differences were that pigs fed the Bt maize diet had higher cecal abundance of Enterococcaceae (0.06 versus 0%; P < 0.05), Erysipelotrichaceae (1.28 versus 1.17%; P < 0.05), and Bifidobacterium (0.04 versus 0%; P < 0.05) and lower abundance of Blautia (0.23 versus 0.40%; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the isogenic maize diet. A lower enzyme-resistant starch content in the Bt maize, which is most likely a result of normal variation and not due to the genetic modification, may account for some of the differences observed within the cecal microbiotas. These results indicate that Bt maize is well tolerated by the porcine intestinal microbiota and provide additional data for safety assessment of Bt maize. Furthermore, these data can potentially be extrapolated to humans, considering the suitability of pigs as a human model. PMID:22467509

Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2012-01-01

43

Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to evaluate if gen- etically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, event MON810) compared with the near-isogenic non- modified (nGM) maize variety, added as a starch source at low or high inclusions, affected fish health of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. To evaluate the health impact, selected stress- and im- mune-response biomarkers were quantified at

A Sagstad; M Sanden; Ø Haugland; A-C Hansen; P A Olsvik; G-I Hemre

2007-01-01

44

Quantitative competitive PCR for the detection of genetically modified soybean and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surveillance of food labelling concerning genetically modified organisms (GMOs) requires DNA-based analytical techniques.\\u000a Present assay systems allow the detection of GMO in food; however, they do not permit their quantitation. In this study, we\\u000a report the development of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) systems for the detection and quantitation\\u000a of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and the Maximizer

Edgar Studer; Claudio Rhyner; Jürg Lüthy; P. Hübner

1998-01-01

45

Development and Validation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Maize MIR162.  

PubMed

A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162. PMID:25743383

Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

2014-01-01

46

Randomly Detected Genetically Modified (GM) Maize (Zea mays L.) near a Transport Route Revealed a Fragile 45S rDNA Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a “beads-on-a-string” fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed. PMID:24040165

Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

2013-01-01

47

Genetically Modified, Insect Resistant Maize: Implications for Management of Ear and Stalk Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article summarizes six years of research that indicate that Bt transformation of maize hybrids enhances the safety of grain for livestock and human food products by reducing the plants' vulnerability to mycotoxin-producing Fusarium fungi.

G. P. Munkvold (Iowa State University; )

2000-09-12

48

Bioinformatics The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.  

E-print Network

Bioinformatics The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. The Community Resource for Access to Diverse Maize Data1 Carolyn J. Lawrence, Trent E. Seigfried, and Volker Brendel* Department of Genetics 50011­3260 (T.E.S.) The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays

Brendel, Volker

49

Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.  

PubMed

To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method. PMID:25381609

Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

2014-12-01

50

Ninety-day oral toxicity studies on two genetically modified maize MON810 varieties in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE).  

PubMed

The GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence (GRACE; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project is funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE is to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM) maize in order to comparatively evaluate their use in GM plant risk assessment. In the present study, the results of two 90-day feeding trials with two different GM maize MON810 varieties, their near-isogenic non-GM varieties and four additional conventional maize varieties are presented. The feeding trials were performed by taking into account the guidance for such studies published by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2011 and the OECD Test Guideline 408. The results obtained show that the MON810 maize at a level of up to 33 % in the diet did not induce adverse effects in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats after subchronic exposure, independently of the two different genetic backgrounds of the event. PMID:25270621

Zeljenková, Dagmar; Ambrušová, Katarína; Bartušová, Mária; Kebis, Anton; Kovrižnych, Jevgenij; Krivošíková, Zora; Kuricová, Miroslava; Líšková, Aurélia; Rollerová, Eva; Spustová, Viera; Szabová, Elena; Tulinská, Jana; Wimmerová, So?a; Levkut, Mikuláš; Révajová, Viera; Šev?íková, Zuzana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; La Paz, Jose Luis; Corujo, Maria; Pla, Maria; Kleter, Gijs A; Kok, Esther J; Sharbati, Jutta; Hanisch, Carlos; Einspanier, Ralf; Adel-Patient, Karine; Wal, Jean-Michel; Spök, Armin; Pöting, Annette; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; Steinberg, Pablo

2014-12-01

51

Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.  

PubMed

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions suggest that a 20 % refuge of non-Diabrotica-active Bt-maize can delay resistance evolution in WCR under certain conditions. This publication concludes that further research is needed to resolve the remaining scientific uncertainty related to the appropriateness of the HDR in delaying resistance evolution in WCR, resistance monitoring is essential to detect early warning signs indicating resistance evolution in the field, and that integrated pest management reliant on multiple tactics should be deployed to ensure effective long-term corn rootworm management and sustainable use of Bt-maize. PMID:23011587

Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

2013-04-01

52

Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt -maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental\\u000a Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms\\u000a belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically\\u000a modified

Stefan Rauschen; Frank Schaarschmidt; Achim Gathmann

2010-01-01

53

Prevention of Aerobic Spoilage of Maize Silage by a Genetically Modified Killer Yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, Defective in the Ability To Grow on Lactic Acid  

PubMed Central

In this study, we propose a new process of adding a genetically modified killer yeast to improve the aerobic stability of silage. Previously constructed Kluyveromyces lactis killer strain PCK27, defective in growth on lactic acid due to disruption of the gene coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key enzyme for gluconeogenesis, inhibited the growth of Pichia anomala inoculated as an aerobic spoilage yeast and prevented a rise in pH in a model of silage fermentation. This suppressive effect of PCK27 was not only due to growth competition but also due to the killer protein produced. From these results, we concluded that strain PCK27 can be used as an additive to prolong the aerobic stability of maize silage. In the laboratory-scale experiment of maize silage, the addition of a killer yeast changed the yeast flora and significantly reduced aerobic spoilage. PMID:10508111

Kitamoto, H. K.; Hasebe, A.; Ohmomo, S.; Suto, E. G.; Muraki, M.; Iimura, Y.

1999-01-01

54

Results of an interlaboratory assessment of a screening method of genetically modified organisms in soy beans and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results on an interlaboratory trial on the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) are presented. The method applied is based on the detection of modified DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification. The amplified fragments analysed are derived from the 35S promotor and the NOS terminator used for modification and are present in 26 from the

M Lipp; E Anklam; P Brodmann; K Pietsch; J Pauwels

1999-01-01

55

Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion.  

PubMed

To investigate the relative degradation and fragmentation pattern of the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dairy cows, a 25 months GM maize feeding study was conducted on 36 lactating Bavarian Fleckvieh cows allocated into two groups (18 cows per group) fed diets containing either GM maize MON810 or nearly isogenic non-GM maize as the respective diet components. All cows were fed a partial total mixed ration (pTMR). During the feeding trial, 8 feed (4 transgenic (T) and 4 non-transgenic (NT) pTMR) and 42 feces (26 T and 18 NT) samples from the subset of cows fed T and NT diets, and at the end of the feeding trial, digesta contents of rumen, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and cecum were collected after the slaughter of six cows of each feeding group. Samples were analyzed for Cry1Ab protein and total protein using Cry1Ab specific ELISA and bicinchoninic acid assay, respectively. Immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the integrity of Cry1Ab protein in feed, digesta and feces samples. A decrease to 44% in Cry1Ab protein concentration from T pTMR to the voided feces (9.40 versus 4.18 mug/g of total proteins) was recorded. Concentrations of Cry1Ab protein in GIT digesta of cows fed T diets varied between the lowest 0.38 mug/g of total proteins in abomasum to the highest 3.84 mug/g of total proteins in rumen. Immunoblot analysis revealed the extensive degradation of recombinant Cry1Ab protein into a smaller fragment of around 34 kDa in GIT. The results of the present study indicate that the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from MON810 is increasingly degraded into a small fragment during dairy cow digestion. PMID:19888668

Paul, Vijay; Guertler, Patrick; Wiedemann, Steffi; Meyer, Heinrich H D

2010-08-01

56

A multiplex nested PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of genetically modified soybean, maize and rice in highly processed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of the GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. There are

Ao Jinxia; Li Qingzhang; Gao Xuejun; Yu Yanbo; Li Lu; Zhang Minghui

2011-01-01

57

Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms using differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction: application to 35S in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has always presented an analytical challenge because the complete sequence data needed to detect them are generally unavailable although sequence similarity to known GMOs can be expected. A new approach, differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of nonauthorized GMOs is presented here. This method is based on the presence of several

Katarina Cankar; Valérie Chauvensy-Ancel; Marie-Noelle Fortabat; Kristina Gruden; André Kobilinsky; Jana Žel; Yves Bertheau

2008-01-01

58

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-NL-2007-37) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant genetically modified maize MON89034, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This document provides an opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO Panel) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on genetically modified maize MON89034 (Unique Identifier MON-89Ø34-3) developed to provide resistance to certain insect pests. In delivering its scientific opinion, the GMO Panel considered the new application EFSA- GMO-NL-2007-37, additional information provided by the applicant (Monsanto)

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Lieve Herman; Niels Hendriksen; Jozsef Kiss; Gijs Kleter; Ilona Kryspin-Sørensen; Harry Kuiper; Ingolf Nes; Nickolas Panopoulos; Joe Perry; Joachim Schiemann; Willem Seinen

2008-01-01

59

MAIZEGDB, THE MAIZE GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the database that houses data and analysis tools crafted to suit the needs of the community of maize geneticists. Among the data sets included in MaizeGDB are sequences; detailed genetic, physical, recombination nodule, and cytological maps; molecular markers; a...

60

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

61

Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

62

MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genetic, genomic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website...

63

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics  

E-print Network

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics Carolyn J. Lawrence1 , Qunfeng Dong1 , Mary L. Polacco3 , Trent E. Seigfried1 and Volker Brendel1,2,* 1 Department of Genetics ABSTRACT The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence

Brendel, Volker

64

New Analysis of a Rat Feeding Study with a Genetically Modified Maize Reveals Signs of Hepatorenal Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the\\u000a world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies\\u000a performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from\\u000a regulatory reviewers in Europe,

Gilles-Eric Séralini; Dominique Cellier; Joël Spiroux de Vendomois

2007-01-01

65

THE MAIZE GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE. THE COMMUNITY RESOURCE FOR ACCESS TO DIVERSE MAIZE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays) research community by making a wealth of genetics and genomics data available through an intuitive Web-based interface. The goals of the MaizeGDB project are three-fold: to provide a central repository for public maize ...

66

Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.  

PubMed

Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

2013-03-01

67

THE MAIZE GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE: A COMMUNITY RESOURCE FOR ACCESS TO DIVERSE MAIZE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database) is the research database for the maize community. The site features a wealth of resources and data facilitating the scientific study of maize. Among the data sets included in MaizeGDB are sequences, including PlantGDB's EST and GSS contig assemblie...

68

Rapid visual detection of phytase gene in genetically modified maize using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize plant expressing high phytase activity has been reported and approved by Chinese government in 2009. Here, we report a highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the phytase gene in the GMO maize. The LAMP reaction takes less than 20min and the amplification is visible without gel electrophoresis. The detection sensitivity of the LAMP method is about 30 copies of phytase genomic DNA, which is 33.3 times greater than the conventional PCR method with gel electrophoresis. The quantitative detection results showed that the LAMP method has a good linear correlation between the DNA copy number and the associated Tt values over a large dynamic range of template concentration from 6×10(1) to 6×10(7) copies, with a quantification limit of 60 copies. Therefore, the LAMP method is visual, faster, and more sensitive, and does not need special equipment compared to traditional PCR technique, which is very useful for field tests and fast screening of GMO feeds. PMID:24629956

Huang, Xin; Chen, Lili; Xu, Jiangmin; Ji, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Hongjun

2014-08-01

69

MAIZEGDB: THE MAIZE COMMUNITY GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (Maize Genetics and Genomics Database) is the research database for the maize community. The site features a wealth of resources and data facilitating the scientific study of maize. Among the data sets included in MaizeGDB are sequences, including integration with various contig assemblies;...

70

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45%

Cheah Yoke-Kqueen; Son Radu

2006-01-01

71

The Birth of Maize Molecular Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long before recombinant DNA technology was invented, maize genetics was a vibrant and exciting science dominated by controlling\\u000a elements, cytogenet-ics, gene mapping and heterosis. Genes were understood as mutationally-defined units of function that\\u000a could be placed on chromosomes. Incorporation of the concept of DNA as genetic material and the central dogma of genetics\\u000a (DNA ? RNA ? protein) into the

L. Curtis Hannah; Drew Schwartz

72

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

73

The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference  

SciTech Connect

The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were able to defray lodging and meal costs for 133 graduate and undergraduate students and 66 postdocs

Cone, Karen

2014-03-26

74

Maize Genetics and Genomics Database  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...

75

Genetically transformed maize plants from protoplasts.  

PubMed

Genetically transformed maize plants were obtained from protoplasts treated with recombinant DNA. Protoplasts that were digested from embryogenic cell suspension cultures of maize inbred A188 were combined with plasmid DNA containing a gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) next to the 35S promoter region of cauliflower mosaic virus. A high voltage electrical pulse was applied to the protoplasts, which were then grown on filters placed over feeder layers of maize suspension cells (Black Mexican Sweet) and selected for growth in the presence of kanamycin. Selected cell lines showed NPT II activity. Plants were regenerated from transformed cell lines and grown to maturity. Southern analysis of DNA extracted from callus and plants indicated the presence of the NPT II gene. PMID:2832947

Rhodes, C A; Pierce, D A; Mettler, I J; Mascarenhas, D; Detmer, J J

1988-04-01

76

Entering the second century of maize quantitative genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is the most widely grown cereal in the world. In addition to its role in global agriculture, it has also long served as a model organism for genetic research. Maize stands at a genetic crossroads, as it has access to all the tools available for plant genetics but exhibits a genetic architectur...

77

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Through 2003 there have been more than 38 trillion GM [genetically modified] plants grown in the U.S." , and "GM plants are the most deeply studied and understood (genetically, physiological, and ecologically) plants ever grown anywhere. These two statements, presented by the author, set the stage...

78

Genetic perturbation of the maize methylome.  

PubMed

DNA methylation can play important roles in the regulation of transposable elements and genes. A collection of mutant alleles for 11 maize (Zea mays) genes predicted to play roles in controlling DNA methylation were isolated through forward- or reverse-genetic approaches. Low-coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-coverage sequence-capture bisulfite sequencing were applied to mutant lines to determine context- and locus-specific effects of these mutations on DNA methylation profiles. Plants containing mutant alleles for components of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway exhibit loss of CHH methylation at many loci as well as CG and CHG methylation at a small number of loci. Plants containing loss-of-function alleles for chromomethylase (CMT) genes exhibit strong genome-wide reductions in CHG methylation and some locus-specific loss of CHH methylation. In an attempt to identify stocks with stronger reductions in DNA methylation levels than provided by single gene mutations, we performed crosses to create double mutants for the maize CMT3 orthologs, Zmet2 and Zmet5, and for the maize DDM1 orthologs, Chr101 and Chr106. While loss-of-function alleles are viable as single gene mutants, the double mutants were not recovered, suggesting that severe perturbations of the maize methylome may have stronger deleterious phenotypic effects than in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25527708

Li, Qing; Eichten, Steven R; Hermanson, Peter J; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Song, Jawon; Wendt, Jennifer; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Madzima, Thelma F; Sloan, Amy E; Huang, Ji; Burgess, Daniel L; Richmond, Todd A; McGinnis, Karen M; Meeley, Robert B; Danilevskaya, Olga N; Vaughn, Matthew W; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Springer, Nathan M

2014-12-01

79

MAIZE GDB: THE MAIZE GENETICS AND GENOMICS DATABASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three exercises are presented to familiarize workshop participants with how to use the MaizeGDB website. The first exercise guides the student through the online MaizeGDB Tutorial and asks questions that can only be answered by having completed the exercise. The second exercise uses the MaizeGDB w...

80

Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We reviewed 19 studies of mammals fed with commercialized genetically modified soybean and maize which represent, per trait\\u000a and plant, more than 80% of all environmental genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated on a large scale, after they\\u000a were modified to tolerate or produce a pesticide. We have also obtained the raw data of 90-day-long rat tests following court\\u000a actions or

Gilles-Eric Séralini; Robin Mesnage; Emilie Clair; Steeve Gress; Joël Spiroux de Vendômois; Dominique Cellier

2011-01-01

81

The art and design of genetic screens: maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays) is an excellent model for basic research. Genetic screens have informed our understanding of developmental processes, meiosis, epigenetics and biochemical pathways--not only in maize but also in other cereal crops. We discuss the forward and reverse genetic screens that are possible...

82

Entering the second century of maize quantitative genetics.  

PubMed

Maize is the most widely grown cereal in the world. In addition to its role in global agriculture, it has also long served as a model organism for genetic research. Maize stands at a genetic crossroads, as it has access to all the tools available for plant genetics but exhibits a genetic architecture more similar to other outcrossing organisms than to self-pollinating crops and model plants. In this review, we summarize recent advances in maize genetics, including the development of powerful populations for genetic mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and the insights these studies yield on the mechanisms underlying complex maize traits. Most maize traits are controlled by a large number of genes, and linkage analysis of several traits implicates a 'common gene, rare allele' model of genetic variation where some genes have many individually rare alleles contributing. Most natural alleles exhibit small effect sizes with little-to-no detectable pleiotropy or epistasis. Additionally, many of these genes are locked away in low-recombination regions that encourage the formation of multi-gene blocks that may underlie maize's strong heterotic effect. Domestication left strong marks on the maize genome, and some of the differences in trait architectures may be due to different selective pressures over time. Overall, maize's advantages as a model system make it highly desirable for studying the genetics of outcrossing species, and results from it can provide insight into other such species, including humans. PMID:23462502

Wallace, J G; Larsson, S J; Buckler, E S

2014-01-01

83

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

84

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, includingA long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

85

Genetic Modifiers of Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Genetic modifiers make an important contribution to neurological disease phenotypes. Significant progress has been made by studying genetic modifiers in model organisms. The ability to study complex genetic interactions in model systems contributes to our understanding of the genetic factors that influence neurological disease. This will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies and personalized treatment based on genetic risk. PMID:21251811

Kearney, Jennifer A.

2011-01-01

86

Molecular population genetics of maize regulatory genes during maize evolution  

E-print Network

of selection than average genes in the maize genome. Second, we investigated sequence evolution of two for the adaptive evolution of organisms. Domestication is a selection process for the adaptation of animal or plant variation at theses genes and their adjacent genomic regions. Maize was domesticated from its wild ancestor

Doebley, John

87

A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that a diet including insect-resistant Bt176 maize, fed to 53 ewes and their progeny for 3 years, did not have adverse effects on their health or performance and that no horizontal gene transfer to ruminal microorganisms or animal tissues was detected. No differences were observed regarding performance, reproductive traits, haematological parameters, antioxidant defences, lymphocyte proliferative capacity, phagocytosis and

Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci; Giorgio Brandi; Cristina Rondini; Luca Avellini; Camilla Giammarini; Silva Costarelli; Gabriele Acuti; Chiara Orlandi; Giovanni Filippini; Elisabetta Chiaradia; Manuela Malatesta; Silvia Crotti; Chiara Antonini; Giulia Amagliani; Elisabetta Manuali; Anna Rita Mastrogiacomo; Livia Moscati; Mohamed Naceur Haouet; Alberto Gaiti; Mauro Magnani

2008-01-01

88

Breeding Specialty Starch Maize Using Exotic Genetic Resources for Gene Discovery of Novel Alleles and Modifiers with Materials Generated from the USDA-ARS GEM Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amylomaize VII, a class of High Amylose Maize with at least 70% of the kernel starch composed of the linear amylose polymer, has had numerous food and industrial applications including the manufacturing of biodegradable plastics, adhesives and candies. More recently it has been found to be a signi...

89

Application of capillary electrophoretic chips in protein profiling of plant extracts for identification of genetic modifications of maize.  

PubMed

In this study, the chip gel electrophoresis with LIF detection was applied in protein profiling of fractionated and total extracts of maize standards. The sensitivity of such determinations can be enhanced by lyophilization of extracts or employing filtering and preconcentration with cutoff filters. Combinatorial peptide ligand library applied for sample processing prior to the electrophoretic analysis was, especially, an effective pretreatment step in the determination of low-abundance proteins. Several repeatable differences were observed for protein profiles between maize standards not containing the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and those containing GMO, which can be potentially employed for identification of GMO in maize samples and foods of maize origin. PMID:23856913

Pobo?y, Ewa; Filaber, Monika; Koc, Anna; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

2013-09-01

90

Genetic diversity and selection in the maize starch pathway  

PubMed Central

Maize is both phenotypically and genetically diverse. Sequence studies generally confirm the extensive genetic variability in modern maize is consistent with a lack of selection. For more than 6,000 years, Native Americans and modern breeders have exploited the tremendous genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) to create the highest yielding grain crop in the world. Nonetheless, some loci have relatively low levels of genetic variation, particularly loci that have been the target of artificial selection, like c1 and tb1. However, there is limited information on how selection may affect an agronomically important pathway for any crop. These pathways may retain the signature of artificial selection and may lack genetic variation in contrast to the rest of the genome. To evaluate the impact of selection across an agronomically important pathway, we surveyed nucleotide diversity at six major genes involved in starch metabolism and found unusually low genetic diversity and strong evidence of selection. Low diversity in these critical genes suggests that a paradigm shift may be required for future maize breeding. Rather than relying solely on the diversity within maize or on transgenics, future maize breeding would perhaps benefit from the incorporation of alleles from maize's wild relatives. PMID:12244216

Whitt, Sherry R.; Wilson, Larissa M.; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S.; Buckler, Edward S.

2002-01-01

91

Genetic Properties of the Maize Nested Association Mapping Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is one of the world’s most diverse species, and this variation can be used to understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation and to improve agricultural efficiency and sustainability. To access this genetic variation, 25 diverse inbred maize lines were crossed to the B73 reference lin...

92

Maize centromere mapping: A comparison of physical and genetic strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The location of chromosome centromeres in various maize genetic maps relative to physical maps has not been consistently and clearly identified due to the paucity of markers and low recombination in the highly heterochromatic centromeric and flanking regions. Centromere positions on seven maize chro...

93

Genetic Combining Analysis of Food-Grade Maize: Colored and Quality Protein  

E-print Network

Maize genetic diversity includes an array of kernel colors (red, blue, purple) with blue concentrated in the aleurone and red primarily in the pericarp. Quality protein maize (QPM) is improved over normal maize in regards to grain concentration...

Mahan, Adam Lyle

2012-10-19

94

Metabolite profiling of maize kernels--genetic modification versus environmental influence.  

PubMed

A metabolite profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to investigate the metabolite profiles of genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize (DKC78-15B, TXP 138F) and Roundup Ready-maize (DKC78-35R). For the comparative investigation of the impact of genetic modification versus environmental influence on the metabolite profiles, GM maize was grown together with the non-GM near-isogenic comparators under different environmental conditions, including several growing locations and seasons in Germany and South Africa. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between GM and non-GM maize grown in Germany and South Africa. For the factor genotype, 4 and 3%, respectively, of the total number of peaks detected by GC-MS showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in peak heights as compared to the respective isogenic lines. However, ANOVA for the factor environment (growing location, season) revealed higher numbers of significant differences (p < 0.01) between the GM and the non-GM maize grown in Germany (42%) and South Africa (10%), respectively. This indicates that the majority of differences observed are related to natural variability rather than to the genetic modifications. In addition, multivariate data assessment by means of principal component analysis revealed that environmental factors, that is, growing locations and seasons, were dominant parameters driving the variability of the maize metabolite profiles. PMID:22375597

Frank, Thomas; Röhlig, Richard M; Davies, Howard V; Barros, Eugenia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

2012-03-28

95

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) 2,3  

E-print Network

Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-UK-2008-60) for placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide tolerant maize GA21 for food and feed uses, import, processing and cultivation under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Syngenta Seeds 1

unknown authors

96

The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

97

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

98

Genetic, Physical, Maps, and Database Resources for Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resources for maize genetics and genomics exist in great depth and breadth. They can be brought to bear on its productivity, on selected properties, and on studies of genetic functions, mechanisms of inheritance, phylogeny, and processes of change during domestication. Genetic materials available ...

99

The genetic architecture of maize height  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

100

From Many, One: Genetic Control of Prolificacy during Maize Domestication  

PubMed Central

A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb “causative region” upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize. PMID:23825971

Wills, David M.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E.; Shannon, Laura M.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F.

2013-01-01

101

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries  

E-print Network

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries ­ the hybridization potential ................................................. 118 #12;General introduction 5 General introduction Hybridization and genetically modified economic, the introduction of genetically modified (GM) economic plants has raised questions about the potential

Amrhein, Valentin

102

Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Maize.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mitochondrial genome encodes proteins essential for mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Nuclear gene products, however, are required for the expression of mitochondrial genes and the elaboration of functional mitochondrial protein complexes. We are exploiting a unique collection of maiz...

103

Prospects for reducing fumonisin contamination of maize through genetic modification.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in (italic)Fusarium verticillioides-infected maize grain worldwide. Attention has focused on FBs because of their widespread occurrence, acute toxicity to certain livestock, and their potential carcinogenicity. FBs are present at low levels in most field-grown maize but may spike to high levels depending on both the environment and genetics of the host plant. Among the strategies for reducing risk of FB contamination in maize supplied to the market, development and deployment of Fusarium ear mold-resistant maize germplasm is a high priority. Breeding for increased ear mold tolerance and reduced mycotoxin levels is being practiced today in both commercial and public programs, but the amount of resistance achievable may be limited due to complicated genetics and/or linkage to undesirable agronomic traits. Molecular markers can be employed to speed up the incorporation of chromosomal regions that have a quantitative effect on resistance (quantitative trait loci). Transgenic approaches to ear mold/mycotoxin resistance are now feasible as well. These potentially include genetically enhanced resistance to insect feeding, increased fungal resistance, and detoxification/prevention of mycotoxins in the grain. An example of the first of these approaches is already on the market, namely transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, targeted to the European corn borer. Some Bt maize hybrids have the potential to reduce FB levels in field-harvested grain, presumably through reduced feeding of Bt-susceptible insects in ear tissues. However, improved ear mold resistance per se is still an important goal, as the plant will still be vulnerable to noninsect routes of entry to (italic)Fusarium. A second approach, transgene-mediated control of the ability of Fusarium to infect and colonize the ear, could potentially be achieved through overexpression of specific antifungal proteins and metabolites, or enhancement of the plant's own defense systems in kernel tissues. This has not yet been accomplished in maize, although promising results have been obtained recently in other monocots versus other fungal and bacterial pathogens. Achieving reproducible and stable enhanced ear mold resistance under field conditions will be immensely challenging for biotechnologists. A third approach, transgene strategies aimed at preventing mycotoxin biosynthesis, or detoxifying mycotoxins in planta, could provide further protection for the grower in environments where FBs present a risk to the crop even when the maize is relatively resistant to Fusarium mold. In one example of such a strategy, enzymes that degrade FBs have been identified in a filamentous saprophytic fungus isolated from maize, and corresponding genes have been cloned and are currently being tested in transgenic maize. PMID:11359705

Duvick, J

2001-01-01

104

The Genetic Basis of Disease Resistance in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advent of high throughput genomics has accelerated progress in understanding the genetic basis of disease resistance in maize, much as it enhanced discovery in other fields. Here we summarize progress made in recent years using resources such as association mapping and nested association mapping...

105

GENETIC ASSOCIATION MAPPING AND GENOME ORGANIZATION OF MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Association mapping, a high-resolution method for mapping QTL based on linkage disequilibrium, holds great promise for the dissection of complex genetic traits. Recent assembly and characterization of maize association mapping panels, development of improved statistical methods, and successful asso...

106

The genetic architecture of maize stalk strength  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,892 rec...

107

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

108

Genetic adjustment to changing climates: MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prospects for more widespread and frequent drought in the near future are placing considerable pressure on maize breeding programs to develop more drought tolerant germplasm. Despite the complexity of the plant’s responses to water limited conditions, rational application of molecular/genomic ap...

109

MOLECULAR POPULATION GENETICS OF MAIZE DOMESTICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The domestication of maize resulted in a dramatic change in its plant architecture and inflorescence development as compared to its wild ancestor, teosinte, with the most remarkable difference being in their female inflorescence (ear) structure. Only a few genes have been uncovered to be associated ...

110

Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

111

The Physical and Genetic Framework of the B73 Maize Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn (Maize) is a major cereal crop and an important model system for basic biological research. Knowledge gained from maize research can also be used to genetically improve its grass relatives such as sorghum, wheat, rice. The primary objective of the Maize Genome Sequencing Consortium (MGSC) was t...

112

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

113

Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

114

Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

115

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

116

Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

2014-09-15

117

Genetic and Physiological Analysis of Iron Biofortification in Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, where poverty is a major factor. Therefore, biofortification of maize by increasing Fe concentration and or bioavailability has great potential to alleviate this deficiency. Maize is also a model system for genomic research and thus allows the opportunity for gene discovery. Here we describe an integrated genetic and physiological analysis of Fe nutrition in maize kernels, to identify loci that influence grain Fe concentration and bioavailability. Methodology Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to dissect grain Fe concentration (FeGC) and Fe bioavailability (FeGB) from the Intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred (RI) population. FeGC was determined by ion coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). FeGB was determined by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell line bioassay. Conclusions Three modest QTL for FeGC were detected, in spite of high heritability. This suggests that FeGC is controlled by many small QTL, which may make it a challenging trait to improve by marker assisted breeding. Ten QTL for FeGB were identified and explained 54% of the variance observed in samples from a single year/location. Three of the largest FeGB QTL were isolated in sister derived lines and their effect was observed in three subsequent seasons in New York. Single season evaluations were also made at six other sites around North America, suggesting the enhancement of FeGB was not specific to our farm site. FeGB was not correlated with FeGC or phytic acid, suggesting that novel regulators of Fe nutrition are responsible for the differences observed. Our results indicate that iron biofortification of maize grain is achievable using specialized phenotyping tools and conventional plant breeding techniques. PMID:21687662

Szalma, Stephen J.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Kochian, Leon V.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

2011-01-01

118

Genetically modified Plasmodium parasites as a protective  

E-print Network

.............................................................. Genetically modified Plasmodium that are only expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite4,5 . Here, we show by reverse genetics is sustained and stage specific. Our findings demonstrate that a safe and effective, genetically attenuated

Arnold, Jonathan

119

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

120

Catalan agriculture and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) — An application of DPSIR model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a strong controversy regarding the introduction and commercialisation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Europe, GM maize has been sown in Spain since 1998. Stakeholders' positions on the role that GMOs play in trends of the state of agriculture and environment in Catalonia are analysed. The application of the Driving forces –Pressures – State – Impact –

Rosa Binimelis; Iliana Monterroso; Beatriz Rodríguez-Labajos

2009-01-01

121

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods  

E-print Network

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods and the Attack on Nature Stuart A. Newman of the annual soybean crop and 50 percent of the corn crop in the United States had come to be genetically and Arpad Pusztai, ``Effect of Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Expressing galanthus nivalis

Newman, Stuart A.

122

Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.  

PubMed

A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

2014-07-01

123

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

124

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and ligation detection reaction\\/universal array technology for the traceability of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for the simultaneous detection of target sequences in genetically modified soybean (Roundup Ready) and maize (MON810, Bt176, Bt11, and GA21). Primer pairs were designed to amplify the junction regions of the transgenic constructs analyzed and the endogenous genes of soybean (lectin) and maize (zein) were included as internal control targets to

C. Peano; R. Bordoni; M. Gulli; A. Mezzelani; M. C. Samson; G. De Bellis; N. Marmiroli

2005-01-01

125

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism or recombinant DNA technology. In biomedical sciences, genetically modified animals are typically generated

Sibille, Etienne

126

[Applications of genetically modified animals].  

PubMed

The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2009-01-01

127

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

128

Physical and Genetic Structure of the Maize Genome Reflects its Complex Evolutionary History  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops and a model for the study of genetics, evolution, and domestication. To better understand maize genome organization and build a framework for genome sequencing, we constructed a sequence ready fingerprinted contig (FPC)-based physical ma...

129

Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

130

Genetic Analysis of the Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.), one of main crops in the world, is easily susceptible to Aspergillus flavus (Link: fr) infection, resulting huge loses worldwide. Breeding for A. flavus resistance has been proved an efficient way to solve the problem of aflatoxin contamination. Genetic analysis of the sources of resistance to A. flavus in maize is necessary for this purpose. The

De-xiang DENG; Si-xia JIANG; Yi-jun WANG; Yun-long BIAN; Jian-jian CHEN; Bo JIA

2009-01-01

131

Validation of a method based on polymerase chain reaction for the detection of genetically modified organisms in various processed foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative screening method was validated for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in various processed food matrices (cooked maize grit, infant formula, biscuits, meal of acidified soybeans). The prepared food matrices contained each 0%, 2%, 100% (10% instead of 100% in the case of biscuits) of Roundup-Ready© soybeans and\\/or of Bt-176 maize. The method was based on the

Markus Lipp; Anke Bluth; Fabrice Eyquem; Lothar Kruse; Heinz Schimmel; G. Van den Eede; E. Anklam

2001-01-01

132

Potential anthranilate modifying enzymes of maize mutant bf-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedlings of maize mutant bf-1 exhibit blue fluorescence and a distinct grape odor due to an accumulation of methyl anthranilate and other anthranilate related compounds. The bf-1 also expresses a feedback insensitive anthranilate synthase. Previously, we identified a unique mutation in anthranila...

133

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

134

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

135

Societal aspects of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and

L. J. Frewer; J. Lassen; B. Kettlitz; J. Scholderer; V. Beekman; K. G. Berdal

2004-01-01

136

Genetic dissection of maize phenology using an intraspecific introgression library  

PubMed Central

Background Collections of nearly isogenic lines where each line carries a delimited portion of a donor source genome into a common recipient genetic background are known as introgression libraries and have already shown to be instrumental for the dissection of quantitative traits. By means of marker-assisted backcrossing, we have produced an introgression library using the extremely early-flowering maize (Zea mays L.) variety Gaspé Flint and the elite line B73 as donor and recipient genotypes, respectively, and utilized this collection to investigate the genetic basis of flowering time and related traits of adaptive and agronomic importance in maize. Results The collection includes 75 lines with an average Gaspé Flint introgression length of 43.1 cM. The collection was evaluated for flowering time, internode length, number of ears, number of nodes (phytomeres), number of nodes above the ear, number and proportion of nodes below the ear and plant height. Five QTLs for flowering time were mapped, all corresponding to major QTLs for number of nodes. Three additional QTLs for number of nodes were mapped. Besides flowering time, the QTLs for number of nodes drove phenotypic variation for plant height and number of nodes below and above the top ear, but not for internode length. A number of apparently Mendelian-inherited phenotypes were also observed. Conclusions While the inheritance of flowering time was dominated by the well-known QTL Vgt1, a number of other important flowering time QTLs were identified and, thanks to the type of plant material here utilized, immediately isogenized and made available for fine mapping. At each flowering time QTL, early flowering correlated with fewer vegetative phytomeres, indicating the latter as a key developmental strategy to adapt the maize crop from the original tropical environment to the northern border of the temperate zone (southern Canada), where Gaspé Flint was originally cultivated. Because of the trait differences between the two parental genotypes, this collection will serve as a permanent source of nearly isogenic materials for multiple studies of QTL analysis and cloning. PMID:21211047

2011-01-01

137

Fine scale genetic structure in the wild ancestor of maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis)  

E-print Network

Fine scale genetic structure in the wild ancestor of maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) JOOST VAN, BRANDON S. GAUT§ and LUIS E. EGUIARTE­ *Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA

Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

138

Copyright 0 1992 by the Genetics Societyof America Comparative Genome Mappingof Sorghum and Maize  

E-print Network

Copyright 0 1992 by the Genetics Societyof America Comparative Genome Mappingof Sorghum and Maize the 10 chromosomes of sorghum. Useofmaize DNA probes to produce the sorghumlinkagemapallowedus to make groupsis roughly equivalent in maizeand sorghum. Estimatesof the proportionsof duplicatedloci suggestthat

Whitkus, Richard

139

Modification of recombinant maize ChitA chitinase by fungal chitinase-modifying proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In commercial maize, there are at least two different alleles of the chiA gene that encode alloforms of ChitA chitinase, a protein that is abundant in developing seed. Both known alloforms are modified by Bz-cmp, a protein secreted by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris zeicola. One alloform (ChitA-B73) i...

140

Maize Seed Chitinase is Modified by a Protein Secreted by Bipolaris zeicola  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants contain defense mechanisms that prevent infection by most fungi. Some specialized fungi have the ability to overcome plant defenses. The Zea mays (maize) seed chitinase ChitA has been previously reported as an antifungal protein. Here we report that ChitA is converted to a modified form by...

141

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens  

E-print Network

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens Goods: Biological Substances, Category B (BSCB), Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMMO) and Exempt · Individuals wishing to ship Biological Substances Category B (BSCB) and/or Genetically Modified

Jia, Songtao

142

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred  

E-print Network

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (J.B.H.); Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21­26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

143

Maize Authentication: Quality Control Methods and Multivariate Analysis (Chemometrics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize is one of the most important cereals because of its numerous applications in processed foods where it is the major or minor component. Apart from maize authenticity issues related to cultivar and geographical origin (national and\\/or international level), there is another important issue related to genetically modified maize. Various objective parameters such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, pigments, heavy

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

2009-01-01

144

Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.  

PubMed

Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had ?-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the ?-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the ?-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the ?-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends. PMID:24491720

Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

2014-06-15

145

Advances in Maize Genomics and Their Value for Enhancing Genetic Gains from Breeding  

PubMed Central

Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products. PMID:19688107

Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J.; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Crouch, Jonathan H.

2009-01-01

146

Genetically modified crops deserve greater ecotoxicological scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians are keen to remind us that history tends to rhyme, even if it does not repeat itself. In a historical context, the story of today’s genetically modified (GM) crops resembles that of the synthetic organic insecticides beginning circa the second half of the last century. In practice, GM crops include crop cultivars that have been modified by incorporating one

Nicolas Desneux; Julio S. Bernal

2010-01-01

147

Splicing regulation as a potential genetic modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases are associated with profound phenotypic variability, which is affected strongly by genetic modifiers. The splicing machinery could be one such modifying system, through a mechanism involving splicing motifs and their interaction with a complex repertoire of splicing factors. Mutations in splicing motifs and changes in levels of splicing factors can result in different splicing patterns. Changes in the

Malka Nissim-Rafinia; Batsheva Kerem

2002-01-01

148

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

149

Self modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Parity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying CGP (SMCGP) is a developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming(CGP). It differs from CGP by including primitive functions which modify the pro- gram. Beginning with the evolved genotype the self-modifying functions produce a new program (phenotype) at each iteration. In this paper we have applied it to a well known digital circuit building problem: even-parity. We show that

Simon Harding; Julian Francis Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2009-01-01

150

Genetically modified mouse models in cancer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified animals represent a resource of immense potential for cancer research. Classically, genetic modifications\\u000a in mice were obtained through selected breeding experiments or treatments with powerful carcinogens capable of inducing random\\u000a mutagenesis. A new era began in the early 1980s when genetic modifications by inserting foreign DNA genes into the cells of\\u000a an animal allowed for the development of

Javier Santos; Pablo Fernández-Navarro; María Villa-Morales; Laura González-Sánchez; José Fernández-Piqueras

2008-01-01

151

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pre-treated corn meal were

Sergej Jerman; Aleš Podgornik; Katarina Cankar; Neža ?adež; Mihaela Skrt; Jana Žel; Peter Raspor

2005-01-01

152

Factors to consider before production and commercialization of aquatic genetically modified organisms: the case of transgenic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many genetically modified plants have been developed, and four of them (soya, maize, cotton, and colza) representing more than 99% of commercial crops, are widely distributed, mainly in the United States and in America [ISAAA, 2006. Report on global status on biotech\\/GM crops, Brief 35. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications organization, US]. Yet all over the world

Olivier Le Curieux-Belfond; Louise Vandelac; Joseph Caron; Gilles-Éric Séralini

2009-01-01

153

Genetic Variation at Bx 1 Controls DIMBOA Content in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main hydroxamic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to leaf-feeding by several corn borers. Most genes involved in the DIMBOA metabolic pathway are located on the short arm of chromosome 4, and QTLs involved in maize resis...

154

Anti-genetic engineering activism and scientized politics in the case of “contaminated” Mexican maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The struggle over genetically-engineered (GE) maize in Mexico reveals a deep conflict over the criteria used in the governance\\u000a of agri-food systems. Policy debate on the topic of GE maize has become “scientized,” granting experts a high level of political\\u000a authority, and narrowing the regulatory domain to matters that can be adjudicated on the basis of scientific information or\\u000a “managed”

Abby J. Kinchy

2010-01-01

155

Genetic diversity among maize (Zea mays L.) landraces assessed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships among 81 maize accessions consisting 79 landraces and two improved varieties, maintained by farmers in southern Brazil were investigated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Thirty-two highly informative primers amplified 255 markers of which 184 (72.2%) were polymorphics. Based on the RAPD markers, a dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA method. The range of genetic similarity was

Valdemar P. Carvalho; Claudete F. Ruas; Josué M. Ferreira; Rosângela M. P. Moreira; Paulo M. Ruas

2004-01-01

156

Genetically modified mice and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition in transgenic and knockout mice is preferentially assessed by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Awareness is growing, however, that the putative cognitive deficits observed using such a paradigm may be biased by the genetic background and behavioral peculiarities of the specific animals used. Recent progress in cognitive research includes new behavioral tests and refined analysis of performance

Hans-Peter Lipp; David P Wolfer

1998-01-01

157

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

158

Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

Wells, Dominic J

2010-01-01

159

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene

Farid E. Ahmed

2002-01-01

160

Frankenfoods? The Debate Over Genetically Modified Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This discussion case, in which a university research laboratory is vandalized by environmental activists opposed to genetic engineering, focuses on the science and ethics of genetically modified crops. Students consider both the risks and benefits of biotechnology and explore the positions of various stakeholders, including environmentalists, conservationists, agricultural businesses, research scientists, and farmers. Originally written for a vegetable crops course, the case would be appropriate for a wide variety of courses in which biotechnology is discussed.

Bill Rhodes

2001-01-01

161

Maize tassel-modified carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of Cu(II).  

PubMed

The preparation and application of a practical electrochemical sensor for environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metal ions in samples is a subject of considerable interest. In this paper, a carbon paste electrode modified with maize tassel for the determination of Cu(II) has been proposed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study morphology and identify the functional groups on the modified electrode, respectively. First, Cu(II) was adsorbed on the carbon paste electrode surface at open circuit and voltammetric techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical performances of the sensor. The electrochemical sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards Cu(II) at pH 5.0 and by increasing the amount of maize tassel biomass, a maximum response at 1:2.5 (maize tassel:carbon paste; w/w) was obtained. The electrocatalytic redox current of Cu(II) showed a linear response in the range (1.23 ?M to 0.4 mM) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9980. The limit of detection and current-concentration sensitivity were calculated to be 0.13 (±0.01) ?M and 0.012 (±0.001) ?A/?M, respectively. The sensor gave good recovery of Cu(II) in the range from 96.0 to 98.0 % when applied to water samples. PMID:24705875

Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Agyei, Nana M

2014-08-01

162

Genetically Modified Crops: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supporters of genetic engineering point to the potential of genetically modified (GM) crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. But some concerned groups argue that the risks of GM crops may outweigh their benefits. These groups urge avoiding GM crops, or at least subjecting them to more rigorous government scrutiny. Without taking sides, this module shows how to use the issues surrounding GM crops as a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science and genetics and how science and technology interact and influence each other in our society.

Environmental Literacy Council

2007-05-16

163

Maize databases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

164

Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Doubled Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeding crosses from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project between exotic accessions and elite Corn Belt Dent inbreds provide a unique opportunity for broadening the genetic base of the United States maize crop by incorporating favorable exotic alleles in elite genetic backgrounds. Genet...

165

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

166

The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive

Matin Qaim

2009-01-01

167

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable

Keith T. Atherton

2002-01-01

168

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

169

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

170

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

171

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

172

Retailing and risk society: genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the social environment experienced by UK food retailers regarding the marketing of genetically modified (GM) foodstuffs. Beck’s notion of risk society provides a critical foundation for analysing retail organisations’ decision making under conditions of “post-Enlightenment contemporary irrationality”. He advocates “understanding and conceptualisation” of “… insecurities of the contemporary spirit …”, arguing of these that it is “… ideologically cynical

Richard Pearce; Maria Hansson

2000-01-01

173

Genetically modified foods: the effect of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2005-01-01

174

Toward Rational Regulation of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified food pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that unnecessarily exposes society and the environment to adverse risks of biotechnology and introduces numerous inefficiencies into the regulatory system. These risks and inefficiencies include gaps in regulation, duplicative and inconsistent regulation, unnecessary regulatory expense, agencies acting outside

Gregory N. Mandel

2006-01-01

175

Chinese gatekeeper perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of food distribution gatekeepers in China regarding likely acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by Chinese consumers. It also aims to consider policy implications for food exporting countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory approach using in-depth interviews was adopted. Key informants of a sample of 20 companies in five main

John G. Knight; Hongzhi Gao

2009-01-01

176

The patenting of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property protection, including patents, is a critical factor underpinning investment and progress in the development of genetically modified foods. The GATT agreement made suggestions for the harmonization of patent laws and also made provisions for the avoidance of discrimination based on place of invention. However, plant and animal ‘varieties’ are currently not patentable. Much of the debate concerns what

Hilary Newiss

1998-01-01

177

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

178

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

179

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

180

ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

181

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensification of agriculture has provided cheaper more plentiful food, but has also caused declines in farm- land wildlife. The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may exacerbate this, or offer new ways of mitigating anthropogenic impacts. The potential conse- quences of the introduction of GM crops have been stud- ied for over a decade, since commercialization. Although the specific

Rosemary S Hails

2009-01-01

182

Trade Conflict Over Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the USA, seconded by Argentina and Canada, initiated litigation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union's regulatory policy for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The three plaintiffs claimed that the EU's GMO policy was creating illegal trade restrictions. Specifically, they argued (i) that the EU had implemented a de facto moratorium on approval of new biotech

Thomas Bernauer; Philipp Aerni; Kevin Gallagher

183

Release of genetically modified organisms: precautionary legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the debates surrounding the drafting and passage through the UK Parliament of the Environmental Protection Bill, Part VI, regarding the potential hazards arising from release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Both the previous voluntary and the current statutory systems have been precautionary (or proactive) in their approach to risk regulation.The EPA establishes a framework for guiding decisions

Les Levidow; Joyce Tait

1992-01-01

184

What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle

Keith G. Davies

2001-01-01

185

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods.  

PubMed

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene sequences is not available, new approaches, such as near-infrared spectrometry, might tackle the problem of detection of non-approved genetically modified (GM) foods. The efficiency of screening, identification and confirmation strategies should be examined with respect to false-positive rates, disappearance of marker genes, increased use of specific regulator sequences and the increasing number of GM foods. PMID:11943377

Ahmed, Farid E

2002-05-01

186

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

PubMed

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293

Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

2006-05-01

187

SHORT COMMUNICATION Does feeding on Bt-maize affect the slug Arion vulgaris  

E-print Network

2 September 2009) Via expression of Cry-proteins, toxic for specific insect groups, genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize offers an effective protection against insect pests-effect but indicated the general poor quality of maize as food resource for slugs. Keywords: Bt-maize; non

Richner, Heinz

188

Screening Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Western and Northern Corn Rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica spp.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are devastating pests of maize (Zea mays L.), with a subterranean larval stage that consumes root tissue. To lessen reliance on soil insecticides and provide alternatives for genetically modified maize hybrids, researchers have developed novel maize germpla...

189

GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

190

Distinct Genetic Architectures for Male and Female Inflorescence Traits of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the genetic architecture of thirteen maize morphological traits in a large population of recombinant inbred lines. Four traits from the male inflorescence (tassel) and three traits from the female inflorescence (ear) were measured and studied using linkage and genome-wide association analyses and compared to three flowering and three leaf traits previously studied in the same population. Inflorescence loci

Patrick J. Brown; Narasimham Upadyayula; Gregory S. Mahone; Feng Tian; Peter J. Bradbury; Sean Myles; James B. Holland; Sherry Flint-Garcia; Michael D. McMullen; Edward S. Buckler; Torbert R. Rocheford

2011-01-01

191

Distinct Genetic Architectures for Male and Female Inflorescence Traits of Maize  

E-print Network

Distinct Genetic Architectures for Male and Female Inflorescence Traits of Maize Patrick J. Brown1 of recombinant inbred lines. Four traits from the male inflorescence (tassel) and three traits from the female inflorescence (ear) were measured and studied using linkage and genome-wide association analyses and compared

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

192

Distinct genetic architectures for male and female inflorescence traits of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared the genetic architecture of thirteen maize morphological traits in a large population of recombinant inbred lines. Four traits from the male inflorescence (tassel) and three traits from the female inflorescence (ear) were measured and studied using linkage and genome-wide association ana...

193

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE AB10 CHROMOSOME ON PRESERVATION OF MAIZE GENETIC RESOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 18,000 maize accessions are maintained by the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS). To ensure preservation of the original genetic profile of populations, stocks are propagated using the following methods. A balanced sample from 100 ears provides the seed for planting...

194

Engineering a thermoregulated intein-modified xylanase into maize for consolidated lignocellulosic biomass processing.  

PubMed

Plant cellulosic biomass is an abundant, low-cost feedstock for producing biofuels and chemicals. Expressing cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes (e.g. xylanases) in plant feedstocks could reduce the amount of enzymes required for feedstock pretreatment and hydrolysis during bioprocessing to release soluble sugars. However, in planta expression of xylanases can reduce biomass yield and plant fertility. To overcome this problem, we engineered a thermostable xylanase (XynB) with a thermostable self-splicing bacterial intein to control the xylanase activity. Intein-modified XynB (iXynB) variants were selected that have <10% wild-type enzymatic activity but recover >60% enzymatic activity upon intein self-splicing at temperatures >59 °C. Greenhouse-grown xynB maize expressing XynB has shriveled seeds and low fertility, but ixynB maize had normal seeds and fertility. Processing dried ixynB maize stover by temperature-regulated xylanase activation and hydrolysis in a cocktail of commercial CWD enzymes produced >90% theoretical glucose and >63% theoretical xylose yields. PMID:23086202

Shen, Binzhang; Sun, Xueguang; Zuo, Xiao; Shilling, Taran; Apgar, James; Ross, Mary; Bougri, Oleg; Samoylov, Vladimir; Parker, Matthew; Hancock, Elaina; Lucero, Hector; Gray, Benjamin; Ekborg, Nathan A; Zhang, Dongcheng; Johnson, Jeremy C Schley; Lazar, Gabor; Raab, R Michael

2012-11-01

195

Reinventing MaizeGDB  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Database (MaizeDB) to the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) turns 20 this year, and such a significant milestone must be celebrated! With the release of the B73 reference sequence and more sequenced genomes on the way, the maize community needs to address various opportunitie...

196

Genetics and Biochemistry of Insect Resistance in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are a major concern for maize production worldwide. Host plant resistance to insects involves a number of chemical and biochemical factors that limit but rarely eliminate insect damage. Most chemical and many biochemical factors involved in resistance to insects are synthesized independent...

197

Genetic analysis of visually scored orange kernel color in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing levels of provitamin A carotenoids in maize (Zea mays L.) grain through plant breeding, termed biofortification, is an economical and sustainable way to help humans suffering from vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Unfortunately, in parts of Africa where VAD is prevalent, there is frequently a c...

198

Bulk genetic characterization of Ghanaian maize landraces using microsatellite markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays) was first introduced into Ghana over 5 centuries ago and remains the most important cereal staple, grown in all agro-ecologies across the country. Yield from farmers’ fields are low, which is attributed in part to farmer’s preferences and/or reliance on local landraces for cultivati...

199

GENETIC MAPPING OF MAIZE MUTANTS WITH SSR MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mapping of mutants in the Maize Mapping Project seeks to increase the value of the mutant resource with map information. Because the number of mutants is enormous, and is ever growing, we have worked to increase the rate and resolution by which mutants can be mapped with molecular markers. By prod...

200

Fine genetic characterization of elite maize germplasm using high-throughput SNP genotyping.  

PubMed

To investigate the genetic structure of Chinese maize germplasm, the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to genotype a collection of 367 inbred lines widely used in maize breeding of China. A total of 41,819 informative SNPs with minor allele number of more than 0.05 were used to estimate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. Totally 1,015 SNPs evenly distributed in the genome were selected randomly to evaluate the population structure of these accessions. Results showed that two main groups could be determined i.e., the introduced germplasm and the local germplasm. Further, five subgroups corresponding to different heterotic groups, that is, Reid Yellow Dent (Reid), Lancaster Sure Crop (Lancaster), P group (P), Tang Sipingtou (TSPT), and Tem-tropic I group (Tem-tropic I), were determined. The genetic diversity of within subgroups was highest in the Tem-Tropic I and lowest in the P. Most lines in this panel showed limited relatedness with each other. Comparisons of gene diversity showed that there existed some conservative genetic regions in specific subgroups across the ten chromosomes, i.e., seven in the Lancaster, seven in the Reid, six in the TSPT, five in the P, and two in the Tem-Tropical I. In addition, the results also revealed that there existed fifteen conservative regions transmitted from Huangzaosi, an important foundation parent, to its descendants. These are important for further studies since the outcomes may provide clues to understand why Huangzaosi could become a foundation parent in Chinese maize breeding. For the panel of 367 elite lines, average LD distance was 391 kb and varied among different chromosomes as well as in different genomic regions of one chromosome. This analysis uncovered a high natural genetic diversity in the elite maize inbred set, suggesting that the panel can be used in association study, esp. for temperate regions. PMID:24343198

Wu, Xun; Li, Yongxiang; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Huang, Yubi; Li, Yu

2014-03-01

201

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

202

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

203

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance-target organism Á Genetically modified crops Introduction Aquatic environments support a wide range of ecological

Gruner, Daniel S.

204

Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods

Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

2007-01-01

205

Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley] [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany] [USDA Albany

2013-10-31

206

Successful Agrobacterium -Mediated Genetic Transformation of Maize Elite Inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system was developed for maize (Zea mays L.) elite inbred lines using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer by identifying important factors that affected transformation efficiency. The hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 proved to be better than octopine LBA4404 and nopaline GV3101. Improved transformation efficiencies were obtained when immature embryos were inocubated with Agrobacterium suspension cells (A600 = 0.8) for 20 min in

Xueqing Huang; Zhiming Wei

2005-01-01

207

Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.  

PubMed

Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. PMID:23205714

Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

2013-02-01

208

A somatic gene rearrangement contributing to genetic diversity in maize  

SciTech Connect

The authors have discovered a somatic genomic rearrangement that occurs at high frequency at a duplicated zein locus in certain cultures of the maize inbred line A188. The rearranged allele arises from the duplication by a two-step process involving a homologous recombination and a second event, which may be a deletion, inversion, or insertion; both steps always occur together. The frequency of rearrangement is lower in homozygous states of the parental allele than in heterozygotes. In both cases, the rearrangement is shown to be mitotic. The rearranged product can be transmitted through meiosis, providing another mechanism for genome evolution in higher eukaryotes.

Das, O.P.; Levi-Minzi, S.; Koury, M.; Benner, M.; Messing, J. (The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway (USA))

1990-10-01

209

Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing ?-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

Dymi?ska, L.; G?gor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; ?uk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

2014-09-01

210

The role of culture in risk regulations: a comparative case study of genetically modified corn in the United States of America and European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), herbicide tolerant (Roundup Ready or RR) and insect resistant (Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt) corn has “no significant impact” on human health and environmental integrity. In Europe, genetically modified (GM) maize strains – the identical Bt and RR biotech crops used in the USA – are

Nicholas P. Guehlstorf; Lars K. Hallstrom

2005-01-01

211

Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional crop management on invert- ebrate trophic groups (herbivores, detritivores, pollinators, predators and parasitoids) were compared in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape sites throughout the UK. These trophic groups were influenced by season, crop species and GMHT management. Many groups increased twofold to fivefold in abundance between early and late summer, and

C. Hawes; A. J. Haughton; J. L. Osborne; D. B. Roy; S. J. Clark; J. N. Perry; P. Rothery; D. A. Bohan; D. R. Brooks; G. T. Champion; A. M. Dewar; M. S. Heard; I. P. Woiwod; R. E. Daniels; M. W. Young; A. M. Parish; R. J. Scott; L. G. Firbank; G. R. Squire

2003-01-01

212

Analysis of the Maize Polyubiquitin-1 Promoter Heat Shock Elements and Generation of Promoter Variants with Modified Expression Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maize polyubiquitin-1(Ubi-1) promoter is one of a few select promoters used to express foreign genes in monocots, such that recombinant proteins can be produced at commercially viable levels. Modifying the activity, specificity and responsiveness of such promoters provides a means to achieve desired levels and patterns of expression of genes encoding target products. Ubi-1 is constitutively expressed but is

Stephen J. Streatfield; Maria E. Magallanes-Lundback; Katherine K. Beifuss; Christopher A. Brooks; Robin L. Harkey; Robert T. Love; Jeff Bray; John A. Howard; Joseph M. Jilka; Elizabeth E. Hood

2004-01-01

213

Genetic diversity in traditional Ethiopian highland maize accessions assessed by AFLP markers and morphological traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highland regions of Ethiopia the heterogeneity of the land, the climate, and soil favors the presence of a large number\\u000a of landraces. We analyzed a representative sample of 62 traditional Ethiopian highland maize accessions, using amplified fragment\\u000a length polymorphism (AFLP®) markers and morphological traits with the aim to group the accessions based on the their genetic profiles and

Yoseph Beyene; Anna-Maria Botha; Alexander A. Myburg

2006-01-01

214

Genetic diversity in traditional Ethiopian highland maize accessions assessed by AFLP markers and morphological traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highland regions of Ethiopia the heterogeneity of the land, the climate, and soil favors the presence of a large number\\u000a of landraces. We analyzed a representative sample of 62 traditional Ethiopian highland maize accessions, using amplified fragment\\u000a length polymorphism (AFLP®) markers and morphological traits with the aim to group the accessions based on the their genetic\\u000a profiles and

Yoseph Beyene; Anna-Maria Botha; Alexander A. Myburg

215

Metabolite profiling of maize grain: differentiation due to genetics and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative metabolite profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) was applied to investigate\\u000a the impact of genetic background, growing location and season on the chemical composition of maize grain. The metabolite profiling\\u000a protocol involved sub-fractionation of the metabolites and allowed the assessment of about 300 distinct analytes from different\\u000a chemical classes (polar to lipophilic), of which 167 could

Richard M. Röhlig; Joachim Eder; Karl-Heinz Engel

2009-01-01

216

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

217

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

218

Potential Adverse Health Effects of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins.

Anita Bakshi

2003-01-01

219

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen Jianping Yao, MEMBER Singapore 639798 Abstract. A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of holographic diffusers for diffuse IR wireless home networking. The novel algorithm combines the conventional genetic

Yao, Jianping

220

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen and Jianping Yao A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels

Yao, Jianping

221

MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

222

Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

2013-05-01

223

Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

2012-01-01

224

High-resolution genetic mapping of maize pan-genome sequence anchors.  

PubMed

In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms, structural variation is abundant in many plant genomes. The structural variation across a species can be represented by a 'pan-genome', which is essential to fully understand the genetic control of phenotypes. However, the pan-genome's complexity hinders its accurate assembly via sequence alignment. Here we demonstrate an approach to facilitate pan-genome construction in maize. By performing 18 trillion association tests we map 26 million tags generated by reduced representation sequencing of 14,129 maize inbred lines. Using machine-learning models we select 4.4 million accurately mapped tags as sequence anchors, 1.1 million of which are presence/absence variations. Structural variations exhibit enriched association with phenotypic traits, indicating that it is a significant source of adaptive variation in maize. The ability to efficiently map ultrahigh-density pan-genome sequence anchors enables fine characterization of structural variation and will advance both genetic research and breeding in many crops. PMID:25881062

Lu, Fei; Romay, Maria C; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Bradbury, Peter J; Elshire, Robert J; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu; Li, Yongxiang; Semagn, Kassa; Zhang, Xuecai; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Mikel, Mark A; Soifer, Ilya; Barad, Omer; Buckler, Edward S

2015-01-01

225

Genetic dissection of Al tolerance QTLs in the maize genome by high density SNP scan  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to food security in tropical and subtropical regions. High Al saturation on acid soils limits root development, reducing water and nutrient uptake. In addition to naturally occurring acid soils, agricultural practices may decrease soil pH, leading to yield losses due to Al toxicity. Elucidating the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying maize Al tolerance is expected to accelerate the development of Al-tolerant cultivars. Results Five genomic regions were significantly associated with Al tolerance, using 54,455 SNP markers in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Cateto Al237. Candidate genes co-localized with Al tolerance QTLs were further investigated. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) developed for ZmMATE2 were as Al-sensitive as the recurrent line, indicating that this candidate gene was not responsible for the Al tolerance QTL on chromosome 5, qALT5. However, ZmNrat1, a maize homolog to OsNrat1, which encodes an Al3+ specific transporter previously implicated in rice Al tolerance, was mapped at ~40 Mbp from qALT5. We demonstrate for the first time that ZmNrat1 is preferentially expressed in maize root tips and is up-regulated by Al, similarly to OsNrat1 in rice, suggesting a role of this gene in maize Al tolerance. The strongest-effect QTL was mapped on chromosome 6 (qALT6), within a 0.5 Mbp region where three copies of the Al tolerance gene, ZmMATE1, were found in tandem configuration. qALT6 was shown to increase Al tolerance in maize; the qALT6-NILs carrying three copies of ZmMATE1 exhibited a two-fold increase in Al tolerance, and higher expression of ZmMATE1 compared to the Al sensitive recurrent parent. Interestingly, a new source of Al tolerance via ZmMATE1 was identified in a Brazilian elite line that showed high expression of ZmMATE1 but carries a single copy of ZmMATE1. Conclusions High ZmMATE1 expression, controlled either by three copies of the target gene or by an unknown molecular mechanism, is responsible for Al tolerance mediated by qALT6. As Al tolerant alleles at qALT6 are rare in maize, marker-assisted introgression of this QTL is an important strategy to improve maize adaptation to acid soils worldwide. PMID:24564817

2014-01-01

226

Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

227

Unlocking the Genetic Diversity of Maize Landraces with Doubled Haploids Opens New Avenues for Breeding  

PubMed Central

Landraces are valuable genetic resources for broadening the genetic base of elite germplasm in maize. Extensive exploitation of landraces has been hampered by their genetic heterogeneity and heavy genetic load. These limitations may be overcome by the in-vivo doubled haploid (DH) technique. A set of 132 DH lines derived from three European landraces and 106 elite flint (EF) lines were genotyped for 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and evaluated in field trials at five locations in Germany in 2010 for several agronomic traits. In addition, the landraces were compared with synthetic populations produced by intermating DH lines derived from the respective landrace. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the phenotypic and molecular diversity captured within DH lines derived from European landraces, (2) assess the breeding potential (usefulness) of DH lines derived from landraces to broaden the genetic base of the EF germplasm, and (3) compare the performance of each landrace with the synthetic population produced from the respective DH lines. Large genotypic variances among DH lines derived from landraces allowed the identification of DH lines with grain yields comparable to those of EF lines. Selected DH lines may thus be introgressed into elite germplasm without impairing its yield level. Large genetic distances of the DH lines to the EF lines demonstrated the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to broaden the genetic base of the EF germplasm. The comparison of landraces with their respective synthetic population showed no yield improvement and no reduction of phenotypic diversity. Owing to the low population structure and rapid decrease of linkage disequilibrium within populations of DH lines derived from landraces, these would be an ideal tool for association mapping. Altogether, the DH technology opens new opportunities for characterizing and utilizing the genetic diversity present in gene bank accessions of maize. PMID:23451190

Strigens, Alexander; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Reif, Jochen C.; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

2013-01-01

228

SMCGP2: self modifying cartesian genetic programming in two dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming. Using a combination of computational functions and special functions that can modify the phenotype at runtime, it has been employed to find general solutions to certain Boolean circuits and mathematical problems. In the present work, a new version, of SMCGP is proposed and demonstrated.

Simon Harding; Julian F. Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2011-01-01

229

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

230

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

231

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

232

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

233

Fate of genetically modified microorganisms in the corn rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fates of genetically modified (GM)Escherichia coli andPseudomonas putida in the corn rhizosphere were investigated. Under hydrophonic and sterile conditions, both bacteria grew well in the presence of root exudates used as a sole carbon source. The growth patterns of wild types and genetically modified strains ofE. coli andP. putida were similar under the conditions tested.

Jean Louis Morel; Gabriel Bitton; G. Rasul Chaudhry; Judy Awong

1989-01-01

234

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time.

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2004-01-01

235

Genetically Modified Organisms and Biodiversity: Assessing the Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are those into whose genome a foreign well-characterized DNA from a different source (plant, animal or microorganism) has been stably inserted. Transgenic plants are a recognized ex- ample. Scientists genetically modify plants to: increase post-harvest life, resist biotic and abiotic stresses, improve plant nutrient qualities and use them as biofactories in pharmaceutical and vaccine production. For

Camilo Ayra Pardo

2003-01-01

236

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.  

PubMed

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

2014-06-27

237

Developments in Cartesian Genetic Programming: self-modifying CGP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Genetic Programming\\u000a founded on Cartesian Genetic Programming. In addition to the usual computational functions, it includes functions that can\\u000a modify the program encoded in the genotype. This means that programs can be iterated to produce an infinite sequence of programs\\u000a (phenotypes) from a single evolved genotype. It

Simon HardingJulian; Julian F. Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2010-01-01

238

[Establishment of high efficiency genetic transformation system of maize mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens].  

PubMed

In order to establish high-frequency regeneration and high-efficiency genetic transformation system in maize, the significance of the 11 factors influencing maize embryonic callus induction and 9 factors affecting embryonic callus differentiation was researched by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that genotype had highly significant impact on induction of embryonic callus. The concentration of 6-BA, AgNO3, 2,4-D, ABA, and medium are the significant factors. The Multi-comparison showed that ABA 2 mg/L has a significant influence. Among the callus differentiation factors, the genotype and 6-BA concentration showed a strong main effect, the concentrations of NAA, medium, KT and 2,4-D had significant impacts on callus differentiation. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that the resistant callus rate under the selection pressure of 25 mg/L hygromycin was a reliable indicator for system optimization in resistance screening. The concentration of acetosyringone (AS) showed sensitive differences among genotypes. The highest transformation rate was found with the optimized combination of 24-25 degrees C for co-culture temperature, 0.7 ODx15 min for Agrobacterium tumefa-ciens concentration and incubation-time, and pH 5.5-6.2. By this optimized combination, the survival rate of resistant calli as an index for the stable transformation rates of inbred lines Huangzao 4 and Zong 31 by introducing GUS gene into maize inbred lines was as high as 48.6% and 46.2%, respectively. PMID:19933098

WEI, Kai-Fa

2009-11-01

239

The genetic basis of natural variation for iron homeostasis in the maize IBM population  

PubMed Central

Background Iron (Fe) deficiency symptoms in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) express as leaf chlorosis, growth retardation, as well as yield reduction and are typically observed when plants grow in calcareous soils at alkaline pH. To improve our understanding of genotypical variability in the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, the objectives of this study were to (i) determine the natural genetic variation of traits related to Fe homeostasis in the maize intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population, (ii) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits, and (iii) to analyze expression levels of genes known to be involved in Fe homeostasis as well as of candidate genes obtained from the QTL analysis. Results In hydroponically-grown maize, a total of 47 and 39 QTLs were detected for the traits recorded under limited and adequate supply of Fe, respectively. Conclusions From the QTL results, we were able to identify new putative candidate genes involved in Fe homeostasis under a deficient or adequate Fe nutritional status, like Ferredoxin class gene, putative ferredoxin PETF, metal tolerance protein MTP4, and MTP8. Furthermore, our expression analysis of candidate genes suggested the importance of trans-acting regulation for 2’-deoxymugineic acid synthase 1 (DMAS1), nicotianamine synthase (NAS3, NAS1), formate dehydrogenase 1 (FDH1), methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (IDI2), aspartate/tyrosine/aromatic aminotransferase (IDI4), and methylthioribose kinase (MTK). PMID:24400634

2014-01-01

240

Use of rice straw and radiation-modified maize starch/acrylonitrile in the treatment of wastewater.  

PubMed

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto maize starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator was studied with regard to the various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-maize starch ratio and total dose (kGy). The water absorption of the modified maize starch was measured. The starch modified by acrylonitrile gives low water absorbance. Conversion of the copolymer to the amidoxime form gives high swelling. The gel (%) and the grafting efficiency were measured. An investigation was carried out to study the adsorption of basic violet 7, basic blue 3, direct yellow 50 and acid red 37 from aqueous solutions by the water-insoluble modified starch containing amidoxime groups and rice straw. The effects of initial pH of the solution, pollutant concentration and treatment time on the adsorption were studied and it was found that the maximum adsorption was at 1:2 (starch/acrylonitrile) at irradiation dose 30 kGy. PMID:16300882

Abdel-Aal, S E; Gad, Y H; Dessouki, A M

2006-02-28

241

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

242

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

E-print Network

the subsequent genetic expression [1, 2]. The concept of self-modification can be a unifying way of looking that by utilizing self-modification opera- tions within an existing computational method (a form of geneticSelf Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing Simon

Fernandez, Thomas

243

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via  

E-print Network

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via Nucleic Acid Hybridization and devices. In this report, cysteine residues were genetically engineered onto the virion surface of tobacco transistors.1,2 In addition, the genetically derived nanostructures of viruses have been exploited

Rubloff, Gary W.

244

Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens

S. L Taylor

1997-01-01

245

Genetic Analysis as a Tool to Investigate the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Seed Development in Maize  

PubMed Central

• Background In angiosperms the seed is the outcome of double fertilization, a process leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm. The development of the two seed compartments goes through three main phases: polarization, differentiation of the main tissues and organs and maturation. • Scope This review focuses on the maize kernel as a model system for developmental and genetic studies of seed development in angiosperms. An overview of what is known about the genetic and molecular aspects underlying embryo and endosperm formation and maturation is presented. The role played by embryonic meristems in laying down the plant architecture is discussed. The acquisition of the different endosperm domains are presented together with the use of molecular markers available for the detection of these domains. Finally the role of programmed cell death in embryo and endosperm development is considered. • Conclusions The sequence of events occurring in the developing maize seed appears to be strictly regulated. Proper seed development requires the co-ordinated expression of embryo and endosperm genes and relies on the interaction between the two seed components and between the seed and the maternal tissues. Mutant analysis is instrumental in unravelling the genetic control underlying the formation of each compartment as well as the molecular signals interplaying between the two compartments. PMID:15998629

CONSONNI, GABRIELLA; GAVAZZI, GIUSEPPE; DOLFINI, SILVANA

2005-01-01

246

DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels

Rafaat M. Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Klaus Dieter Jany

2011-01-01

247

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

248

Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. PMID:24607250

Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

2014-03-01

249

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

250

Genetically modified crops and food security.  

PubMed

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

251

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

252

Discovery and purification of a fungal protease secreted by Bipolaris zeicola that modifies maize seed endochitinase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Healthy maize seeds have two basic endochitinases, chitA and chitB, with antifungal properties. A comparison of the isoenzyme profiles of symptomatic fungal-infested maize seeds, removed at harvest from ears that we wound inoculated in the late milk stage of maturity with one of several common ear-...

253

EXPRESSION AND INHERITANCE PATTERNS OF A MODIFIED PORCINE A-LACTALBUMIN TRANSGENE IN MAIZE KERNELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A codon-adjusted version of a gene encoding the porcine milk protein alpha-lactalbumin was synthesized to create maize with improved nutritional quality. Three expression vectors containing the synthetic gene were constructed and transformed into maize callus by particle bombardment. The constructs ...

254

Unraveling the genetic architecture of subtropical maize (Zea mays L.) lines to assess their utility in breeding programs  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is an increasingly important food crop in southeast Asia. The elucidation of its genetic architecture, accomplished by exploring quantitative trait loci and useful alleles in various lines across numerous breeding programs, is therefore of great interest. The present study aimed to characterize subtropical maize lines using high-quality SNPs distributed throughout the genome. Results We genotyped a panel of 240 subtropical elite maize inbred lines and carried out linkage disequilibrium, genetic diversity, population structure, and principal component analyses on the generated SNP data. The mean SNP distance across the genome was 70 Kb. The genome had both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions; the latter were dominant in areas near the gene-rich telomeric portions where recombination is frequent. A total of 252 haplotype blocks, ranging in size from 1 to 15.8 Mb, were identified. Slow LD decay (200–300 Kb) at r 2 ???0.1 across all chromosomes explained the selection of favorable traits around low LD regions in different breeding programs. The association mapping panel was characterized by strong population substructure. Genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of 0.36. Conclusions The genotyped panel of subtropical maize lines characterized in this study should be useful for association mapping of agronomically important genes. The dissimilarity uncovered among genotypes provides an opportunity to exploit the heterotic potential of subtropical elite maize breeding lines. PMID:24330649

2013-01-01

255

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

256

Qualitative risk assessment for adventitious presence of unauthorized genetically modified organisms  

E-print Network

Qualitative risk assessment for adventitious presence of unauthorized genetically modified presence of unauthorized genetically modified organisms is becoming a concern for producers, manufacturers decision support tool implementations. Key Words: decision support, genetically modified organisms, food

Bohanec, Marko

257

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease: strategies and  

E-print Network

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease modifier gene, Mendelian disorders, disease expression, linkage, association Introduction Genetic factors determined diseases, and this variability may itself involve genetic factors, the so-called modifier genes

Boyer, Edmond

258

Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.  

PubMed

In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

2014-01-01

259

Genetic analyses with oat-maize addition and radiation hybrid lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oat-maize addition lines, with individual maize (Zea mays L.) chromosomes added to the oat (Avena sativa L.) genome via wide hybridization and embryo rescue, simplify the maize genome by 10-fold. Radiation hybrids have less than a complete maize chromosome in an oat genomic background, derived throu...

260

Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed

The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

2003-11-29

261

Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.  

PubMed

Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops. PMID:22120952

Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

2012-08-01

262

Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

2003-01-01

263

Recombination in diverse maize is stable, predictable, and associated with genetic load.  

PubMed

Among the fundamental evolutionary forces, recombination arguably has the largest impact on the practical work of plant breeders. Varying over 1,000-fold across the maize genome, the local meiotic recombination rate limits the resolving power of quantitative trait mapping and the precision of favorable allele introgression. The consequences of low recombination also theoretically extend to the species-wide scale by decreasing the power of selection relative to genetic drift, and thereby hindering the purging of deleterious mutations. In this study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify 136,000 recombination breakpoints at high resolution within US and Chinese maize nested association mapping populations. We find that the pattern of cross-overs is highly predictable on the broad scale, following the distribution of gene density and CpG methylation. Several large inversions also suppress recombination in distinct regions of several families. We also identify recombination hotspots ranging in size from 1 kb to 30 kb. We find these hotspots to be historically stable and, compared with similar regions with low recombination, to have strongly differentiated patterns of DNA methylation and GC content. We also provide evidence for the historical action of GC-biased gene conversion in recombination hotspots. Finally, using genomic evolutionary rate profiling (GERP) to identify putative deleterious polymorphisms, we find evidence for reduced genetic load in hotspot regions, a phenomenon that may have considerable practical importance for breeding programs worldwide. PMID:25775595

Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Bradbury, Peter J; Elshire, Robert J; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Acharya, Charlotte B; Mitchell, Sharon E; Li, Chunhui; Li, Yongxiang; Buckler, Edward S

2015-03-24

264

Recombination in diverse maize is stable, predictable, and associated with genetic load  

PubMed Central

Among the fundamental evolutionary forces, recombination arguably has the largest impact on the practical work of plant breeders. Varying over 1,000-fold across the maize genome, the local meiotic recombination rate limits the resolving power of quantitative trait mapping and the precision of favorable allele introgression. The consequences of low recombination also theoretically extend to the species-wide scale by decreasing the power of selection relative to genetic drift, and thereby hindering the purging of deleterious mutations. In this study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify 136,000 recombination breakpoints at high resolution within US and Chinese maize nested association mapping populations. We find that the pattern of cross-overs is highly predictable on the broad scale, following the distribution of gene density and CpG methylation. Several large inversions also suppress recombination in distinct regions of several families. We also identify recombination hotspots ranging in size from 1 kb to 30 kb. We find these hotspots to be historically stable and, compared with similar regions with low recombination, to have strongly differentiated patterns of DNA methylation and GC content. We also provide evidence for the historical action of GC-biased gene conversion in recombination hotspots. Finally, using genomic evolutionary rate profiling (GERP) to identify putative deleterious polymorphisms, we find evidence for reduced genetic load in hotspot regions, a phenomenon that may have considerable practical importance for breeding programs worldwide. PMID:25775595

Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Bradbury, Peter J.; Elshire, Robert J.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Acharya, Charlotte B.; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Li, Chunhui; Li, Yongxiang; Buckler, Edward S.

2015-01-01

265

Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717

2014-01-01

266

Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathway in maize  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial nuclear transformation is a novel method for the rapid production of multiplex-transgenic plants, which we have used to dissect and modify a complex metabolic pathway. To demonstrate the principle, we transferred 5 carotenogenic genes controlled by different endosperm-specific promoters into a white maize variety deficient for endosperm carotenoid synthesis. We recovered a diverse population of transgenic plants expressing different enzyme combinations and showing distinct metabolic phenotypes that allowed us to identify and complement rate-limiting steps in the pathway and to demonstrate competition between ?-carotene hydroxylase and bacterial ?-carotene ketolase for substrates in 4 sequential steps of the extended pathway. Importantly, this process allowed us to generate plants with extraordinary levels of ?-carotene and other carotenoids, including complex mixtures of hydroxycarotenoids and ketocarotenoids. Combinatorial transformation is a versatile approach that could be used to modify any metabolic pathway and pathways controlling other biochemical, physiological, or developmental processes. PMID:19011084

Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2008-01-01

267

MaizeGDB - Past, present, and future  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) turns 20 this year. This editorial outlines MaizeGDB's history and connection to the Maize Genetics Cooperation, describes key components of how the MaizeGDB interface will be completely redesigned over the course of the next two years to meet cur...

268

A Survey of Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Cartesian Genetic\\u000a Programming. In addition to the usual computational functions found in CGP, SMCGP includes functions that can modify the evolved\\u000a program at run time. This means that programs can be iterated to produce an infinite sequence of phenotypes from a single\\u000a evolved genotype. Here, we discuss

Simon Harding; Wolfgang Banzhaf; Julian F. Miller

2011-01-01

269

Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.  

PubMed

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L

2011-01-01

270

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

271

Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Methods Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 µm Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of 109Cd applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Key Results Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Conclusions Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots. PMID:22455991

Vaculík, Marek; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria; Luxová, Miroslava; Stoláriková, Miroslava; Lux, Alexander

2012-01-01

272

Molecular Improvement of Tropical Maize for Drought Stress Tolerance in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C4 grass Zea mays (maize or corn) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice in terms of production and the second most widespread genetically modified (GM) crop, after soybean. Its demand is predicted to increase by 45% by the year 2020. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the

Sylvester Anami; Marc De Block; Jesse Machuka; Mieke Van Lijsebettens

2009-01-01

273

Maize streak virus-resistant transgenic maize: a first for Africa.  

PubMed

In this article, we report transgene-derived resistance in maize to the severe pathogen maize streak virus (MSV). The mutated MSV replication-associated protein gene that was used to transform maize showed stable expression to the fourth generation. Transgenic T2 and T3 plants displayed a significant delay in symptom development, a decrease in symptom severity and higher survival rates than non-transgenic plants after MSV challenge, as did a transgenic hybrid made by crossing T2 Hi-II with the widely grown, commercial, highly MSV-susceptible, white maize genotype WM3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first maize to be developed with transgenic MSV resistance and the first all-African-produced genetically modified crop plant. PMID:17924935

Shepherd, Dionne N; Mangwende, Tichaona; Martin, Darren P; Bezuidenhout, Marion; Kloppers, Frederik J; Carolissen, Charlene H; Monjane, Adérito L; Rybicki, Edward P; Thomson, Jennifer A

2007-11-01

274

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying CGP (SMCGP) is a developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming(CGP). It is able to modify its own phe- notype during execution of the evolved program. This is done by the inclusion of modification operators in the function set. Here we present the use of the technique on several different sequence generation and regression problems.

Simon Harding; Julian Francis Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2009-01-01

275

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

276

FIELD DECOMPOSITION OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CORN RESIDUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The decomposition of residue from three genetically-modified (GM) corn varieties expressing one or more Bt endotoxins was compared to that from a variety with the unmodified base genetics. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DK...

277

Review: genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the “first generation” were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent

Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara; Kazuki Saito

2006-01-01

278

Modified Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Selection of Compartmental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified genetic algorithm has been developed for the task of optimal parameter selection for compartmental models. As a case study, a predictive model of the emerging health threat of obesity in America was developed which incorporated varying levels of three treatment strategies in an attempt to decrease the amount of overweight Americans over a ten-year period. The genetic algorithm

Neil A. Shah; Richard A. Moffitt; May D. Wang

2007-01-01

279

Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic modification of crop plants from the methodology involved in their production through to the current debate on their use in agriculture are reviewed. Techniques for plant transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment, and for the selection of transgenic plants using marker genes are described. The benefits of currently available genetically modified (GM) crops in reducing waste and

Nigel G Halford; Peter R Shewry

2000-01-01

280

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

281

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

282

Genetically Engineered Plants, Endangered Species, and Risk: A Temporal and Spatial Exposure Assessment for Karner Blue Butterfly Larvae and Bt Maize Pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ?-endotoxin proteins has been adopted widely in the Midwestern United States. The proteins are toxic to several lepidopteran species and because a variety of maize tissues, including pollen, may express the endotoxins, the probability of exposure to nontarget species, including endangered species, needs to be understood. The

Robert K. D. Peterson; Steven J. Meyer; Amy T. Wolf; Jeffrey D. Wolt; Paula M. Davis

2006-01-01

283

Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%. PMID:22843069

Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

2012-01-01

284

Evaluation of maize microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis and fingerprinting in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The use of maize microsatellite markers as a potential cost-effective method for molecular analysis of sugarcane was evaluated. Of the 34 primer pairs obtained from maize genomic libraries, 14 showed repeatable amplifications in Saccharum species clones, commercial hybrids, and the related genera Erianthus, accounting for 41.17% cross transferability. Complex banding patterns were encountered in sugarcane with the number of amplified fragments ranging from 7 to 14 with an average of 10 per primer, indicating the high polyploidy and heterozygosity existing in sugarcane. Phenetic analysis of the SSR polymorphisms produced by nine primers could clearly differentiate the different species of Saccharum and Erianthus and revealed the relationships that existed between them. Genetic similarity co-efficient indicated low diversity existing among the S. officinarum clones (82%) and a relatively higher level of diversity in the S. spontaneum clones (69.7%). Higher level of divergence of Erianthus from Saccharum was also clearly estabilished. Five primers produced genus- and species-specific fragments for Erianthus, S. spontaneum, S. officinarum, and S. barberi. The polymorphic primers, when tested on a panel of 30 commercial sugarcane cultivars, revealed a broad range (32.4-83.3%) of pair-wise similarity values, indicating their ability to detect high levels of polymorphism. A combination of two primers could differentiate all the varieties, further emphasizing their potential in fingerprinting and varietal identification. PMID:12834055

Selvi, A; Nair, N V; Balasundaram, N; Mohapatra, T

2003-06-01

285

The fate of transgenic sequences present in genetically modified plant products in fish feed, investigating the survival of GM soybean DNA fragments during feeding trials in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable protein sources like soybeans, canola and maize gluten are good alternatives to fish meal. However, a large proportion of such products available on the international market may possess genetically modified (GM) components. This report concerns a study to investigate the fate and survival of ingested GM soy DNA fragments (120 and 195 bp) and a 180-bp fragment of the

Monica Sanden; Ian J Bruce; M. Azizur Rahman; Gro-Ingunn Hemre

2004-01-01

286

MaizeGDB, the maize model organism database  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB is the maize research community's database for maize genetic and genomic information. In this seminar I will outline our current endeavors including a full website redesign, the status of maize genome assembly and annotation projects, and work toward genome functional annotation. Mechanis...

287

Transcriptional silencing of heterologous anther promoters in maize: a genetic method to replace detasseling for seed production.  

PubMed

The promoter of the maize male fertility gene ZmMs45, and other anther-specific maize promoters, was previously shown to be transcriptionally silenced by constitutively expressed promoter-inverted repeat RNAs (pIRs). In addition, ZmMS45pIR-mediated male sterility was reversed by co-expression of Ms45 transcribed by promoters not targeted by pIR RNA silencing. In this report, male fertility was restored to ms45 maize by fusing non-maize inflorescence promoters to the ZmMS45 coding region. This complementation assay also established that these rice or Arabidopsis promoters, when expressed as pIRs, functioned to silence sequence identical promoters. These observations were exploited to develop a genetic method to replace maize detasseling during hybrid seed production. In this system, the ZmMS45 coding region was fused to one of two dissimilar non-maize promoters to generate paired sets of ms45 recessive inbred parents which could be self-pollinated and maintained independently. Linked to each unique Ms45 gene was a non-maize pIR which targeted the promoter transcribing the Ms45 copy contained in the paired inbred parent plant. A cross of these pairs brings the dissimilar pIR cassettes together and resulted in silencing both transformed copies of Ms45. The net result uncovers the ms45 allele carried by the inbreds yielding male sterile progeny. The application of heterologous promoters and transcriptional silencing in plants provides an alternative to post-transcriptional gene silencing as a means to restore and silence gene function in plants. PMID:24966130

Cigan, A Mark; Haug-Collet, Kristin; Clapp, Joshua

2014-09-01

288

Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.  

PubMed

Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-?-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies. PMID:23425633

Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

2013-06-01

289

Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?  

PubMed

Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades. PMID:21865874

Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

2010-01-01

290

Physical and Genetic Mapping of Chromosome 9s in Maize Using Mutations with Terminal Deficiencies  

PubMed Central

Deletion mapping was employed to determine the physical order of five morphological variants, pyd1, yg2, wd1, v28 and v31, with respect to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers located at the distal end of chromosome 9S in maize. The genetic materials used were a series of terminal-deficiency mutants, newly derived with MCCLINTOCK's original stocks developed in the 1940s, via break-age-fusion-bridge cycles. A combined physical map and genetic map has been constructed based on data gathered from both genetic complementation tests and RFLP analysis. The location of v31 in relation to RFLP markers was further determined by interval mapping. The physical distance between the healed telomeric end and the most distal RFLP marker in two terminal-deficiency lines was established by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and verified by Bal31 digestion. The results from this study set a foundation for studies on the mechanism of healing of broken chromosome ends in higher plants. PMID:8844164

Chao, S.; Gardiner, J. M.; Melia-Hancock, S.; Coe-Jr., E. H.

1996-01-01

291

The Genetic Architecture of Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernel Weight Determination  

PubMed Central

Individual kernel weight is an important trait for maize yield determination. We have identified genomic regions controlling this trait by using the B73xMo17 population; however, the effect of genetic background on control of this complex trait and its physiological components is not yet known. The objective of this study was to understand how genetic background affected our previous results. Two nested stable recombinant inbred line populations (N209xMo17 and R18xMo17) were designed for this purpose. A total of 408 recombinant inbred lines were genotyped and phenotyped at two environments for kernel weight and five other traits related to kernel growth and development. All traits showed very high and significant (P < 0.001) phenotypic variability and medium-to-high heritability (0.60?0.90). When N209xMo17 and R18xMo17 were analyzed separately, a total of 23 environmentally stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) and five epistatic interactions were detected for N209xMo17. For R18xMo17, 59 environmentally stable QTL and 17 epistatic interactions were detected. A joint analysis detected 14 stable QTL regardless of the genetic background. Between 57 and 83% of detected QTL were population specific, denoting medium-to-high genetic background effects. This percentage was dependent on the trait. A meta-analysis including our previous B73xMo17 results identified five relevant genomic regions deserving further characterization. In summary, our grain filling traits were dominated by small additive QTL with several epistatic and few environmental interactions and medium-to-high genetic background effects. This study demonstrates that the number of detected QTL and additive effects for different physiologically related grain filling traits need to be understood relative to the specific germplasm. PMID:25237113

Prado, Santiago Alvarez; López, César G.; Senior, M. Lynn; Borrás, Lucas

2014-01-01

292

The genetic architecture of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination.  

PubMed

Individual kernel weight is an important trait for maize yield determination. We have identified genomic regions controlling this trait by using the B73xMo17 population; however, the effect of genetic background on control of this complex trait and its physiological components is not yet known. The objective of this study was to understand how genetic background affected our previous results. Two nested stable recombinant inbred line populations (N209xMo17 and R18xMo17) were designed for this purpose. A total of 408 recombinant inbred lines were genotyped and phenotyped at two environments for kernel weight and five other traits related to kernel growth and development. All traits showed very high and significant (P < 0.001) phenotypic variability and medium-to-high heritability (0.60-0.90). When N209xMo17 and R18xMo17 were analyzed separately, a total of 23 environmentally stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) and five epistatic interactions were detected for N209xMo17. For R18xMo17, 59 environmentally stable QTL and 17 epistatic interactions were detected. A joint analysis detected 14 stable QTL regardless of the genetic background. Between 57 and 83% of detected QTL were population specific, denoting medium-to-high genetic background effects. This percentage was dependent on the trait. A meta-analysis including our previous B73xMo17 results identified five relevant genomic regions deserving further characterization. In summary, our grain filling traits were dominated by small additive QTL with several epistatic and few environmental interactions and medium-to-high genetic background effects. This study demonstrates that the number of detected QTL and additive effects for different physiologically related grain filling traits need to be understood relative to the specific germplasm. PMID:25237113

Alvarez Prado, Santiago; López, César G; Senior, M Lynn; Borrás, Lucas

2014-09-01

293

The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive ...

294

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, pigs have been used to develop some of the most important large animal models for biomedical research. Advances in pig genome research, genetic modification (GM) of primary pig cells and pig cloning by nuclear transfer, have facilitated the generation of GM pigs for xenotransplantation and various human diseases. This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Broadly used genetic engineering tools for porcine cells are also discussed. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated for xenotransplantation and human disease processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, bone diseases, cancers and epidermal skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this review provides an overview of the progress in GM pig research over the last two decades and perspectives for future development. PMID:22453682

Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt

2012-07-01

295

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment. PMID:18289760

Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

2008-05-01

296

Variations in maize pollen emission and deposition in relation to microclimate  

E-print Network

and Technology, 2005, 39, 4377-4384 ABSTRACT. The co-existence of genetically modified (GM) crops of seed purity. The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops has in- creased the need to understand with conventional crops has become a subject of debate and inquiry. Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

MaizeGDB Community Curation Tools  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. The success of the MaizeGDB project largely can be attributed to the involvement of the community of maize geneticists. Members of the community have (1) made their data available by contributing to MaizeGD...

298

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

299

A PIEZOELECTRIC AFFINITY BIOSENSOR FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs) DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoelectric affinity sensor, based on DNA hybridisation has been studied for applications to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) detection. The thiol\\/dextran modified surfaces were coupled to streptavidin for immobilising 5'-biotinyltead probes (25-mer). The probes sequences were respectively internal to the amplified product of P35S and T-NOS. These target sequences were chosen on the base of their wide presence in GMOs.

M. Minunni; S. Tombelli; S. Pratesi; M. Mascini; P. Piatti; P. Bogani; M. Buiatti

2001-01-01

300

Genetically modified crops and agricultural landscapes: spatial patterns of contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial question facing the global agri-food system is whether genetically modified (GM) crops can co-exist with traditional crops. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the presence of GM crops and changes in the probability of genetic transfer between crops on an agricultural landscape can result in non-GM crop contamination. To investigate this issue, we develop and

Ken Belcher; James Nolan; Peter W. B. Phillips

2005-01-01

301

Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt -maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food\\/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals\\u000a fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival\\u000a and birth

Thomas Bøhn; Terje Traavik; Raul Primicerio

2010-01-01

302

Genetic Insights into Graminella nigrifrons Competence for Maize fine streak virus Infection and Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Most plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are transmitted by one or a few closely related insect species. Additionally, intraspecific differences in transmission efficacy often exist among races/biotypes within vector species and among strains within a virus species. The black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, is the only known vector of the persistent propagative rhabdovirus Maize fine streak virus (MFSV). Only a small percentage of leafhoppers are capable of transmitting the virus, although the mechanisms underlying vector competence are not well understood. Methodology RNA-Seq was carried out to explore transcript expression changes and sequence variation in G. nigrifrons and MFSV that may be associated with the ability of the vector to acquire and transmit the virus. RT-qPCR assays were used to validate differential transcript accumulation. Results/Significance Feeding on MFSV-infected maize elicited a considerable transcriptional response in G. nigrifrons, with increased expression of cytoskeleton organization and immunity transcripts in infected leafhoppers. Differences between leafhoppers capable of transmitting MFSV, relative to non-transmitting but infected leafhoppers were more limited, which may reflect difficulties discerning between the two groups and/or the likelihood that the transmitter phenotype results from one or a few genetic differences. The ability of infected leafhoppers to transmit MFSV did not appear associated with virus transcript accumulation in the infected leafhoppers or sequence polymorphisms in the viral genome. However, the non-structural MFSV 3 gene was expressed at unexpectedly high levels in infected leafhoppers, suggesting it plays an active role in the infection of the insect host. The results of this study begin to define the functional roles of specific G. nigrifrons and MFSV genes in the viral transmission process. PMID:25420026

Michel, Andrew P.; Stewart, Lucy R.; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.

2014-01-01

303

Broadening the genetic base of European maize heterotic pools with US Cornbelt germplasm using field and molecular marker data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are concerned about the narrowing of the genetic base of elite germplasm. To reverse this trend, elite germplasm\\u000a from other geographic regions can be introgressed, but due to lack of adaptation it is difficult to assess their breeding\\u000a potential in the targeted environment. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the relationship between

Jochen C. Reif; Sandra Fischer; Tobias A. Schrag; Kendall R. Lamkey; Dietrich Klein; Baldev S. Dhillon; H. Friedrich Utz; Albrecht E. Melchinger

2010-01-01

304

Genetic distance and hybrid value in tropical maize under P stress and non stress conditions in acid soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emphasis in maize breeding for areas with acid soils is the development of varieties with tolerance to P-deficiency plus\\u000a high yield potential in acidic as well as normal soils. This study was carried out to assess the (i) genetic diversity within\\u000a a set of tropical inbred lines developed from acid soil-tolerant populations; (ii) F1 yield performance, mid-parent heterosis\\u000a (MPH),

M. L. C. GeorgeF; F. Salazar; M. Warburton; L. Narro; F. A. Vallejo

2011-01-01

305

Detection of the genetic modification in heat-treated products of Bt maize by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the detection of the genetic modification in thermally treated products from insect-resistant maize expressing\\u000a a synthetic gene encoding a truncated version of the CryIA(b) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis is described. The probability of detection of the transgene in thermally treated products was increased by choosing a short\\u000a (211 bp) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicon; the specificity

Christine Hupfer; Helmut Hotzel; Konrad Sachse; Karl-Heinz Engel

1998-01-01

306

Genotyping and phenotyping of an epigenetic modifier Unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) in maize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pericarp color 1 is a model system for the study of epigenetic gene regulation. It has more than 100 alleles that contribute to the color of the pericarp and cob glume of maize. Unstable factor for orange 1 (Ufo1) is a spontaneous dominant mutation that leads to a gain in pigmentation due to a decrease in methylation in p1 genes. This decrease in methylation of cytosine in the DNA leads to changes in chromatin structure. Finding the mechanism for this spontaneous mutation can lead to way of preventing the mutation increasing production colorless maize for food production. Through genotyping and phenotyping fine gene mapping, gene expression and whole genome profiling can be accomplished for plants with the Ufo1 mutation present.

Bowersox, Karisa; Chopra, Surinder

2012-02-01

307

The genetic architecture of zinc and iron content in maize grains as revealed by QTL mapping and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Micronutrient malnutrition, especially zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in diets, has aroused worldwide attention. Biofortification of food crops has been considered as a promising approach for alleviating this deficiency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to dissect the genetic mechanism of Zn and Fe content in maize grains using a total of 218 F2:3 families derived from a cross between inbred lines 178 and P53. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detect Meta-QTL (MQTL) across several independent QTL researches for traits related to Zn or Fe content. Five significant QTLs and 10 MQTLs were detected. Two informative genomic regions, bins 2.07 and 2.08, showed a great importance for Zn and Fe content QTLs. The correlation between Zn and Fe level in maize grains was proposed by MQTLs as 8 of the 10 involved both traits. The results of this study suggest that QTL mapping and meta-analysis is an effective approach to understand the genetic basis of Zn and Fe accumulation in maize grains. PMID:24273427

Jin, Tiantian; Zhou, Jinfeng; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, Liying; Zhao, Yongfeng; Huang, Yaqun

2013-09-01

308

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms  

E-print Network

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms Anne genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results-L, Nagarajan M, Veyrieras J-B, Bottin H, Steinmetz LM, et al. (2012) Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut varieties for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. The flavor of peanut seed is an important characteristic influencing consumer acceptance. It is important that the flavor of the peanut varieties is at least maintained during the ...

310

Genetically modified tumour vaccines (GMTV) in melanoma clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since melanoma is a model immunogenic malignancy incurable in the disseminated phase of its natural course different immunotherapeutic approaches are tested in clinical trials. A number of tumour vaccines genetically modified (GMTV), with various immunostimulatory factors, are tested in phase I\\/II clinical trials. These factors include cytokines, tumour antigens (TA), costimulatory molecules or HLA antigens. We have designed a novel,

Sergiusz Nawrocki; Pawe? Murawa; Julian Malicki; Malgorzata Kapcinska; Katarzyna Gryska; Dariusz Izycki; Aldona Kaczmarek; Maria Laciak; Anna Czapczyk; Aldona Karczewska; Stefan Rose-John; Andrzej Mackiewicz

2000-01-01

311

Genetically modified crops and country image of food exporting countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Many countries have held back from planting genetically modified (GM) food crops due to perceived negative reaction in export and domestic markets. Three lines of research have tested the reality of this fear. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth interviews were conducted in European countries with key companies and organisations in the European food sector. Supermarket intercepts were used to ascertain

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

312

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

313

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

314

An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory

Kristian Borch; Birgitte Rasmussen

2000-01-01

315

The case for genetically modified crops with a poverty focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently seven National Academies of Science produced a report on transgenic plants and world agriculture. The report provides scientific perspectives to the ongoing public debate about the potential role for transgenic technology in world agriculture. In this article, we develop the themes of the report and emphasize the potential for future genetically modified (GM) crops with a poverty focus, emphasizing

Howard J. Atkinson; Jayne Green; Sue Cowgill; Aurora Levesley

2001-01-01

316

The status and prospects for genetically modified crops in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid expansion in the global area planted with genetically modified (GM) crops, there has been resistance to this technology in Europe: this article considers why. Molecular technologies used to produce GM crops are reviewed and crops currently and soon to become available listed. It is argued that the prospects for GM crops depend on: (1) consumer acceptance —

Jeremy R. Franks

1999-01-01

317

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

318

Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

2009-01-01

319

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

320

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

321

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

322

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

323

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

324

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

325

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

326

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

327

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

328

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

329

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

330

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

331

Acceptance of genetically modified food in India: perspectives of gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer and public policy resistance to genetically modified (GM) foods in rich countries has caused governments in many poor countries to withhold official permission for planting GM food crops for fear of damaging export markets for conventional crops. A total of 15 countries are already producing GM food crops. If China and India, the world's two most populous

John Knight; Amit Paradkar

2008-01-01

332

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A TELEPHONE SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a pilot U.S. national telephone survey on genetically modified foods (vegetable oil, cornflake cereal, and salmon). The survey featured contingent valuation in which respondents chose between the GM and non-GM alternatives. The binary and multinomial logit models yield estimated willingness to pay to avoid the GM alternatives. Perceived risk of GM food is an important

Naoya Kaneko; Wen S. Chern

2003-01-01

333

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

2004-01-01

334

Risk, genetically modified food and the US\\/EU divide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Genetically Modified (GM) food and crops issue illustrates some key contemporary differences between the EU and the USA on environmental issues. These differences have been parallel to the apparently stronger influence of environmentalists since 1990 on a range of issues in the EU, compared to the USA. Beck's 'Risk Society' theory has general resonance with contemporary western attitudes to

Dave Toke

2007-01-01

335

On consumers’ willingness to purchase nutritionally enhanced genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses consumers' willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food products with two different types of benefits: an input (i.e., reduced pesticides) and an output trait benefit (i.e., nutritionally enhanced). Data were collected using a telephone survey of an Italian households sample. Discrete choice approach is used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Four separate probit models

Maurizio Canavari; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr

2009-01-01

336

Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Food With Consumer Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread consumer resistance towards genetically modified (GM) food, particularly as reported in news media, has led to slow adoption of this technology outside of North America. Much of the consumer resistance appears to stem from public perceptions that GM crops benefit large multinational corporations, food producers, and typically have no apparent consumer benefits. In order to test whether clearly defined

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

337

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

338

Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science—biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized.

Peter Celec; Martina Kuku?ková; Veronika Renczésová; Satheesh Natarajan; Roland Pálffy; Roman Gardlík; Július Hodosy; Michal Behuliak; Barbora Vlková; Gabriel Minárik; TomᚠSzemes; Stanislav Stuchlík; Ján Tur?a

2005-01-01

339

Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context,

Anne Constable

2002-01-01

340

Examining Consumer Behavior Toward Genetically Modified (GM) Food in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the

Alexa Spence; Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

341

Challenges for methods to detect genetically modified DNA in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative detection methods for genetically modified (GM) DNA sequences in foods have evolved fast during the past years. The sensitivity of these systems is extremely high, even for processed foodstuffs. However, in future, quantitative results about the fraction of GM material in a composite food will be needed and the fast increasing number of GM foods on the market demands

Georg A Schreiber

1999-01-01

342

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

343

Genetically Modified Organisms in Peasant Farming: Social Impact and Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's first objective is to discuss the potential social impact of the diffusion of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into peasant sectors of less developed countries. While unwanted environmental impacts of the new technology can be partially assessed in controlled, experimental settings, assessment of social impacts requires experience and observation in particular farming systems. Owing to the absence of direct

STEPHEN B. BRUSH

2001-01-01

344

Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

345

Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European Community (EC) legal measures that govern the contained use, deliberate release, and labeling of GMOs. To illustrate Member

MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN; A. BRYAN ENDRES

2000-01-01

346

Detection approaches for genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the various detection strategies for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. It begins with a brief discussion of the issues related to the technology especially the risks and public concerns. An introduction to the biological aspects of the major GMOs then follows. The bulk of the review is concerned with the different approaches toward detection: (a)

Anil K. Deisingh; Neela Badrie

2005-01-01

347

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in bioremediation and legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some authors expect genetically modified organisms (GMO) to bring a breakthrough in bioremediation. Besides biochemistry and microbial ecology, legislation and biosafety should be considered in this regard. World wide rules request risk assessment to be performed before any release of GMO to the environment. Recently, the protocol has been negotiated by UNEP to the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), which

Jaroslav Drobn??k

1999-01-01

348

Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for genetically modified organisms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity biosensor based on DNA hybridisation is described. This biosensor has been applied to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor chip of an SPR device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the complementary sequence (target) was monitored. The probe sequences were

Elisa Mariotti; Maria Minunni; Marco Mascini

2002-01-01

349

Enacting Closure in the Environmental Control of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of environmental law is to turn complex realities into coherent regulatory phenomena. The task requires ordering and boundary making. Motivated by this fact, this article studies the various types of closure through which releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are made manageable in the European Union. We analyse the legal framework for controlling environmental releases of

Helena Valve; Jussi Kauppila

2008-01-01

350

Consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops are popular in many regions of the world, but their deployment in Africa is hindered by safety concerns and regulatory issues, although the continent is in dire need of boosting its food production. Although consumers' acceptance of GM food has been analyzed in many continents, no such studies have been conducted in Africa. Therefore, a survey

Simon Chege Kimenju; Hugo De Groote

2008-01-01

351

Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...

352

Dosage effect of high-amylose modifier gene(s) on the starch structure of maize amylose-extender mutant.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate how dosages of high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s) affected the structure of maize amylose extender (ae) mutant starch. GEMS-0067 (G), a homozygous mutant of ae and the HAM gene(s), and H99ae (H), an ae single mutant, were self-pollinated or inter-crossed to produce maize endosperms of G/G, G/H, H/G, and H/H with 3, 2, 1, and 0 doses of HAM gene(s), respectively. Endosperm starch was fractionated into amylopectin, amylose, and intermediate component (IC) of large and small molecular weights using 1-butanol precipitation of amylose followed by gel-permeation chromatography. Increases in the dosage of HAM gene(s) from 0 to 3 decreased the amylopectin content. The HAM-gene dosage significantly changed the branch chain-length of small-molecular-weight IC, but had little effect on the branch chain-length distributions of amylopectin and large-molecular-weight IC and the molecular structure of amylose. PMID:25495144

Jiang, Hongxin; Campbell, Mark; Wu, Yusheng; Du, Shuangkui; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Jane, Jay-Lin

2015-01-21

353

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

354

Genetic, evolutionary and plant breeding insights from the domestication of maize.  

PubMed

The natural history of maize began nine thousand years ago when Mexican farmers started to collect the seeds of the wild grass, teosinte. Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance. Genome comparisons between varieties of maize, teosinte and other grasses are beginning to identify the genes responsible for the domestication of modern maize and are also providing ideas for the breeding of more hardy varieties. PMID:25807085

Hake, Sarah; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2015-01-01

355

Genetic, evolutionary and plant breeding insights from the domestication of maize  

PubMed Central

The natural history of maize began nine thousand years ago when Mexican farmers started to collect the seeds of the wild grass, teosinte. Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance. Genome comparisons between varieties of maize, teosinte and other grasses are beginning to identify the genes responsible for the domestication of modern maize and are also providing ideas for the breeding of more hardy varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05861.001 PMID:25807085

Hake, Sarah; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2015-01-01

356

The relationship between parental genetic or phenotypic divergence and progeny variation in the maize nested association mapping population  

PubMed Central

Appropriate selection of parents for the development of mapping populations is pivotal to maximizing the power of quantitative trait loci detection. Trait genotypic variation within a family is indicative of the family's informativeness for genetic studies. Accurate prediction of the most useful parental combinations within a species would help guide quantitative genetics studies. We tested the reliability of genotypic and phenotypic distance estimators between pairs of maize inbred lines to predict genotypic variation for quantitative traits within families derived from biparental crosses. We developed 25 families composed of ?200 random recombinant inbred lines each from crosses between a common reference parent inbred, B73, and 25 diverse maize inbreds. Parents and families were evaluated for 19 quantitative traits across up to 11 environments. Genetic distances (GDs) among parents were estimated with 44 simple sequence repeat and 2303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. GDs among parents had no predictive value for progeny variation, which is most likely due to the choice of neutral markers. In contrast, we observed for about half of the traits measured a positive correlation between phenotypic parental distances and within-family genetic variance estimates. Consequently, the choice of promising segregating populations can be based on selecting phenotypically diverse parents. These results are congruent with models of genetic architecture that posit numerous genes affecting quantitative traits, each segregating for allelic series, with dispersal of allelic effects across diverse genetic material. This architecture, common to many quantitative traits in maize, limits the predictive value of parental genotypic or phenotypic values on progeny variance. PMID:22027895

Hung, H-Y; Browne, C; Guill, K; Coles, N; Eller, M; Garcia, A; Lepak, N; Melia-Hancock, S; Oropeza-Rosas, M; Salvo, S; Upadyayula, N; Buckler, E S; Flint-Garcia, S; McMullen, M D; Rocheford, T R; Holland, J B

2012-01-01

357

Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.  

PubMed

Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. PMID:22333321

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

2012-01-01

358

HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA  

EPA Science Inventory

Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

359

Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.  

PubMed

Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification. PMID:23265541

Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

2013-05-01

360

MaizeCyc: Metabolic networks in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeCyc is a catalog of known and predicted metabolic and transport pathways that enables plant researchers to graphically represent the metabolome of maize (Zea mays), thereby supporting integrated systems-biology analysis. Supported analyses include molecular and genetic/phenotypic profiling (e.g...

361

The genetic architecture of flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity in maize as revealed by QTL review and meta analysis.  

PubMed

The control of flowering is not only important for reproduction, but also plays a key role in the processes of domestication and adaptation. To reveal the genetic architecture for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity, a comprehensive evaluation of the relevant literature was performed and followed by meta analysis. A total of 25 synthetic consensus quantitative trait loci (QTL) and four hot-spot genomic regions were identified for photoperiod sensitivity including 11 genes related to photoperiod response or flower morphogenesis and development. Besides, a comparative analysis of the QTL for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity highlighted the regions containing shared and unique QTL for the two traits. Candidate genes associated with maize flowering were identified through integrated analysis of the homologous genes for flowering time in plants and the consensus QTL regions for photoperiod sensitivity in maize (Zea mays L.). Our results suggest that the combination of literature review, meta-analysis and homologous blast is an efficient approach to identify new candidate genes and create a global view of the genetic architecture for maize photoperiodic flowering. Sequences of candidate genes can be used to develop molecular markers for various models of marker-assisted selection, such as marker-assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection that can contribute significantly to crop environmental adaptation. PMID:22583799

Xu, Jie; Liu, Yaxi; Liu, Jian; Cao, Moju; Wang, Jing; Lan, Hai; Xu, Yunbi; Lu, Yanli; Pan, Guangtang; Rong, Tingzhao

2012-06-01

362

Genetic Characterization and Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of a Global Maize Collection Using SNP Markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A newly developed maize Illumina GoldenGate Assay with 1536 SNPs from 582 candidate genes was used to genotype a highly diverse global maize collection of 632 inbred lines from temperate, tropical, and subtropical public breeding programs. A total of 1229 informative SNPs and 1785 haplotypes were ...

363

Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants used for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

The reliable quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by real-time PCR requires, besides thoroughly validated quantitative detection methods, sustainable calibration systems. The latter establishes the anchor points for the measured value and the measurement unit, respectively. In this paper, the suitability of two types of DNA calibrants, i.e. plasmid DNA and genomic DNA extracted from plant leaves, for the certification of the GMO content in reference materials as copy number ratio between two targeted DNA sequences was investigated. The PCR efficiencies and coefficients of determination of the calibration curves as well as the measured copy number ratios for three powder certified reference materials (CRMs), namely ERM-BF415e (NK603 maize), ERM-BF425c (356043 soya), and ERM-BF427c (98140 maize), originally certified for their mass fraction of GMO, were compared for both types of calibrants. In all three systems investigated, the PCR efficiencies of plasmid DNA were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the genomic DNA extracted from seed powders rather than those of the genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although the mean DNA copy number ratios for each CRM overlapped within their uncertainties, the DNA copy number ratios were significantly different using the two types of calibrants. Based on these observations, both plasmid and leaf genomic DNA calibrants would be technically suitable as anchor points for the calibration of the real-time PCR methods applied in this study. However, the most suitable approach to establish a sustainable traceability chain is to fix a reference system based on plasmid DNA. PMID:22638881

Caprioara-Buda, M; Meyer, W; Jeynov, B; Corbisier, P; Trapmann, S; Emons, H

2012-07-01

364

Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

2014-02-01

365

Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market.  

PubMed

The possible transfer and accumulation of novel DNA and/or proteins in food for human consumption derived from animals receiving genetically modified (GM) feed is at present the object of scientific dispute. A number of studies failed to identify GM DNA in milk, meat, or eggs derived from livestock receiving GM feed ingredients. The present study was performed in order to: (i) develop a valid protocol by PCR and multicomponent analysis for the detection of specific DNA sequences in milk, focused on GM maize and GM soybean; (ii) assess the stability of transgenic DNA after pasteurization treatment and (iii) determine the presence of GM DNA sequences in milk samples collected from the Italian market. Results from the screening of 60 samples of 12 different milk brands demonstrated the presence of GM maize sequences in 15 (25%) and of GM soybean sequences in 7 samples (11.7%). Our screening methodology shows a very high sensitivity and the use of an automatic identification of the amplified products increases its specificity and reliability. Moreover, we demonstrated that the pasteurization process is not able to degrade the DNA sequences in spiked milk samples. The detection of GM DNA in milk can be interpreted as an indicator of fecal or airborne contamination, respectively, with feed DNA or feed particles, although an alternative source of contamination, possibly recognizable in the natural environment can be suggested. Further studies, performed on a larger number of milk samples, are needed to understand the likely source of contamination of milk collected from the Italian market. PMID:16373205

Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Grillo, Agata; Sciacca, Salvatore

2006-01-01

366

One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs. PMID:23181490

Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

2013-01-01

367

Molecular genetics of the R complex of maize. Final technical report DE-FG02-86ER13627  

SciTech Connect

A molecular genetic characterization of the maize R-r complex of maize was completed during the period of support. The complex was shown to consist of two main regions: the P region, containing the r-p gene which controlled pigmentation of plant parts, and the S subcomplex, containing two rl-s genes in head-to-head orientation and a nonfunctional component termed rl-q. By examining the DNA sequences at the junction of the rl genes, the complex was shown to be derived by a series of abortive transposition events. The transposable element involved in the gene duplication and rearrangements was characterized and called doppia. Meiotic instability of the R-r complex was also characterized. Loss of P or S function was associated with several structural changes including intrachromosomal recombination and excision of a novel transposable element that appears to show instability only during meiosis.

Dellaporta, Stephen

2000-10-01

368

Evolution, development and learning using self-modifying cartesian genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a form of genetic programming that integrates developmental (self-modifying) features as a genotype-phenotype mapping. This paper asks: Is it possible to evolve a learning algorithm using SMCGP?

Simon Harding; Julian Francis Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2009-01-01

369

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

370

Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of maize (Zea mays L.) stalk rot resistant gene Rfg1.  

PubMed

One single pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schw. was inoculated to maize inbred lines 1,145 (Resistant) and Y331 (Susceptive), and their progenies of F(1), F(2) and BC(1)F(1) populations. Field statistical data revealed that all of the F(1) individuals were resistant to the disease and that the ratio of resistant plants to susceptive plants was 3:1 in the F(2) population, and 1:1 in the BC(1)F(1 )population. The results revealed that a single dominant gene controls the resistance to F. graminearum Schw. The resistant gene to F. graminearum Schw. was denominated as Rfg1 according to the standard principle of the nomenclature of the plant disease resistant genes. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) analysis was carried out in the developed F(2) and BC(1)F(1 )populations, respectively. Three RAPD products screened from the RAPD analysis with 820 Operon 10-mer primers showed the linkage relation with the resistant gene Rfg1. The three RAPD amplification products (OPD-20(1000), OPA-04(1100) and OPY-04(900)) were cloned and their copy numbers were determined. The results indicated that only OPY-04(900) was a single-copy sequence. Then, OPY-04(900) was used as a probe to map the Rfg1 gene with a RIL F(7) mapping population provided by Henry Nguyen, which was developed from the cross "S3xMo17". Rfg1 was primarily mapped on chromosome 6 between the two linked markers OPY-04(900) and umc21 (Bin 6.04-6.05). In order to confirm the primary mapping result, 25 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and six RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers in the Rfg1 gene-encompassing region were selected, and their linkage relation with Rfg1 was analyzed in our F(2) population. Results indicated that SSR marker mmc0241 and RFLP marker bnl3.03 are flanking the Rfg1 gene with a genetic distance of 3.0 cM and 2.0 cM, respectively. This is the first time to name and to map a single resistant gene of maize stalk rot through a single pathogen inoculation and molecular marker analysis. PMID:14647897

Yang, D E; Zhang, C L; Zhang, D S; Jin, D M; Weng, M L; Chen, S J; Nguyen, H; Wang, B

2004-02-01

371

Genetic Relationship of Stalk Strength and Ear Height in Maize Sherry A. Flint-Garcia, Michael D. McMullen, and Larry L. Darrah*  

E-print Network

Genetic Relationship of Stalk Strength and Ear Height in Maize Sherry A. Flint-Garcia, Michael D the genetic esculentum Mill). This region contained the Self-pruningrelationship between RPR QTL analysis of RPR detected a total of sure of European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis 26 QTL

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

372

Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Submergence Response Identifies Subtol6 as a Major Submergence Tolerance Locus in Maize  

PubMed Central

Maize is highly sensitive to short term flooding and submergence. Early season flooding reduces germination, survival and growth rate of maize seedlings. We aimed to discover genetic variation for submergence tolerance in maize and elucidate the genetic basis of submergence tolerance through transcriptional profiling and linkage analysis of contrasting genotypes. A diverse set of maize nested association mapping (NAM) founder lines were screened, and two highly tolerant (Mo18W and M162W) and sensitive (B97 and B73) genotypes were identified. Tolerant lines exhibited delayed senescence and lower oxidative stress levels compared to sensitive lines. Transcriptome analysis was performed on these inbreds to provide genome level insights into the molecular responses to submergence. Tolerant lines had higher transcript abundance of several fermentation-related genes and an unannotated Pyrophosphate-Dependent Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase gene during submergence. A coexpression network enriched for CBF (C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR: C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR) genes, was induced by submergence in all four inbreds, but was more activated in the tolerant Mo18W. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from Mo18W and B73 was screened for submergence tolerance. A major QTL named Subtol6 was mapped to chromosome 6 that explains 22% of the phenotypic variation within the RIL population. We identified two candidate genes (HEMOGLOBIN2 and RAV1) underlying Subtol6 based on contrasting expression patterns observed in B73 and Mo18W. Sources of tolerance identified in this study (Subtol6) can be useful to increase survival rate during flooding events that are predicted to increase in frequency with climate change. PMID:25806518

Campbell, Malachy T.; Proctor, Christopher A.; Dou, Yongchao; Schmitz, Aaron J.; Phansak, Piyaporn; Kruger, Greg R.; Zhang, Chi; Walia, Harkamal

2015-01-01

373

Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.  

PubMed

The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance. PMID:24472209

Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

2014-02-01

374

Detection of Genetically Modified Plants in Seeds, Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different techniques and analytical strategies are applied for detecting and quantifying the presence of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plants in food and feed products or in seeds. DNA-based detection is performed by qualitative PCR or by quantitative\\u000a real-time PCR, whereas for protein-based detection immunoassays such as lateral flow devices and ELISA are applied. The testing\\u000a strategy for GMO detection is constituted

Lutz Grohmann

375

CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation

Kristine M. Grimsrud; Jill J. McCluskey; Maria L. Loureiro; Thomas I. Wahl

2002-01-01

376

Explaining International Differences in Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have adopted labeling policies for genetically modified (GM) food, and the regulations vary considerably across countries. We evaluate the importance of political-economic factors implicit in the choice of GM food labeling regulations. Using an analytical model, we show that production and trade-related interests play a prominent role in labeling decision-making. This conclusion is validated by an empirical analysis

Guillaume P. Gruère; Colin A. Carter; Y. Hossein Farzin

2009-01-01

377

Genetically Modified Crops and Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genetically-modified (GM) crops presently are central components of pest management strategies for several important crops\\u000a worldwide. GM crops include insect-resistant varieties (expressing transgenes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or from plant species other than the GM crop, though only the former varieties are commercially available), and herbicide-tolerant\\u000a varieties (which tolerate post-emergent applications of particular herbicides). This chapter examines potential and

Julio S. Bernal

378

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

379

Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops – European and American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified (GM) crops occupy a unique place in the evolution of risk governance approaches to dealing with modern,\\u000a path-breaking technologies. They were the first such technology to be regulated on a precautionary basis, in a generic sense,\\u000a from the earliest stages of a technology development process that began in the 1980s and is still evolving.\\u000a \\u000a Today, distinctively different risk

Joyce Tait

380

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  In Europe, the EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically\\u000a modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to:\\u000a (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved\\u000a ERA

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Jörg Römbke; Stephan Jänsch; Hanka Teichmann; Beatrix Tappeser

2011-01-01

381

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

382

Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Food Products in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a large U.S. export market, there has been growing public opposition against genetically modified (GM) foods. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method, findings show the discount needed for Japanese Seikyou consumers to purchase GM food products is positively affected (i.e., a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM food, higher levels

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2003-01-01

383

Examining consumer behaviour toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study examined,behaviour towards genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based,sample. We used an equivalent gaintask in which participants actually received the options they chose to encoura ge truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behaviour (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavio ural influences in this domain. Here the

Alexa Spence

2006-01-01

384

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) 3,4  

E-print Network

Scientific Opinion on applications EFSA-GMO-UK-2005-09 and EFSA-GMO-RX-MON531×MON1445 for the placing on the market of food and feed produced from or containing ingredients produced from insectresistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified cotton MON 531 × MON 1445, 1 and for the renewal of authorisation of existing products produced from cotton MON 531 × MON 1445, 2 both under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

unknown authors

385

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

386

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

387

Genetically modified crop plants: science versus society? — A perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants offer the possibility of solving local virus-related production agricultural\\u000a problems for local communities in both developed and undeveloped countries. However, major concerns are held regarding the\\u000a safety, health (personal and environmental) and ethics of growing GM crop plants. Such non-technical factors and regulatory\\u000a processes have slowed and\\/or prevented the field testing and commercialisation of many

Robin MacDiarmid

2007-01-01

388

Genetically modified organisms in agriculture: can regulations work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been recognised to be economically beneficial to subsistence farmers and have been projected\\u000a as essential tools for addressing challenges in hunger, environmental sustainability and international development. Yet the\\u000a uncertainty of their effects on human health and the undesirable ecological consequences of these organisms have raised concerns\\u000a on the rapid pace of their production. Regulating the

David Kothamasi; Saskia Vermeylen

2011-01-01

389

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

390

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

E-print Network

.), Integration of Insect-Resistant 195 Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs. © Springer ScienceChapter 7 The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars valuable process for developing new potato cultivars, but the commercialization of genetically modified (GM

Douches, David S.

391

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model  

E-print Network

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Benjamin for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Abstract Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide foods for Southern Korea. #12;South Korea public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random

Neimark, Alexander V.

392

February 9, 2011 Ottawa rejects stronger export regulations for genetically modified crops  

E-print Network

February 9, 2011 Ottawa rejects stronger export regulations for genetically modified crops By JAMES that govern the export of genetically modified crops. But hours earlier in Guelph, Ont., leading minds and promote fast-moving innovations in the field. Manipulating genes to create genetically modified organisms

Raizada, Manish N.

393

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna  

E-print Network

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The cultivation of genetically modified (GM: Duc C, Nentwig W, Lindfeld A (2011) No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat

Richner, Heinz

394

Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges  

PubMed Central

Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

2015-01-01

395

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kate?ina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

396

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.?A) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

2015-02-01

397

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

398

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.?A) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

2015-02-01

399

Genetic analysis of adaptation differences between highland and lowland tropical maize using molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular-marker loci were used to investigate the adaptation differences between highland and lowland tropical maize. An\\u000a F2 population from the cross of two inbred lines independently derived from highland and lowland maize germplasm was developed,\\u000a and extracted F3:4 lines were phenotype in replicated field trials at four thermally diverse tropical testing sites, ranging from lowland to\\u000a extreme highland (mean growing

C. Jiang; G. O. Edmeades; I. Armstead; H. R. Lafitte; M. D. Hayward; D. Hoisington

1999-01-01

400

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

401

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

402

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

2014-01-07

403

Optimizing Pollen Confinement in Maize Grown for Regulated Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

planted to PMP and PMIC crops, manufacturers can meet the demand for these proteins. Genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) produced for regulated Methods are needed to ensure that grain or plant products such as pharmaceutical or industrial proteins will require methods to confine transgenic pollen. In one production system, non- tissue from PMP and PMIC crops do not enter

W. E. Stevens; S. A. Berberich; P. A. Sheckell; C. C. Wiltse; M. E. Halsey; M. J. Horak; D. J. Dunn

2004-01-01

404

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation.  

PubMed

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pretreated corn meal were chosen as model food. Two commercially available CIM disk columns were tested: DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) and QA (quaternary amine). Preliminary separations were performed with standard solution of salmon DNA at different pH values and different NaCl concentrations in mobile phase. DEAE groups and pH 8 were chosen for further isolations of DNA from a complex matrix-food extract. The quality and quantity of isolated DNA were tested on agarose gel electrophoresis, with UV-scanning spectrophotometry, and by amplification with real-time PCR. DNA isolated in this way was of suitable quality for further PCR analyses. The described method is also applicable for DNA isolation from processed foods with decreased DNA content. Furthermore, it is more effective and less time-consuming in comparison with the existing proposed methods for isolation of DNA from plant-derived foods. PMID:15782956

Jerman, Sergej; Podgornik, Ales; Cankar, Katarina; Cadet, Neza; Skrt, Mihaela; Zel, Jana; Raspor, Peter

2005-02-11

405

A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

2014-01-01

406

Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.  

PubMed

It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

2014-01-01

407

The MaizeGDB Genome Browser  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. As part of an effort to develop MaizeGDB as a more sequence-centric resource, we implemented a genome browser based on information we gathered by surveying the community of maize geneticists. Based on commu...

408

IBM MAIZE COMMUNITY RESOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Mapping Project is funded to develop a physical map of maize that will be anchored to the genetic map by molecular and trait markers, to develop data management resources allowing for analysis and curation, and to provide accessibility to the public of all of the resources developed throug...

409

Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

2014-01-01

410

Weed seed resources for birds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

PubMed Central

The UK Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) have shown that the use of broad spectrum herbicides on genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops can have dramatic effects on weed seed production compared to management of conventional varieties. Here, we use FSE data and information on bird diets to determine how GMHT cropping might change the food resources available to farmland birds. More than 60 fields of each of four crops, spring- and winter-sown oilseed rape, beet and maize, were split, one half being sown with a conventional variety, the other with a GMHT variety. Seed rain from weeds known to be important in the diets of 17 granivorous farmland bird species was measured under the two treatments. In beet and spring oilseed rape, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of 16 bird species was significantly reduced in GMHT compared to conventional halves; for no species did it increase. In winter oilseed rape, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of 10 species was significantly reduced in GMHT halves; for only one species did it increase significantly. By contrast, in maize, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of seven species was significantly greater in GMHT halves; for no species was it reduced. Treatment effects for the total weed seed energy available to each bird species were very similar to those for seed rain alone. Measuring the effects on individual bird species was outside the scope of this study. Despite this, these results suggest that should beet, spring and winter rape crops in the UK be largely replaced by GMHT varieties and managed as in the FSEs, this would markedly reduce important food resources for farmland birds, many of which declined during the last quarter of the twentieth century. By contrast, GMHT maize would be beneficial to farmland birds. PMID:16822753

Gibbons, David W; Bohan, David A; Rothery, Peter; Stuart, Rick C; Haughton, Alison J; Scott, Rod J; Wilson, Jeremy D; Perry, Joe N; Clark, Suzanne J; Dawson, Robert J.G; Firbank, Les G

2006-01-01

411

Therapeutic potential of genetically modified adult stem cells for osteopenia  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells have therapeutic potential because of their intrinsic capacity for self-renewal, especially for bone regeneration. The present study demonstrates the utility of ex vivo modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to enhance bone density in an immunocompetent mouse model of osteopenia. MSC were transduced ex vivo with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV) expressing BMP-2 under the transcriptional control of collagen type-1? promoter. To enrich bone homing in vivo, the cells were further modified to transiently express the mouse ?-4 integrin. The modified MSC were systemically administered to ovariectomized, female C57BL/6 mice. Effects of the therapy were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, 3D micro-CT, histology, and immunohistochemistry for up to six months. Results indicated that mice transplanted with MSC expressing BMP-2 showed significant increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content(p<0.001) with relatively better proliferative capabilities of bone marrow stromal cells and higher osteocompetent pool of cells compared to control animals. Micro-CT analysis of femora and other bone histomorphometric analyses indicated more trabecular bone following MSC-BMP-2 therapy. Results obtained by transplanting genetically modified MSC from GFP transgenic mouse suggested that production of BMP2 from transplanted MSC also influenced the mobilization of endogenous progenitors for new bone formation. PMID:19741731

Kumar, Sanjay; Nagy, Tim R.; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2010-01-01

412

Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

2014-01-01

413

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

414

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

415

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

416

[Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].  

PubMed

Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops. PMID:24645345

Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

2013-12-01

417

The extended auricle1 (eta1) gene is essential for the genetic network controlling postinitiation maize leaf development.  

PubMed Central

The maize leaf is composed of distinct regions with clear morphological boundaries. The ligule and auricle mark the boundary between distal blade and proximal sheath and are amenable to genetic study due to the array of mutants that affect their formation without severely affecting viability. Herein, we describe the novel maize gene extended auricle1 (eta1), which is essential for proper formation of the blade/sheath boundary. Homozygous eta1 individuals have a wavy overgrowth of auricle tissue and the blade/sheath boundary is diffuse. Double-mutant combinations of eta1 with genes in the knox and liguleless pathways result in synergistic and, in some cases, dosage-dependent interactions. While the phenotype of eta1 mutant individuals resembles that of dominant knox overexpression phenotypes, eta1 mutant leaves do not ectopically express knox genes. In addition, eta1 interacts synergistically with lg1 and lg2, but does not directly affect the transcription of either gene in leaf primordia. We present evidence based on genetic and molecular analyses that eta1 provides a downstream link between the knox and liguleless pathways. PMID:14668398

Osmont, Karen S; Jesaitis, Lynne A; Freeling, Michael

2003-01-01

418

Genetic Analysis of Grain Filling Rate Using Conditional QTL Mapping in Maize  

PubMed Central

The grain filling rate (GFR) is an important dynamic trait that determines the final grain yield and is controlled by a network of genes and environment factors. To determine the genetic basis of the GFR, a conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis method was conducted using time-related phenotypic values of the GFR collected from a set of 243 immortalized F2 (IF2) population, which were evaluated at two locations over 2 years. The GFR gradually rose in the 0–15 days after pollination (DAP) and 16–22 DAP, reaching a maximum at 23–29 DAP, and then gradually decreasing. The variation of kernel weight (KW) was mainly decided by the GFR, and not by the grain filling duration (GFD). Thirty-three different unconditional QTLs were identified for the GFR at the six sampling stages over 2 years. Among them, QTLs qGFR7b, qGFR9 and qGFR6d were identified at the same stages at two locations over 2 years. In addition, 14 conditional QTLs for GFR were detected at five stages. The conditional QTL qGFR7c was identified at stage V|IV (37–43 DAP) at two locations over 2 years, and qGFR7b was detected at the sixth stage (44–50 DAP) in all four environments, except at Anyang location in 2009. QTLs qQTL7b and qQTL6f were identified by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping at the same stages, and might represent major QTLs for regulating the GFR in maize in the IF2 population. Moreover, most of the QTLs identified were co-located with QTLs from previous studies that were associated with GFR, enzyme activities of starch synthesis, soluble carbohydrates, and grain filling related genes. These results indicated that the GFR is regulated by many genes, which are specifically expressed at different grain filling stages, and the specific expression of the genes between 16–35 DAP might be very important for deciding the final kernel weight. PMID:23441180

Cui, Zitian; Hu, Yanmin; Wang, Bin; Tang, Jihua

2013-01-01

419

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

420

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms Matthieu scheme. Genetic algorithms (GA) have been used rather exten- sively for this purpose, and in particular to further explore its modified counterpart, Modified FM (ModFM), which has not been used as widely, and its

Smyth, Tamara

421

Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and

W. K Novak; A. G Haslberger

2000-01-01

422

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

423

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

424

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

425

Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods. Effects of different information strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here aimed to investigate the effects of different types of information about genetically modified foods on both consumer attitudes towards genetic modification and their tendency to choose genetically modified products (compared to more traditionally manufactured alternatives). The impact of information strategy (balanced, or product specific), attributed information source (The “European Association of Consumers”, the “European Association of

Lynn Frewer; Joachim Scholderer; Clive Downs; Lone Bredahl

2000-01-01

426

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

427

Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

2013-06-15

428

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

429

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

430

Insertion-deletion polymorphisms in 3? regions of maize genes occur frequently and can be used as highly informative genetic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent variations in the genome of any organism. SNP discovery approaches such as resequencing or data mining enable the identification of insertion deletion (indel) polymorphisms. These indels can be treated as biallelic markers and can be utilized for genetic mapping and diagnostics. In this study 655 indels have been identified by resequencing 502 maize

Dinakar Bhattramakki; Maureen Dolan; Mike Hanafey; Robin Wineland; Dave Vaske; James C. Register; Scott V. Tingey; Antoni Rafalski

2002-01-01

431

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

432

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

433

Forecasting the Feasibility of Implementing Isolation Perimeters Between GM and non-GM Maize Fields Under Agricultural Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although spatially isolating genetically modified (GM) maize fields from non-GM maize fields is a robust on-farm strategy to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in the harvests of neighboring non-GM maize fields due to cross-fertilizations below established labeling thresholds (and thus to ensure the spatial co-existence between maize cropping systems), the practical implementation of isolation perimeters attracted little research efforts. In this study, the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters around GM maize fields is investigated. Using Geographic Information System datasets and Monte Carlo simulations, various scenarios differing in shares and spatial distributions of GM maize were tested for various isolation perimeters in six agricultural areas in Flanders. Factors that affect the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters are discussed.

Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Thas, Olivier; De Clercq, Eva M.; Cordemans, Karl; Reheul, Dirk

2008-10-01

434

Genetic Control of Photoperiod Sensitivity in Maize Revealed by Joint Multiple Population Analysis  

PubMed Central

Variation in maize for response to photoperiod is related to geographical adaptation in the species. Maize possesses homologs of many genes identified as regulators of flowering time in other species, but their relation to the natural variation for photoperiod response in maize is unknown. Candidate gene sequences were mapped in four populations created by crossing two temperate inbred lines to two photoperiod-sensitive tropical inbreds. Whole-genome scans were conducted by high-density genotyping of the populations, which were phenotyped over 3 years in both short- and long-day environments. Joint multiple population analysis identified genomic regions controlling photoperiod responses in flowering time, plant height, and total leaf number. Four key genome regions controlling photoperiod response across populations were identified, referred to as ZmPR1–4. Functional allelic differences within these regions among phenotypically similar founders suggest distinct evolutionary trajectories for photoperiod adaptation in maize. These regions encompass candidate genes CCA/LHY, CONZ1, CRY2, ELF4, GHD7, VGT1, HY1/SE5, TOC1/PRR7/PPD-1, PIF3, ZCN8, and ZCN19. PMID:20008571

Coles, Nathan D.; McMullen, Michael D.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Pratt, Richard C.; Holland, James B.

2010-01-01

435

Genetic architecture of maize kernel composition in the nested association mapping and inbred association panels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted quantitative...

436

Genetic and biochemical differences in populations bred for extremes in maize grain methionine content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methionine is an important nutrient in animal feed and several approaches have been developed to increase methionine concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. One approach is through traditional breeding using recurrent selection. Two populations selected were selected for high and low methionin...

437

Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Beneficial to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize stover has been identified as an important feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Our objectives were to measure hybrid effect and combining ability patterns of traits related to cellulosic ethanol production, determine if germplasm and mutations used for silage production would a...

438

Deciphering maize genetics and ecology to reduce insect damage and aflatoxin accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ear-colonizing insects and diseases, which reduce yield and impose health threats via mycotoxin contaminations, are critical impediments for maize production in the southern US states. To address this problem a combination of basic and applied research approaches are being conducted by the interdis...

439

Genetic analysis and characterization of a new maize association mapping panel for quantitative trait loci dissesction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium provides a promising method to identify genes responsible for quantitative variation underlying complex traits. Presented here is a maize association mapping panel consisting of 155 diverse (mainly temperate inbred lines) suitable for marker-trait ...

440

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2013-06-20

441

GENETIC CONTROL OF CELL WALL INVERTASES IN DEVELOPING ENDOSPERM OF MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We show here that the total invertase activity in developing seed of maize is due to two cell wall invertase (CWI) genes, Incw1 and Incw2 (Mn1). Our previous results have shown that loss-of-function mutations at the Mn1 locus lead to the miniature-1 (mn1) seed phenotype, marked by a loss of >70% of...

442

Maize centromeres expand and adopt a uniform size in the genetic background of oat.  

PubMed

Most existing centromeres may have originated as neocentromeres that activated de novo from noncentromeric regions. However, the evolutionary path from a neocentromere to a mature centromere has been elusive. Here we analyzed the centromeres of nine chromosomes that were transferred from maize into oat as the result of an inter-species cross. Centromere size and location were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone variant CENH3, which is a defining feature of functional centromeres. Two isolates of maize chromosome 3 proved to contain neocentromeres in the sense that they had moved from the original site, whereas the remaining seven centromeres (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) were retained in the same area in both species. In all cases, the CENH3-binding domains were dramatically expanded to encompass a larger area in the oat background (?3.6 Mb) than the average centromere size in maize (?1.8 Mb). The expansion of maize centromeres appeared to be restricted by the transcription of genes located in regions flanking the original centromeres. These results provide evidence that (1) centromere size is regulated; (2) centromere sizes tend to be uniform within a species regardless of chromosome size or origin of the centromere; and (3) neocentromeres emerge and expand preferentially in gene-poor regions. Our results suggest that centromere size expansion may be a key factor in the survival of neocentric chromosomes in natural populations. PMID:24100079

Wang, Kai; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

2014-01-01

443

Maize centromeres expand and adopt a uniform size in the genetic background of oat  

PubMed Central

Most existing centromeres may have originated as neocentromeres that activated de novo from noncentromeric regions. However, the evolutionary path from a neocentromere to a mature centromere has been elusive. Here we analyzed the centromeres of nine chromosomes that were transferred from maize into oat as the result of an inter-species cross. Centromere size and location were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone variant CENH3, which is a defining feature of functional centromeres. Two isolates of maize chromosome 3 proved to contain neocentromeres in the sense that they had moved from the original site, whereas the remaining seven centromeres (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) were retained in the same area in both species. In all cases, the CENH3-binding domains were dramatically expanded to encompass a larger area in the oat background (?3.6 Mb) than the average centromere size in maize (?1.8 Mb). The expansion of maize centromeres appeared to be restricted by the transcription of genes located in regions flanking the original centromeres. These results provide evidence that (1) centromere size is regulated; (2) centromere sizes tend to be uniform within a species regardless of chromosome size or origin of the centromere; and (3) neocentromeres emerge and expand preferentially in gene-poor regions. Our results suggest that centromere size expansion may be a key factor in the survival of neocentric chromosomes in natural populations. PMID:24100079

Wang, Kai; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R. Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

2014-01-01

444

GENETIC AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE RP3 RUST RESISTANCE LOCUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In maize, the Rp3 gene confers resistance to common rust caused by Puccinia sorghi. Flanking marker analysis of rust-susceptible rp3 variants suggested that most of them arose via unequal crossing over, indicating that rp3 is a complex locus like rp1. The PIC13 probe identifies a nucleotide binding ...

445

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Quality in the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many studies have been conducted to identify genes (quantitative trait loci; QTL) underlying kernel quality traits. However, these studies were limited to analyzing two parents at once and often resulted in low resolution mapping of QTL. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population is a r...

446

A-maize-ing Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maize (Zea mays)â??cornâ??is a staple food source in much of the world, as well as a source of cooking oil, grain alcohol, livestock feed, and biofuel. There is enormous quantitative variation among maize strains for traits of agronomic importance. Buckler and colleagues describe the genetic properties of a new resource for mapping maize quantitative traits, and discuss the genetic architecture of a key traitâ??flowering timeâ??derived from it.

Trudy Mackay (North Carolina State University; Department of Genetics)

2009-08-07

447

A Large Maize (Zea mays L.) SNP Genotyping Array: Development and Germplasm Genotyping, and Genetic Mapping to Compare with the B73 Reference Genome  

PubMed Central

SNP genotyping arrays have been useful for many applications that require a large number of molecular markers such as high-density genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection. We report the establishment of a large maize SNP array and its use for diversity analysis and high density linkage mapping. The markers, taken from more than 800,000 SNPs, were selected to be preferentially located in genes and evenly distributed across the genome. The array was tested with a set of maize germplasm including North American and European inbred lines, parent/F1 combinations, and distantly related teosinte material. A total of 49,585 markers, including 33,417 within 17,520 different genes and 16,168 outside genes, were of good quality for genotyping, with an average failure rate of 4% and rates up to 8% in specific germplasm. To demonstrate this array's use in genetic mapping and for the independent validation of the B73 sequence assembly, two intermated maize recombinant inbred line populations – IBM (B73×Mo17) and LHRF (F2×F252) – were genotyped to establish two high density linkage maps with 20,913 and 14,524 markers respectively. 172 mapped markers were absent in the current B73 assembly and their placement can be used for future improvements of the B73 reference sequence. Colinearity of the genetic and physical maps was mostly conserved with some exceptions that suggest errors in the B73 assembly. Five major regions containing non-colinearities were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9, and are supported by both independent genetic maps. Four additional non-colinear regions were found on the LHRF map only; they may be due to a lower density of IBM markers in those regions or to true structural rearrangements between lines. Given the array's high quality, it will be a valuable resource for maize genetics and many aspects of maize breeding. PMID:22174790

Ganal, Martin W.; Durstewitz, Gregor; Polley, Andreas; Bérard, Aurélie; Buckler, Edward S.; Charcosset, Alain; Clarke, Joseph D.; Graner, Eva-Maria; Hansen, Mark; Joets, Johann; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; McMullen, Michael D.; Montalent, Pierre; Rose, Mark; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Sun, Qi; Walter, Hildrun; Martin, Olivier C.; Falque, Matthieu

2011-01-01

448

Global market effects of alternative European responses to genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Market Effects of Alternative European Responses to Genetically Modified Organisms. — Current debates about genetically\\u000a modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture reveal substantial differences in the perception of the associated risks and benefits.\\u000a Genetically modified crop varieties allegedly provide farmers with agronomic benefits, but environmental, health and ethical\\u000a concerns are also being raised. This paper discusses the ways in which

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson

2001-01-01

449

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

450

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

451

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred Association Panels1[W  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted joint-linkage quantitative trait locus mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kernel starch, protein, and oil in the maize nested association mapping population, composed of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealed that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21–26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous GWAS associations were detected, including several oil and starch associations in acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2, a gene that regulates oil composition and quantity. Results from nested association mapping were verified in a 282 inbred association panel using both GWAS and candidate gene association approaches. We identified many beneficial alleles that will be useful for improving kernel starch, protein, and oil content. PMID:22135431

Cook, Jason P.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Buckler, Edward S.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

2012-01-01

452

Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).  

PubMed

A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1. PMID:25437743

Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

2014-12-10

453

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges  

PubMed Central

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

454

The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

Smyth, Stuart J

2014-07-01

455

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.  

PubMed

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

456

Maize proteomics: an insight into the biology of an important cereal crop.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most grown cereal crop in the world (839 million tons in 2012). According to its agro-economical importance, maize has received tremendous attention from research communities of academic, state, and industry origin. In this manuscript, we aspire to provide readers with the first comprehensive review of proteomics studies performed on maize within a 1987-2012 time period. The following topics are presented here: maize proteome profiling, developmental proteomics, response to abiotic and biotic stress, maize phosphoproteomics, tissue-specific wild-type versus mutant analyses, heterosis, seed viability, maize allergens, and safety assessment of genetically modified maize. Tissues, organelles, subcellular compartments, secretomes, methods, phenomena, and pertinent proteins were summarized and referenced in tables and figures to provide readers with expediently accessible information in the context of up-to-date achievements. This review illustrates maize proteomics as a firmly established research area with laboratories around the world diligently advancing our knowledge of diverse aspects of maize biology. PMID:23197376

Pechanova, Olga; Taká?, Tomáš; Samaj, Jozef; Pechan, Tibor

2013-02-01

457

Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.  

PubMed Central

The effects of herbicide management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on the abundance and diversity of soil-surface-active invertebrates were assessed. Most effects did not differ between years, environmental zones or initial seedbanks or between sugar and fodder beet. This suggests that the results may be treated as generally applicable to agricultural situations throughout the UK for these crops. The direction of the effects was evenly balanced between increases and decreases in counts in the GMHT compared with the conventional treatment. Most effects involving a greater capture in the GMHT treatments occurred in maize, whereas most effects involving a smaller capture were in beet and spring oilseed rape. Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Counts of carabids that feed on weed seeds were smaller in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape but larger in GMHT maize. In contrast, collembolan detritivore counts were significantly larger under GMHT crop management. PMID:14561318

Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Bell, D; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Fairfax, C M; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Hulmes, S E; Mason, N S; Norton, L R; Nuttall, P; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Sands, R J N; Singer, E J; Walker, M J

2003-01-01

458

National Centre for Biotechnology Education Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Following the recent decision of Bayer CropScience to withdraw its herbicide-tolerant fodder maize, Chardon LL, the soonest we are likely to see commercial cultivation of any GM crop in the UK is 2008 . This mini-site examines the history of GM food in the UK. This content is appropriate for teachers or as an extension.

2006-01-01

459

Choosing a Genome Browser for a Model Organism Database (MOD): Surveying the Maize Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the maize genome sequencing is nearing its completion, the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB), the Model Organism Database for maize, integrated a genome browser to its already existing Web interface and database. The addition of the MaizeGDB Genome Browser to MaizeGDB will allow it ...

460

A genetic test of bioactive gibberellins as regulators of heterosis in maize.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that gibberellin levels were responsible for the superior growth habit of hybrids (i.e., heterosis). If this were true, plants reduced in their capacity to produce gibberellin, such as maize plants homozygous for dwarf1 (d1), should display a lesser heterotic response. The d1 mutation was introgressed into two inbred lines of maize, B73 and Mo17, for seven generations. Plants segregating for the dwarf phenotype were produced both by self-fertilizing the introgressed inbred lines and by making reciprocal crosses between them to produce hybrids. Measurements were made of several physical traits. The results indicated that the hybrid dwarf plants experienced no loss of heterosis relative to their normal siblings. These results exclude the possibility that modulation of bioactive gibberellins is a major underlying basis of the heterotic response. PMID:16135703

Auger, D L; Peters, E M; Birchler, J A

2005-01-01

461

Genetic analysis of drought tolerance in maize by molecular markersI. Yield components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain yield is a complex trait, strongly influenced by the environment: severe losses can be caused by drought, a stress common\\u000a in most maize-growing areas, including temperate climatic zones. Accordingly, drought tolerance is one of the main components\\u000a of yield stability, and its improvement is a major challenge to breeders. The aim of the present work was the identification,\\u000a in

C. Frova; P. Krajewski; N. di Fonzo; M. Villa; M. Sari-Gorla

1999-01-01

462

Genetic Variation in Fusarium Section Liseola from No-Till Maize in Argentina†  

PubMed Central

Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective population number for mating population A (Ne) and found that the Ne for mating type was 89% of the count (total population) and that the Ne for male or hermaphrodite status was 36%. Thus, the number of strains that can function as the female parent limits Ne, and sexual reproduction needs to occur only once every 54 to 220 asexual generations to maintain this level of sexual fertility. Our results indicate that the fungal populations isolated from no-till maize are similar to those recovered from maize managed with conventional tillage. We placed 36 strains from mating population A into 28 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Of the 13 strains belonging to five multimember VCGs, only 2 isolates belonging to one VCG were clones based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. Members of the other four multimember VCGs had an average similarity index of 0.89, and members of one VCG were no more closely related to other members of the same VCG than they were to other members of the population as a whole. This finding suggests that the common assumption that strains in the same VCG are either clonal or very closely related needs to be examined in more detail. The variability observed with AFLPs and VCGs suggests that sexual reproduction may occur more frequently than estimated by Ne. PMID:11097907

Chulze, S. N.; Ramirez, M. L.; Torres, A.; Leslie, J. F.

2000-01-01

463

Genetic modifiers of cognitive maintenance among older adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Identify genetic factors associated with cognitive maintenance in late life and assess their association with gray matter (GM) volume in brain networks affected in aging. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study of ?2.4 M markers to identify modifiers of cognitive trajectories in Caucasian participants (N?=?7,328) from two population-based cohorts of non-demented elderly. Standardized measures of global cognitive function (z-scores) over 10 and 6 years were calculated among participants and mixed model regression was used to determine subject-specific cognitive slopes. “Cognitive maintenance” was defined as a change in slope of???0 and was compared with all cognitive decliners (slope?genetic scores to assess whether carrying more cognitive maintenance alleles was associated with greater GM volume in specific brain networks using voxel-based morphometry. Results The most significant association was on chromosome 11 (rs7109806, P?=?7.8 × 10?8) near RIC3. RIC3 modulates activity of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and beta-amyloid binding. In the neuroimaging cohort, carrying more cognitive maintenance alleles was associated with greater volume in the right executive control network (RECN; PFWE?=?0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that there may be genetic loci that promote healthy cognitive aging and that they may do so by conferring robustness to GM in the RECN. Future work is required to validate top candidate genes such as RIC3 for involvement in cognitive maintenance. PMID:24616004

Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Evans, Daniel S; Coppola, Giovanni; Kramer, Joel H; Tranah, Gregory J; Yaffe, Kristine

2014-01-01

464

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

465

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

466

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

467

The factualization of uncertainty: Risk, politics, and genetically modified crops – a case of rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandatory risk assessment is intended to reassure concerned citizens and introduce reason into the heated European controversies on genetically modified crops and food. The authors, examining a case of risk assessment of genetically modified oilseed rape, claim that the new European legislation on risk assessment does nothing of the sort and is not likely to present an escape from the

Gitte Meyer; Anna Paldam Folker; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen; Martin Krayer von Krauss; Peter Sandøe; Geir Tveit

2005-01-01

468

A critique of ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops as reported by the Nuffield Bioethics Committee are summarised. A critique of their findings is presented. It is argued that the apparent benefits are outweighed by the ecological, social and economic costs, and that the yields of some genetically modified crops are poorer when compared to conventional species. Furthermore, the current

Ian Moffatt

2000-01-01

469

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

470

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2001-01-01

471

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

472

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

473

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

474

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

475

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

476

Quasi-option values for enhanced information regarding genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning the long-term environmental and health risks associated with the production of genetically modified foods remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers values for a precautionary approach to the release of genetically modified crops compares to the opportunity costs of forgoing economic growth associated with the use of these technologies. In this paper, an application of

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2004-01-01

477

ANALYSING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD BY A VARIANCE-BASED STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying gene technology in agricultural production, which results on the so-called genetically modified (GM) foods, is one of the most controversial scientific, political and social debates. In the EU, the underdevelopment of biotech crops is attributed to the social distrust in transgenic food. The potential consumers’ reactions towards Genetically Modified (GM) food influence the commercial feasibility and determine the economic

Melania Salazar-Ordonez; Macario Rodriguez-Entrena

2012-01-01

478

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

479

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant Retrovirus  

E-print Network

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant June 1, 1998; accepted March 10, 1999 Neural stem cells have been shown to participate in the repair to genetically modify a clone of neural stem cells, C17, to overproduce neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The cells were

Fischer, Itzhak

480

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system

M. Miraglia; K. G. Berdal; C. Brera; P. Corbisier; A. Holst-Jensen; E. J. Kok; H. J. P. Marvin; H. Schimmel; J. Rentsch; J. P. P. F. van Rie; J. Zagon

2004-01-01

481

An Analysis of McLean County, Illinois Farmers' Perceptions of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLean County, Illinois farmers were surveyed in order to explore and analyze their perceptions of genetically modified crops and their genetically modified cropping decisions. Questionnaires were mailed to 400 randomly selected farmers, and 156 were returned. The 134 respondents who reported that they planned to plant crops in 2003 were asked to provide information about gender, age, education, and number

Nagesh Chimmiri; Kerry W. Tudor; Aslihan D. Spaulding

2005-01-01

482

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

483

Introducing Genetically Modified Plants: Now or Later - An Option Value Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using market data, we have estimated the quasi option value of delaying to grow genetically modified corn and soybeans in Europe. We find that the current quasi option value of growing genetically modified soybeans and corn in Europe is high. This makes it likely that for the time being the information value of waiting exceeds the market gains of growing

Eirik Romstad; Live Brimi; Urda Ljorerud

2005-01-01

484

WHEAT CHARACTERISTIC DEMAND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural biotechnology is advancing rapidly and is embracing all major crops. The adoption of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and cotton have reached high levels in the United States. Wheat is the next major crop confronting the biotechnology issue, but no commercial varieties of genetically modified (GM) wheat have been released yet. Primary opportunities for GM developments in wheat center around

Edward L. Janzen; Jeremy W. Mattson; William W. Wilson

2001-01-01

485

A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2014-01-01

486

Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the

Yuyuan Li; Da Xing; Chunsun Zhang

2009-01-01

487

Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: a history of the genetically modified organisms debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and

Ryuma Shineha; Kazuto Kato

2009-01-01

488

Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann

2012-01-01

489

Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

Kleter, Gijs A.

2005-01-01

490

Insecticidal Genetically Modified Crops and Insect Resistance Management (IRM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically important crops, such as maize and cotton, have been transformed with genes encoding insecticidal proteins from\\u000a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to confer them protection against the most important insect pests. Of the 114 million hectares globally planted with GM\\u000a crops in 2007, over one third are insect-resistant Bt crops, and the area keeps increasing every year. The potential for insects

Juan Ferré; Jeroen Van Rie; Susan C. Macintosh

491

Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination Is under Genetic Control in the C4 Species Maize with Several Genomic Regions Influencing Trait Expression1[W  

PubMed Central

In plants with C4 photosynthesis, physiological mechanisms underlying variation in stable carbon isotope discrimination (?13C) are largely unknown, and genetic components influencing ?13C have not been described. We analyzed a maize (Zea mays) introgression library derived from two elite parents to investigate whether ?13C is under genetic control in this C4 species. High-density genotyping with the Illumina MaizeSNP50 Bead Chip was used for a detailed structural characterization of 89 introgression lines. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in the field and in the greenhouse for kernel ?13C as well as plant developmental and photosynthesis-related traits. Highly heritable significant genetic variation for ?13C was detected under field and greenhouse conditions. For several introgression library lines, ?13C values consistently differed from the recurrent parent within and across the two phenotyping platforms. ?13C was significantly associated with 22 out of 164 analyzed genomic regions, indicating a complex genetic architecture of ?13C. The five genomic regions with the largest effects were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 and explained 55% of the phenotypic variation for ?13C. Plant development stage had no effect on ?13C expression, as phenotypic as well as genotypic correlations between ?13C, flowering time, and plant height were not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating ?13C to be under polygenic control in the C4 species maize. PMID:24280436

Gresset, Sebastian; Westermeier, Peter; Rademacher, Svenja; Ouzunova, Milena; Presterl, Thomas; Westhoff, Peter; Schön, Chris-Carolin

2014-01-01

492

Stable carbon isotope discrimination is under genetic control in the C4 species maize with several genomic regions influencing trait expression.  

PubMed

In plants with C4 photosynthesis, physiological mechanisms underlying variation in stable carbon isotope discrimination (?(13)C) are largely unknown, and genetic components influencing ?(13)C have not been described. We analyzed a maize (Zea mays) introgression library derived from two elite parents to investigate whether ?(13)C is under genetic control in this C4 species. High-density genotyping with the Illumina MaizeSNP50 Bead Chip was used for a detailed structural characterization of 89 introgression lines. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in the field and in the greenhouse for kernel ?(13)C as well as plant developmental and photosynthesis-related traits. Highly heritable significant genetic variation for ?(13)C was detected under field and greenhouse conditions. For several introgression library lines, ?(13)C values consistently differed from the recurrent parent within and across the two phenotyping platforms. ?(13)C was significantly associated with 22 out of 164 analyzed genomic regions, indicating a complex genetic architecture of ?(13)C. The five genomic regions with the largest effects were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 and explained 55% of the phenotypic variation for ?(13)C. Plant development stage had no effect on ?(13)C expression, as phenotypic as well as genotypic correlations between ?(13)C, flowering time, and plant height were not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating ?(13)C to be under polygenic control in the C4 species maize. PMID:24280436

Gresset, Sebastian; Westermeier, Peter; Rademacher, Svenja; Ouzunova, Milena; Presterl, Thomas; Westhoff, Peter; Schön, Chris-Carolin

2014-01-01