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1

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

2

Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for four genetically modified maize varieties and maize DNA content in food.  

PubMed

Quantitative detection methods are needed for enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients. This labeling threshold, which is set to 1% in the European Union and Switzerland, must be applied to all approved GMOs. Four different varieties of maize are approved in the European Union: the insect-resistant Bt176 maize (Maximizer), Btl 1 maize, Mon810 (YieldGard) maize, and the herbicide-tolerant T25 (Liberty Link) maize. Because the labeling must be considered individually for each ingredient, a quantitation system for the endogenous maize content is needed in addition to the GMO-specific detection systems. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection methods were developed for the 4 approved genetically modified maize varieties and for an endogenous maize (invertase) gene system. PMID:12083257

Brodmann, Peter D; Ilg, Evelyn C; Berthoud, Hélène; Herrmann, Andre

2002-01-01

3

Individual detection of genetically modified maize varieties in non-identity-preserved maize samples.  

PubMed

In many countries, the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. The GMO content in a maize sample containing the combined-trait (stacked) GM maize as determined by the currently available methodology is likely to be overestimated. However, there has been little information in the literature on the mixing level and varieties of stacked GM maize in real sample grains. For the first time, the GMO content of non-identity-preserved (non-IP) maize samples imported from the United States has been successfully determined by using a previously developed individual kernel detection system coupled to a multiplex qualitative PCR method followed by multichannel capillary gel electrophoresis system analysis. To clarify the GMO content in the maize samples imported from the United States, determine how many stacked GM traits are contained therein, and which GM trait varieties frequently appeared in 2005, the GMO content (percent) on a kernel basis and the varieties of the GM kernels in the non-IP maize samples imported from the United States were investigated using the individual kernel analysis system. The average (+/-standard deviation) of the GMO contents on a kernel basis in five non-IP sample lots was determined to be 51.0+/-21.6%, the percentage of a single GM trait grains was 39%, and the percentage of the stacked GM trait grains was 12%. The MON810 grains and NK603 grains were the most frequent varieties in the single GM traits. The most frequent stacked GM traits were the MON810xNK603 grains. In addition, the present study would provide the answer and impact for the quantification of GM maize content in the GM maize kernels on labeling regulation. PMID:18298063

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Kondo, Kazunari; Tanaka, Asako; Liu, Ming S; Oguchi, Taichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro; Teshima, Reiko

2008-03-26

4

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize  

E-print Network

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize for the assessment of coexistence between genetically modified and conventional maize. The assessment is based. In order to meet the demands for food, ensuring food quality and safety, contributing to sustainable

Bohanec, Marko

5

Assessing economic effects: Co-existence of genetically modified maize in agriculture in France and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations on genetically modified organisms in the EU require the implementation of co-existence systems in agriculture. This paper examines the economic effects and costs for farmers when introducing different co-existence measures in genetically modified maize. For this purpose different scientific methods are used including simulation methodology. First, the co-existence costs in maize crop and seed production for individual farmers are

Klaus Menrad; Daniela Reitmeier

2008-01-01

6

Monitoring of MON810 genetically modified maize in foods in Brazil from 2005 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations for the use and labeling of genetically modified (GM) products and derived ingredients were implemented in Brazil in 2003. In 2008, GM maize line MON810 was approved for commercialization in Brazil; nevertheless, maize Bt11, Bt176 and MON810 were found in Brazilian market products sold in 2000 and 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the

Andréia Zilio Dinon; Jaqueline Elis de Melo; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

2008-01-01

7

Laboratory Exercises A Simple Method for Detecting Genetically Modified Maize in Common Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially available leaf DNA extraction and amplification kit has been adapted for the detection of genetically modified material in common food products containing maize. Amplification using published primer pairs specific for the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and maize invertase genes results in a 226-bp invertase PCR product in all samples (an internal positive control) plus a 184-bp product in samples

Chris Brinegar; Darcy Levee

8

Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) maize and non- Bt maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to

Lars-Henrik Heckmann; Bryan S. Griffiths; Sandra Caul; Jacqueline Thompson; Marianne Pusztai-Carey; William J. Moar; Mathias N. Andersen; Paul Henning Krogh

2006-01-01

9

A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system. PMID:11383153

Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

2001-02-01

10

Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.  

PubMed

A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods. PMID:16621089

Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2006-09-18

11

Maize plants infestation by Fusarium spp. and deoxynivalenol in genetically modified corn hybrid and traditional maize cultivars.  

PubMed

The objective of the performed investigations was to isolate pathogenic fungi from contaminated maize cobs, to assess the appearance of maize cob fusariosis and to determine grain contamination with deoxynivalenol in the cultivation of genetically modified maize containing a gene resistance against European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn) as well as selected non-modified cultivars. The plant material comprised the following genetically modified maize cultivar: DKC 3421 YG (MON 810) and non-modified cultivars obtained from Smolice Plant Breeding Ltd., IHAR Group: Junak (FAO 210-220), Prosna (FAO 220), SMH (FAO 230), Baca (FAO 220). Prior to harvesting, the occurrence of maize cob fusariosis was determined in the 89 (BBCH) developmental ripening stage. Microbiological assessment was carried out on grains selected from cobs characterized by various pathological symptoms. In 2008, a total of 133 isolates was obtained from the examined samples of infected maize plants, of which 51 isolates were species-identified, while in 2009, the total of 123 isolates were determined, of which 63 were species-identified. In both experimental years, the majority of isolates contained fungi from the Fusarium genus. The performed analysis of mean levels of cob contamination by fusarioses revealed that DKC 3421 YG (MON 810) and SMH (FAO 230) cultivars showed the smallest levels of contamination as well as the lowest percent of cob contamination per plant, while Junak (FAO 210-220) and Baca (FAO 220) cultivars were characterized by the highest degree of contamination. The lowest deoxynivalenol concentrations were determined in years 2008 and 2009 in the case of the DKC 3421 YG (MON 810) cultivar, whereas Prosna (FAO 220) cultivar was characterized by the highest deoxynivalenol concentration. PMID:22390066

Selwet, Marek

2011-01-01

12

Evaluation of modified PCR quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean using reference molecules: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative methods were previously developed and validated for genetically modified (GM) maize or soy. In this study, the quantification step of the validated methods was modified, and an interlaboratory study was conducted. The modification included the introduction of the PCR system SSIIb 3 instead of SSIIb 1 for the detection of the taxon-specific sequence of maize, as well as the adoption of colE1 as a carrier included in a reference plasmid solution as a replacement for salmon testis. The interlaboratory study was conducted with the ABI PRISM 7700 and consisted of 2 separate stages: (1) the measurement of conversion factor (Cf) value, which is the ratio of recombinant DNA (r-DNA) sequence to taxon-specific sequence in each genuine GM seed, and (2) the quantification of blind samples. Additionally, Cf values of other instruments, such as the ABI PRISM 7900 and the ABI PRISM 7000, were measured in a multilaboratory trial. After outlier laboratories were eliminated, the repeatability and reproducibility for 5.0% samples were <15.8 and 20.6%, respectively. The quantitation limits of these methods were 0.5% for Bt11, T25, and MON810, and 0.1% for GA21, Event176, and RR soy. The quantitation limits, trueness, and precision of the current modified methods were equivalent to those of the previous methods. Therefore, it was concluded that the modified methods would be a suitable replacement for the validated methods. PMID:19382580

Kodama, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2009-01-01

13

Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready®; GM-soy) and maize (MON810®Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal

A. M. Bakke-McKellep; M. Sanden; A. Danieli; R. Acierno; G.-I. Hemre; M. Maffia; Å. Krogdahl

2008-01-01

14

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and\\u000a Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental\\u000a risk assessments (ERA) has been assembled on the potential environmental impact of Cry1 expressing maize. The available literature\\u000a so far suggests only minor environmental

Detlef Bartsch; Yann Devos; Rosie Hails; Jozsef Kiss; Paul Henning Krogh; Sylvie Mestdagh; Marco Nuti; Angela Sessitsch; Jeremy Sweet; Achim Gathmann

15

Quantitative, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of eight genetically modified maize events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific legislation in the EU requires that foods containing more than 0.9% of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) should\\u000a be labelled. To this end, we have developed a robust, quantitative, sensitive, nine-plex ligation-dependent probe amplification\\u000a method, GMO-MLPA, for event-specific detection of maize TC1507, MON810, NK603, MON863, BT176, T25, GA21, construct-specific\\u000a detection of BT11, and detection of the endogenous hmga maize reference

Askild Lorentz Holck; Signe M. Drømtorp; Even Heir

2009-01-01

16

Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

17

Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.  

PubMed

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

18

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

19

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.  

PubMed

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-11-01

20

[Medical and biological safety assessment of genetically modified maize event MON 88017. Report 1. Toxicologo-hygienic examinations].  

PubMed

The results of toxicologo-hygienic examinations, which were conducted within the framework of integrated medical and biological assessment of genetically modified rootworm Diabrotica spp.--protected and glyphosate tolerant maize event MON 88017, are presented. Analysis of morphological, hematological, biochemical parameters and system (sensitive) biomarkers has not confirmed any toxic effect of maize event MON 88017. PMID:19048881

Tutel'ian, V A; Gapparov, M M; Avren'eva, L I; Aksiuk, I N; Guseva, G V; kravchenko, L V; L'vova, L S; Saprykin, V P; Tyshko, N V; Chernysheva, O N

2008-01-01

21

Event-specific quantitative detection of nine genetically modified maizes using one novel standard reference molecule.  

PubMed

With the development of genetically modified organism (GMO) detection techniques, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection, and real-time PCR is the most effective and important method for GMO quantification. An event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific integration junction sequences between the host plant genome DNA and the integrated gene is being developed for its high specificity. This study establishes the event-specific detection methods for TC1507 and CBH351 maizes. In addition, the event-specific TaqMan real-time PCR detection methods for another seven GM maize events (Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, and T25) were systematically optimized and developed. In these PCR assays, the fluorescent quencher, TAMRA, was dyed on the T-base of the probe at the internal position to improve the intensity of the fluorescent signal. To overcome the difficulties in obtaining the certified reference materials of these GM maizes, one novel standard reference molecule containing all nine specific integration junction sequences of these GM maizes and the maize endogenous reference gene, zSSIIb, was constructed and used for quantitative analysis. The limits of detection of these methods were 20 copies for these different GM maizes, the limits of quantitation were about 20 copies, and the dynamic ranges for quantification were from 0.05 to 100% in 100 ng of DNA template. Furthermore, nine groups of the mixed maize samples of these nine GM maize events were quantitatively analyzed to evaluate the accuracy and precision. The accuracy expressed as bias varied from 0.67 to 28.00% for the nine tested groups of GM maize samples, and the precision expressed as relative standard deviations was from 0.83 to 26.20%. All of these indicated that the established event-specific real-time PCR detection systems and the reference molecule in this study are suitable for the identification and quantification of these GM maizes. PMID:17199308

Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Pan, Aihu; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhengming; Zhang, Dabing

2007-01-10

22

Determination of eight genetically modified maize events by quantitative, multiplex PCR and fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific legislation in the EU requires that foods containing more than 0.9% of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) should\\u000a be labelled. This has necessitated the development of methods for detection and quantification of such materials. Here we\\u000a present a robust, quantitative, 9-plex PCR method for event-specific detection of maize TC1507, MON863, MON810, T25, NK603,\\u000a GA21, construct specific detection of BT11, BT176

Bjarte R. Heide; Signe M. Drømtorp; Knut Rudi; Even Heir; Askild L. Holck

2008-01-01

23

PCR-based detection of genetically modified soybean and maize in raw and highly processed foodstuffs.  

PubMed

The PCR method has proved to be an invaluable tool for the specific and sensitive detection of genetically modified material (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean and Bt-176 "Maximizer" Maize) in foodstuffs. The first step in the procedure, namely the purification of nucleic acids from the sample, is often the deciding factor in the production of meaningful results. In this study, we present two procedures that enable an efficient isolation of trace amounts of genetic material from both raw and highly processed foodstuffs. We show that for optimal, PCR-ready DNA purification from highly processed foodstuffs and PCR inhibitor-rich substances--such as cocoa-containing products--adapted protocols for the QIAGEN QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit can be utilized. For complete DNA isolation from raw foodstuffs, a protocol using the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit is presented. PMID:11515380

Tengel, C; Schüssler, P; Setzke, E; Balles, J; Sprenger-Haussels, M

2001-08-01

24

Decomposition dynamics and structural plant components of genetically modified Bt maize leaves do not differ from leaves of conventional hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified Bt maize has raised environmental concerns, as large amounts of plant residues remain in the field and may negatively impact\\u000a the soil ecosystem. In a field experiment, decomposition of leaf residues from three genetically modified (two expressing\\u000a the Cry1Ab, one the Cry3Bb1 protein) and six non-transgenic hybrids (the three corresponding non-transformed near-isolines\\u000a and three conventional

Corinne Zurbrügg; Linda Hönemann; Michael Meissle; Jörg Romeis; Wolfgang Nentwig

2010-01-01

25

First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis. PMID:17300145

Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

2007-02-21

26

Effects of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) produced by genetically modified maize (Bt maize) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The genetically modified maize MON89034 × MON88017 expresses different crystal (Cry) proteins with pesticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1.105; Cry2Ab2) and the Western corn root worm (Cry3Bb1). Non-target organisms, such as soil nematodes, might be exposed to the Cry proteins that enter the soil in course of crop growing. Therefore, the risk of those proteins for nematodes was assessed by testing their toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans. All three insecticidal Cry proteins showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on C. elegans reproduction (EC50: 0.12-0.38 ?mol L(-1)), however, at concentrations that were far above the expected soil concentrations. Moreover, a reduced toxicity was observed when Cry proteins were added jointly. A C. elegans mutant strain deficient for receptors for the nematicidal Cry5B was also resistant against Cry1.105 and Cry2Ab2, suggesting that these Cry proteins bound to the same or similar receptors as nematicidal Cry proteins and thereby affect the reproduction of C. elegans. PMID:23570782

Höss, Sebastian; Menzel, Ralph; Gessler, Frank; Nguyen, Hang T; Jehle, Johannes A; Traunspurger, Walter

2013-07-01

27

Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

2013-01-01

28

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations.  

PubMed

Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready; GM-soy) and maize (MON810 Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal Na+-dependent d-glucose uptake and SGLT1 protein level in the region pyloric caeca in which the highest values were found in the GM-soy, intermediate in the nGM-soy, and lowest in the standard FM fed groups. Data from this study confirm that GM soybeans (RRS) and maize (MON810) at inclusion levels of about 6% appear to be as safe as commercially available nGM soy and maize in diets for Atlantic salmon parr. Results from studies with higher inclusion levels and with non-modified, isogenic or near-isogenic parental lines as control groups are pending. PMID:18561390

Bakke-McKellep, A M; Sanden, M; Danieli, A; Acierno, R; Hemre, G-I; Maffia, M; Krogdahl, A

2008-06-01

29

Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers  

PubMed Central

For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×101~105 copies of pGMmaize and the R2 values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

2012-01-01

30

Establishment of quantitative analysis method for genetically modified maize using a reference plasmid and novel primers.  

PubMed

For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×10(1)~10(5) copies of pGMmaize and the R(2) values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

2012-12-01

31

Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate if genetically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, event MON810) compared with the near-isogenic non-modified (nGM) maize variety, added as a starch source at low or high inclusions, affected fish health of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. To evaluate the health impact, selected stress- and immune-response biomarkers were quantified at the gene transcript (mRNA) level, and some also at the protein level. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize, and its near-isogenic nGM parental line, were compared to a control diet containing GM-free suprex maize (reference diet) as the only starch source. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver and distal intestine was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed nGM maize and with the reference diet group. Fish fed GM maize showed significantly lower catalase (CAT) activity in liver compared with fish fed nGM maize and to the reference diet group. In contrast, CAT activity in distal intestine was significantly higher for fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed reference diet. Protein level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in liver was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed the reference diet. No diet-related differences were found in normalized gene expression of SOD, CAT or HSP70 in liver or distal intestine. Normalized gene expression of interleukin-1 beta in spleen and head-kidney did not vary significantly between diet groups. Interestingly, fish fed high GM maize showed a significantly larger proportion of plasma granulocytes, a significantly larger sum of plasma granulocyte and monocyte proportions, but a significantly smaller proportion of plasma lymphocytes, compared with fish fed high nGM maize. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon fed GM maize showed some small changes in stress protein levels and activities, but none of these changes were comparable to the normalized gene expression levels analysed for these stress proteins. GM maize seemed to induce significant changes in white blood cell populations which are associated with an immune response. PMID:17394522

Sagstad, A; Sanden, M; Haugland, Ø; Hansen, A-C; Olsvik, P A; Hemre, G-I

2007-04-01

32

Development and validation of a sensitive and fast chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the detection of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

Proteins from the Cry 1 family, in particular Cry 1Ab, are commonly expressed in genetically modified Bt maize in order to control chewing insect pests. A sensitive chemiluminescent sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified Bt maize has been developed and validated. A Cry1Ab protein-specific antibody was immobilized on 96- or 384-well microtiter plates in order to capture the Cry1Ab toxin in the sample; the bound toxin was then detected by employing a second anti-Cry1Ab antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-antibody, followed by measurement of the enzyme activity with an enhanced chemiluminescent system. The chemiluminescent assay fulfilled all the requirements of accuracy and precision and exhibited limits of detection of a few pg mL(-1) Cry1Ab (3 or 5 pg mL(-1), depending on the assay format), which are significantly lower than that achievable using conventional colorimetric detection of peroxidase activity and also represent an improvement compared to previously developed Cry1Ab immunoassays. High-throughput analysis can be performed using the 384-well microtiter plate format immunoassay, which also allows one to reduce the consumption of samples and reagents. Validation of the assay, performed by analyzing certified reference materials, proved that the immunoassay is able to detect the presence of the Cry1Ab protein in certified reference samples containing as low as 0.1% of MON 810 genetically modified Bt maize. This value is below the threshold requiring mandatory labeling of foods containing genetically modified material according to the actual EU regulation. PMID:16491341

Roda, A; Mirasoli, M; Guardigli, M; Michelini, E; Simoni, P; Magliulo, M

2006-03-01

33

Representative taxa in field trials for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

When assessing the benefits and risks of transgenic crops, one consideration is their relative effects on non-target arthropod (NTA) abundance and functions within agroecosystems. Several laboratory and field trials have been conducted in Spain since the late 1990s to assess this issue. A consideration in the design of field trials is whether it is necessary to sample most NTAs living in the crop or only representative taxa that perform main ecological functions and have a good capacity to detect small changes in their abundance. Small changes in the field abundance of an effective representative taxon should be detectable using standard experimental protocols. The ability of a species to reveal differences across treatments may be analysed by examining the detectable treatment effects for surveyed non-target organisms. Analysis of data from several NTAs recorded in 14 field trials conducted over 10 years using complete block designs allowed us to select a number of representative taxa capable of detecting changes in the density or activity of arthropod herbivores, predators, parasitoids and decomposers in transgenic and non-transgenic maize varieties. The most suitable NTA as representative taxa (with detectable treatment effects below 50%) included leafhoppers among arthropod herbivores, Orius spp., Araneae, and Carabidae among predators, chalcidids, particularly the family Mymaridae, among parasitoids and Chloropidae as decomposer. Details of sampling techniques for each sampled taxa and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is concluded that abundance of taxa is the most influential factor determining their capacity to detect changes caused by genetically modified varieties. PMID:23987801

Albajes, R; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Comas, J

2013-12-01

34

Optical detection of specific genes for genetically modified soybean and maize using multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension on a plastic plate.  

PubMed

A novel DNA microarray method to detect one line of genetically modified (GM) soybean and five lines of GM maize was developed using multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension on a plastic plate. Multiplex PCR products were applied on an extension primer-immobilized plate and the spots corresponding to the DNA sequences were visualized. This method is a rapid and simple way to detect GM soybean and GM maize optically. PMID:19661710

Harikai, Naoki; Saito, Shin; Abe, Midori; Kondo, Kazunari; Kitta, Kazumi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kinoshita, Kenji

2009-08-01

35

A general multiplex-PCR assay for the general detection of genetically modified soya and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for the detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with

V. T. Forte; A. Di Pinto; C. Martino; G. M. Tantillo; G. Grasso; F. P. Schena

2005-01-01

36

Bioinformatics The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.  

E-print Network

Bioinformatics The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. The Community Resource for Access 50011­3260 (T.E.S.) The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays data types available through MaizeGDB. MISSION AND SCOPE The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

Brendel, Volker

37

Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)  

PubMed Central

The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/non-GM), (ii) non-GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/GM), (iii) GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (GM/non-GM), and (iv) GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (GM/GM). Offspring of GM maize-fed sows had higher counts of fecal total anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae at days 70 and 100 postweaning, respectively. At day 115 postweaning, GM/non-GM offspring had lower ileal Enterobacteriaceae counts than non-GM/non-GM or GM/GM offspring and lower ileal total anaerobes than pigs on the other treatments. GM maize-fed offspring also had higher ileal total anaerobe counts than non-GM maize-fed offspring, and cecal total anaerobes were lower in non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM offspring than in those from the non-GM/non-GM treatment. The only differences observed for major bacterial phyla using 16S rRNA gene sequencing were that fecal Proteobacteria were less abundant in GM maize-fed sows prior to farrowing and in offspring at weaning, with fecal Firmicutes more abundant in offspring. While other differences occurred, they were not observed consistently in offspring, were mostly encountered for low-abundance, low-frequency bacterial taxa, and were not associated with pathology. Therefore, their biological relevance is questionable. This confirms the lack of adverse effects of GM maize on the intestinal microbiota of pigs, even following transgenerational consumption. PMID:24096421

Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2013-01-01

38

Statistical Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Protocols Applied to Quantify Genetically Modified Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) is the technique of choice for event-specific quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)\\u000a by determining the amount of event with respect to a species-specific reference gene. Reference genes can be amplified from\\u000a the genome extracted from Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) or from ad hoc designed plasmids. In the present study, we\\u000a statistically evaluate the performance of RTi-PCR

Silvia Folloni; Gianni Bellocchi; Adelina Prospero; Maddalena Querci; William Moens; Monica Ermolli; Guy Van den Eede

2010-01-01

39

Quantitative competitive PCR for the detection of genetically modified soybean and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surveillance of food labelling concerning genetically modified organisms (GMOs) requires DNA-based analytical techniques.\\u000a Present assay systems allow the detection of GMO in food; however, they do not permit their quantitation. In this study, we\\u000a report the development of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) systems for the detection and quantitation\\u000a of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and the Maximizer

Edgar Studer; Claudio Rhyner; Jürg Lüthy; P. Hübner

1998-01-01

40

Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns\\u000a of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for\\u000a a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this\\u000a hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes

Yann Devos; Mathias Cougnon; Sofie Vergucht; Robert Bulcke; Geert Haesaert; Walter Steurbaut; Dirk Reheul

2008-01-01

41

Event-specific detection of seven genetically modified soybean and maizes using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray.  

PubMed

With the increasing development of genetically modified organism (GMO) detection techniques, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection. An oligonucleotide microarray is a glass chip to the surface of which an array of oligonucleotides was fixed as spots, each containing numerous copies of a sequence-specific probe that is complementary to a gene of interest. So it is used to detect ten or more targets synchronously. In this research, an event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific integration junction sequences between the host plant genome DNA and the integrated gene is being developed for its high specificity using multiplex-PCR together with oligonucleotide microarray. A commercial GM soybean (GTS 40-3-2) and six GM maize events (MON810, MON863, Bt176, Bt11, GA21, and T25) were detected by this method. The results indicate that it is a suitable method for the identification of these GM soybean and maizes. PMID:17559227

Xu, Jia; Zhu, Shuifang; Miao, Haizhen; Huang, Wensheng; Qiu, Minyan; Huang, Yan; Fu, Xuping; Li, Yao

2007-07-11

42

Genetically Modified, Insect Resistant Maize: Implications for Management of Ear and Stalk Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article summarizes six years of research that indicate that Bt transformation of maize hybrids enhances the safety of grain for livestock and human food products by reducing the plants' vulnerability to mycotoxin-producing Fusarium fungi.

G. P. Munkvold (Iowa State University;); R. L. Hellmich (USDA, ARS Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit, Iowa State University;)

2000-09-12

43

Randomly Detected Genetically Modified (GM) Maize (Zea mays L.) near a Transport Route Revealed a Fragile 45S rDNA Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a “beads-on-a-string” fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed. PMID:24040165

Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

2013-01-01

44

Application of immunoaffinity column as cleanup tool for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase detection in genetically modified maize and rape.  

PubMed

We have developed a new immunoassay method to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and rape containing phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT). PAT encoded by Bialaphos resistance gene (bar) was highly expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. A simple and efficient extraction and purification procedure of PAT from GM maize and rape was developed by means of the immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a cleanup tool. Purified polyclonal antibodies against PAT was produced and coupled covalently to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Both the binding conditions and elution protocols were optimized. The IAC was successfully employed to isolate and purify the PAT from the various tissues of GM maize (Bt11 and Bt176) and rapes (MS1/RF1 and MS8/RF3). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures were established further on to measure the PAT protein. GM maize cannot be differentiated from non-GM maize by ELISA. But IAC-ELISA allowed 0.5% GMOs to be detected in MS1/RF1 and MS8/RF3 and 10% GMOs to be detected in Bt11 and Bt176, which makes this method an acceptable method to access PAT protein in GM rapes and maize. PMID:15913288

Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhao, Heng; Luo, Yunbo

2005-06-01

45

[Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].  

PubMed

In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize. PMID:23470871

Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

2013-01-01

46

A new PCR-CGE (size and color) method for simultaneous detection of genetically modified maize events.  

PubMed

We present a novel multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of multiple transgenic events in maize. Initially, five PCR primers pairs specific to events Bt11, GA21, MON810, and NK603, and Zea mays L. (alcohol dehydrogenase) were included. The event specificity was based on amplification of transgene/plant genome flanking regions, i.e., the same targets as for validated real-time PCR assays. These short and similarly sized amplicons were selected to achieve high and similar amplification efficiency for all targets; however, its unambiguous identification was a technical challenge. We achieved a clear distinction by a novel CGE approach that combined the identification by size and color (CGE-SC). In one single step, all five targets were amplified and specifically labeled with three different fluorescent dyes. The assay was specific and displayed an LOD of 0.1% of each genetically modified organism (GMO). Therefore, it was adequate to fulfill legal thresholds established, e.g., in the European Union. Our CGE-SC based strategy in combination with an adequate labeling design has the potential to simultaneously detect higher numbers of targets. As an example, we present the detection of up to eight targets in a single run. Multiplex PCR-CGE-SC only requires a conventional sequencer device and enables automation and high throughput. In addition, it proved to be transferable to a different laboratory. The number of authorized GMO events is rapidly growing; and the acreage of genetically modified (GM) varieties cultivated and commercialized worldwide is rapidly increasing. In this context, our multiplex PCR-CGE-SC can be suitable for screening GM contents in food. PMID:16972302

Nadal, Anna; Coll, Anna; La Paz, Jose-Luis; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

2006-10-01

47

Litterbag decomposition of genetically modified maize residues and their constituent Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Cry1Ab) under field conditions in the central region of the Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) maize, expressing the pesticidal Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), for resistance to stem borers, could reduce use of chemical pesticides in agriculture. However, such modification could affect plant structure and function and have unintended detrimental ecological effects. Decomposition of leaf and stem residues of Bt-maize (event MON810; cultivar CRN 4549B) and of near-isogenic non-Bt-maize

C. K. Daudu; P. Muchaonyerwa; P. N. S. Mnkeni

2009-01-01

48

Molecular population genetics of maize regulatory genes during maize evolution  

E-print Network

Molecular population genetics of maize regulatory genes during maize evolution By Qiong Zhao population genetics of MADS-box genes during the domestication and improvement of maize. Chapter 2 Page 92 population genetic approaches to search for targets of selection in several groups of candidate genes

Doebley, John

49

Event specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified MON863 maize based on the 5'-transgene integration sequence.  

PubMed

Because of the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) labeling policies issued in many countries and areas, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the execution of GMO labeling policies, such as screening, gene specific, construct specific, and event specific PCR detection methods, which have become a mainstay of GMOs detection. The event specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMOs detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of the exogenous integrant. This genetically modified maize, MON863, contains a Cry3Bb1 coding sequence that produces a protein with enhanced insecticidal activity against the coleopteran pest, corn rootworm. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between the host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of the genetically modified maize MON863 was revealed by means of thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR, and the specific PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed based upon the revealed 5'-integration junction sequence; the conventional qualitative PCR and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection methods employing these primers and probes were successfully developed. In conventional qualitative PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for MON863 in 100 ng of maize genomic DNA for one reaction. In the quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR assay, the LOD and the limit of quantification were eight and 80 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed maize samples with known MON863 contents were detected using the established real-time PCR systems, and the ideal results indicated that the established event specific real-time PCR detection systems were reliable, sensitive, and accurate. PMID:16302741

Yang, Litao; Xu, Songci; Pan, Aihu; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhenying; Zhou, Zhigang; Zhang, Dabing

2005-11-30

50

Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.  

PubMed

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions suggest that a 20 % refuge of non-Diabrotica-active Bt-maize can delay resistance evolution in WCR under certain conditions. This publication concludes that further research is needed to resolve the remaining scientific uncertainty related to the appropriateness of the HDR in delaying resistance evolution in WCR, resistance monitoring is essential to detect early warning signs indicating resistance evolution in the field, and that integrated pest management reliant on multiple tactics should be deployed to ensure effective long-term corn rootworm management and sustainable use of Bt-maize. PMID:23011587

Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

2013-04-01

51

Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt -maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental\\u000a Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms\\u000a belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically\\u000a modified

Stefan Rauschen; Frank Schaarschmidt; Achim Gathmann

2010-01-01

52

Interlaboratory study of DNA extraction from multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for individual kernel detection system of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

In many countries, the labeling of grains, feed, and foodstuff is mandatory if the genetically modified (GM) organism content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. We previously developed an individual kernel detection system consisting of grinding individual kernels, DNA extraction from the individually ground kernels, GM detection using multiplex real-time PCR, and GM event detection using multiplex qualitative PCR to analyze the precise commingling level and varieties of GM maize in real sample grains. We performed the interlaboratory study of the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR detection, and multiplex qualitative PCR detection to evaluate its applicability, practicality, and ruggedness for the individual kernel detection system of GM maize. DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR were evaluated by five laboratories in Japan, and all results from these laboratories were consistent with the expected results in terms of the commingling level and event analysis. Thus, the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for the individual kernel detection system is applicable and practicable in a laboratory to regulate the commingling level of GM maize grain for GM samples, including stacked GM maize. PMID:22165018

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Makiyma, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Teshima, Reiko; Nakashima, Akie; Ogawa, Asako; Yamagishi, Toru; Futo, Satoshi; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

2011-01-01

53

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Following a request from Monsanto within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 on genetically modified food and feed, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the authorisation of the insect-resistant, glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810 (Unique Identifier MON88Ø17-3 x MON- ØØ81Ø-6). In delivering its scientific opinion, the

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Howard Davies

2009-01-01

54

Interlaboratory transfer of a PCR multiplex method for simultaneous detection of four genetically modified maize lines: Bt11, MON810, T25, and GA21.  

PubMed

The number of cultured hectares and commercialized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has increased exponentially in the past 9 years. Governments in many countries have established a policy of labeling all food and feed containing or produced by GMOs. Consequently, versatile, laboratory-transferable GMO detection methods are in increasing demand. Here, we describe a qualitative PCR-based multiplex method for simultaneous detection and identification of four genetically modified maize lines: Bt11, MON810, T25, and GA21. The described system is based on the use of five primers directed to specific sequences in these insertion events. Primers were used in a single optimized multiplex PCR reaction, and sequences of the amplified fragments are reported. The assay allows amplification of the MON810 event from the 35S promoter to the hsp intron yielding a 468 bp amplicon. Amplification of the Bt11 and T25 events from the 35S promoter to the PAT gene yielded two different amplicons of 280 and 177 bp, respectively, whereas amplification of the 5' flanking region of the GA21 gave rise to an amplicon of 72 bp. These fragments are clearly distinguishable in agarose gels and have been reproduced successfully in a different laboratory. Hence, the proposed method comprises a rapid, simple, reliable, and sensitive (down to 0.05%) PCR-based assay, suitable for detection of these four GM maize lines in a single reaction. PMID:15853368

Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Zhang, David; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria; Prat, Salomé

2005-05-01

55

Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 ?m) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. PMID:22740254

Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

2012-06-01

56

Assessing the risk posed to free-living soil nematodes by a genetically modified maize expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein.  

PubMed

Before pest-resistant genetically modified maize can be grown commercially, the risks for soil-beneficial, non-target organisms must be determined. Here, a tiered approach was used to assess the risk to free-living soil nematodes posed by maize genetically modified to express the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein (event Mon88017), which confers resistance towards western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera; Coleoptera). The toxicity of purified Cry3Bb1 for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was determined using a bioassay and gene expression analysis. In addition, a soil toxicity test was used to assess the effects on C. elegans of rhizosphere soil obtained from plots of an experimental field grown with Mon88017, the near-isogenic cultivar, or either of two conventional cultivars. Finally, the indigenous nematode communities from the experimental field site with Mon88017 and from the control cultivars were analyzed. The results showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of Cry3Bb1 on the growth and reproduction of C. elegans, with EC50 values of 22.3 mg l?¹ and 7.9 mg l?¹, respectively. Moreover, Cry-protein-specific defense genes were found to be up-regulated in the presence of either Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1. However, C. elegans was not affected by rhizosphere soils from Mon88017 compared to the control plots, due to the very low Cry3Bb1 concentrations, as indicated by quantitative analyses (< 1 ng g?¹ soil). Nematode abundance and diversity were essentially the same between the various maize cultivars. At the last sampling date, nematode genus composition in Bt-maize plots differed significantly from that in two of the three non-Bt cultivars, including the near-isogenic maize, but the shift in genus composition did not influence the composition of functional guilds within the nematode communities. In conclusion, the risk to free-living soil nematodes posed by Mon88017 cultivation can be regarded as low, as long as Cry3Bb1 concentrations in soil remain four orders of magnitude below the toxicity threshold. PMID:21511326

Höss, S; Nguyen, H T; Menzel, R; Pagel-Wieder, S; Miethling-Graf, R; Tebbe, C C; Jehle, J A; Traunspurger, W

2011-06-01

57

A multiplex nested PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of genetically modified soybean, maize and rice in highly processed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of the GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. There are

Ao Jinxia; Li Qingzhang; Gao Xuejun; Yu Yanbo; Li Lu; Zhang Minghui

2011-01-01

58

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2012-12-04

59

Quantification of Cry1Ab in genetically modified maize leaves by liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry using 18O stable isotope dilution.  

PubMed

Cry1Ab is one of the most common Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in genetically modified crops, which exhibits strong resistance against insect pests. In the present study, a sensitive and precise liquid chromatography stable isotope dilution multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry (LC-SID-MRM-MS) assay was developed and validated to quantify the amount of Cry1Ab expression in transgenic maize leaves. The measurement of protein was converted to measurement of unique peptides to Cry1Ab protein. Two peptides unique to Cry1Ab were synthesized and labeled in H(2)(18)O to generate (18)O stable isotope peptides as internal standards. The validated method obtained superior specificity and good linearity. And the inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy for all samples were satisfactory. The results demonstrated Cry1Ab protein was 31.7 ± 4.1 ?g g(-1) dry weight in Bt-176 transgenic maize leaves. It proved that the novel LC-SID-MRM-MS method was sensitive and selective to quantify Cry1Ab in the crude extract without time-consuming pre-separation or purification procedures. PMID:22543512

Zhang, Yongqian; Lai, Chengjun; Su, Rui; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Yan; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

2012-06-01

60

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics  

E-print Network

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics Carolyn J. Lawrence1 , Qunfeng Dong1 , Mary L. Polacco3 , Trent E. Seigfried1 and Volker Brendel1,2,* 1 Department of Genetics ABSTRACT The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence

Brendel, Volker

61

Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.  

PubMed

Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

2013-03-01

62

New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.  

PubMed

Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. PMID:17356802

Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

2007-05-01

63

Rapid visual detection of phytase gene in genetically modified maize using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize plant expressing high phytase activity has been reported and approved by Chinese government in 2009. Here, we report a highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the phytase gene in the GMO maize. The LAMP reaction takes less than 20min and the amplification is visible without gel electrophoresis. The detection sensitivity of the LAMP method is about 30 copies of phytase genomic DNA, which is 33.3 times greater than the conventional PCR method with gel electrophoresis. The quantitative detection results showed that the LAMP method has a good linear correlation between the DNA copy number and the associated Tt values over a large dynamic range of template concentration from 6×10(1) to 6×10(7) copies, with a quantification limit of 60 copies. Therefore, the LAMP method is visual, faster, and more sensitive, and does not need special equipment compared to traditional PCR technique, which is very useful for field tests and fast screening of GMO feeds. PMID:24629956

Huang, Xin; Chen, Lili; Xu, Jiangmin; Ji, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Hongjun

2014-08-01

64

Genetic characterization of a core set of a tropical maize race Tuxpeño for further use in maize improvement.  

PubMed

The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants). Clustering analyses (CA) based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD) clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size) representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community. PMID:22412898

Wen, Weiwei; Franco, Jorge; Chavez-Tovar, Victor H; Yan, Jianbing; Taba, Suketoshi

2012-01-01

65

Genetic Characterization of a Core Set of a Tropical Maize Race Tuxpe?o for Further Use in Maize Improvement  

PubMed Central

The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants). Clustering analyses (CA) based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD) clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size) representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community. PMID:22412898

Chavez-Tovar, Victor H.; Yan, Jianbing; Taba, Suketoshi

2012-01-01

66

The genetic architecture of maize height.  

PubMed

Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy. PMID:24514905

Peiffer, Jason A; Romay, Maria C; Gore, Michael A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J; Gardner, Candice A C; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Buckler, Edward S

2014-04-01

67

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2009-08-31

68

The genetic architecture of maize flowering time.  

PubMed

Flowering time is a complex trait that controls adaptation of plants to their local environment in the outcrossing species Zea mays (maize). We dissected variation for flowering time with a set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping population, NAM). Nearly a million plants were assayed in eight environments but showed no evidence for any single large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Instead, we identified evidence for numerous small-effect QTLs shared among families; however, allelic effects differ across founder lines. We identified no individual QTLs at which allelic effects are determined by geographic origin or large effects for epistasis or environmental interactions. Thus, a simple additive model accurately predicts flowering time for maize, in contrast to the genetic architecture observed in the selfing plant species rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:19661422

Buckler, Edward S; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Acharya, Charlotte B; Brown, Patrick J; Browne, Chris; Ersoz, Elhan; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Garcia, Arturo; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Goodman, Major M; Harjes, Carlos; Guill, Kate; Kroon, Dallas E; Larsson, Sara; Lepak, Nicholas K; Li, Huihui; Mitchell, Sharon E; Pressoir, Gael; Peiffer, Jason A; Rosas, Marco Oropeza; Rocheford, Torbert R; Romay, M Cinta; Romero, Susan; Salvo, Stella; Sanchez Villeda, Hector; da Silva, H Sofia; Sun, Qi; Tian, Feng; Upadyayula, Narasimham; Ware, Doreen; Yates, Heather; Yu, Jianming; Zhang, Zhiwu; Kresovich, Stephen; McMullen, Michael D

2009-08-01

69

Setup, efforts and practical experiences of a monitoring program for genetically modified plants - an Austrian case study for oilseed rape and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  According to the Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC, genetically modified plants [GMPs] have to be monitored for unintended ecological impacts\\u000a during their release. Detrimental effects on the biodiversity of agro-ecosystems represent a prime focus of such a monitoring.\\u000a Although cropping of GMPs has already been permitted in the European Union, the establishment of appropriate monitoring networks\\u000a lags behind. Here, we

Kathrin Pascher; Dietmar Moser; Stefan Dullinger; Leopold Sachslehner; Patrick Gros; Norbert Sauberer; Andreas Traxler; Georg Grabherr; Thomas Frank

2011-01-01

70

Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study outlines the controversy surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and how it impacts North American based food service companies' marketing policies. Recent developments have made foods derived from GMOs a strategic marketing challenge for food service franchise and chain operations. Headlines such as “Why McDonalds Pulled Frankenfries from Menus” have unwittingly put restaurants on the frontline of the battle

Robert R. Nelson; Ali A. Poorani; Justin E. Crews

2004-01-01

71

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

72

Genetic erosion in maize's center of origin.  

PubMed

Crop genetic diversity is an indispensable resource for farmers and professional breeders responding to changing climate, pests, and diseases. Anecdotal appraisals in centers of crop origin have suggested serious threats to this diversity for over half a century. However, a nationwide inventory recently found all maize races previously described for Mexico, including some formerly considered nearly extinct. A flurry of social studies seems to confirm that farmers maintain considerable diversity. Here, we compare estimates of maize diversity from case studies over the past 15 y with nationally and regionally representative matched longitudinal data from farmers across rural Mexico. Our findings reveal an increasing bias in inferences based on case study results and widespread loss of diversity. Cross-sectional, case study data suggest that farm-level richness has increased by 0.04 y(-1) nationwide; however, direct estimates using matched longitudinal data reveal that richness dropped -0.04 y(-1) between 2002 and 2007, from 1.43 to 1.22 varieties per farm. Varietal losses occurred across regions and altitudinal zones, and regardless of farm turnover within the sector. Extinction of local maize populations may not have resulted in an immediate loss of alleles, but low varietal richness and changes in maize's metapopulation dynamics may prevent farmers from accessing germplasm suitable to a rapidly changing climate. Declining yields could then lead farmers to leave the sector and result in a further loss of diversity. Similarities in research approaches across crops suggest that methodological biases could conceal a loss of diversity at other centers of crop origin. PMID:25197088

Dyer, George A; López-Feldman, Alejandro; Yúnez-Naude, Antonio; Taylor, J Edward

2014-09-30

73

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, includingA long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

74

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900

Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

2006-12-15

75

Effects of an active immunization on the immune response of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed with or without genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis-maize.  

PubMed

Potentially adverse effects of diets containing transgenic plants are a concern for many consumers, particularly in Europe. For Bacillus thuringiensis-maize, several studies in livestock and poultry showed that the zootechnical data provide no indication for such adverse effects. These studies were all done in homeostatic situations; it remained open whether a deflection of the regulatory physiological systems might yield divergent dynamic responses in B. thuringiensis-maize-fed animals. We therefore tested the effect of an active immunization using BSA as antigen in a feeding regimen with or without B. thuringiensis-maize using quail as a model organism. Newly hatched Japanese quail were randomly allocated to 2 groups (n=120 per group) fed with diets containing either B. thuringiensis-maize or isogenic maize of the same cultivar. The diets did not differ in concentrations of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, which were both far below guidance values. After 16 wk on the experimental diets, one-half of each group was immunized against BSA. The remaining birds were injected with saline. Thirty-six hours after the injection, half of the BSA-injected subgroup (n=30) and half of the saline subgroup (n=30) from B. thuringiensis-maize- and isogenic-fed birds were killed and blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum zinc levels, indicative for acute phase response. For determining IgY-mediated immune responses, eggs were collected every other week for 6 wk after the injections from the remaining birds and total IgY concentrations and BSA-specific IgY titers were measured in egg yolk. The BSA injections did not elicit significant decreases of serum zinc concentrations. The serum zinc levels were significantly higher in B. thuringiensis-maize-fed quail. Expectedly, total IgY as well as BSA-specific IgY titers increased with time in the BSA-immunized quail. The response of both variables to the BSA injection did not differ between the feeding groups. Our results indicate that feeding of B. thuringiensis-maize does not impair the immune system of Japanese quail and thus gives no indication for respective concerns. PMID:20460657

Scholtz, N D; Halle, I; Dänicke, S; Hartmann, G; Zur, B; Sauerwein, H

2010-06-01

76

Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

2013-01-01

77

Suitable method for simultaneous and specifi c detection of maize (Zea mays l.) and genetically modifi ed soyabean (Glycine max l.) in animal feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present method allows a simple and rapid identifi cation of maize and specifi c transgenic soyabean event in raw materials and processed feed samples. The method combines two aspects: suitable DNA purifi cation and amplifi cation by means of multiplex RT-PCR. Effi ciency and accuracy of this method have been tested and the limit of detection (LOD) reached was of

A. Gómez Garay; I. Garrido Mayas; G. Vergara García

78

SOIL ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS - ECOGEN Hierarchical classification of environmental factors and agricultural practices affecting soil fauna under cropping systems using Bt maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The population dynamics of soil organisms under agricultural field conditions are influenced by many factors, such as pedology and climate, but also farming practices such as crop type, tillage and the use of pesticides. To assess the real effects of farming practices on soil organisms it is necessary to rank the influence of all of these parameters. Bt maize

Marko Debeljaka; Paul H. Kroghd; Saso Dzeroskia; Batiment Villemin

79

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

80

The Genetic Architecture of Maize Stalk Strength  

PubMed Central

Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,692 recombinant inbreds (RILs) comprising the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel derived from crosses of diverse inbreds to the inbred, B73. An intermated B73×Mo17 family (IBM) of 196 RILs and a panel of 2,453 diverse inbreds from the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were also evaluated. We measured RPR in three environments. Family-nested QTL were identified by joint-linkage mapping in the NAM panel. We also performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) in each panel. Broad sense heritability computed on a line means basis was low for RPR. Only 8 of 26 families had a heritability above 0.20. The NCRPIS diversity panel had a heritability of 0.54. Across NAM and IBM families, 18 family-nested QTL and 141 significant GWAS associations were identified for RPR. Numerous weak associations were also found in the NCRPIS diversity panel. However, few were linked to loci involved in phenylpropanoid and cellulose synthesis or vegetative phase transition. Using an identity-by-state (IBS) relationship matrix estimated from 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RPR measures from 20% of the NAM panel, genomic prediction by GBLUP explained 64±2% of variation in the remaining RILs. In the NCRPIS diversity panel, an IBS matrix estimated from 681,257 SNPs and RPR measures from 20% of the panel explained 33±3% of variation in the remaining inbreds. These results indicate the high genetic complexity of stalk strength and the potential for genomic prediction to hasten its improvement. PMID:23840585

Peiffer, Jason A.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; De Leon, Natalia; McMullen, Michael D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buckler, Edward S.

2013-01-01

81

From Many, One: Genetic Control of Prolificacy during Maize Domestication  

PubMed Central

A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb “causative region” upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize. PMID:23825971

Wills, David M.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E.; Shannon, Laura M.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F.

2013-01-01

82

Prospects for reducing fumonisin contamination of maize through genetic modification.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in (italic)Fusarium verticillioides-infected maize grain worldwide. Attention has focused on FBs because of their widespread occurrence, acute toxicity to certain livestock, and their potential carcinogenicity. FBs are present at low levels in most field-grown maize but may spike to high levels depending on both the environment and genetics of the host plant. Among the strategies for reducing risk of FB contamination in maize supplied to the market, development and deployment of Fusarium ear mold-resistant maize germplasm is a high priority. Breeding for increased ear mold tolerance and reduced mycotoxin levels is being practiced today in both commercial and public programs, but the amount of resistance achievable may be limited due to complicated genetics and/or linkage to undesirable agronomic traits. Molecular markers can be employed to speed up the incorporation of chromosomal regions that have a quantitative effect on resistance (quantitative trait loci). Transgenic approaches to ear mold/mycotoxin resistance are now feasible as well. These potentially include genetically enhanced resistance to insect feeding, increased fungal resistance, and detoxification/prevention of mycotoxins in the grain. An example of the first of these approaches is already on the market, namely transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, targeted to the European corn borer. Some Bt maize hybrids have the potential to reduce FB levels in field-harvested grain, presumably through reduced feeding of Bt-susceptible insects in ear tissues. However, improved ear mold resistance per se is still an important goal, as the plant will still be vulnerable to noninsect routes of entry to (italic)Fusarium. A second approach, transgene-mediated control of the ability of Fusarium to infect and colonize the ear, could potentially be achieved through overexpression of specific antifungal proteins and metabolites, or enhancement of the plant's own defense systems in kernel tissues. This has not yet been accomplished in maize, although promising results have been obtained recently in other monocots versus other fungal and bacterial pathogens. Achieving reproducible and stable enhanced ear mold resistance under field conditions will be immensely challenging for biotechnologists. A third approach, transgene strategies aimed at preventing mycotoxin biosynthesis, or detoxifying mycotoxins in planta, could provide further protection for the grower in environments where FBs present a risk to the crop even when the maize is relatively resistant to Fusarium mold. In one example of such a strategy, enzymes that degrade FBs have been identified in a filamentous saprophytic fungus isolated from maize, and corresponding genes have been cloned and are currently being tested in transgenic maize. PMID:11359705

Duvick, J

2001-01-01

83

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this

Olivia Boyce

1999-01-01

84

Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

85

DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.  

PubMed

The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. PMID:25213972

Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

2011-06-15

86

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

87

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

88

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods  

E-print Network

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods and the Attack on Nature Stuart A. NewmanBy:[Newman,StuartA.]At:16:493July2009 #12;about, genetically modified (GM) food as scientifically ignorant, economically and Arpad Pusztai, ``Effect of Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Expressing galanthus nivalis

Newman, Stuart A.

89

Genetic and Physiological Analysis of Iron Biofortification in Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, where poverty is a major factor. Therefore, biofortification of maize by increasing Fe concentration and or bioavailability has great potential to alleviate this deficiency. Maize is also a model system for genomic research and thus allows the opportunity for gene discovery. Here we describe an integrated genetic and physiological analysis of Fe nutrition in maize kernels, to identify loci that influence grain Fe concentration and bioavailability. Methodology Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to dissect grain Fe concentration (FeGC) and Fe bioavailability (FeGB) from the Intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred (RI) population. FeGC was determined by ion coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). FeGB was determined by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell line bioassay. Conclusions Three modest QTL for FeGC were detected, in spite of high heritability. This suggests that FeGC is controlled by many small QTL, which may make it a challenging trait to improve by marker assisted breeding. Ten QTL for FeGB were identified and explained 54% of the variance observed in samples from a single year/location. Three of the largest FeGB QTL were isolated in sister derived lines and their effect was observed in three subsequent seasons in New York. Single season evaluations were also made at six other sites around North America, suggesting the enhancement of FeGB was not specific to our farm site. FeGB was not correlated with FeGC or phytic acid, suggesting that novel regulators of Fe nutrition are responsible for the differences observed. Our results indicate that iron biofortification of maize grain is achievable using specialized phenotyping tools and conventional plant breeding techniques. PMID:21687662

Szalma, Stephen J.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Kochian, Leon V.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

2011-01-01

90

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

91

Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Health, Socioeconomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about genetically modified (GM) food seeds are serious and well-founded, the problems which these seeds raise are usually not unique to GM seeds alone. GM organisms are only one example of problematic new varieties or breeds. Large soybean and other monocultural plantations have serious environmental effects which GM seeds exacerbate. Although GM seeds may benefit large scale commercial

Frank J. Leavitt

92

Construction of genetic linkage maps in maize and tomato using restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage maps were constructed for both maize and tomato, utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) as the source of genetic markers. In order to detect these RFLPs, unique DNA sequence clones were prepared from either maize or tomato tissue and hybridized to Southern blots containing restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA from different homozygous lines. A subsequent comparison of the RFLP

T. Helentjaris; M. Slocum; S. Wright; A. Schaefer; J. Nienhuis

1986-01-01

93

Discredited: Many arguments against genetically modified rice  

E-print Network

The debate surrounding the dangers posed by genetically modified organisms is becoming emotionalDiscredited: Many arguments against genetically modified rice lack any scientific basis.12 The Dark Success in the GO-Bio Competition 10 On the Net VIEWPOINT 12 Cultural War over Genetic Engineering

94

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

95

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries  

E-print Network

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries ­ the hybridization potential between cultivated and wild strawberries Inauguraldissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der

Amrhein, Valentin

96

[Applications of genetically modified animals].  

PubMed

The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2009-01-01

97

Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.  

PubMed

A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

2014-07-01

98

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism a wide variety of genetically modified organisms have been created to date for numerous research purposesGenetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department

Sibille, Etienne

99

iMap: a database-driven utility to integrate and access the genetic and physical maps of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Because of the unique biological features, a bioin- formatic platform for the integrated genetic and physical map of maize is required for storing, integrating, accessing and visualizing the underlying data. Results: The goal of the Maize Mapping Project is to develop a fully integrated genetic and physical map for maize. To display this integrated map, we have developed iMap.

Zhiwei Fang; Karen C. Cone; Hector Sanchez-villeda; Mary L. Polacco; Michael D. Mcmullen; Steven G. Schroeder; Jack M. Gardiner; Georgia L. Davis; Seth A. Havermann; Young-sun Yim; Irie Vroh-bi; Edward H. Coe

2003-01-01

100

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

101

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods

Marieke Saher; Marjaana Lindeman; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2006-01-01

102

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

103

Poplar trees could be genetically modified to  

E-print Network

Poplar trees could be genetically modified to provide a more accessible source of cellulose yields or the ability to grow on non-arable land. For example, scientists are developing a genetically-modified' biofuels, mainly produced from food crops, were initially regarded as a potential renewable and sustainable

104

Societal aspects of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and

L. J. Frewer; J. Lassen; B. Kettlitz; J. Scholderer; V. Beekman; K. G. Berdal

2004-01-01

105

Genetically Modified Products – Contradictions and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the perception that consumers have about GM products, also taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and production of products based on genetically modified organisms. Therefore, the paper presents both aspects to clarify the concept of genetically modified organism (GMO issues such as typology, national or international regulations regarding this area) and global market development

Rodica Pamfilie; Lavinia-Alexandra Cristescu

2011-01-01

106

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

107

Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

108

Traceability of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

2002-01-01

109

Genetic Dissection of Intermated Recombinant Inbred Lines Using a New Genetic Map of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genetic map of maize, ISU-IBM Map4, that integrates 2029 existing markers with 1329 new indel polymorphism (IDP) markers has been developed using intermated recombinant inbred lines (IRILs) from the intermated B73 3 Mo17 (IBM) population. The website http:\\/ \\/magi.plantgenomics.iastate.edu pro- vides access to IDP primer sequences, sequences from which IDP primers were designed, optimized marker- specific PCR conditions,

Yan Fu; Tsui-Jung Wen; Yefim I. Ronin; Hsin D. Chen; Ling Guo; David I. Mester; Yongjie Yang; Michael Lee; Abraham B. Korol; Daniel A. Ashlock; Patrick S. Schnable

2006-01-01

110

Genetic diversity and performance of maize varieties from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi  

E-print Network

studies were conducted to generate information on the current levels of genetic diversity and agronomic performance of both farmer-developed and commercially-bred maize varieties in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi to help in the identification of sources...

Magorokosho, Cosmos

2007-04-25

111

Intestinal and Peripheral Immune Response to MON810 Maize Ingestion in Weaning and Old Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the gut and peripheral immune response to genetically modified (GM) maize in mice in vulnerable conditions. Weaning and old mice were fed a diet containing MON810 or its parental control maize or a pellet diet containing a GM-free maize for 30 and 90 days. The immunophenotype of intestinal intraepithelial, spleen, and blood lymphocytes of control maize fed

Alberto Finamore; Marianna Roselli; Serena Britti; Giovanni Monastra; Roberto Ambra; Aida Turrini; Elena Mengheri

2008-01-01

112

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens  

E-print Network

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens Goods: Biological Substances, Category B (BSCB), Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMMO) and Exempt · Individuals wishing to ship Biological Substances Category B (BSCB) and/or Genetically Modified

Jia, Songtao

113

Out of America: tracing the genetic footprints of the global diffusion of maize.  

PubMed

Maize was first domesticated in a restricted valley in south-central Mexico. It was diffused throughout the Americas over thousands of years, and following the discovery of the New World by Columbus, was introduced into Europe. Trade and colonization introduced it further into all parts of the world to which it could adapt. Repeated introductions, local selection and adaptation, a highly diverse gene pool and outcrossing nature, and global trade in maize led to difficulty understanding exactly where the diversity of many of the local maize landraces originated. This is particularly true in Africa and Asia, where historical accounts are scarce or contradictory. Knowledge of post-domestication movements of maize around the world would assist in germplasm conservation and plant breeding efforts. To this end, we used SSR markers to genotype multiple individuals from hundreds of representative landraces from around the world. Applying a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic, linguistic, and historical data, we reconstructed possible patterns of maize diffusion throughout the world from American "contribution" centers, which we propose reflect the origins of maize worldwide. These results shed new light on introductions of maize into Africa and Asia. By providing a first globally comprehensive genetic characterization of landraces using markers appropriate to this evolutionary time frame, we explore the post-domestication evolutionary history of maize and highlight original diversity sources that may be tapped for plant improvement in different regions of the world. PMID:23921956

Mir, C; Zerjal, T; Combes, V; Dumas, F; Madur, D; Bedoya, C; Dreisigacker, S; Franco, J; Grudloyma, P; Hao, P X; Hearne, S; Jampatong, C; Laloë, D; Muthamia, Z; Nguyen, T; Prasanna, B M; Taba, S; Xie, C X; Yunus, M; Zhang, S; Warburton, M L; Charcosset, A

2013-11-01

114

Assessing the possibility of genetically modified DNA transfer from GM feed to broiler, laying hen, pig and calf tissues.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of genetically modified DNA transfer from feed containing RR soybean or/and MON810 maize to animal tissues, gut bacterial flora, food of animal origin, and the fate of GM DNA in the animal digestive tract. The experiment was carried out on broilers, laying hens, pigs and calves. All animals were divided into four groups: I--control group (non-modified feed), II--GM soybean group (non-modified maize, RR soybean), III--GM maize group (MON810 maize, non-modified soybean), and IV--GM maize and soybean group (MON810 maize, RR soybean). Samples of blood, organs, tissues, digesta from the gastrointestinal tract, and eggs were analysed for the presence of plant species specific genes, and transgenic sequences of CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator. PCR amplifications of these GM sequences were conducted to investigate the GM DNA transfer from feed to animal tissues and bacterial gut flora. In none of the analysed samples of blood, organs, tissues, eggs, excreta and bacterial DNA were plant reference genes or GM DNA found. A GM crop diet did not affect bacterial gut flora as regards diversity of bacteria species, quantity of particular bacteria species in the animal gut, or incorporation of transgenic DNA to the bacteria genome. It can be concluded that MON810 maize and RR soybean used for animal feeding are substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts. Genetically modified DNA from MON810 maize and RR soybean is digested in the same way as plant DNA, with no probability of its transfer to animal tissues or gut bacterial flora. PMID:24195276

Sieradzki, Z; Mazur, M; Kwiatek, K; Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Koreleski, J; Hanczakowska, E; Arczewska-W?osek, A; Goldsztejn, M

2013-01-01

115

Advances in Maize Genomics and Their Value for Enhancing Genetic Gains from Breeding  

PubMed Central

Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products. PMID:19688107

Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J.; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Crouch, Jonathan H.

2009-01-01

116

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

117

Genetically Modified Pigs for Medicine and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into

RANDALL S. PRATHER; MIAODA SHEN; YIFAN DAI

2008-01-01

118

Splicing regulation as a potential genetic modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases are associated with profound phenotypic variability, which is affected strongly by genetic modifiers. The splicing machinery could be one such modifying system, through a mechanism involving splicing motifs and their interaction with a complex repertoire of splicing factors. Mutations in splicing motifs and changes in levels of splicing factors can result in different splicing patterns. Changes in the

Malka Nissim-Rafinia; Batsheva Kerem

2002-01-01

119

Genetically modified crops deserve greater ecotoxicological scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians are keen to remind us that history tends to rhyme, even if it does not repeat itself. In a historical context, the story of today’s genetically modified (GM) crops resembles that of the synthetic organic insecticides beginning circa the second half of the last century. In practice, GM crops include crop cultivars that have been modified by incorporating one

Nicolas Desneux; Julio S. Bernal

2010-01-01

120

Genetic Dissection of Root Formation in Maize (Zea mays) Reveals Root?type Specific Developmental Programmes  

PubMed Central

• Background Maize (Zea mays) forms a complex root system comprising embryonic and post?embryonic roots. The embryonically formed root system is made up of the primary root and a variable number of seminal roots. Later in development the post?embryonic shoot?borne root system becomes dominant and is responsible together with its lateral roots for the major portion of water and nutrient uptake. Although the anatomical structure of the different root?types is very similar they are initiated from different tissues during embryonic and post?embryonic development. Recently, a number of mutants specifically affected in maize root development have been identified. These mutants indicate that various root?type specific developmental programmes are involved in the establishment of the maize root stock. • Scope This review summarizes these genetic data in the context of the maize root morphology and anatomy and gives an outlook on possible perspectives of the molecular analysis of maize root formation. PMID:14980975

HOCHHOLDINGER, FRANK; WOLL, KATRIN; SAUER, MICHAELA; DEMBINSKY, DIANA

2004-01-01

121

Maize Authentication: Quality Control Methods and Multivariate Analysis (Chemometrics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize is one of the most important cereals because of its numerous applications in processed foods where it is the major or minor component. Apart from maize authenticity issues related to cultivar and geographical origin (national and\\/or international level), there is another important issue related to genetically modified maize. Various objective parameters such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, pigments, heavy

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

2009-01-01

122

Genetically modified mice and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition in transgenic and knockout mice is preferentially assessed by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Awareness is growing, however, that the putative cognitive deficits observed using such a paradigm may be biased by the genetic background and behavioral peculiarities of the specific animals used. Recent progress in cognitive research includes new behavioral tests and refined analysis of performance

Hans-Peter Lipp; David P Wolfer

1998-01-01

123

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pre-treated corn meal were

Sergej Jerman; Aleš Podgornik; Katarina Cankar; Neža ?adež; Mihaela Skrt; Jana Žel; Peter Raspor

2005-01-01

124

Frankenfoods? The Debate Over Genetically Modified Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This discussion case, in which a university research laboratory is vandalized by environmental activists opposed to genetic engineering, focuses on the science and ethics of genetically modified crops. Students consider both the risks and benefits of biotechnology and explore the positions of various stakeholders, including environmentalists, conservationists, agricultural businesses, research scientists, and farmers. Originally written for a vegetable crops course, the case would be appropriate for a wide variety of courses in which biotechnology is discussed.

Rhodes, Bill; Alkhazindar, Maha M.; Schiller, Nancy A.

2001-01-01

125

Patents for genetically modified animals.  

PubMed

Should genetically engineered animals be patented? This issue has been one of the most contentious as lawmakers have grappled with how best to protect intellectual property. Since the 1980 case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a living microorganism is patentable, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has determined that plants and nonhuman animals can be patented. These policy decisions have led to congressional debate on whether animals should be patentable subject matter. Patenting of living organisms is unique for three reasons: the invention itself is alive; the invention in some instances can reproduce itself; and the invention sometimes cannot be adequately described for patent specification purposes, leading to the need for deposit of the invention for patent purposes. PMID:8505268

O'Connor, K W

1993-01-01

126

Genetically Modified Crops: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supporters of genetic engineering point to the potential of genetically modified (GM) crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. But some concerned groups argue that the risks of GM crops may outweigh their benefits. These groups urge avoiding GM crops, or at least subjecting them to more rigorous government scrutiny. Without taking sides, this module shows how to use the issues surrounding GM crops as a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science and genetics and how science and technology interact and influence each other in our society.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

127

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of genetic engineering for the construction of GM yeast is reviewed and possible requirements for their application are discussed. 'Self-cloning' yeast will be the most likely candidate for the first commercial application of GM microorganisms in food and beverage industries. PMID:16233347

Akada, Rinji

2002-01-01

128

An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.  

PubMed

We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods. PMID:20438128

Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

2010-05-26

129

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having modified diacetyl reductase activities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having a reduced or lacking or enhanced diacetyl reductase activity, acetoin reductase activity and/or butanediol dehydrogenase activity are provided. Such bacteria are used in starter cultures in the production of food products including dairy products where it is desired to have a high content of diacetyl and for reducing or completely removing diacetyl in beverages including beers, fruit juices and certain types of wine, where the presence of diacetyl is undesired.

2002-07-02

130

Unpacking atitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and worry best accounted for the data. Negative - but not

Yaël de Liver; Joop van der Pligt; Daniël Wigboldus

2005-01-01

131

The patenting of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property protection, including patents, is a critical factor underpinning investment and progress in the development of genetically modified foods. The GATT agreement made suggestions for the harmonization of patent laws and also made provisions for the avoidance of discrimination based on place of invention. However, plant and animal ‘varieties’ are currently not patentable. Much of the debate concerns what

Hilary Newiss

1998-01-01

132

Understanding Receptivity to Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers in the United States and Europe have not fully embraced genetically modified (gm) foods. In the United States, public opinion remains undecided, whereas in Europe, people tend to regard such foods in a negative light. While opposition to gm products may be more vigorous in Europe, consumer enthusiasm for these foods is actually quite limited on both sides of

John T. Lang; Susanna Hornig Priest

2007-01-01

133

ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

134

Genetically modified foods: the effect of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2005-01-01

135

Genetically Modified Foods: Threat or Opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gene technology has the potential to offer many improvements in the quality and quantity of the world's food supply provided that genuine concerns regarding safety, en- vironmental impact, information and ethics are satisfactorily addressed. In this article, some of the benefits as well as concerns about genetically modified foods are discussed using examples such as tomatoes, soybeans, corn and

Sibel Roller

136

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

137

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

138

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

139

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

140

Strategic environmental assessments for genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops appear to provide a promising option in finding sustainable solutions to end global hunger and poverty, but strategic decisions need to be made on how to spend limited agricultural research funds. Potentially, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) may be used as part of an environmental management system to introduce mainstreaming of environmental considerations in the policy research and

Nicholas A. Linacre; Joanne Gaskell; Mark W. Rosegrant; Jose Falck-Zepeda; Hector Quemada; Mark Halsey; Regina Birner

2006-01-01

141

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

142

A Second Generation of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was a cross-cultural investigation of views regarding Genetically Modified Organisms, specifically food crops, to determine if there were significant differences in the views of French and American respondents. In addition, we sought to introduce the issue of possible consumer benefits of second generation GMOs into the research by examining differences in acceptance of value-enhanced GMOs

Klervi N. Le Marre; Carl L. Witte; Timothy J. Burkink; Marko Grünhagen; Gary J. Wells

2007-01-01

143

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods: A Brief Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever-increasing population burden, genetically modified (GM) foods promised great potential, to solve many of the world's hunger and malnutrition problems, and also to preserve the environment. The authentic GM foods may not only have better nutritional and pharmaceutical values but are also resistant to pest and diseases, tolerant to extreme temperatures and herbicides. Yet they pose many challenges

Farrukh Jamal; Q. S. Haque; Tabish Qidwai; U. P. India

144

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

145

Chinese gatekeeper perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of food distribution gatekeepers in China regarding likely acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by Chinese consumers. It also aims to consider policy implications for food exporting countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory approach using in-depth interviews was adopted. Key informants of a sample of 20 companies in five main

John G. Knight; Hongzhi Gao

2009-01-01

146

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

147

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

148

Should genetically modified organisms be patentable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some of the philosophical issues involved in patenting genetically modified organisms. In particular, what we think has been highly problematic has been the tendency to use terms such as intervention, identification, creation, authorship and artifact interchangeably as criteria for invention. We examine attempts by various people to formulate a philosophically precise set of criteria for

Justine Lacey; Julian Lamont

149

Review article: Quality protein maize (QPM): Genetic manipulation for the nutritional fortification of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereals are the only source of nutrition for one-third of the world's population especially in developing and underdeveloped nations of Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia. The three major cereals, rice, wheat and maize constitute about 85% of total global cereals production amounting to about 200 million tonnes of protein harvest annually at an average of 10% protein content, out of

P. A. Sofi; Shafiq A. Wani; Shabir H. Wani

150

Genetic diversity for RFLPs in European maize inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been proposed for the prediction of the yield potential of hybrids and the assignment of inbreds to heterotic groups. Such use was investigated in 66 diallel crosses among 6 flint and 6 dent inbreds from European maize (Zea mays L.) germ plasm. Inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for seven forage traits in four environments

A. E. Melchinger; J. Boppenmaier; B. S. Dhillon; W. G. Pollmer; R. G. Herrmann

1992-01-01

151

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred  

E-print Network

of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealedGenetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred architecture of starch, protein, and oil content has been demonstrated in the inbred line (IL) long

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

152

Unusual patterns of genetic diversity and gene expression in the maize genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays subsp mays) was domesticated from teosinte (Z. mays subsp parviglumis) in southern Mexico between 6,000 and 9,000 years ago (Matsuoka et al., 2002; Sluyter and Dominguez, 2006). Both domestication and crop improvement involved selection of specific alleles at genes, resulting in reduced genetic diversity in the genes controlling key morphological and agronomic traits. This is termed the

Li Li

2009-01-01

153

GMEnzy: A Genetically Modified Enzybiotic Database  

PubMed Central

GMEs are genetically modified enzybiotics created through molecular engineering approaches to deal with the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance prevalence. We present a fully manually curated database, GMEnzy, which focuses on GMEs and their design strategies, production and purification methods, and biological activity data. GMEnzy collects and integrates all available GMEs and their related information into one web based database. Currently GMEnzy holds 186 GMEs from published literature. The GMEnzy interface is easy to use, and allows users to rapidly retrieve data according to desired search criteria. GMEnzy’s construction will increase the efficiency and convenience of improving these bioactive proteins for specific requirements, and will expand the arsenal available for researches to control drug-resistant pathogens. This database will prove valuable for researchers interested in genetically modified enzybiotics studies. GMEnzy is freely available on the Web at http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/gmenzy/. PMID:25084271

Lu, Hairong; Li, Guodong; Huang, Qingshan

2014-01-01

154

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

155

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

156

Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns  

PubMed Central

Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

2011-01-01

157

Genetic relationships among Native American maize accessions of the Great Plains assessed by RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among 15 accessions of Native American maize from the Great Plains was investigated using random amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RAPDs revealed very high levels of polymorphism among accessions. Banding patterns ranged in percentage\\u000a polymorphism from 46.7% to 86.2% with an overall mean of 70.7% for the primers analyzed. The construction of genetic relationships\\u000a using cluster analysis and principal

D. A. Moeller; B. A. Schaal

1999-01-01

158

High-Efficiency Genetic Transformation of Maize by a Mixture of Pollen and Exogenous DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-efficiency genetic transformation was induced in a genetic stock of maize, Zea mays Linnaeus, by self-pollination of the recipient plants along with DNA of the donor. The highest frequency of transformed endosperm per ear was 9.29%. DNA was applied onto silks in a pollen\\/DNA pasty mixture. The exogenous DNA transferred into endosperm expressed itself in endosperm formation. It is not

Yasuo Ohta

1986-01-01

159

Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods

Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

2007-01-01

160

Genetically Modified Products in Lithuania: Situational Analysis and Consumers’ Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to

Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene

2012-01-01

161

Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley] [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany] [USDA Albany

2013-10-31

162

SHORT COMMUNICATION Does feeding on Bt-maize affect the slug Arion vulgaris  

E-print Network

2 September 2009) Via expression of Cry-proteins, toxic for specific insect groups, genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize offers an effective protection against insect pests-effect but indicated the general poor quality of maize as food resource for slugs. Keywords: Bt-maize; non

Richner, Heinz

163

Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing ?-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

Dymi?ska, L.; G?gor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; ?uk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

2014-09-01

164

[Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].  

PubMed

The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

Ludwicki, J K

1998-01-01

165

Development of an innovative immunoassay for CP4EPSPS and Cry1AB genetically modified protein detection and quantification.  

PubMed

An innovative immunoassay, called enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) Reverse, based on a new conformation of the solid phase, was developed. The solid support was expressly designed to be immersed directly in liquid samples to detect the presence of protein targets. Its application is proposed in those cases where a large number of samples have to be screened simultaneously or when the simultaneous detection of different proteins is required. As a first application, a quantitative immunoassay for Cry1AB protein in genetically modified maize was optimized. The method was tested using genetically modified organism concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were determined as 0.0056 and 0.0168 (expressed as the percentage of genetically modified organisms content), respectively. A qualitative multiplex assay to assess the presence of two genetically modified proteins simultaneously was also established for the case of the Cry1AB and the CP4EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in genetically modified maize and soy, respectively. PMID:16901856

Ermolli, M; Prospero, A; Balla, B; Querci, M; Mazzeo, A; Van Den Eede, G

2006-09-01

166

Opaque-15, a maize mutation with properties of a defective opaque-2 modifier  

SciTech Connect

An opaque mutation was identified that reduces {gamma}-zein synthesis in maize endosperm. The mutation, opaque-15, causes a 2- to 3-fold reduction in {gamma}-zein mRNA and protein synthesis and reduces the proportion of the 27-kDa {gamma}-zein A gene transcript. Although the protein bodies in opaque-15 are similar in size and morphology compared to wild type, there are fewer of them in developing endosperm cells. The opaque-15 mutation maps near the telomere of chromosome 7L, coincident with an opaque-2 modifier locus. Based on its phenotype, opaque-15 appears to be a mutation of an opaque-2 modifier gene. 23 refs., 6 figs.

Dannenhoffer, J.M.; Bostwick, D.E.; Or, E.; Larkins, B.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-03-14

167

Development of sampling approaches for the determination of the presence of genetically modified organisms at the field level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to comply with the European Union regulatory threshold for the adventitious presence of genetically modified organisms\\u000a (GMOs) in food and feed, it is important to trace GMOs from the field. Appropriate sampling methods are needed to accurately\\u000a predict the presence of GMOs at the field level. A 2-year field experiment with two maize varieties differing in kernel colour

Jelka Šuštar-Vozli?; Katja Rostohar; Andrej Blejec; Petra Kozjak; Zoran ?ergan; Vladimir Megli?

2010-01-01

168

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

169

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

170

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen and Jianping Yao A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels

Yao, Jianping

171

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen Jianping Yao, MEMBER Singapore 639798 Abstract. A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of holographic diffusers for diffuse IR wireless home networking. The novel algorithm combines the conventional genetic

Yao, Jianping

172

Identifying Carriers of a Genetic Modifier Using Nonparametric  

E-print Network

Identifying Carriers of a Genetic Modifier Using Nonparametric Bayesian Methods Peter D. Hoff and Newton effects of Min. In order to genetically map the location of the modifier gene, it is necessary a mutant allele at a modifier gene, suppressing the tumor-causing #12;328 Hoff, Halberg, Shedlovsky, Dove

Dove, William

173

Relationship between hybrid performance and AFLP based genetic distance in highland maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the crossing performance of highland maize inbred lines for grain yield, days\\u000a to silk and plant height; estimate genetic distance (GD) among the inbred lines and in association with tester parents, and\\u000a to investigate the relationship of GD with hybrid performance and midparent heterosis (MPH). A total of 26 inbred lines were

B. W. Legesse; A. A. Myburg; K. V. Pixley; S. Twumasi-Afriyie; A. M. Botha

2008-01-01

174

The maize cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene family: organ-specific expression and genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene family (Gpc) in the maize genome was investigated; a genetic variant of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is also described. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of an F2 population shows that the variant is not linked to the three known Gpc genes. However, this trait is linked to one of two genomic DNA fragments

Douglas A. Russell; Martin M. Sachs

1991-01-01

175

Genetic structure and history of Swiss maize ( Zea mays L. ssp. mays ) landraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1930 and 2003 with emphasis on the 1940s maize landraces (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) from all over Switzerland were collected for maintenance and further use in a new Swiss breeding program. The genetic relationship\\u000a and diversity among these accessions stored in the Swiss gene bank is largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that due to the\\u000a unique geographic, climatic,

T. W. Eschholz; P. Stamp; R. Peter; J. Leipner; A. Hund

2010-01-01

176

Identification of functional genetic variations underlying drought tolerance in maize using SNP markers.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a common form of genetic variation and popularly exists in maize genome. An Illumina GoldenGate assay with 1 536 SNP markers was used to genotype maize inbred lines and identified the functional genetic variations underlying drought tolerance by association analysis. Across 80 lines, 1 006 polymorphic SNPs (65.5% of the total) in the assay with good call quality were used to estimate the pattern of genetic diversity, population structure, and familial relatedness. The analysis showed the best number of fixed subgroups was six, which was consistent with their original sources and results using only simple sequence repeat markers. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping with phenotypic traits investigated under water-stressed and well-watered regimes showed rapid LD decline within 100-500 kb along the physical distance of each chromosome, and that 29 SNPs were associated with at least two phenotypic traits in one or more environments, which were related to drought-tolerant or drought-responsive genes. These drought-tolerant SNPs could be converted into functional markers and then used for maize improvement by marker-assisted selection. PMID:21564545

Hao, Zhuanfang; Li, Xinhai; Xie, Chuanxiao; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Liang, Xiaoling; Liu, Lingling; Liu, Sisi; Zhang, Shihuang

2011-08-01

177

Modification of recombinant maize ChitA chitinase by fungal chitinase-modifying proteins.  

PubMed

In commercial maize, there are at least two different alleles of the chiA gene that encode alloforms of ChitA chitinase, a protein that is abundant in developing seed. Both known alloforms are modified by Bz-cmp, a chitinase-modifying protein (cmp) secreted by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris zeicola. One alloform (ChitA-B73) is also modified by Stm-cmp, a protein secreted by the fungal pathogen Stenocarpella maydis, whereas the other (ChitA-LH82) is resistant. The two ChitA alloforms possess six differences or polymorphisms (P1-P6). To determine whether the P2 polymorphism in the chitin-binding domain is responsible for resistance or susceptibility to modification by Stm-cmp, and to determine whether Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp are proteases, heterologous expression strains of the yeast Pichia pastoris that produce recombinant maize ChitA (rChitA) alloforms and mutant rChitAs were created. rChitA alloforms and mutant rChitAs were purified from yeast cultures and used as substrates in assays with Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp. As with native protein, Bz-cmp modified both rChitA-LH82 and rChitA-B73, whereas Stm-cmp modified rChitA-B73 only. Mutant rChitAs, in which the P2 amino acids were changed to those of the other alloform, resulted in a significant exchange in Stm-cmp susceptibility. Amino-terminal sequencing of unmodified and modified rChitA-B73 demonstrated that Stm-cmp cleaves the peptide bond on the amino-terminal side of the P2 alanine, whereas Bz-cmp cleaves in the poly-glycine hinge region, the site of P3. The results demonstrate that Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp are proteases that truncate ChitA chitinase at the amino terminus, but at different sites. Both sites correspond to polymorphisms in the two alloforms, suggesting that the sequence diversity at P2 and P3 is the result of selective pressure to prevent truncation by fungal proteases. PMID:21453431

Naumann, Todd A

2011-05-01

178

Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.  

PubMed

Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles. PMID:12597493

Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

2003-02-01

179

Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species.  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on 12 weed species. We sampled the seedbank before and after cropping. During the season we counted plants and measured seed rain and biomass. Ratios of densities were used to calculate emergence, survival, reproduction and seedbank change. Treatments significantly affected the biomass of six species in beet, eight in maize and five in spring oilseed rape. The effects were generally consistent, with biomass lower in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape and higher in GMHT maize. With few exceptions, emergence was higher in GMHT crops. Subsequent survival was significantly lowered for eight species in beet and six in spring oilseed rape in the GMHT treatments. It was increased for five species in maize and one in spring oilseed rape. Significant effects on seedbank change were found for four species. However, for many species in beet and spring oilseed rape (19 out of 24 cases), seed densities were lower in the seedbank after GMHT cropping. These differences compounded over time would result in large decreases in population densities of arable weeds. In maize, populations may increase. PMID:14561317

Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

2003-01-01

180

The Domestication of Maize The Maize Genome  

E-print Network

resources being developed. Two maize genomes sequenced recently were B73, an elite inbred line grown). A genetic map from 1937 displays the 10 maize chromosomes. Mutants are used to map and study genes

Napp, Nils

181

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

182

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

183

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

184

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

185

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

186

Genetically modified plants and human health.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt 'health campaigns', the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly - through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production - but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal Mw

2008-06-01

187

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

188

Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

189

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

190

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming Simon Harding  

E-print Network

of Cartesian Genetic Programming that includes self-modification operations. One advantage of this approachSelf-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming Simon Harding Dept. of Computer Science Memorial-writing, multi- cell- ularity, or genetic regulation. In many cases it has been difficult to produce general

Fernandez, Thomas

191

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

E-print Network

the subsequent genetic expression [1, 2]. The concept of self-modification can be a unifying way of looking that by utilizing self-modification opera- tions within an existing computational method (a form of geneticSelf Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing Simon

Fernandez, Thomas

192

Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include

Bruce A. Hamilton; Benjamin D. Yu

2012-01-01

193

The genetic basis of natural variation for iron homeostasis in the maize IBM population  

PubMed Central

Background Iron (Fe) deficiency symptoms in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) express as leaf chlorosis, growth retardation, as well as yield reduction and are typically observed when plants grow in calcareous soils at alkaline pH. To improve our understanding of genotypical variability in the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, the objectives of this study were to (i) determine the natural genetic variation of traits related to Fe homeostasis in the maize intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population, (ii) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits, and (iii) to analyze expression levels of genes known to be involved in Fe homeostasis as well as of candidate genes obtained from the QTL analysis. Results In hydroponically-grown maize, a total of 47 and 39 QTLs were detected for the traits recorded under limited and adequate supply of Fe, respectively. Conclusions From the QTL results, we were able to identify new putative candidate genes involved in Fe homeostasis under a deficient or adequate Fe nutritional status, like Ferredoxin class gene, putative ferredoxin PETF, metal tolerance protein MTP4, and MTP8. Furthermore, our expression analysis of candidate genes suggested the importance of trans-acting regulation for 2’-deoxymugineic acid synthase 1 (DMAS1), nicotianamine synthase (NAS3, NAS1), formate dehydrogenase 1 (FDH1), methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (IDI2), aspartate/tyrosine/aromatic aminotransferase (IDI4), and methylthioribose kinase (MTK). PMID:24400634

2014-01-01

194

[Establishment of high efficiency genetic transformation system of maize mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens].  

PubMed

In order to establish high-frequency regeneration and high-efficiency genetic transformation system in maize, the significance of the 11 factors influencing maize embryonic callus induction and 9 factors affecting embryonic callus differentiation was researched by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that genotype had highly significant impact on induction of embryonic callus. The concentration of 6-BA, AgNO3, 2,4-D, ABA, and medium are the significant factors. The Multi-comparison showed that ABA 2 mg/L has a significant influence. Among the callus differentiation factors, the genotype and 6-BA concentration showed a strong main effect, the concentrations of NAA, medium, KT and 2,4-D had significant impacts on callus differentiation. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that the resistant callus rate under the selection pressure of 25 mg/L hygromycin was a reliable indicator for system optimization in resistance screening. The concentration of acetosyringone (AS) showed sensitive differences among genotypes. The highest transformation rate was found with the optimized combination of 24-25 degrees C for co-culture temperature, 0.7 ODx15 min for Agrobacterium tumefa-ciens concentration and incubation-time, and pH 5.5-6.2. By this optimized combination, the survival rate of resistant calli as an index for the stable transformation rates of inbred lines Huangzao 4 and Zong 31 by introducing GUS gene into maize inbred lines was as high as 48.6% and 46.2%, respectively. PMID:19933098

WEI, Kai-Fa

2009-11-01

195

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

2014-01-01

196

DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels

Rafaat M. Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Klaus Dieter Jany

2011-01-01

197

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

198

Unraveling the genetic architecture of subtropical maize (Zea mays L.) lines to assess their utility in breeding programs  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is an increasingly important food crop in southeast Asia. The elucidation of its genetic architecture, accomplished by exploring quantitative trait loci and useful alleles in various lines across numerous breeding programs, is therefore of great interest. The present study aimed to characterize subtropical maize lines using high-quality SNPs distributed throughout the genome. Results We genotyped a panel of 240 subtropical elite maize inbred lines and carried out linkage disequilibrium, genetic diversity, population structure, and principal component analyses on the generated SNP data. The mean SNP distance across the genome was 70 Kb. The genome had both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions; the latter were dominant in areas near the gene-rich telomeric portions where recombination is frequent. A total of 252 haplotype blocks, ranging in size from 1 to 15.8 Mb, were identified. Slow LD decay (200–300 Kb) at r 2 ???0.1 across all chromosomes explained the selection of favorable traits around low LD regions in different breeding programs. The association mapping panel was characterized by strong population substructure. Genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of 0.36. Conclusions The genotyped panel of subtropical maize lines characterized in this study should be useful for association mapping of agronomically important genes. The dissimilarity uncovered among genotypes provides an opportunity to exploit the heterotic potential of subtropical elite maize breeding lines. PMID:24330649

2013-01-01

199

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease: strategies and  

E-print Network

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease modifier gene, Mendelian disorders, disease expression, linkage, association Introduction Genetic factors determined diseases, and this variability may itself involve genetic factors, the so-called modifier genes

Boyer, Edmond

200

Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717

2014-01-01

201

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

202

Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathway in maize  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial nuclear transformation is a novel method for the rapid production of multiplex-transgenic plants, which we have used to dissect and modify a complex metabolic pathway. To demonstrate the principle, we transferred 5 carotenogenic genes controlled by different endosperm-specific promoters into a white maize variety deficient for endosperm carotenoid synthesis. We recovered a diverse population of transgenic plants expressing different enzyme combinations and showing distinct metabolic phenotypes that allowed us to identify and complement rate-limiting steps in the pathway and to demonstrate competition between ?-carotene hydroxylase and bacterial ?-carotene ketolase for substrates in 4 sequential steps of the extended pathway. Importantly, this process allowed us to generate plants with extraordinary levels of ?-carotene and other carotenoids, including complex mixtures of hydroxycarotenoids and ketocarotenoids. Combinatorial transformation is a versatile approach that could be used to modify any metabolic pathway and pathways controlling other biochemical, physiological, or developmental processes. PMID:19011084

Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Breitenbach, Jurgen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2008-01-01

203

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via  

E-print Network

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via Nucleic Acid Hybridization nanotemplates can be dimensionally assembled via nucleic acid hybridization. Biologically derived materials methodologies for genomics, proteomics, and drug discovery. Biological components are also assuming a more

Rubloff, Gary W.

204

Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

2003-01-01

205

Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.  

PubMed

Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops. PMID:22120952

Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

2012-08-01

206

Genetic Analyses with Oat-Maize Addition and Radiation Hybrid Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oat-maize addition lines, with individual maize (Zea mays L.) chromosomes added to the oat (Avena sativa L.) genome via wide hybridization and embryo rescue, simplify the maize genome by 10-fold. Radiation hybrids, derived through\\u000a gamma irradiation of monosomic addition lines, have less than a complete maize chromosome in an oat genomic background. Maize\\u000a genes and gene families can be readily

Ronald L. Phillips; Howard W. Rines

207

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

208

Copyright0 1993 by the Genetics Society of America Transposition Patternof the Maize ElementDs in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-print Network

Copyright0 1993 by the Genetics Society of America Transposition Patternof the Maize Element mutagenesis system based on theAgro- bacterium T-DNA has beendeveloped and used to clone anumber of genes; BANCROFTet al. 1992; SWINBURNE et al. 1992; GREVELDINCet al. 1992). We have used a Ds element cloned

Howard, Martin

209

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

210

The Impact of Genetically Modified Crops on Soil Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifica- tions occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of re- ports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for ex- perimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM

Manuela Giovannetti; Cristiana Sbrana; Alessandra Turrini

2005-01-01

211

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

212

Tropical Maize: Exploiting Maize Genetic Diversity to Develop a Novel Annual Crop for Lignocellulosic Biomass and Sugar Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Maize (Zea mays L.) is truly a remarkable crop species, having been adapted from its tropical origins to a wide diversity of environments\\u000a and end uses. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT webpage, 792 million metric\\u000a tons of maize were produced worldwide in 2007, making it the world’s highest yielding grain crop (http:\\/\\/faostat.fao.org\\/site\\/339\\/default.aspx).\\u000a When

Wendy G. White; Stephen P. Moose; Clifford F. Weil; Maureen C. McCann; Nicholas C. Carpita

213

Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Methods Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 µm Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of 109Cd applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Key Results Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Conclusions Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots. PMID:22455991

Vaculik, Marek; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria; Luxova, Miroslava; Stolarikova, Miroslava; Lux, Alexander

2012-01-01

214

Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%. PMID:22843069

Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

2012-01-01

215

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer'?s decision to purchase GM

Abdullahi O. Abdulkadri; Simone Pinnock; Paula F. Tennant

2004-01-01

216

Development and validation of real-time PCR screening methods for detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes in genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primers and probes were developed for the element-specific detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes, based on their DNA sequence as present in GM maize MON89034. Cry genes are present in many genetically modified (GM) plants and they are important targets for developing GMO element-specific\\u000a detection methods. Element-specific methods can be of use to screen for the presence of GMOs in

Andréia Z. Dinon; Theo W. Prins; Jeroen P. van Dijk; Ana Carolina M. Arisi; Ingrid M. J. Scholtens; Esther J. Kok

2011-01-01

217

Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.  

PubMed

Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-?-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies. PMID:23425633

Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

2013-06-01

218

Genetic Diversity in CIMMYT Nontemperate Maize Germplasm: Landraces, Open Pollinated Varieties, and Inbred Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIMMYT is the source of improved maize (Zea mays L.) breeding material for a signifi cant por- tion of the nontemperate maize growing world. Landraces which did not serve as sources for improved maize germplasm may contain untapped allelic variation useful for future breed- ing progress. Information regarding levels of diversity in different germplasm would help to identify sources for

M. L. Warburton; J. C. Reif; M. Frisch; M. Bohn; C. Bedoya; X. C. Xia; J. Crossa; J. Franco; D. Hoisington; K. Pixley; S. Taba; A. E. Melchinger

2008-01-01

219

The fate of transgenic sequences present in genetically modified plant products in fish feed, investigating the survival of GM soybean DNA fragments during feeding trials in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable protein sources like soybeans, canola and maize gluten are good alternatives to fish meal. However, a large proportion of such products available on the international market may possess genetically modified (GM) components. This report concerns a study to investigate the fate and survival of ingested GM soy DNA fragments (120 and 195 bp) and a 180-bp fragment of the

Monica Sanden; Ian J Bruce; M. Azizur Rahman; Gro-Ingunn Hemre

2004-01-01

220

Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (PInteraction = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (PInteraction = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (PInteraction = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

2014-11-01

221

Soil Microbial and Faunal Community Responses to Maize and Insecticide in Two Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of maize (Zea mays L.), genetically modified to express the Cry1Ab protein (Bt), and an insecticide on soil microbial and faunal communities were assessed in a glasshouse experiment. Soil for the experiment was taken from field sites where the same maize cultivars were grown to allow comparison between results under glasshouse conditions with those from field trials. Plants

Bryan S. Griffiths; Sandra Caul; Jacqueline Thompson; A. Nicholas E. Birch; Charles Scrimgeour; Jérôme Cortet; Andrew Foggo; Christine A. Hackett; Paul Henning Krogh

2006-01-01

222

Molecular Improvement of Tropical Maize for Drought Stress Tolerance in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C4 grass Zea mays (maize or corn) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice in terms of production and the second most widespread genetically modified (GM) crop, after soybean. Its demand is predicted to increase by 45% by the year 2020. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the

Sylvester Anami; Marc De Block; Jesse Machuka; Mieke Van Lijsebettens

2009-01-01

223

A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties  

PubMed Central

Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM) plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set. PMID:21324199

2011-01-01

224

The genetic architecture of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination.  

PubMed

Individual kernel weight is an important trait for maize yield determination. We have identified genomic regions controlling this trait by using the B73xMo17 population; however, the effect of genetic background on control of this complex trait and its physiological components is not yet known. The objective of this study was to understand how genetic background affected our previous results. Two nested stable recombinant inbred line populations (N209xMo17 and R18xMo17) were designed for this purpose. A total of 408 recombinant inbred lines were genotyped and phenotyped at two environments for kernel weight and five other traits related to kernel growth and development. All traits showed very high and significant (P < 0.001) phenotypic variability and medium-to-high heritability (0.60-0.90). When N209xMo17 and R18xMo17 were analyzed separately, a total of 23 environmentally stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) and five epistatic interactions were detected for N209xMo17. For R18xMo17, 59 environmentally stable QTL and 17 epistatic interactions were detected. A joint analysis detected 14 stable QTL regardless of the genetic background. Between 57 and 83% of detected QTL were population specific, denoting medium-to-high genetic background effects. This percentage was dependent on the trait. A meta-analysis including our previous B73xMo17 results identified five relevant genomic regions deserving further characterization. In summary, our grain filling traits were dominated by small additive QTL with several epistatic and few environmental interactions and medium-to-high genetic background effects. This study demonstrates that the number of detected QTL and additive effects for different physiologically related grain filling traits need to be understood relative to the specific germplasm. PMID:25237113

Prado, Santiago Alvarez; López, César G; Senior, M Lynn; Borrás, Lucas

2014-09-01

225

The Genetic Architecture of Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernel Weight Determination  

PubMed Central

Individual kernel weight is an important trait for maize yield determination. We have identified genomic regions controlling this trait by using the B73xMo17 population; however, the effect of genetic background on control of this complex trait and its physiological components is not yet known. The objective of this study was to understand how genetic background affected our previous results. Two nested stable recombinant inbred line populations (N209xMo17 and R18xMo17) were designed for this purpose. A total of 408 recombinant inbred lines were genotyped and phenotyped at two environments for kernel weight and five other traits related to kernel growth and development. All traits showed very high and significant (P < 0.001) phenotypic variability and medium-to-high heritability (0.60?0.90). When N209xMo17 and R18xMo17 were analyzed separately, a total of 23 environmentally stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) and five epistatic interactions were detected for N209xMo17. For R18xMo17, 59 environmentally stable QTL and 17 epistatic interactions were detected. A joint analysis detected 14 stable QTL regardless of the genetic background. Between 57 and 83% of detected QTL were population specific, denoting medium-to-high genetic background effects. This percentage was dependent on the trait. A meta-analysis including our previous B73xMo17 results identified five relevant genomic regions deserving further characterization. In summary, our grain filling traits were dominated by small additive QTL with several epistatic and few environmental interactions and medium-to-high genetic background effects. This study demonstrates that the number of detected QTL and additive effects for different physiologically related grain filling traits need to be understood relative to the specific germplasm. PMID:25237113

Prado, Santiago Alvarez; Lopez, Cesar G.; Senior, M. Lynn; Borras, Lucas

2014-01-01

226

Low-income consumers, though less aware of genetically modified foods, are concerned and want labels  

E-print Network

genetically modified foods was low, but ethical and safetygenetically modified food was introduced, concerns among the focus group participants focused on ethics and safety.food safety, such as that biotechnology. Consumer attitudes about genetically modified

King, Nicelma J.

2003-01-01

227

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

228

MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. PMID:21500243

García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-01-01

229

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

230

Genetic Insights into Graminella nigrifrons Competence for Maize fine streak virus Infection and Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Most plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are transmitted by one or a few closely related insect species. Additionally, intraspecific differences in transmission efficacy often exist among races/biotypes within vector species and among strains within a virus species. The black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, is the only known vector of the persistent propagative rhabdovirus Maize fine streak virus (MFSV). Only a small percentage of leafhoppers are capable of transmitting the virus, although the mechanisms underlying vector competence are not well understood. Methodology RNA-Seq was carried out to explore transcript expression changes and sequence variation in G. nigrifrons and MFSV that may be associated with the ability of the vector to acquire and transmit the virus. RT-qPCR assays were used to validate differential transcript accumulation. Results/Significance Feeding on MFSV-infected maize elicited a considerable transcriptional response in G. nigrifrons, with increased expression of cytoskeleton organization and immunity transcripts in infected leafhoppers. Differences between leafhoppers capable of transmitting MFSV, relative to non-transmitting but infected leafhoppers were more limited, which may reflect difficulties discerning between the two groups and/or the likelihood that the transmitter phenotype results from one or a few genetic differences. The ability of infected leafhoppers to transmit MFSV did not appear associated with virus transcript accumulation in the infected leafhoppers or sequence polymorphisms in the viral genome. However, the non-structural MFSV 3 gene was expressed at unexpectedly high levels in infected leafhoppers, suggesting it plays an active role in the infection of the insect host. The results of this study begin to define the functional roles of specific G. nigrifrons and MFSV genes in the viral transmission process. PMID:25420026

Michel, Andrew P.; Stewart, Lucy R.; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.

2014-01-01

231

Huntingtin Interacting Proteins Are Genetic Modifiers of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%–4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to co-immunoprecipitate with full-length Htt from mouse brain. These studies demonstrate that high-throughput screening for protein interactions combined with genetic validation in a model organism is a powerful approach for identifying novel candidate modifiers of polyglutamine toxicity. PMID:17500595

Becklin, Robert R; Chettier, Rakesh; Bell, Russell; Phansalkar, Amit; Strand, Andrew; Torcassi, Cameron; Savage, Justin; Hurlburt, Anthony; Cha, Guang-Ho; Ukani, Lubna; Chepanoske, Cindy Lou; Zhen, Yuejun; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Olson, James; Kurschner, Cornelia; Ellerby, Lisa M; Peltier, John M; Botas, Juan; Hughes, Robert E

2007-01-01

232

Genetic modifiers of cancer risk in Lynch syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

The report by Aldred Scott Warthin in 1913 of a cancer family history and expanded on by Henry T. Lynch demonstrated one of the most enduring traits observed in patients with Lynch syndrome. The recognition of a variety of malignancies occurring at differing ages within a single family suggested the role of genetic variance on disease expression in an autosomal dominantly inherited genetic condition. With the identification of the genetic basis of Lynch syndrome and the subsequent collection of families and their medical records it has become possible to identify subtle genetic effects that influence the age at which disease onset occurs in this cancer predisposition. Knowledge about genetic modifiers influencing disease expression has the potential to be used to personalise prophylactic screening measures to maximise the benefits for family members and their carers. PMID:23471748

Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Wijnen, Juul T; Grice, Desma M; Scott, Rodney J

2013-06-01

233

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

234

LABELING, TRADE AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOS): A PROPOSED SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this brief article is to assess the current controversy over Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and its potential implications for the global trading system. More importantly, it offers a solution to the serious potential for injury to this system, to be developed below. The remainder of this article is divided into three sections. The next section

C. Ford Runge; Lee Ann Jackson

1999-01-01

235

Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Food: Empirical Evidence From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the advent of genetically modified (GM) foods changed the agricultural scenario in developed countries, existing research confirms that consumer perception about the consumption of the same is often distorted. GM foods entered the Indian market amid widespread controversies and criticisms. There exists a host of studies that tried to establish the factors that shape favorable consumer perception toward GM

Santanu Mandal; Rik Paul

2012-01-01

236

CONSENSUS CONFERENCES ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report goes on to review the introduction and evolution of the use of consensus conferences in Norway, as well as their evaluation. The specific case of the 1996 consensus conference on genetically modified food is described in terms of its organisation, process and results. The key findings of the independent evaluation report on the consensus conference, issued in 1997,

Alf J. Mørkrid

2001-01-01

237

Attitudes of the Croatian population toward genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the Croatian public has been relatively indifferent and unaware of issues related to genetically modified (GM) food products. However, the situation has changed and the Croatian public is becoming deeply sceptical about the benefits of GM food, and also generally about the food they eat. This paper examines some of the dimensions of the attitudes of the Croatian

Natasa Renko

2003-01-01

238

Regulating genetically modified organisms in the interests of whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeks to answer the question “whose interests are being served by the laws of purporting to regulate genetically modified organisms?“ Considers the interests of the seed\\/chemical multinational companies, trade and investment for the countries in which these companies operate and the innovation of science and technology. Covers the European interests with regards to the single internal market and the conflict

Diane Ryland

2001-01-01

239

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

240

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

2004-01-01

241

Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Food With Consumer Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread consumer resistance towards genetically modified (GM) food, particularly as reported in news media, has led to slow adoption of this technology outside of North America. Much of the consumer resistance appears to stem from public perceptions that GM crops benefit large multinational corporations, food producers, and typically have no apparent consumer benefits. In order to test whether clearly defined

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

242

Consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops are popular in many regions of the world, but their deployment in Africa is hindered by safety concerns and regulatory issues, although the continent is in dire need of boosting its food production. Although consumers' acceptance of GM food has been analyzed in many continents, no such studies have been conducted in Africa. Therefore, a survey

Simon Chege Kimenju; Hugo De Groote

2008-01-01

243

Acceptance of genetically modified food in India: perspectives of gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer and public policy resistance to genetically modified (GM) foods in rich countries has caused governments in many poor countries to withhold official permission for planting GM food crops for fear of damaging export markets for conventional crops. A total of 15 countries are already producing GM food crops. If China and India, the world's two most populous

John Knight; Amit Paradkar

2008-01-01

244

Response Dimensions Towards Genetically Modified Foods: A Consumer Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing public awareness of genetically modified (GM) foods and their availability on retail store shelves has resulted in profound cleavages of opinions amongst various interest groups regarding the possible risks they pose to consumers and their ethical implications. This paper proposes that response patterns of consumers may depend upon their moral and ethical orientations. This paper suggests that clearer groupings

Ali Quazi; Gamini Herath

2002-01-01

245

Who Should Certify the Safety of Genetically Modified Foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of addressing consumer concerns regarding the use of genetically modified foods are evaluated using conjoint analysis � the use of a familiar brand and government certification. In one survey, consumers were asked to rate hypothetical products based on brand, price, and production technology attributes. In a second survey, consumers rated hypothetical products that included government certification, price, and

Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

2005-01-01

246

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

247

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

248

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

249

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

250

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

251

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

252

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

253

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

254

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

255

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

256

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

257

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

258

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A TELEPHONE SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a pilot U.S. national telephone survey on genetically modified foods (vegetable oil, cornflake cereal, and salmon). The survey featured contingent valuation in which respondents chose between the GM and non-GM alternatives. The binary and multinomial logit models yield estimated willingness to pay to avoid the GM alternatives. Perceived risk of GM food is an important

Naoya Kaneko; Wen S. Chern

2003-01-01

259

Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

Renee B Kim

2009-01-01

260

Genetically modified organisms and risks of their introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this review is to assess food risks of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. The author analyzes the properties of the several classes of target proteins used in the transgenic constructions and discusses the problems that arise due to the pleiotropic action of transgenic proteins, the horizontal transfer of the transgenic constructions, primarily in bacteria,

A. M. Kulikov

2005-01-01

261

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

262

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

263

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

264

Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research using genetically modified mice has revealed significant sex differences in cardiac phenotypes. In the majority of strains, females display a lower mortality, less severe hypertrophy, better preserved function and mitigated cardiac pathology compared with male counterparts. Thus, gender is an independent determinant for the development of cardiac phenotype in murine models. While there is strong evidence for estrogen

Xiao-Jun Du

2004-01-01

265

The Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms on Human Health  

E-print Network

What are genetically modified organisms? A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic structure has been altered by incorporating a gene that will express a desirable trait, often termed gene splicing. Most often the transferred gene allows the organism to express a trait that will add to its desirability to producers or consumers of the end product. For example, the first food produced from gene splicing and evaluated by the FDA was the Flavr Savr Tomato. Tomatoes generally get softer as they ripen because of a protein in the tomato that breaks down the cell walls of the tomato, which makes it difficult to transport a quality ripe tomato across the country. The Flavr Savr Tomato had a gene spliced into its DNA to prevent the breakdown of the tomatoes ’ cell walls. The result of the incorporation of the new gene is a firm ripe

Sereana Howard Dresbach Ph. D; Holly Flax M. S; Amanda Sokolowski M. S; John Allred Ph. D

266

An Efficient Vector System to Modify Cells Genetically  

PubMed Central

The transfer of foreign genes into mammalian cells has been essential for understanding the functions of genes and mechanisms of genetic diseases, for the production of coding proteins and for gene therapy applications. Currently, the identification and selection of cells that have received transferred genetic material can be accomplished by methods, including drug selection, reporter enzyme detection and GFP imaging. These methods may confer antibiotic resistance, or be disruptive, or require special equipment. In this study, we labeled genetically modified cells with a cell surface biotinylation tag by co-transfecting cells with BirA, a biotin ligase. The modified cells can be quickly isolated for downstream applications using a simple streptavidin bead method. This system can also be used to screen cells expressing two sets of genes from separate vectors. PMID:22096482

Han, Huamin; Liu, Qingjun; He, Wen; Ong, Kristy; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Bin

2011-01-01

267

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms  

E-print Network

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms Anne genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results-L, Nagarajan M, Veyrieras J-B, Bottin H, Steinmetz LM, et al. (2012) Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Relationship of the channels of normal maize starch to the properties of its modified products.  

PubMed

Starches from 5 inbred lines of normal maize with different relative average degrees of channelization (RADC) that could be divided into two groups (2 with RADC values of 1.49-1.52 and 3 with RADC values of 0.10-0.17) were reacted with 4 highly reactive reagents. No consistent correlations between RADC and the effects of derivatization with the 4 reagents on physical properties, either without or after surface protein removal, were found. Reaction with propylene oxide, a slowly reacting reagent whose reaction should be independent of RADC, resulted in an inverse relationship between several physical properties and RADC. The results indicate that there are inherent granular and molecular differences in the maize starches that control reactivity that are more influential than RADC (at least with the degrees of modification used), that the differences carry through chemical derivatization, and that different reagents react differently with different starches. PMID:23218382

Sui, Zhongquan; BeMiller, James N

2013-01-30

269

Modified ?-amylase activity among insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fitness cost is usually associated with insecticide resistance and may be mitigated by increased energy accumulation and mobilization. Preliminary evidence in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggested possible involvement of amylases in such phenomenon. Therefore, ?-amylases were purified from an insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant strains (one with fitness cost [resistant cost strain], and the other without it [resistant no-cost strain]).

K. V. G. Lopes; L. B. Silva; A. P. Reis; M. G. A. Oliveira; R. N. C. Guedes

2010-01-01

270

Copyright 01996 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Evaluation of Candidate Genes for the Moml Modifier  

E-print Network

strains and fine-structure genetic mapping. For the Moml modifier of intestinal adenomas caused by A p p, Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Boston, MA 02115. We previously mapped themajor genetic modifierCopyright 01996 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Evaluation of Candidate Genes

Dove, William

271

Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.  

PubMed

Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. PMID:22333321

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

2012-01-01

272

Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein ?-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A; McNally, Elizabeth M

2011-01-01

273

Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein ?-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A.

2011-01-01

274

Genetic Analysis of B-Peru, a Regulatory Gene in Maize  

PubMed Central

The B locus in maize is required for the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments. Numerous B alleles have been described: each determines a particular pattern of pigment synthesis with respect to the tissues that are pigmented and the time during development that pigment synthesis begins. We report here a genetic analysis of one B allele, B-Peru, which regulates synthesis of pigments in both kernel and plant tissues. We used stocks with active Mutator transposable elements to produce eight mutations in B-Peru. All eight alter pigment synthesis in all the kernel and plant tissues pigmented by B-Peru, suggesting that each mutation has disrupted a region of the gene required for expression in all tissues. Six of the mutations cause a colorless phenotype, while two cause a reduction in pigment in both kernel and plant tissues. Four of the mutations are unstable, and four are stable upon self-pollination. Multiple independent revertants were isolated from each unstable allele. DNA blot analysis demonstrated that all eight mutants are the result of insertions within an ~5-kb region that encodes the B-Peru transcript. One of the four unstable alleles contains a Mu element, Mu1.7. Two others contain insertions related to the Spm family of transposable elements. Thus, our Mutator stocks also contained active transposable elements from the unrelated Spm family. Our experiments suggest that the B-Peru allele is not complex, but contains a single coding region that regulates pigment synthesis in multiple tissues. PMID:1849854

Patterson, G. I.; Harris, L. J.; Walbot, V.; Chandler, V. L.

1991-01-01

275

Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661  

PubMed Central

In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodriguez, Victor M.

2013-01-01

276

Genetic mechanisms underlying apimaysin and maysin synthesis and corn earworm antibiosis in maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed Central

C-glycosyl flavones in maize silks confer resistance (i.e., antibiosis) to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea [Boddie]) larvae and are distinguished by their B-ring substitutions, with maysin and apimaysin being the di- and monohydroxy B-ring forms, respectively. Herein, we examine the genetic mechanisms underlying the synthesis of maysin and apimaysin and the corresponding effects on corn earworm larval growth. Using an F2 population, we found a quantitative trait locus (QTL), rem1, which accounted for 55.3% of the phenotypic variance for maysin, and a QTL, pr1, which explained 64.7% of the phenotypic variance for apimaysin. The maysin QTL did not affect apimaysin synthesis, and the apimaysin QTL did not affect maysin synthesis, suggesting that the synthesis of these closely related compounds occurs independently. The two QTLs, rem1 and pr1, were involved in a significant epistatic interaction for total flavones, suggesting that a ceiling exists governing the total possible amount of C-glycosyl flavone. The maysin and apimaysin QTLs were significant QTLs for corn earworm antibiosis, accounting for 14. 1% (rem1) and 14.7% (pr1) of the phenotypic variation. An additional QTL, represented by umc85 on the short arm of chromosome 6, affected antibiosis (R2 = 15.2%), but did not affect the synthesis of the C-glycosyl flavones. PMID:9691053

Lee, E A; Byrne, P F; McMullen, M D; Snook, M E; Wiseman, B R; Widstrom, N W; Coe, E H

1998-01-01

277

Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661.  

PubMed

In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodríguez, Víctor M; Velasco, Pablo; Garrido, José L; Revilla, Pedro; Ordás, Amando; Butrón, Ana

2013-09-01

278

Copyright 01993 by the Genetics Society of Arllericd Inheritanceof the Morphological Differences Between Maize and Teosinte  

E-print Network

). This work provided a detailed picture of the inheritance of the key traits includingestimates of the minimum to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an F:! population derived from a cross of maize (Zeamays ssp associations(putative QTLs) between the MMLs and nine key traits that distinguish maize and teosinte were

Doebley, John

279

Genetic Variation in Fusarium Section Liseola from No-Till Maize in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective

S. N. Chulze; M. L. Ramirez; A. Torres; J. F. Leslie

2000-01-01

280

Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants used for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

The reliable quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by real-time PCR requires, besides thoroughly validated quantitative detection methods, sustainable calibration systems. The latter establishes the anchor points for the measured value and the measurement unit, respectively. In this paper, the suitability of two types of DNA calibrants, i.e. plasmid DNA and genomic DNA extracted from plant leaves, for the certification of the GMO content in reference materials as copy number ratio between two targeted DNA sequences was investigated. The PCR efficiencies and coefficients of determination of the calibration curves as well as the measured copy number ratios for three powder certified reference materials (CRMs), namely ERM-BF415e (NK603 maize), ERM-BF425c (356043 soya), and ERM-BF427c (98140 maize), originally certified for their mass fraction of GMO, were compared for both types of calibrants. In all three systems investigated, the PCR efficiencies of plasmid DNA were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the genomic DNA extracted from seed powders rather than those of the genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although the mean DNA copy number ratios for each CRM overlapped within their uncertainties, the DNA copy number ratios were significantly different using the two types of calibrants. Based on these observations, both plasmid and leaf genomic DNA calibrants would be technically suitable as anchor points for the calibration of the real-time PCR methods applied in this study. However, the most suitable approach to establish a sustainable traceability chain is to fix a reference system based on plasmid DNA. PMID:22638881

Caprioara-Buda, M; Meyer, W; Jeynov, B; Corbisier, P; Trapmann, S; Emons, H

2012-07-01

281

Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

2014-02-01

282

Low phytic acid 1 mutation in maize modifies density, starch properties, cations, and fiber contents in the seed.  

PubMed

Monogastric animals are unable to digest phytic acid, so it represents an antinutritional factor and also an environmental problem. One strategy to solve this problem is the utilization of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants that accumulate low levels of phytic P and high levels of free phosphate in the seeds; among the lpa maize mutants lpa1 exhibited the highest reduction of phytic acid in the seed. This study indicated that the low phytic acid mutations exerted pleiotropic effects not directly connected to the phytic acid pathway, such as on seed density, content of ions, and the antioxidant compounds present in the kernels. Furthermore some nutritional properties of the flour were altered by the lpa1 mutations, in particular lignin and protein content, while the starch does not seem to be modified as to the total amount and in the amylose/amylopectin ratio, but alterations were noticed in the structure and size of granules. PMID:23638689

Landoni, Michela; Cerino Badone, Francesco; Haman, Nabil; Schiraldi, Alberto; Fessas, Dimitrios; Cesari, Valentina; Toschi, Ivan; Cremona, Roberta; Delogu, Chiara; Villa, Daniela; Cassani, Elena; Pilu, Roberto

2013-05-15

283

Molecular genetics of the R complex of maize. Final technical report DE-FG02-86ER13627  

SciTech Connect

A molecular genetic characterization of the maize R-r complex of maize was completed during the period of support. The complex was shown to consist of two main regions: the P region, containing the r-p gene which controlled pigmentation of plant parts, and the S subcomplex, containing two rl-s genes in head-to-head orientation and a nonfunctional component termed rl-q. By examining the DNA sequences at the junction of the rl genes, the complex was shown to be derived by a series of abortive transposition events. The transposable element involved in the gene duplication and rearrangements was characterized and called doppia. Meiotic instability of the R-r complex was also characterized. Loss of P or S function was associated with several structural changes including intrachromosomal recombination and excision of a novel transposable element that appears to show instability only during meiosis.

Dellaporta, Stephen

2000-10-01

284

Genetic interactions and modifier genes in Hirschsprung's disease.  

PubMed

Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital disorder that occurs in 1:5000 live births. It is characterised by an absence of enteric neurons along a variable region of the gastrointestinal tract. Hirschsprung's disease is classified as a multigenic disorder, because the same phenotype is associated with mutations in multiple distinct genes. Furthermore, the genetics of Hirschsprung's disease are highly complex and not strictly Mendelian. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung's disease also suggests the involvement of modifier genes. Here, we summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying Hirschsprung's disease based on human and animal studies, focusing on the principal causative genes, their interactions, and the role of modifier genes. PMID:22174542

Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Richard B

2011-12-01

285

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

286

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

287

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks can be characterised by several parameters. A risk is commonly defined to be the product of the extent of damage and\\u000a the probability of its occurrence. But there are several other characteristics to be taken into account: degree of certainty\\u000a in determining extent and probability, persistency, ubiquity, irreversibility, delay effect and mobilisation potential. As\\u000a potential risks of genetically modified

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

288

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical\\u000a trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which\\u000a may arise due to the clinical use of

B. Anliker; S. Longhurst; C. J. Buchholz

2010-01-01

289

Genetically modified organisms in agriculture: can regulations work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been recognised to be economically beneficial to subsistence farmers and have been projected\\u000a as essential tools for addressing challenges in hunger, environmental sustainability and international development. Yet the\\u000a uncertainty of their effects on human health and the undesirable ecological consequences of these organisms have raised concerns\\u000a on the rapid pace of their production. Regulating the

David Kothamasi; Saskia Vermeylen

2011-01-01

290

CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation

Kristine M. Grimsrud; Jill J. McCluskey; Maria L. Loureiro; Thomas I. Wahl

2002-01-01

291

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

292

Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Food Products in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a large U.S. export market, there has been growing public opposition against genetically modified (GM) foods. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method, findings show the discount needed for Japanese Seikyou consumers to purchase GM food products is positively affected (i.e., a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM food, higher levels

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2003-01-01

293

Genetic Factors Modifying Clinical Expression of Autosomal Dominant RP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors modifying clinical expression of inherited diseases are likely to be complex, involving genetic factors, environmental\\u000a factors and stochastic effects. One way to reduce the complexity is to focus on individuals who share a dominant mutation\\u000a identical by descent, thus eliminating variability in the underlying mutation and variation in cis to the mutation. A further simplification is to limit analysis

Stephen P. Daiger; Suma P. Shankar; Alice B. Schindler; Lori S. Sullivan; Sara J. Bowne; Terri M. King; E. Warick Daw; Edwin M. Stone; John R. Heckenlively

294

Genetic Modifiers That Affect Phenotypic Expression of Retinal Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in onset, progression, severity, and phenotypic expression is commonly observed in many retinal diseases (Tables\\u000a 1 and 2). Although interfamily variability may be caused by environmental or allelic differences, intrafamily variability,\\u000a when a common mutation is segregating, may also be due to genetic modifiers (1–3). In contrast to independently acting alleles that may lead to an additive effect on

Malia M. Edwards; Dennis M. Maddox; Jungyeon Won; Jürgen K. Naggert; Patsy M. Nishina

2007-01-01

295

Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable\\u000a public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological\\u000a risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important\\u000a in regulating

Wenke Liu

2010-01-01

296

Explaining International Differences in Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have adopted labeling policies for genetically modified (GM) food, and the regulations vary considerably across countries. We evaluate the importance of political-economic factors implicit in the choice of GM food labeling regulations. Using an analytical model, we show that production and trade-related interests play a prominent role in labeling decision-making. This conclusion is validated by an empirical analysis

Guillaume P. Gruère; Colin A. Carter; Y. Hossein Farzin

2009-01-01

297

NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS AND CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes U.S. consumers�' acceptance of genetically modified foods within the ordered-probit-model framework. The willingness to consumer three difference GM foods is modeled in terms of consumers�' economic, demographic, and value attributes. Empirical results indicate that respondents�' attitudes and perceptions of biotechnology and their views about various private and public institutions associated with this technology are important determinants of

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin M. Onyango; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Brian J. Schilling; William K. Hallman

2003-01-01

298

Detection of Genetically Modified Plants in Seeds, Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different techniques and analytical strategies are applied for detecting and quantifying the presence of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plants in food and feed products or in seeds. DNA-based detection is performed by qualitative PCR or by quantitative\\u000a real-time PCR, whereas for protein-based detection immunoassays such as lateral flow devices and ELISA are applied. The testing\\u000a strategy for GMO detection is constituted

Lutz Grohmann

299

Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops – European and American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified (GM) crops occupy a unique place in the evolution of risk governance approaches to dealing with modern,\\u000a path-breaking technologies. They were the first such technology to be regulated on a precautionary basis, in a generic sense,\\u000a from the earliest stages of a technology development process that began in the 1980s and is still evolving.\\u000a \\u000a Today, distinctively different risk

Joyce Tait

300

Regulating Genetically-Modified Seeds in Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the implications of biosafety regulation on national seed policy. Biosafety regulation—the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology, in particular, the release of genetically-modified organisms—has been extensively discussed at various national and international fora. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks, and, at the international

Patricia L. Traynor; John Komen

2002-01-01

301

One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs. PMID:23181490

Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

2013-01-01

302

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems  

E-print Network

potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk

Gruner, Daniel S.

303

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

304

Genetically modified pigs produced with a nonviral episomal vector  

PubMed Central

Genetic modification of cells and animals is an invaluable tool for biotechnology and biomedicine. Currently, integrating vectors are used for this purpose. These vectors, however, may lead to insertional mutagenesis and variable transgene expression and can undergo silencing. Scaffold/matrix attachment region-based vectors are nonviral expression systems that replicate autonomously in mammalian cells, thereby making possible safe and reliable genetic modification of higher eukaryotic cells and organisms. In this study, genetically modified pig fetuses were produced with the scaffold/matrix attachment region-based vector pEPI, delivered to embryos by the sperm-mediated gene transfer method. The pEPI vector was detected in 12 of 18 fetuses in the different tissues analyzed and was shown to be retained as an episome. The reporter gene encoded by the pEPI vector was expressed in 9 of 12 genetically modified fetuses. In positive animals, all tissues analyzed expressed the reporter gene; moreover in these tissues, the positive cells were on the average 79%. The high percentage of EGFP-expressing cells and the absence of mosaicism have important implications for biotechnological and biomedical applications. These results are an important step forward in animal transgenesis and can provide the basis for the future development of germ-line gene therapy. PMID:17101993

Manzini, Stefano; Vargiolu, Alessia; Stehle, Isa M; Bacci, Maria Laura; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Giovannoni, Roberto; Zannoni, Augusta; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Forni, Monica; Donini, Pierluigi; Papa, Michele; Lipps, Hans J; Lavitrano, Marialuisa

2006-01-01

305

Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.  

PubMed

Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification. PMID:23265541

Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

2013-05-01

306

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

307

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis  

E-print Network

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis Benjamin #12;Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods In Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis Abstract and desirability of food biotechnology 2 #12;Introduction Consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) 1 food

Neimark, Alexander V.

308

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model  

E-print Network

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Benjamin for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Abstract Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide foods for Southern Korea. #12;South Korea public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random

Neimark, Alexander V.

309

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna  

E-print Network

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The cultivation of genetically modified (GM: Duc C, Nentwig W, Lindfeld A (2011) No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat

Richner, Heinz

310

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant Retrovirus  

E-print Network

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant to genetically modify a clone of neural stem cells, C17, to overproduce neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The cells were re- sults show that: (i) most of the genetically modified cells express both NT-3 and lacZ genes

Fischer, Itzhak

311

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

312

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

313

The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.  

PubMed

A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:23549349

Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

2013-01-01

314

Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.  

PubMed

A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context. PMID:24971889

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

2014-07-23

315

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation.  

PubMed

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pretreated corn meal were chosen as model food. Two commercially available CIM disk columns were tested: DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) and QA (quaternary amine). Preliminary separations were performed with standard solution of salmon DNA at different pH values and different NaCl concentrations in mobile phase. DEAE groups and pH 8 were chosen for further isolations of DNA from a complex matrix-food extract. The quality and quantity of isolated DNA were tested on agarose gel electrophoresis, with UV-scanning spectrophotometry, and by amplification with real-time PCR. DNA isolated in this way was of suitable quality for further PCR analyses. The described method is also applicable for DNA isolation from processed foods with decreased DNA content. Furthermore, it is more effective and less time-consuming in comparison with the existing proposed methods for isolation of DNA from plant-derived foods. PMID:15782956

Jerman, Sergej; Podgornik, Ales; Cankar, Katarina; Cadet, Neza; Skrt, Mihaela; Zel, Jana; Raspor, Peter

2005-02-11

316

A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

2014-01-01

317

Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.  

PubMed

Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czy?ewska, Krystyna

2013-01-01

318

[The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].  

PubMed

This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society. PMID:22267031

Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

2012-02-01

319

[Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].  

PubMed

Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops. PMID:24645345

Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

2013-12-01

320

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

321

Detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms using very short, locked nucleic acid TaqMan probes.  

PubMed

Many countries have introduced mandatory labeling requirements on foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based upon the TaqMan probe chemistry has become the method mostly used to support these regulations; moreover, event-specific PCR is the preferred method in GMO detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of the exogenous integrant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of very short (eight-nucleotide long), locked nucleic acid (LNA) TaqMan probes in 5'-nuclease PCR assays for the detection and quantification of GMOs. Classic TaqMan and LNA TaqMan probes were compared for the analysis of the maize MON810 transgene. The performance of the two types of probes was tested on the maize endogenous reference gene hmga, the CaMV 35S promoter, and the hsp70/cryIA(b) construct as well as for the event-specific 5'-integration junction of MON810, using plasmids as standard reference molecules. The results of our study demonstrate that the LNA 5'-nuclease PCR assays represent a valid and reliable analytical system for the detection and quantification of transgenes. Application of very short LNA TaqMan probes to GMO quantification can simplify the design of 5'-nuclease assays. PMID:18494480

Salvi, Sergio; D'Orso, Fabio; Morelli, Giorgio

2008-06-25

322

Weed seed resources for birds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

PubMed Central

The UK Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) have shown that the use of broad spectrum herbicides on genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops can have dramatic effects on weed seed production compared to management of conventional varieties. Here, we use FSE data and information on bird diets to determine how GMHT cropping might change the food resources available to farmland birds. More than 60 fields of each of four crops, spring- and winter-sown oilseed rape, beet and maize, were split, one half being sown with a conventional variety, the other with a GMHT variety. Seed rain from weeds known to be important in the diets of 17 granivorous farmland bird species was measured under the two treatments. In beet and spring oilseed rape, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of 16 bird species was significantly reduced in GMHT compared to conventional halves; for no species did it increase. In winter oilseed rape, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of 10 species was significantly reduced in GMHT halves; for only one species did it increase significantly. By contrast, in maize, rain of weed seeds important in the diets of seven species was significantly greater in GMHT halves; for no species was it reduced. Treatment effects for the total weed seed energy available to each bird species were very similar to those for seed rain alone. Measuring the effects on individual bird species was outside the scope of this study. Despite this, these results suggest that should beet, spring and winter rape crops in the UK be largely replaced by GMHT varieties and managed as in the FSEs, this would markedly reduce important food resources for farmland birds, many of which declined during the last quarter of the twentieth century. By contrast, GMHT maize would be beneficial to farmland birds. PMID:16822753

Gibbons, David W; Bohan, David A; Rothery, Peter; Stuart, Rick C; Haughton, Alison J; Scott, Rod J; Wilson, Jeremy D; Perry, Joe N; Clark, Suzanne J; Dawson, Robert J.G; Firbank, Les G

2006-01-01

323

Coexpression of a Modified Maize Ribosome-inactivating Protein and a Rice Basic Chitinase Gene in Transgenic Rice Plants Confers Enhanced Resistance to Sheath Blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinases, ß-1,3-glucanases, and ribosome-inactivating proteins are reported to have antifungal activity in plants. With the aim of producing fungus-resistant transgenic plants, we co-expressed a modified maize ribosome-inactivating protein gene, MOD1, and a rice basic chitinase gene, RCH10, in transgenic rice plants. A construct containing MOD1 and RCH10 under the control of the rice rbcS and Act1 promoters, respectively, was co-transformed

Ju-Kon Kim; In-Cheol Jang; Ray Wu; Wei-Neng Zuo; Rebecca S. Boston; Yong-Hwan Lee; Il-Pyung Ahn; Baek Hie Nahm

2003-01-01

324

Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

2013-06-15

325

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

326

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

327

A specific qualitative and real-time PCR detection of MON863 maize based on the 5?-transgene integration sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops are widely grown in the world today. Labeling is required when genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are placed on the market. There is a need to establish a specific method for the detection of genetically modified foods. MON863 transgenic maize containing a Cry3Bb1 sequence that produces insecticidal protein cry3Bb1 is a major GMO crop. In this paper, we

Hong Zhu; Xiao Zhao; Junwei Jia; Jianping Sun; Kai Zhao

2008-01-01

328

Relative Contribution of Genetic and Non-genetic Modifiers to Intestinal Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus or MI) occurs in 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Our aim was to determine the relative contribution of genetic and non-genetic modifiers to the development of this major complication of CF. Methods Using clinical data and DNA collected by the CF Twin and Sibling Study, 65 monozygous twin pairs, 23 dizygous twin/triplet sets, and 349 sets of siblings with CF were analyzed for MI status, significant covariates, and genome-wide linkage. Results Specific mutations in CFTR, the gene responsible for CF, correlated with MI indicating a role for CFTR genotype. Monozygous twins showed substantially greater concordance for MI than dizygous twins and siblings (p=1×10?5) demonstrating that modifier genes independent of CFTR contribute substantially to this trait. Regression analysis revealed that MI was correlated with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS; p=8×10?4). Unlike MI, concordance analysis indicated that the risk for development of DIOS in CF patients is primarily due to non-genetic factors. Regions of suggestive linkage (logarithm of the odds of linkage >2.0) for modifier genes that cause MI (chromosomes 4q35.1, 8p23.1, and 11q25) or protect from MI (chromosomes 20p11.22 and 21q22.3) were identified by genome-wide analyses. These analyses did not support the existence of a major modifier gene within the CFM1 region on chromosome 19 that had previously been linked to MI. Conclusions The CFTR gene along with two or more modifier genes are the major determinants of intestinal obstruction in newborn CF patients, while intestinal obstruction in older CF patients is primarily due to non-genetic factors. PMID:17030173

Blackman, Scott M.; Deering-Brose, Rebecca; McWilliams, Rita; Naughton, Kathleen; Coleman, Barbara; Lai, Teresa; Algire, Marilyn; Beck, Suzanne; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Hamosh, Ada; Fallin, M. Daniele; West, Kristen; Arking, Dan E.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Cutler, David J.; Cutting, Garry R

2006-01-01

329

An aerobiological framework for assessing cross-pollination in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the world’s most important crops. Until recent times, improvement in maize resulted from the manipulation and exchange of genetic information within the genus Zea. With the advent of genetic engineering, genetic information from other species is routinely incorporated into the maize genome. Since maize is a wind-pollinated outcrossing species, questions arise concerning the

Donald E. Aylor; Neil P. Schultes; Elson J. Shields

2003-01-01

330

Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. Objective: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. Design: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5–10 y of age (BMI-z5to10). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z5to10 (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. Results: The median BMI-z5to10 was ?0.07 (range: ?3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z5to10 was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z5to10 than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ?16% and ?15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. Conclusions: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect. PMID:23134884

Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

2012-01-01

331

Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods. Effects of different information strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here aimed to investigate the effects of different types of information about genetically modified foods on both consumer attitudes towards genetic modification and their tendency to choose genetically modified products (compared to more traditionally manufactured alternatives). The impact of information strategy (balanced, or product specific), attributed information source (The “European Association of Consumers”, the “European Association of

Lynn Frewer; Joachim Scholderer; Clive Downs; Lone Bredahl

2000-01-01

332

Reforming the WTO to Defuse Potential Trade Conflicts in Genetically Modified Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguably genetic modification is one of the most important technological change seen to date. Its effects on both human health and the environment are both profound and controversial. In particular consumers, mainly in the EU, have concerns regarding the long term effects of consuming genetically modified foods on their health. They are also concerned regarding the effect that genetically modified

Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr Shelburne; Jill E. Hobbs

2001-01-01

333

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

334

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

335

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

336

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

337

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms Matthieu scheme. Genetic algorithms (GA) have been used rather exten- sively for this purpose, and in particular to further explore its modified counterpart, Modified FM (ModFM), which has not been used as widely, and its

Smyth, Tamara

338

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

339

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

340

Seed Quality of Maize Inbred Lines with Different Composition and Genetic Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

is one of the most important factors affecting early per- formance and productivity of most agricultural crops. By introgressing exotic germplasm into elite maize in the USA, Exotic germplasm may have seed quality traits that dif- breeders have developed lines with wider variability for seed oil and protein contents than in U.S. adapted lines. Seed quality of these fer from

Miriam Rukero Munamava; A. Susana Goggi; Linda Pollak

2004-01-01

341

Maize centromeres expand and adopt a uniform size in the genetic background of oat  

PubMed Central

Most existing centromeres may have originated as neocentromeres that activated de novo from noncentromeric regions. However, the evolutionary path from a neocentromere to a mature centromere has been elusive. Here we analyzed the centromeres of nine chromosomes that were transferred from maize into oat as the result of an inter-species cross. Centromere size and location were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone variant CENH3, which is a defining feature of functional centromeres. Two isolates of maize chromosome 3 proved to contain neocentromeres in the sense that they had moved from the original site, whereas the remaining seven centromeres (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) were retained in the same area in both species. In all cases, the CENH3-binding domains were dramatically expanded to encompass a larger area in the oat background (?3.6 Mb) than the average centromere size in maize (?1.8 Mb). The expansion of maize centromeres appeared to be restricted by the transcription of genes located in regions flanking the original centromeres. These results provide evidence that (1) centromere size is regulated; (2) centromere sizes tend to be uniform within a species regardless of chromosome size or origin of the centromere; and (3) neocentromeres emerge and expand preferentially in gene-poor regions. Our results suggest that centromere size expansion may be a key factor in the survival of neocentric chromosomes in natural populations. PMID:24100079

Wang, Kai; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R. Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

2014-01-01

342

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2013-06-20

343

Maize centromeres expand and adopt a uniform size in the genetic background of oat.  

PubMed

Most existing centromeres may have originated as neocentromeres that activated de novo from noncentromeric regions. However, the evolutionary path from a neocentromere to a mature centromere has been elusive. Here we analyzed the centromeres of nine chromosomes that were transferred from maize into oat as the result of an inter-species cross. Centromere size and location were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone variant CENH3, which is a defining feature of functional centromeres. Two isolates of maize chromosome 3 proved to contain neocentromeres in the sense that they had moved from the original site, whereas the remaining seven centromeres (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) were retained in the same area in both species. In all cases, the CENH3-binding domains were dramatically expanded to encompass a larger area in the oat background (?3.6 Mb) than the average centromere size in maize (?1.8 Mb). The expansion of maize centromeres appeared to be restricted by the transcription of genes located in regions flanking the original centromeres. These results provide evidence that (1) centromere size is regulated; (2) centromere sizes tend to be uniform within a species regardless of chromosome size or origin of the centromere; and (3) neocentromeres emerge and expand preferentially in gene-poor regions. Our results suggest that centromere size expansion may be a key factor in the survival of neocentric chromosomes in natural populations. PMID:24100079

Wang, Kai; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

2014-01-01

344

Pigmented Maize Seed via Tissue-specific Expression of Anthocyanin Pathway Gene Transcription Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visual marker genetically linked to a trait of interest would enable the unequivocal identification of transgenic seed containing the trait and ensure that genetically modified material could be easily differentiated from non-transgenic grain. Genes from maize that regulate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and are therefore responsible for directing the pattern of purple pigmentation, can be used to generate transgenic

Liu Y. Shen; Joseph F. Petolino

2006-01-01

345

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

346

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

347

Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the Ga1-S gene region conferring cross-incompatibility in maize.  

PubMed

Cross-incompatibility genes known as gametophyte factors (ga) are numerous in maize. Many popcorn strains carry these genes and cannot be fertilized by pollen of dent and flint maize strains although the reciprocal crosses are successful. A Chinese popcorn strain SDGa25 carries the strongest allele of Ga1 (Ga1-S) and the majority of Chinese dent and flint maize germplasm are incompatible with SDGa25. The incompatibility is due to pollen tube growth obstruction 2 h after pollination. The pollen tube is arrested in the silk segment 5.5 cm distal to the pollination area and never reaches the ovule. The Ga1-S carried by SDGa25 behaves as a single dominant gene. This gene was mapped between markers SD3 on BAC AC200747 0.827 cM apart on the telomere side and SD12 on BAC AC204382 0.709 cM apart on the centromere side. The genetic region mapped spanning the Ga1-S locus was estimated to be 1.5 cM in length and the physical distance is 2,056,343 bp on ctg156 based on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence. Gametophyte factors influence gene flow direction and the strongest Ga1-S allele is useful for isolating one category of commercial varieties from another. The eight tightly linked markers to Ga1-S developed in this study would greatly improve marker-assisted introgression efficiency and the fine mapping would facilitate the isolation of the Ga1-S. PMID:22009288

Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yu'e; Jiang, Chuan; Cui, Dezhou; Liu, Huaihua; Li, Detao; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Ning, Lihua; Ma, Xia; Chen, Huabang

2012-02-01

348

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

2010-01-01

349

Modified Niched Pareto Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm for Construction Scheduling Optimization  

E-print Network

, a new data structure is proposed to define a solution to the problem and a general Niched Pareto Genetic Algorithm (NPGA) is modified to facilitate optimization procedure. The main features of the proposed Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA...

Kim, Kyungki

2012-10-19

350

Prediction of testcross means and variances among F3 progenies of F1 crosses from testcross means and genetic distances of their parents in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the means and genetic variances in segregating generations could help to assess the breeding potential of base\\u000a populations. In this study, we investigated whether the testcross (TC) means and variances of F3 progenies from F1 crosses in European maize can be predicted from the TC means of their parents and F1 crosses and four measures of parental genetic

A. E. Melchinger; R. K. Gumber; R. B. Leipert; M. Vuylsteke; M. Kuiper

1998-01-01

351

Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene-gene interaction for asthma  

PubMed Central

Objective A recent admixture mapping analysis identified interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL6 receptor (IL6R) as candidate genes for inflammatory diseases. In the airways during allergic inflammation, IL6 signaling controls the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. In addition, albuterol, a commonly prescribed asthma therapy, has been shown to influence IL6 gene expression. Therefore, we reasoned that interactions between the IL6 and IL6R genes might be associated with bronchodilator drug responsiveness to albuterol in asthmatic patients. Methods Four functional IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a nonsynonymous IL6R SNP were genotyped in 700 Mexican and Puerto Rican asthma families and in 443 African-American asthma cases and controls. Both family-based association tests and linear regression models were used to assess the association between individual SNPs and haplotypes with bronchodilator response. Gene–gene interactions were tested by using multiple linear regression analyses. Results No single SNP was consistently associated with drug response in all the three populations. However, on the gene level, we found a consistent IL6 and IL6R pharmacogenetic interaction in the three populations. This pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction was contextual and dependent upon ancestry (racial background). This interaction resulted in higher drug response to albuterol in Latinos, but lower drug response in African-Americans. Herein, we show that there is an effect modification by ancestry on bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol. Conclusion Genetic variants in the IL6 and IL6R genes act synergistically to modify the bronchodilator drug responsiveness in asthma and this pharmacogenetic interaction is modified by the genetic ancestry. PMID:19503017

Corvol, Harriet; De Giacomo, Anthony; Eng, Celeste; Seibold, Max; Ziv, Elad; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon; Watson, H. Geoffrey; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael; Avila, Pedro C.; Choudhry, Shweta; Burchard, Esteban Gonz!lez

2009-01-01

352

The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs. PMID:16440278

Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

2005-01-01

353

Genetic control of cell wall invertases in developing endosperm of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show here that the total invertase activity in developing seeds of maize is due to two cell wall invertase (CWI) genes,\\u000a Incw1 and Incw2 (Mn1). Our previous results have shown that loss-of-function mutations at the Mn1 locus lead to the miniature-1 (mn1) seed phenotype, marked by a loss of >70% of seed weight at maturity. The mn1 seed mutant

Prem S. Chourey; Mukesh Jain; Qin-Bao Li; Susan J. Carlson

2006-01-01

354

Genetic Variation in Fusarium Section Liseola from No-Till Maize in Argentina†  

PubMed Central

Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective population number for mating population A (Ne) and found that the Ne for mating type was 89% of the count (total population) and that the Ne for male or hermaphrodite status was 36%. Thus, the number of strains that can function as the female parent limits Ne, and sexual reproduction needs to occur only once every 54 to 220 asexual generations to maintain this level of sexual fertility. Our results indicate that the fungal populations isolated from no-till maize are similar to those recovered from maize managed with conventional tillage. We placed 36 strains from mating population A into 28 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Of the 13 strains belonging to five multimember VCGs, only 2 isolates belonging to one VCG were clones based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. Members of the other four multimember VCGs had an average similarity index of 0.89, and members of one VCG were no more closely related to other members of the same VCG than they were to other members of the population as a whole. This finding suggests that the common assumption that strains in the same VCG are either clonal or very closely related needs to be examined in more detail. The variability observed with AFLPs and VCGs suggests that sexual reproduction may occur more frequently than estimated by Ne. PMID:11097907

Chulze, S. N.; Ramirez, M. L.; Torres, A.; Leslie, J. F.

2000-01-01

355

Genetic Variation for Starch Thermal and Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):281-286 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in previous < 0.01) inbred by year interaction was present for all DSC parameters studies to detect differences in thermal properties among starches of non- with the exception of AH. Differences were observed in starch viscosities mutant maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. This study was conducted to and gel strengths

M. R. CAMPBELL; L. M. POLLAK; P. J. WHITE

356

Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 (Optimum GAT), near-isogenic control maize grain, or commercial reference maize grains.  

PubMed

A genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait (event DP-Ø9814Ø-6; 98140) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes. The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, respectively. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens. Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides (98140 + Spray). For comparison, additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control (control) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56, 33P66, and 33R77. Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter, grower, and finisher containing 58.5, 64, and 71.5% maize grain, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables, or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control, 98140, and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that 98140 maize grain (unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background. PMID:19038812

McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Rood, T; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

2008-12-01

357

Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are grown widely for pest control, but insect adaptation can reduce their efficacy. The genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were designed to counter insect resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Previous results suggested that the modified toxins would be effective only if resistance was linked with mutations in genes encoding toxin-binding cadherin proteins. Here we report evidence from five major crop pests refuting this hypothesis. Relative to native toxins, the potency of modified toxins was >350-fold higher against resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis in which resistance was not linked with cadherin mutations. Conversely, the modified toxins provided little or no advantage against some resistant strains of three other pests with altered cadherin. Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains. PMID:21983521

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Fangneng; Ghimire, Mukti N; Leonard, B Rogers; Siegfried, Blair D; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Yang, Yajun; Wu, Yidong; Gahan, Linda J; Heckel, David G; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

2011-12-01

358

A-maize-ing Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maize (Zea mays)âÂÂcornâÂÂis a staple food source in much of the world, as well as a source of cooking oil, grain alcohol, livestock feed, and biofuel. There is enormous quantitative variation among maize strains for traits of agronomic importance. Buckler and colleagues describe the genetic properties of a new resource for mapping maize quantitative traits, and discuss the genetic architecture of a key traitâÂÂflowering timeâÂÂderived from it.

Trudy Mackay (North Carolina State University;Department of Genetics)

2009-08-07

359

Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.  

PubMed Central

The effects of herbicide management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on the abundance and diversity of soil-surface-active invertebrates were assessed. Most effects did not differ between years, environmental zones or initial seedbanks or between sugar and fodder beet. This suggests that the results may be treated as generally applicable to agricultural situations throughout the UK for these crops. The direction of the effects was evenly balanced between increases and decreases in counts in the GMHT compared with the conventional treatment. Most effects involving a greater capture in the GMHT treatments occurred in maize, whereas most effects involving a smaller capture were in beet and spring oilseed rape. Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Counts of carabids that feed on weed seeds were smaller in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape but larger in GMHT maize. In contrast, collembolan detritivore counts were significantly larger under GMHT crop management. PMID:14561318

Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Bell, D; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Fairfax, C M; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Hulmes, S E; Mason, N S; Norton, L R; Nuttall, P; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Sands, R J N; Singer, E J; Walker, M J

2003-01-01

360

Population genetics of duplicated disease-defense genes, hm1 and hm2, in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) and its wild ancestor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).  

PubMed Central

Plant defense genes are subject to nonneutral evolutionary dynamics. Here we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the duplicated defense genes hm1 and hm2 in maize and its wild ancestor Zea mays ssp. parviglumis. Both genes have been shown to confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum race 1, but the effectiveness of resistance differs between loci. The genes also display different population histories. The hm1 locus has the highest nucleotide diversity of any gene yet sampled in the wild ancestor of maize, and it contains a large number of indel polymorphisms. There is no evidence, however, that high diversity in hm1 is a product of nonneutral evolution. In contrast, hm2 has very low nucleotide diversity in the wild ancestor of maize. The distribution of hm2 polymorphic sites is consistent with nonneutral evolution, as indicated by Tajima's D and other neutrality tests. In addition, one hm2 haplotype is more frequent than expected under the equilibrium neutral model, suggesting hitchhiking selection. Both defense genes retain >80% of the level of genetic variation in maize relative to the wild ancestor, and this level is similar to other maize genes that were not subject to artificial selection during domestication. PMID:12399395

Zhang, Liqing; Peek, Andrew S; Dunams, Detiger; Gaut, Brandon S

2002-01-01

361

Insecticidal Genetically Modified Crops and Insect Resistance Management (IRM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically important crops, such as maize and cotton, have been transformed with genes encoding insecticidal proteins from\\u000a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to confer them protection against the most important insect pests. Of the 114 million hectares globally planted with GM\\u000a crops in 2007, over one third are insect-resistant Bt crops, and the area keeps increasing every year. The potential for insects

Juan Ferré; Jeroen Van Rie; Susan C. Macintosh

362

Evaluating the allergic risk of genetically modified soybean.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) soybean (carrying the EPSPS transgene) is the most common GM food in Korea. In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic adults who had been sensitized to soybeans. We enrolled 1,716 adult allergy patients and 40 healthy, non-atopic controls. Skin prick tests and IgE enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed using wild-type and GM soybean extracts, along with other common inhaled allergens. The specificities of serum IgE antibodies from allergic patients and the identities of the IgE-reactive components of the soybean extracts were compared using ELISA inhibition testing, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and IgE immunoblotting. To evaluate the effects of digestive enzymes and heat treatment, the soybean extracts were heated or pre- incubated with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The IgE sensitization rates to wild-type and GM soybeans were identical (3.8% of allergic adults), and circulating IgE antibodies specific for the two extracts were comparable. The results of the ELISA inhibition test, SDS-PAGE, and IgE immunoblotting showed a similar composition of IgE-binding components within the wild-type and GM extracts, which was confirmed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, IgE immunoblotting, and amino acid sequencing. None of the subjects had a positive response to purified EPSPS protein in the skin prick test, ELISA, or IgE immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that the IgE sensitization rate to GM soybean extracts is identical to that of wild-type soybean extracts in adult allergy patients. In addition, based on both in vivo and in vitro methods, the allergenicity of wild type and GM soybean extracts was identical. PMID:16941740

Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

2006-08-31

363

ANALYSING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD BY A VARIANCE-BASED STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying gene technology in agricultural production, which results on the so-called genetically modified (GM) foods, is one of the most controversial scientific, political and social debates. In the EU, the underdevelopment of biotech crops is attributed to the social distrust in transgenic food. The potential consumers’ reactions towards Genetically Modified (GM) food influence the commercial feasibility and determine the economic

Melania Salazar-Ordonez; Macario Rodriguez-Entrena

2012-01-01

364

Predicting the effects of genetically modified organisms - more questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankenstein foods or a more sophisticated and scientific approach to feeding the world? Genetically modified (GM) crops and foods have become one of the main issues of the late 1990s, but are the critics scaremongering or the industry being complacent? The possible effects of releasing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment include those directly associated with the GMO itself,

Sue Mayer

365

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

366

Multielemental analysis of genetically modified food using ANAA and PIXE techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of two techniques, ANAA and PIXE, used in the analyses of some availa- ble commercial food containing regular and genetically modified ingredients, as well as soybens cultivated with regular and genetically modified seeds (GMS). The aim of this work is determine their elemental composition to perform a comparative analysis. The elemental composition results of both

Ilca Marli; Moitinho Amaral; Cibele Bugno Zamboni Medeiros; Jos ´ e; Agostinho Goncalves de Medeiros; Marcia de Almeida Rizzutto

2005-01-01

367

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system

M. Miraglia; K. G. Berdal; C. Brera; P. Corbisier; A. Holst-Jensen; E. J. Kok; H. J. P. Marvin; H. Schimmel; J. Rentsch; J. P. P. F. van Rie; J. Zagon

2004-01-01

368

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

369

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

370

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

371

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

372

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

373

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2001-01-01

374

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

375

Agricultural Deskilling and the Spread of Genetically Modified Cotton in Warangal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is a key cotton-growing area in one of the most closely watched arenas of the global struggle over genetically modified crops. In 2005 farmers adopted India's first genetically modified crop, Bt cotton, in numbers that resemble a fad. Various parties, including the biotechnology firm behind the new technology, interpret the spread as the result of

2007-01-01

376

Evaluating the fate of genetically modified microorganisms in the environment: Are they inherently less fit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified microorganisms hold great promise for environmental applications. Nonetheless, some may have unintended adverse effects. Of particular concern for risk assessment is the simple fact that microorganisms are self-replicating entities, so that it may be impossible to control an adverse effect simply by discontinuing further releases of the organism. It has been suggested, however, that genetically modified microorganisms will

R. E. Lenski

1993-01-01

377

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized  

E-print Network

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized Clarke cells can rescue axotomized neurons, we transplanted fibroblasts and immortalized neural stem cells in adult rats by T8 hemisection. Rats received transplants of fibroblasts or NSCs genetically modified

Fischer, Itzhak

378

A Multiplex PCR?Based Assay for the Detection of Genetically Modified Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of nucleotide sequences specific for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in raw and processed food is based on different technological strategies, such as the extraction of DNA and the amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allow to obtain qualitative and quantitative information. We developed a multiplex PCR?based DNA assay for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified

Enrico Dainese; Clotilde Angelucci; Paola De Santis; Mauro Maccarrone; Ivo Cozzani

2004-01-01

379

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

380

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

381

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

382

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

383

A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2014-01-01

384

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

Kleter, Gijs A; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Aarts, Henk J M

2005-01-01

385

Application of a modified Haug and Lantzsch method for the rapid and accurate photometrical phytate determination in soybean, wheat, and maize meals.  

PubMed

A modified version of the Haug and Lantzsch method for rapid photometrical phytate determination was applied for the analysis of phytate in soybean, wheat, and maize meals. In comparison to the original protocol, the amount of the toxic reagent thioglycolic acid is reduced substantially to minimize potential health risks for laboratory personnel. Different extraction conditions for soybean meal were tested, and boiling for at least 30 min was found to be necessary to remove an interfering compound in soybean meal extracts. Phytate contents determined according to the modified Haug and Lantzsch method did not differ from those obtained by measuring total precipitated phosphorus or by sensitive and specific high-performance ion chromatography. Applicability and accuracy of the modified method for phytate analysis in major feed substrates, including soy-based textured vegetable protein, were demonstrated. PMID:18407656

Reichwald, Kirsten; Hatzack, Frank

2008-05-14

386

Reduced fitness of Daphnia magna fed a Bt-transgenic maize variety.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) maize expressing the Bt-toxin Cry1Ab (Bt-maize) was tested for effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the water flea Daphnia magna, a crustacean arthropod commonly used as a model organism in ecotoxicological studies. In three repeated experiments, D. magna were fed 100% ground maize in suspension, using either GM or isogenic unmodified (UM) maize. D. magna fed GM-maize showed a significantly reduced fitness performance: The mortality was higher, a lower proportion of females reached sexual maturation, and the overall egg production was lower compared to D. magna fed UM isogenic maize. We conclude that the tested variety of Bt-maize and its UM counterpart do not have the same quality as food sources for this widely used model organism. The combination of a reduced fitness performance combined with earlier onset of reproduction of D. magna fed Bt-maize indicates a toxic effect rather than a lower nutritional value of the GM-maize. PMID:18347840

Bøhn, Thomas; Primicerio, Raul; Hessen, Dag O; Traavik, Terje

2008-11-01

387

Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria. PMID:12083279

Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

2002-01-01

388

[Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].  

PubMed

A method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) papaya (55-1 line), of which the mandatory safety assessment has not been finished in Japan because of insufficient data. The papaya intrinsic papain gene was used as an internal control. The results of PCR amplification of the papain gene segment indicated that a commercial silica membrane type kit (QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini) was useful for extraction of DNA from papaya fruit, but not for extraction from canned papaya fruit. On the other hand, a commercial ion-exchange type kit (QIAGEN Genomic-tip) provided enough purified DNA for PCR from canned papaya fruit. Compared with the parental line and other commercial non-GM papayas, the DNA from GM papaya fruit provided specific amplification bands in PCR with five primer pairs (Nos. 2-6) including beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene-specific ones. On the other hand, the primer pairs recognizing these genes showed false-positive results when we used DNAs from canned papaya. Therefore, we recommend that the primer pairs (Nos. 5 and 6) recognizing the sequences derived from two different species of organism should be used in order to detect specifically the GM papaya in canned fruits. PMID:11817137

Goda, Y; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Hino, A; Toyoda, M

2001-08-01

389

Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

390

Fungal community associated with genetically modified poplar during metal phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing demand for phytoremediation, many transgenic poplars have been developed to enhance the bioremediation of heavy metals. However, structural changes to indigenous fungal communities by genetically modified organisms (GMO) presents a major ecological issue, due to the important role of fungi for plant growth in natural environments. To evaluate the effect of GM plant use on environmental fungal soil communities, extensive sequencing-based community analysis was conducted, while controlling the influence of plant clonality, plant age, soil condition, and harvesting season. The rhizosphere soils of GM and wild type (WT) poplars at a range of growth stages were sampled together with unplanted, contaminated soil, and the fungal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing the D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene. The results show that the overall structure of the rhizosphere fungal community was not significantly influenced by GM poplars. However, the presence of GM specific taxa, and faster rate of community change during poplar growth, appeared to be characteristic of the GM plant-induced effects on soil-born fungal communities. The results of this study provide additional information about the potential effects of GM poplar trees aged 1.5-3 years, on the soil fungal community. PMID:23274976

Hur, Moonsuk; Lim, Young Woon; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Choi, Young Im; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Il; Yi, Hana

2012-12-01

391

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

392

Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?  

PubMed

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems. PMID:19806453

Liu, Wenke

2010-02-01

393

Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"  

E-print Network

We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aq...

Bridge, C M; Cropper, M; Ramsay, G

2004-01-01

394

Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"  

E-print Network

We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra.We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

C. M. Bridge; Pasi Hakala; Mark Cropper; Gavin Ramsay

2004-04-05

395

Stable carbon isotope discrimination is under genetic control in the C4 species maize with several genomic regions influencing trait expression.  

PubMed

In plants with C4 photosynthesis, physiological mechanisms underlying variation in stable carbon isotope discrimination (?(13)C) are largely unknown, and genetic components influencing ?(13)C have not been described. We analyzed a maize (Zea mays) introgression library derived from two elite parents to investigate whether ?(13)C is under genetic control in this C4 species. High-density genotyping with the Illumina MaizeSNP50 Bead Chip was used for a detailed structural characterization of 89 introgression lines. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in the field and in the greenhouse for kernel ?(13)C as well as plant developmental and photosynthesis-related traits. Highly heritable significant genetic variation for ?(13)C was detected under field and greenhouse conditions. For several introgression library lines, ?(13)C values consistently differed from the recurrent parent within and across the two phenotyping platforms. ?(13)C was significantly associated with 22 out of 164 analyzed genomic regions, indicating a complex genetic architecture of ?(13)C. The five genomic regions with the largest effects were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 and explained 55% of the phenotypic variation for ?(13)C. Plant development stage had no effect on ?(13)C expression, as phenotypic as well as genotypic correlations between ?(13)C, flowering time, and plant height were not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating ?(13)C to be under polygenic control in the C4 species maize. PMID:24280436

Gresset, Sebastian; Westermeier, Peter; Rademacher, Svenja; Ouzunova, Milena; Presterl, Thomas; Westhoff, Peter; Schön, Chris-Carolin

2014-01-01

396

Do You Really Know What You're Eating?: Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study uses the example of genetically modified corn to examine concepts of modern molecular genetics and microbiology. Students will read a fictional news report about consumers having an allergic reaction to tainted genetically modified corn. The lesson is intended for high school and lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Reese, Mary C.; Shew, Wayne

2010-12-31

397

NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

2013-01-01

398

Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.  

PubMed

Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting of GMO and wild soybeans. GMO soybeans revealed a unique strong immunoglobulin E binding band at 25 kDa in some patients and wild soybeans showed a strong immunoglobulin E binding band at 30-36 kDa. To assess the allergenicity of GMO food, more research, including a selection of controlled sample materials and immunoassays of qualified sera, is needed. PMID:16119037

Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

2005-01-01

399

Genetic Modifiers of MeCP2 Function in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The levels of methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT) as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins) and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction) abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax), the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself. PMID:18773074

Cukier, Holly N.; Perez, Alma M.; Collins, Ann L.; Zhou, Zhaolan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Botas, Juan

2008-01-01

400

Transgene x Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology. PMID:20635001

Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-01-01

401

Long term evaluation of field-released genetically modified rhizobia.  

PubMed

This is the report of the first open field release of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) in Italy. It covers ten years of monitoring, and follows in-field GMM dynamics from strain release to disappearance below detection limits, as well as assessment of impact on resident microorganisms. The bacteria released belong to the nitrogen fixing legume endosymbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, and were engineered with non-agronomically-proficient traits, in order to assess their behavior and fate without GMM-specific positive feedback from the plant. A DNA cassette containing mercury resistance and ss-galactosidase genes was introduced in either plasmid-borne or chromosomally integrated versions, in order to test the resulting strain stability. A synthetic promoter was used to drive the lacZ gene, conferring high catabolic activity to the GMM. Two different wild-type Rhizobium backgrounds were tested, comparing a non-indigenous vs. an indigenous, highly competitive strain. The latter had much greater persistence, since it was able to survive and establish at technically detectable levels for over four years after release. Selection factors, such as reiterated presence of the plant host, or lactose substrate supply, enhanced long-term survival to different extents. The lactose treatment showed that even a single trophic supplementation can surpass the benefits of symbiotic interaction for a period of several years. Concerning impact, the GMMs did not alter substantially the other soil community general microbiota. However, there were some significant differences in microbiota as a consequence of the Rhizobium inoculation. This effect was observed with either the WT or GMM, and was more evident in the release of the indigenous Rhizobium. Moreover, as the indigenous GMM had its parental, dominant wild-type in the same soil, it was possible to evaluate to what extent the GMM version could result in parent displacement ("self-impact"), and how much the two rhizobia would additively contribute to nodulation. PMID:18001684

Corich, Viviana; Giacomini, Alessio; Vendramin, Elena; Vian, Patrizia; Carlot, Milena; Concheri, Giuseppe; Polone, Elisa; Casella, Sergio; Nuti, Marco P; Squartini, Andrea

2007-01-01

402

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic from a modified genetic algorithm (GA). Model performance was evaluated between the empirical landscape

Wang, Le

403

MaizeGDB.  

PubMed

MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genetic, genomic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the data types stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website (http://www.maizegdb.org) are standardized custom interfaces enabling researchers to browse data and to seek out specific information matching explicit search criteria. In addition, pre-compiled reports are made available for particular types of data, and bulletin boards are provided to facilitate communication and coordination among members of the community of maize geneticists. PMID:18287701

Lawrence, Carolyn J

2007-01-01

404

Single-Kernel Ionomic Profiles Are Highly Heritable Indicators of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Elemental Accumulation in Maize Grain (Zea mays)  

PubMed Central

The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel can be viewed in at least two distinct ways. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food and feed for people and animals. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can summarize the life history of a plant, combining genetic programs and environmental interactions. We assert that single-kernel-based phenotyping of the ionome is an effective method of analysis, as it represents a reasonable compromise between precision, efficiency, and power. Here, we evaluate potential pitfalls of this sampling strategy using several field-grown maize sample sets. We demonstrate that there is enough genetically determined diversity in accumulation of many of the elements assayed to overcome potential artifacts. Further, we demonstrate that environmental signals are detectable through their influence on the kernel ionome. We conclude that using single kernels as the sampling unit is a valid approach for understanding genetic and environmental effects on the maize kernel ionome. PMID:24489944

Baxter, Ivan R.; Ziegler, Gregory; Lahner, Brett; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Foley, Rachel; Danku, John; Armstrong, Paul; Salt, David E.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

2014-01-01

405

Mapping QTL Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,There are many commercial inbred lines available in crops. Large amount of genetic variation is preserved among,these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among,the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information

Yuan-Ming Zhang; Yongcai Mao; Chongqing Xie; Howie Smith; Lang Luo; Shizhong Xu

2005-01-01

406

Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract,

John L. Cummings; Levis W. Handley; Bruce Macbryde; Shelagh K. Tupper; Scott J. Werner; Zachary J. Byram

2008-01-01

407

Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.  

PubMed

Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed. PMID:21424096

Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

2011-01-01

408

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431

Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

2010-03-01

409

A method to search for optimal field allocations of transgenic maize in the context of co-existence.  

PubMed

Spatially isolating genetically modified (GM) maize fields from non-GM maize fields is a robust on-farm measure to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in the harvest of neighboring fields due to cross-fertilizations below the European labeling threshold of 0.9%. However, the implementation of mandatory and rigid isolation perimeters can affect the farmers' freedom of choice to grow GM maize on their fields if neighboring farmers do not concur with their respective cropping intentions and crop plans. To minimize the presence of non-GM maize within isolation perimeters implemented around GM maize fields, a method was developed for optimally allocating GM maize to a particular set of fields. Using a Geographic Information System dataset and Monte Carlo analyses, three scenarios were tested in a maize cultivation area with a low maize share in Flanders (Belgium). It was assumed that some farmers would act in collaboration by sharing the allocation of all their arable land for the cultivation of GM maize. From the large number of possible allocations of GM maize to any field of the shared pool of arable land, the best field combinations were selected. Compared to a random allocation of GM maize, the best field combinations made it possible to reduce spatial co-existence problems, since at least two times less non-GM maize fields and their corresponding farmers occurred within the implemented isolation perimeters. In the selected field sets, the mean field size was always larger than the mean field size of the common pool of arable land. These preliminary data confirm that the optimal allocation of GM maize over the landscape might theoretically be a valuable option to facilitate the implementation of rigid isolation perimeters imposed by law. PMID:18549771

Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Thas, Olivier; Reheul, Dirk

2008-01-01

410

[Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].  

PubMed

Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

2003-05-01

411

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

412

Identification of Convection Constants for Electronic Packages Using Modified Genetic Algorithm and Reduced-Basis Method  

E-print Network

A new inverse analysis method is presented to identify parameters of heat convection in microelectronic packages. This approach adopts a modified Micro Genetic Algorithm (µGA) in finding the global optimum of parameters. ...

Yang, Zhenglin

413

Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as

João Lúcio Azevedo; Welington Luiz Araujo

2003-01-01

414

Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking

A. Springer; Konstadinos Mattas; G. Papastefanou; Asterios Tsioumanis

2002-01-01

415

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

416

Gender differences in consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that women are less accepting of genetically engineered products than men. We expect two mechanisms to be at work here. First, in consumer behaviour theory, more knowledge is assumed to lead to more acceptance. We assumed that for genetically engineered foods, this general principle does not apply since long-term consequences are not known yet. The well-informed consumer

H. Moerbeek; G. Casimir

2005-01-01

417

Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.  

PubMed

Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

Ali, Sina-Elisabeth Ben; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G; Brandes, Christian

2014-01-01

418

Development of a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for on-site monitoring of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been mainly developed for mass production of agricultural plants; however, there are concerns that transgenic crops might cause side effects on ecosystems and human beings. Therefore, to quantitatively trace the genetically modified products, we constructed a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for the detection of recombinant marker proteins expressed in GMOs, i.e., 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), neomycin phosphotransferase

Hye-Jee Jang; Il-Hoon Cho; Hee-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Jeon; Se-Young Hwang; Se-Hwan Paek

2011-01-01

419

Psychological concepts, public relations, and scientific responses to genetically modified organisms (GMOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms (e.g., plants, animals, and microorganisms) whose genetic information (i.e., DNA) is modified. Commercialization of GMOs has become an issue for an intense debate between parts of Europe and America, as well as within some developing countries. The main issues involve long-term health and environmental risks of using GMOs, safety assessment for their

Natapom Supanutsetkul; Linnda Caporael

2000-01-01

420

Organic and Genetically Modified Soybean Diets: Consequences in Growth and in Hematological Indicators of Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets\\u000a to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n?=?10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically\\u000a modified soy group (GG), and a control group

Julio Beltrame Daleprane; Tatiana Silveira Feijó; Gilson Teles Boaventura

2009-01-01

421

Persistence of Cry toxins and cry genes from genetically modified plants in two agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact of genetically modified crops has been the subject of intense research in the past decade. Since\\u000a the introduction of insect-resistant crops in 1996, cultivation of this group of genetically modified crops has grown substantially.\\u000a Most insect-resistant varieties, including corn and cotton, have been engineered to express crystal (Cry) toxins. Although\\u000a several studies concerning the environmental fate of

Elisa Marchetti; Cesare Accinelli; Valentina Talamè; Rosanna Epifani

2007-01-01

422

Biological containment of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis for intestinal delivery of human interleukin 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified Lactococcus lactis secreting interleukin 10 provides a therapeutic approach for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the release of such genetically modified organisms through clinical use raises safety concerns. In an effort to address this problem, we replaced the thymidylate synthase gene thyA of L. lactis with a synthetic human IL10 gene. This thyA?hIL10+L. lactis strain produced human IL-10 (hIL-10),

Sabine Neirynck; Nathalie Huyghebaert; Veerle Snoeck; An Vermeire; Bruno Goddeeris; Eric Cox; Jean Paul Remon; Erik Remaut; Lothar Steidler

2003-01-01

423

A Case Study for Assessment of Microbial Community Dynamics in Genetically Modified Bt Cotton Crop Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted\\u000a to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin\\u000a (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used

Manisha Kapur; Ranjana Bhatia; Gunjan Pandey; Janmejay Pandey; Debarati Paul; Rakesh K. Jain

2010-01-01

424

Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible consequence of planting genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in centres of crop origin is unintended gene flow into traditional landraces. In 2001, a study reported the presence of the transgenic 35S promoter in maize landraces sampled in 2000 from the Sierra Juarez of Oaxaca, Mexico. Analysis of a large sample taken from the same region in 2003 and 2004

A. Pineyro-Nelson; J. VAN HEERWAARDEN; H. R. Perales; J. A. Serratos-Hernandez; A. Rangel; M. B. Hufford; P. Gepts; A. Garay-Arroyo; R. Rivera-Bustamante; E. R. Alvarez-Buylla

2009-01-01

425

A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  

PubMed

In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 ?M probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner. PMID:22049365

Guven, Burcu; Boyac?, ?smail Hakk?; Tamer, Ugur; Çal?k, P?nar

2012-01-01

426

Catalase Hybrid Enzymes in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

In maize endosperm there are two electrophoretic variants of catalase. The variations are under genetic control, and the heterozygote shows three hybrid enzymes with mobilities intermediate between the parental enzymes. Thus, maize catalase may exist as a tetramer, and the hybrid enzymes may be formed by random association of two different catalase monomers.

Lars Beckman; John G. Scandalios; James L. Brewbaker

1964-01-01

427

Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods.

Bahri Karli; Abdulbaki Bilgic; Bulent Miran

2008-01-01

428

Genetically Modified Network Topologies Nathan Eagle, Leon Danon and Derek Cummings  

E-print Network

Genetically Modified Network Topologies Nathan Eagle, Leon Danon and Derek Cummings MIT Media Lab for constructing networks with a given set of parameters using genetic algorithms. The tunable parameters include that the effects of maximizing entropy while constraining the number of links reproduces an exponential degree

429

Implications of Genetically Modified Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ?golden rice,? which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

2004-01-01

430

The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or

Dorit Schuller; Margarida Casal

2005-01-01

431

Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Products: An Evaluation of Developed Approaches and Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modifications of food products are gaining more and more interest, since they represent an effective and promising way to improve a wide range of food characteristics, including production, nutritive value, and shelf life. On the other hand, concern has been raised about the safety aspects of food derived through genetically modified products. Since 1990 continuously evolving guidelines and recommendations

M. Miraglia; R. Onori; C. Brera; E. Cava

1998-01-01

432

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

2007-01-01

433

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition GOLDEN RICE: A GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOLUTION TO  

E-print Network

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition GOLDEN RICE: A GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOLUTION, such as beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A), which makes this predominant food source the main cause for vitamin Humanitarian Board, 2005-2011), a biofortified rice that was only possible through genetic engineering

Thomas, Andrew

434

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues

Amar Chiter; J. Michael Forbes; G. Eric Blair

2000-01-01

435

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat Rubrospinal Axons and  

E-print Network

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat atrophy and death. We studied whether transplants of fibroblasts genetically engineered to produce brain hemisection cavity that completely interrupted one RST. One and two months after lesion and transplantation

Fischer, Itzhak

436

Comparative biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions on raw and oxalic acid modified maize husk: kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maize husk, an abundant agricultural waste was used to prepare a biosorbent for the biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in a batch process. Equilibrium and kinetics of biosorption of the metals ions were studied at 25 °C. The adsorbtion data were treated with common kinetic and isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with maximum capacity of 8.52 and 7.38 mg g-1 for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on raw biomass (UTCS). The capacity of 9.00 and 9.33 mg g-1 was observed for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on acid modified biomass (ATCS). The study also revealed that the sorption process in both cases depend on biomass dosage, temperature, pH and initial metal ion concentration, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (? G o, ? H o and ? S o) showed that the biosorption of the metal ions onto maize husk is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Idowu, Mopelola Abidemi; Ofudje, Andrew Edwin; Kareem, Sarafadeen Olateju; Ahmed, Sikiru Akinyeye

2013-03-01

437

The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler

438

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

439

Variation of DNA fingerprints among accessions within maize inbred lines and implications for identification of essentially derived varieties: II. Genetic and technical sources of variation in AFLP data and comparison with SSR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy and reproducibility of genetic distances (GDs) based on molecular markers are crucial issues for identification of essentially derived varieties (EDVs). Our objectives were to investigate (1) the amount of variation for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers found among different accessions within maize inbreds and doubled haploid (DH) lines, (2) the proportion attributable to genetic and technical components and

Martin Heckenberger; Jeroen Rouppe van der Voort; Johan Peleman; Martin Bohn

2003-01-01

440

THE GENETIC CONTROL AND BIOCHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF CATECHOL OXIDASE IN MAIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isozyme variants of catechol oxidase have been shown to be deter- mined by alleles of a gene, Cz, which has been located on chromosome 10 less than 0.1 recombination units from the endosperm marker &,.-The ex- tractable form of the enzyme is modified by an endogeneous \\

TONY PRYOR

441

Do You Really Know What You're Eating? A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting from a fictional “news” report about an apparent allergic reaction to a taco tainted by genetically modified corn, students consider some of the techniques and procedures used in modern molecular genetics and microbiology as well as some of the issues associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Originally designed for role-play and PowerPoint assignments, suggestions for a shortened version are also provided. Suitable for a general microbiology course, the case could also be used in an introductory molecular biology course with appropriate modifications. Various levels of coverage of the topic of recombinant DNA are possible.

Shew, Wayne; Reese, Mary C.

2007-01-01

442

Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed for 59 maize, 66 beet and 67 spring oilseed rape sites. Fields were split into halves, one being sown with a GMHT crop and the other with the equivalent conventional non-GMHT crop. Margin vegetation was recorded in three components of the field margins. Most differences were in the tilled area, with fewer smaller effects mirroring them in the verge and boundary. In spring oilseed rape fields, the cover, flowering and seeding of plants were 25%, 44% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT uncropped tilled margins. Similarly, for beet, flowering and seeding were 34% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT margins. For maize, the effect was reversed, with plant cover and flowering 28% and 67% greater, respectively, in the GMHT half. Effects on butterflies mirrored these vegetation effects, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape. The likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Few large treatment differences were found for bees, gastropods or other invertebrates. Scorching of vegetation by herbicide-spray drift was on average 1.6% on verges beside conventional crops and 3.7% beside GMHT crops, the difference being significant for all three crops. PMID:14561320

Roy, D B; Bohan, D A; Haughton, A J; Hill, M O; Osborne, J L; Clark, S J; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Firbank, L G

2003-01-01

443

Occurrence of maize detritus and a transgenic insecticidal protein (Cry1Ab) within the stream network of an agricultural landscape  

PubMed Central

Widespread planting of maize throughout the agricultural Midwest may result in detritus entering adjacent stream ecosystems, and 63% of the 2009 US maize crop was genetically modified to express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Six months after harvest, we conducted a synoptic survey of 217 stream sites in Indiana to determine the extent of maize detritus and presence of Cry1Ab protein in the stream network. We found that 86% of stream sites contained maize leaves, cobs, husks, and/or stalks in the active stream channel. We also detected Cry1Ab protein in stream-channel maize at 13% of sites and in the water column at 23% of sites. We found that 82% of stream sites were adjacent to maize fields, and Geographical Information Systems analyses indicated that 100% of sites containing Cry1Ab-positive detritus in the active stream channel had maize planted within 500 m during the previous crop year. Maize detritus likely enters streams throughout the Corn Belt; using US Department of Agriculture land cover data, we estimate that 91% of the 256,446 km of streams/rivers in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana are located within 500 m of a maize field. Maize detritus is common in low-gradient stream channels in northwestern Indiana, and Cry1Ab proteins persist in maize leaves and can be measured in the water column even 6 mo after harvest. Hence, maize detritus, and associated Cry1Ab proteins, are widely distributed and persistent in the headwater streams of a Corn Belt landscape. PMID:20876106

Tank, Jennifer L.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Royer, Todd V.; Whiles, Matt R.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Frauendorf, Therese C.; Treering, David J.

2010-01-01

444

Genetically modified multiuser detection for code division multiple access systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is considered. By combining the theory of multiuser detection (MUD) and evolutionary computation, a hybrid genetic engine is proposed, suitable for the detection of CDMA signals in the presence of MAI and ISI. The proposed hybrid detector structure can be extended

S. Abedi; R. Tafazolli

2002-01-01

445

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect—or may affect—the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability requirement and, hence, liability under the tort of negligence. The article also examines how concern expressed by

Lara Khoury; Stuart Smyth

2007-01-01

446

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

447

Genetically Modified Organisms in New Zealand and Cultural Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modern society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents

Robin McFarlane; Mere Roberts

448

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Sustainability in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys on consumer acceptance of GM foods revealed differences in knowledge, risk perception and acceptance of GM foods in Japan, Norway, Spain, Taiwan and the United States. There were opponents and proponents of GM foods. However, even in the United States, one of the most supportive countries, consumers were willing to pay substantial premiums to avoid GM alternatives. While genetic

Wen S. Chern

2006-01-01

449

Systemic Delivery of Recombinant Proteins by Genetically Modified Myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth

Eliav Barr; Jeffrey M. Leiden

1991-01-01

450

Creating genetically modified pigs by using nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfer (NT) is a procedure by which genetically identical individuals can be created. The technology of pig somatic NT, including in vitro maturation of oocytes, isolation and treatment of donor cells, artificial activation of reconstructed oocytes, embryo culture and embryo transfer, has been intensively studied in recent years, resulting in birth of cloned pigs in many labs. While it

Liangxue Lai; Randall S Prather

2003-01-01