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1

PCR detection of genetically modified soya and maize in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genetically modified foodstuffs is becoming both a food sales and legal necessity. This study reports a rapid DNA extraction\\/PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified soya (GMS) and maize (GMM) in mixed samples of transgenic and unmodified soybeans and maize kernels, and a variety of processed samples including soya flour, soya protein isolates, extruded defatted soya,

Carolyn D. Hurst; Angus Knight; Ian J. Bruce

1999-01-01

2

Acceptability of genetically modified maize by young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how label information may affect the acceptability by young consumers of a food produced by genetic engineering methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A popular snack derived from maize (corn chip) was presented with five different labels (“organic corn”, “conventional corn”, “product that contains genetically modified (GM) corn”, “product that contains GM corn

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Vassilis Spiliotis; George Sakellaris

2008-01-01

3

Detection system of stacked genetically modified maize using multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to identify and distinguish 3 kinds of stacked genetically\\u000a modified (GM) maize (MON810× MON863, NK603×MON863, and NK603×MON810× MON863). Four primer pairs, SSIIb JHF\\/JHR, C3b 5?\\/TAP1–3?,\\u000a HS01\\/cry-CR01, and HS01\\/CTP164-3? yielded 101, 129, 194, and 314 bp amplicons, respectively, Using the genomic DNA of the\\u000a 3 stacked GM maize as templates, 3 or

Su-Youn Kim; Jae-Hwan Kim; Hyungjae Lee; Hae-Yeong Kim

2010-01-01

4

[Detection of the genetically modified organisms in genetically modified soybean and maize by polymerase chain reaction method].  

PubMed

A method for the detection of the (genetically modified organism GMOs) in genetically modified soybean (Round-up Ready soybean, RR soybean) and maize(Bt-176 maize) is described. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is discussed with the genetically modified soybean and maize whose contents are known. The detection limit can be 0.1%, that is to say, we can detect the GMO in the food whose content is only 0.1%, the detection method is just a screening method. The procedure includes: (1) extraction of genomic DNA of maize and soybean, (2) amplification of the inserted genes, CaMV35S promoter and the NOS terminator inserted by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, (3) amplification of the specific genes of maize and soybean in order to determine that the samples are maize and soybean, (4) characterization and confirmation of the PCR products by restriction enzyme analysis and the electrophoresis on agarose gel. The RR soybean contains CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator, and the Bt-176 maize contains only CaMV35S promoter. Due to the high content of the starch in maize, the effect of the electrophororesis is not so good as of the soybean's. PMID:12545757

Mao, Deqian; Mu, Weipeng; Yang, Xiaoguang

2002-06-01

5

Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in saudi food products.  

PubMed

Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended. PMID:23904260

Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

2013-08-01

6

Laboratory Exercises A Simple Method for Detecting Genetically Modified Maize in Common Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially available leaf DNA extraction and amplification kit has been adapted for the detection of genetically modified material in common food products containing maize. Amplification using published primer pairs specific for the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and maize invertase genes results in a 226-bp invertase PCR product in all samples (an internal positive control) plus a 184-bp product in samples

Chris Brinegar; Darcy Levee

7

5'Nuclease PCR for quantitative event-specific detection of the genetically modified Mon810 MaisGard maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified maize is grown extensively in the world today. MaisGard (Monsanto, Yieldgard in the USA) is a genetically modified maize harbouring the Mon810 transformation event. European Community legislation requires that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) be approved before they are placed on the market. Labelling is required when more than 1% of any ingredient of a food originates from a

Askild Holck; Marc Vaïtilingom; Luc Didierjean; Knut Rudi

2002-01-01

8

Presence of genetically modified maize and soy in food products sold commercially in Brazil from 2000 to 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based methods to detect genetically modified soy (RoundupReady™ soy) and maize (Bt176 Maximizer™ maize, Bt11 maize, MON810 YieldGard™ corn, T25 LibertyLink™ maize) were applied to processed foods sold commercially in Brazil. From 2000 to 2005, 100 food products containing maize and 100 food products containing soy were analysed every single year. The presence of genetically

Ralf Greiner; Ursula Konietzny

2008-01-01

9

Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.  

PubMed

A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods. PMID:16621089

Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2006-04-18

10

DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE FOOD PRODUCTS BY THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION DETECCIÓN DE PRODUCTOS DE MAIZ GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS POR LA REACCIÓN EN CADENA DE LA POLIMERASA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and soybean food product, using specific 35S promoter primers for inserted chimerical genes in maize or soybean. The PCR detected food products that include ingredients obtained from GMOs in maize grains and flour, as well as processed in foods such as tortillas (Mexican crepe), corn chips, corn

A. Mendoza; S. Fernández; M. A. Cruz; M. A. Rodríguez-Perez; D. Resendez-Perez; H. A. Barrera Saldaña

2006-01-01

11

Empirical Modeling of Genetically Modified Maize Grain Production Practices to Achieve European Union Labeling Thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical approach is given for specifying co-existence requirements for genetically-modified (GM) maize production, in order to ensure compliance with the 0.9% labeling threshold for food and feed in the Eur opean Union. Field data were considered in which pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) was measured within maize receptor fields at a series of distances from source fi elds having a

David I Gustafson; Ivo O. Brants; Michael J. Horak; Kirk M. Remund; Eric W. Rosenbaum; John K. Soteres

2006-01-01

12

Event specific real-time quantitative PCR for genetically modified Bt11 maize ( Zea mays )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the characterisation of the 3'-integration junction between host plant DNA and integrated gene-construct of the genetically modified Bt11 maize, and the successive development and first validation of a transformation event-specific quantitative TaqMan 5'-nuclease PCR assay for detection and quantitation of Bt11 maize on the LightCycler. The transgenic DNA in Bt11 is inserted in a tandem repeated DNA sequence

Sissel B. Rønning; Marc Vaïtilingom; Knut G. Berdal; Arne Holst-Jensen

2003-01-01

13

Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy.  

PubMed

Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This debate, which addresses both safety and ethical aspects, has raised questions about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the biodiversity of traditional landraces and on the environment. Here, we review some of the key points of maize genetic history as well as the methods used to stably transform this cereal. We describe the genetically engineered Bt-maizes available for field cultivation and we investigate the controversial reports on their impacts on non-target insects such as the monarch butterfly and on the flow of transgenes into Mexican maize landraces. PMID:12595137

Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Massonneau, Agnès; Dumas, Christian

2002-11-01

14

DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE BY PCR AND CAPILLARY GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (CGE) USING UNCOATED COLUMNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, analysis of genetically modified insect- resistant Bt maize is demostrated by combining amplification of a DNA fragment by PCR and subsequent detection by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (CGE). A new CGE method is developed that allows obtaining reproducible separations of DNA fragments using bare fused silica capillaries. The method combines a washing routine of the column with 0.1

Virginia García-Cañas; Ramón González; Alejandro Cifuentes

15

Quantitative, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of eight genetically modified maize events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific legislation in the EU requires that foods containing more than 0.9% of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) should\\u000a be labelled. To this end, we have developed a robust, quantitative, sensitive, nine-plex ligation-dependent probe amplification\\u000a method, GMO-MLPA, for event-specific detection of maize TC1507, MON810, NK603, MON863, BT176, T25, GA21, construct-specific\\u000a detection of BT11, and detection of the endogenous hmga maize reference

Askild Lorentz Holck; Signe M. Drømtorp; Even Heir

2009-01-01

16

Development and validation of a sensitive and fast chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the detection of genetically modified maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins from the Cry 1 family, in particular Cry 1Ab, are commonly expressed in genetically modified Bt maize in order to\\u000a control chewing insect pests. A sensitive chemiluminescent sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Cry1Ab protein\\u000a from genetically modified Bt maize has been developed and validated. A Cry1Ab protein-specific antibody was immobilized on\\u000a 96- or 384-well microtiter plates in

A. Roda; M. Mirasoli; M. Guardigli; E. Michelini; P. Simoni; M. Magliulo

2006-01-01

17

Detection of genetically modified insect-resistant Bt maize by means of polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the detection of genetically modified insect-resistant maize expressing a synthetic gene encoding a truncated\\u000a version of the CryIA(b) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis is described. The procedure includes: (1) extraction of genomic DNA, (2) amplification of the inserted synthetic gene by\\u000a means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and (3) characterization and confirmation of the PCR

Christine Hupfer; Helmut Hotzel; Konrad Sachse; Karl-Heinz Engel

1997-01-01

18

Reliable Detection and Identification of Genetically Modified Maize, Soybean, and Canola by Multiplex PCR Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiplex PCR procedures were developed for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified (GM) soybean (Roundup Ready), maize (event 176, Bt11, Mon810, T14\\/25), and canola (GT73, HCN92\\/28, MS8\\/RF3, Oxy 235). Internal control targets (invertase gene in corn, lectin and ‚-actin genes in soybean, and cruciferin gene in canola) were included as appropriate to assess the efficiency of all reactions,

Delano James; Anna-mary Schmidt; Erika Wall; Margaret Green; Saad Masri

2003-01-01

19

Event-specific quantitative detection of nine genetically modified maizes using one novel standard reference molecule.  

PubMed

With the development of genetically modified organism (GMO) detection techniques, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection, and real-time PCR is the most effective and important method for GMO quantification. An event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific integration junction sequences between the host plant genome DNA and the integrated gene is being developed for its high specificity. This study establishes the event-specific detection methods for TC1507 and CBH351 maizes. In addition, the event-specific TaqMan real-time PCR detection methods for another seven GM maize events (Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, and T25) were systematically optimized and developed. In these PCR assays, the fluorescent quencher, TAMRA, was dyed on the T-base of the probe at the internal position to improve the intensity of the fluorescent signal. To overcome the difficulties in obtaining the certified reference materials of these GM maizes, one novel standard reference molecule containing all nine specific integration junction sequences of these GM maizes and the maize endogenous reference gene, zSSIIb, was constructed and used for quantitative analysis. The limits of detection of these methods were 20 copies for these different GM maizes, the limits of quantitation were about 20 copies, and the dynamic ranges for quantification were from 0.05 to 100% in 100 ng of DNA template. Furthermore, nine groups of the mixed maize samples of these nine GM maize events were quantitatively analyzed to evaluate the accuracy and precision. The accuracy expressed as bias varied from 0.67 to 28.00% for the nine tested groups of GM maize samples, and the precision expressed as relative standard deviations was from 0.83 to 26.20%. All of these indicated that the established event-specific real-time PCR detection systems and the reference molecule in this study are suitable for the identification and quantification of these GM maizes. PMID:17199308

Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Pan, Aihu; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhengming; Zhang, Dabing

2007-01-10

20

Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.  

PubMed

The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed. PMID:19902949

Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

2009-12-01

21

Qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified maize and soy in processed foods sold commercially in Brazil by PCR-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction-based methods to detect genetically modified (gm) soy (RoundupReadyTM soy) and maize (Bt176 Maximizer maize; Bt11 maize, MON810 Yield Gard corn, T25 LibertyR Link maize) were applied to processed foods sold commercially in Brazil. In total 100 foods containing maize and 100 foods containing soy were analysed in 2000 and again in 2001. In 2000, 13% of

Ralf Greiner; Ursula Konietzny; Anna L. C. H. Villavicencio

2005-01-01

22

Determination of eight genetically modified maize events by quantitative, multiplex PCR and fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific legislation in the EU requires that foods containing more than 0.9% of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) should\\u000a be labelled. This has necessitated the development of methods for detection and quantification of such materials. Here we\\u000a present a robust, quantitative, 9-plex PCR method for event-specific detection of maize TC1507, MON863, MON810, T25, NK603,\\u000a GA21, construct specific detection of BT11, BT176

Bjarte R. Heide; Signe M. Drømtorp; Knut Rudi; Even Heir; Askild L. Holck

2008-01-01

23

Real-time PCR-based detection and quantification of genetically modified maize in processed feeds commercialised in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study which dealt mainly with processed feeds and some maize samples sold commercially in Malaysia evaluated the implementation of a real-time PCR cycling system for singleplex screening of eight target sequences (lectin, hmg, adh1, p35S, NK603, GA21, MON810 and MON863) and quantification of four genetically modified (GM) maize events (NK603, GA21, MON810 and MON863). The effects of using

Jasbeer Kaur; Son Radu; Farinazleen Mohamad Ghazali; Cheah Yoke Kqueen

2010-01-01

24

Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified soybean and maize in cultivated fields and along the transportation routes of the Incheon Port in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South Korea, imported genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize have been approved for both human consumption and use in animal feed, but not for use in cultivation in fields. This study was conducted to survey the spread of GM soybean and maize in South Korea using multiplex-PCR analysis methods. Cultivated soybean, wild soybean, and maize leaf samples were collected

Bumkyu Lee; Chang-Gi Kim; Ji-Young Park; Kee Woong Park; Hyo-Jeong Kim; Hoonbok Yi; Soon-Chun Jeong; Won Kee Yoon; Hwan Mook Kim

2009-01-01

25

Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically

Jean-Pierre Wisniewski; Nathalie Frangne; Agnès Massonneau; Christian Dumas

2002-01-01

26

The effect of ensiling on PCR-based detection of genetically modified Bt maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of the genetic modification in silage obtained from insect-resistant Bt maize by means of the polymerase chain\\u000a reaction (PCR) is described. The detectability of the transgene was shown to be dependent on the length of the genomic target\\u000a sequence chosen for amplication by the PCR. By amplifying a Bt-maize-specific DNA sequence of 211?bp the genetic modification\\u000a was detected

Christine Hupfer; Johann Mayer; Helmut Hotzel; Konrad Sachse; K.-H. Engel

1999-01-01

27

Effects of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) produced by genetically modified maize (Bt maize) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The genetically modified maize MON89034 × MON88017 expresses different crystal (Cry) proteins with pesticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1.105; Cry2Ab2) and the Western corn root worm (Cry3Bb1). Non-target organisms, such as soil nematodes, might be exposed to the Cry proteins that enter the soil in course of crop growing. Therefore, the risk of those proteins for nematodes was assessed by testing their toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans. All three insecticidal Cry proteins showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on C. elegans reproduction (EC50: 0.12-0.38 ?mol L(-1)), however, at concentrations that were far above the expected soil concentrations. Moreover, a reduced toxicity was observed when Cry proteins were added jointly. A C. elegans mutant strain deficient for receptors for the nematicidal Cry5B was also resistant against Cry1.105 and Cry2Ab2, suggesting that these Cry proteins bound to the same or similar receptors as nematicidal Cry proteins and thereby affect the reproduction of C. elegans. PMID:23570782

Höss, Sebastian; Menzel, Ralph; Gessler, Frank; Nguyen, Hang T; Jehle, Johannes A; Traunspurger, Walter

2013-04-09

28

Detection of genetically modified maize DNA fragments in the intestinal contents of pigs fed StarLink CBH351.  

PubMed

We tried to detect DNA fragments derived from maize in the intestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified (GM) StarLink CBH351 maize (SL) or non-GM maize. Intestinal contents of 8 SL and 8 non-GM maize-fed pigs were collected at slaughter, and the genes of the recombinant cry9C and the maize intrinsic zein (Zel) were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 3 times with a total of 4 primer pairs of different expected lengths. The cry9C gene (either 103 or 170 bp) was detected in the rectal contents (with a frequency of 25-37.5%) and in the cecal contents (25-50%) of the pigs fed SL. In a similar fashion, the zein (Zel) gene (either 242 or 329 bp) was detected in the rectal contents (with a frequency of 31.3%) and in the cecal contents (25-37.5%) of pigs fed on SL non-GM maize. These results suggested that ingested DNA was not totally degraded, but is present in a form detectable by PCR. PMID:12678298

Chowdhury, E H; Mikami, O; Nakajima, Y; Hino, A; Kuribara, H; Suga, K; Hanazumi, M; Yomemochi, C

2003-03-01

29

Assessing the risk posed to free-living soil nematodes by a genetically modified maize expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before pest-resistant genetically modified maize can be grown commercially, the risks for soil-beneficial, non-target organisms must be determined. Here, a tiered approach was used to assess the risk to free-living soil nematodes posed by maize genetically modified to express the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein (event Mon88017), which confers resistance towards western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera; Coleoptera). The toxicity of purified Cry3Bb1

S. Höss; H. T. Nguyen; R. Menzel; S. Pagel-Wieder; R. Miethling-Graf; C. C. Tebbe; J. A. Jehle; W. Traunspurger

2011-01-01

30

Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize offers an additional means of control against W...

31

Decomposition dynamics and structural plant components of genetically modified Bt maize leaves do not differ from leaves of conventional hybrids.  

PubMed

The cultivation of genetically modified Bt maize has raised environmental concerns, as large amounts of plant residues remain in the field and may negatively impact the soil ecosystem. In a field experiment, decomposition of leaf residues from three genetically modified (two expressing the Cry1Ab, one the Cry3Bb1 protein) and six non-transgenic hybrids (the three corresponding non-transformed near-isolines and three conventional hybrids) was investigated using litterbags. To elucidate the mechanisms that cause differences in plant decomposition, structural plant components (i.e., C:N ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) were examined. Furthermore, Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 protein concentrations in maize leaf residues were measured from harvest to the next growing season. While leaf residue decomposition in transgenic and non-transgenic plants was similar, differences among conventional cultivars were evident. Similarly, plant components among conventional hybrids differed more than between transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. Moreover, differences in senescent plant material collected directly from plants were larger than after exposure to soil for 5 months. While the concentration of Cry3Bb1 was higher in senescent maize leaves than that of Cry1Ab, degradation was faster, indicating that Cry3Bb1 has a shorter persistence in plant residues. As decomposition patterns of Bt-transgenic maize were shown to be well within the range of common conventional hybrids, there is no indication of ecologically relevant, adverse effects on the activity of the decomposer community. PMID:19609704

Zurbrügg, Corinne; Hönemann, Linda; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Nentwig, Wolfgang

2009-07-17

32

Detection of six genetically modified maize lines using optical thin-film biosensor chips.  

PubMed

As more and more genetically modified organisms (GMO) are commercialized, efficient and inexpensive assays are required for their quick detection. An event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific sequences of integration junctions is useful because of its high specificity. This study developed a system for detecting six GM maize lines (Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, NK603, and T25) using optical silicon thin-film biosensor chips. Aldehyde-labeled probes were arrayed and covalently attached to a hydrazine-derivatized chip surface. Biotinylated PCR amplicons were then hybridized with the probes. After washing and brief incubation with an anti-biotin IgG horseradish peroxidase conjugate and a precipitable horseradish peroxidase substrate, biotinylated PCR amplicons perfectly matched with the probes can be visualized by the color change on the chip surface (gold to blue/purple). This assay is extremely robust, exhibits high sensitivity and specificity, and is flexible from low through moderate to high throughput. PMID:20614904

Bai, Sulan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shucheng; Chen, Haodong; Terzaghi, William; Zhang, Xin; Chi, Xiurong; Tian, Jin; Luo, Hongxia; Huang, Wensheng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yaochuan

2010-08-11

33

Development and primary application of a fluorescent liquid bead array for the simultaneous identification of multiple genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

An integration event-specific fluorescent liquid bead array was developed for the simultaneous identification of 10 genetically modified (GM) maize, including Bt176, Bt11, MON810, NK603, GA21, MON88017, MON89034, MIR604, T25 and MIR162, as well as one non-GM maize. The system comprised 11 specific oligonucleotide probes labeled with an amino group and coupled to fluorescence-encoded microspheres. To enable fluorescence detection, 11 pairs of primers labeled with biotin at the 5' ends were used. The hybridization signal of biotinylated PCR product to the probe-coupled microspheres was then detected. The limit of detection of this assay was 0.1% for GM maize, which is lower than the current labeling threshold levels enforced in the EU (0.9%). The results of the positive and negative controls were consistent with their expected situation, which showed that the method was highly specific. We detected GM maize in 20 of the 1370 commercial food samples tested, which were labeled as containing maize. The overall sensitivity, specificity, rapidity and high throughput capacity of this liquid chip system suggest that it could provide a significant improvement over current methods, and potentially offer an improved platform for further research into the detection of other GM plants. PMID:23796535

Han, Xueqing; Wang, Huiyu; Chen, Hongjun; Mei, Lin; Wu, Shaoqiang; Jia, Guangle; Cheng, Tao; Zhu, Shuifang; Lin, Xiangmei

2013-06-06

34

Maize Genetic Resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

35

Development and validation of a sensitive and fast chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the detection of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

Proteins from the Cry 1 family, in particular Cry 1Ab, are commonly expressed in genetically modified Bt maize in order to control chewing insect pests. A sensitive chemiluminescent sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified Bt maize has been developed and validated. A Cry1Ab protein-specific antibody was immobilized on 96- or 384-well microtiter plates in order to capture the Cry1Ab toxin in the sample; the bound toxin was then detected by employing a second anti-Cry1Ab antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-antibody, followed by measurement of the enzyme activity with an enhanced chemiluminescent system. The chemiluminescent assay fulfilled all the requirements of accuracy and precision and exhibited limits of detection of a few pg mL(-1) Cry1Ab (3 or 5 pg mL(-1), depending on the assay format), which are significantly lower than that achievable using conventional colorimetric detection of peroxidase activity and also represent an improvement compared to previously developed Cry1Ab immunoassays. High-throughput analysis can be performed using the 384-well microtiter plate format immunoassay, which also allows one to reduce the consumption of samples and reagents. Validation of the assay, performed by analyzing certified reference materials, proved that the immunoassay is able to detect the presence of the Cry1Ab protein in certified reference samples containing as low as 0.1% of MON 810 genetically modified Bt maize. This value is below the threshold requiring mandatory labeling of foods containing genetically modified material according to the actual EU regulation. PMID:16491341

Roda, A; Mirasoli, M; Guardigli, M; Michelini, E; Simoni, P; Magliulo, M

2006-02-21

36

Real-time multiplex PCR: An accurate method for the detection and quantification of 35S-CaMV promoter in genetically modified maize-containing food  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very sensitive and new real-time multiplex PCR method for the quantification of genetically modified (GM) maize crops in food materials was developed and validated for an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System. In the assay described, fluorescence-labelled TaqMan probes were chosen to detect the amplified DNA fragments during PCR. In this multiplex approach, maize-specific DNA (zein) and 35S-CaMV promoter-specific

Michaela Höhne; Christelle Rosa Santisi; Rolf Meyer

2002-01-01

37

Optical detection of specific genes for genetically modified soybean and maize using multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension on a plastic plate.  

PubMed

A novel DNA microarray method to detect one line of genetically modified (GM) soybean and five lines of GM maize was developed using multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension on a plastic plate. Multiplex PCR products were applied on an extension primer-immobilized plate and the spots corresponding to the DNA sequences were visualized. This method is a rapid and simple way to detect GM soybean and GM maize optically. PMID:19661710

Harikai, Naoki; Saito, Shin; Abe, Midori; Kondo, Kazunari; Kitta, Kazumi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kinoshita, Kenji

2009-08-07

38

A Comparison of Soil Microbial Community Structure, Protozoa and Nematodes in Field Plots of Conventional and Genetically Modified Maize Expressing the Bacillus thuringiens is CryIAb Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were established at three European sites (Denmark, Eastern France, South-West France) of genetically modified\\u000a maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the CryIAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt), the near-isogenic non-Bt cultivar, another conventional maize cultivar and grass. Soil from Denmark was sampled\\u000a at sowing (May) and harvest (October) over two years (2002, 2003); from E France at harvest 2002, sowing

B. S. Griffiths; S. Caul; J. Thompson; A. N. E. Birch; C. Scrimgeour; M. N. Andersen; J. Cortet; A. Messéan; C. Sausse; B. Lacroix; P. H. Krogh

2005-01-01

39

Fate of recombinant DNA and Cry1Ab protein after ingestion and dispersal of genetically modified maize in comparison to rapeseed by fallow deer ( Dama dama )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of recombinant DNA in fallow deer (Dama dama) was investigated by feeding a diet of isogenic or genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab protein against the\\u000a European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). To study the degradability of ingested DNA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were introduced to detect fragments\\u000a of the endogenous, highly abundant chloroplast-specific rubisco gene, the maize-specific

P. Guertler; B. Lutz; R. Kuehn; H. H. D. Meyer; R. Einspanier; B. Killermann; C. Albrecht

2008-01-01

40

Screening of genetically modified organisms and specific detection of Bt176 maize in flours and starches by PCR-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) targeting either the 35S promoter or the Bt176 specific junction sequence were developed to screen for the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and specifically detect Bt176 maize in flours and starches. Two additional PCR-ELISA assays were developed to validate the results: one, based on the detection of the maize alcohol dehydrogenase

Laetitia Petit; Fabienne Baraige; Anne-Marie Balois; Yves Bertheau; Patrick Fach

2003-01-01

41

Temporal dynamics of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of two genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids in tropical agrosystems.  

PubMed

The use of genetically modified (GM) plants still raises concerns about their environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of GM maize, in comparison to the parental line, on the structure and abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the effect of soil type was addressed. For this purpose, the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the rhizosphere of GM plants were compared by culture-independent methodologies to the near-isogenic parental line. Two different soils and three stages of plant development in two different periods of the year were included. As evidenced by principal components analysis (PCA) of the PCR-DGGE profiles of evaluated community, clear differences occurred in these rhizosphere communities between soils and the periods of the year that maize was cultivated. However, there were no discernible effects of the GM lines as compared to the parental line. For all microbial communities evaluated, soil type and the period of the year that the maize was cultivated were the main factors that influenced their structures. No differences were observed in the abundances of total bacteria between the rhizospheres of GM and parental plant lines. PMID:23124960

Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

2012-11-03

42

A general multiplex-PCR assay for the general detection of genetically modified soya and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for the detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with

V. T. Forte; A. Di Pinto; C. Martino; G. M. Tantillo; G. Grasso; F. P. Schena

2005-01-01

43

Absolute quantification of genetically modified MON810 maize ( Zea mays L.) by digital polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) foods requires estimation of the amount of the transgenic event relative\\u000a to an endogenous gene. Regulatory authorities in the European Union (EU) have defined the labelling threshold for GM food\\u000a on the copy number ratio between the transgenic event and an endogenous gene. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is\\u000a currently being used for quantification

Philippe Corbisier; Somanath Bhat; Lina Partis; Vicki Rui Dan Xie; Kerry R. Emslie

2010-01-01

44

Detection of genetically modified soya and maize: Impact of heat processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of processed foods entails a number of complications, which negatively affect the performance of DNA based detection methods. Heat-processing methods viz. autoclaving and micro-waving, that mimic processing and manufacturing, as model unit operation systems were used to study their effect on the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This study confirms the premise that high temperature and\\/or pressure

K. R. Vijayakumar; Asha Martin; Lalitha R. Gowda; V. Prakash

2009-01-01

45

Quantitative competitive PCR for the detection of genetically modified soybean and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surveillance of food labelling concerning genetically modified organisms (GMOs) requires DNA-based analytical techniques.\\u000a Present assay systems allow the detection of GMO in food; however, they do not permit their quantitation. In this study, we\\u000a report the development of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) systems for the detection and quantitation\\u000a of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and the Maximizer

Edgar Studer; Claudio Rhyner; Jürg Lüthy; P. Hübner

1998-01-01

46

Statistical Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Protocols Applied to Quantify Genetically Modified Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) is the technique of choice for event-specific quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)\\u000a by determining the amount of event with respect to a species-specific reference gene. Reference genes can be amplified from\\u000a the genome extracted from Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) or from ad hoc designed plasmids. In the present study, we\\u000a statistically evaluate the performance of RTi-PCR

Silvia Folloni; Gianni Bellocchi; Adelina Prospero; Maddalena Querci; William Moens; Monica Ermolli; Guy Van den Eede

2010-01-01

47

Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns\\u000a of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for\\u000a a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this\\u000a hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes

Yann Devos; Mathias Cougnon; Sofie Vergucht; Robert Bulcke; Geert Haesaert; Walter Steurbaut; Dirk Reheul

2008-01-01

48

Event-specific detection of seven genetically modified soybean and maizes using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray.  

PubMed

With the increasing development of genetically modified organism (GMO) detection techniques, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection. An oligonucleotide microarray is a glass chip to the surface of which an array of oligonucleotides was fixed as spots, each containing numerous copies of a sequence-specific probe that is complementary to a gene of interest. So it is used to detect ten or more targets synchronously. In this research, an event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific integration junction sequences between the host plant genome DNA and the integrated gene is being developed for its high specificity using multiplex-PCR together with oligonucleotide microarray. A commercial GM soybean (GTS 40-3-2) and six GM maize events (MON810, MON863, Bt176, Bt11, GA21, and T25) were detected by this method. The results indicate that it is a suitable method for the identification of these GM soybean and maizes. PMID:17559227

Xu, Jia; Zhu, Shuifang; Miao, Haizhen; Huang, Wensheng; Qiu, Minyan; Huang, Yan; Fu, Xuping; Li, Yao

2007-06-09

49

High-Throughput Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Weanling Pigs Fed Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (Bt Maize) for 31 Days  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate if feeding genetically modified (GM) MON810 maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein (Bt maize) had any effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota. Eighteen pigs were weaned at ?28 days and, following a 6-day acclimatization period, were assigned to diets containing either GM (Bt MON810) maize or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days (n = 9/treatment). Effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota were assessed through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Fecal, cecal, and ileal counts of total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus were not significantly different between pigs fed the isogenic or Bt maize-based diets. Furthermore, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed few differences in the compositions of the cecal microbiotas. The only differences were that pigs fed the Bt maize diet had higher cecal abundance of Enterococcaceae (0.06 versus 0%; P < 0.05), Erysipelotrichaceae (1.28 versus 1.17%; P < 0.05), and Bifidobacterium (0.04 versus 0%; P < 0.05) and lower abundance of Blautia (0.23 versus 0.40%; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the isogenic maize diet. A lower enzyme-resistant starch content in the Bt maize, which is most likely a result of normal variation and not due to the genetic modification, may account for some of the differences observed within the cecal microbiotas. These results indicate that Bt maize is well tolerated by the porcine intestinal microbiota and provide additional data for safety assessment of Bt maize. Furthermore, these data can potentially be extrapolated to humans, considering the suitability of pigs as a human model.

Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2012-01-01

50

High-throughput sequence-based analysis of the intestinal microbiota of weanling pigs fed genetically modified MON810 maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (Bt maize) for 31 days.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate if feeding genetically modified (GM) MON810 maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein (Bt maize) had any effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota. Eighteen pigs were weaned at ~28 days and, following a 6-day acclimatization period, were assigned to diets containing either GM (Bt MON810) maize or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days (n = 9/treatment). Effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota were assessed through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Fecal, cecal, and ileal counts of total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus were not significantly different between pigs fed the isogenic or Bt maize-based diets. Furthermore, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed few differences in the compositions of the cecal microbiotas. The only differences were that pigs fed the Bt maize diet had higher cecal abundance of Enterococcaceae (0.06 versus 0%; P < 0.05), Erysipelotrichaceae (1.28 versus 1.17%; P < 0.05), and Bifidobacterium (0.04 versus 0%; P < 0.05) and lower abundance of Blautia (0.23 versus 0.40%; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the isogenic maize diet. A lower enzyme-resistant starch content in the Bt maize, which is most likely a result of normal variation and not due to the genetic modification, may account for some of the differences observed within the cecal microbiotas. These results indicate that Bt maize is well tolerated by the porcine intestinal microbiota and provide additional data for safety assessment of Bt maize. Furthermore, these data can potentially be extrapolated to humans, considering the suitability of pigs as a human model. PMID:22467509

Buzoianu, Stefan G; Walsh, Maria C; Rea, Mary C; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

2012-03-30

51

Randomly Detected Genetically Modified (GM) Maize (Zea mays L.) near a Transport Route Revealed a Fragile 45S rDNA Phenotype.  

PubMed

Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed. PMID:24040165

Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

2013-09-09

52

Randomly Detected Genetically Modified (GM) Maize (Zea mays L.) near a Transport Route Revealed a Fragile 45S rDNA Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a “beads-on-a-string” fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.

Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

2013-01-01

53

Fate of recombinant DNA and Cry1Ab protein after ingestion and dispersal of genetically modified maize in comparison to rapeseed by fallow deer (Dama dama)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The fate of recombinant,DNA in fallow deer (Dama,dama) was,investigated by,feeding a diet of isogenic or genetically modified,(GM) maize,expressing Cry1Ab protein against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). To study the degradability of ingested DNA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were introduced to detect fragments of the endogenous, highly abundant chloroplast-specific rubisco gene, the maize-specific zein gene,and the recombinant,cry1Ab gene.

P. Guertler; R. Einspanier; B. Killermann C. Albrecht

54

A new PCR-CGE (size and color) method for simultaneous detection of genetically modified maize events.  

PubMed

We present a novel multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of multiple transgenic events in maize. Initially, five PCR primers pairs specific to events Bt11, GA21, MON810, and NK603, and Zea mays L. (alcohol dehydrogenase) were included. The event specificity was based on amplification of transgene/plant genome flanking regions, i.e., the same targets as for validated real-time PCR assays. These short and similarly sized amplicons were selected to achieve high and similar amplification efficiency for all targets; however, its unambiguous identification was a technical challenge. We achieved a clear distinction by a novel CGE approach that combined the identification by size and color (CGE-SC). In one single step, all five targets were amplified and specifically labeled with three different fluorescent dyes. The assay was specific and displayed an LOD of 0.1% of each genetically modified organism (GMO). Therefore, it was adequate to fulfill legal thresholds established, e.g., in the European Union. Our CGE-SC based strategy in combination with an adequate labeling design has the potential to simultaneously detect higher numbers of targets. As an example, we present the detection of up to eight targets in a single run. Multiplex PCR-CGE-SC only requires a conventional sequencer device and enables automation and high throughput. In addition, it proved to be transferable to a different laboratory. The number of authorized GMO events is rapidly growing; and the acreage of genetically modified (GM) varieties cultivated and commercialized worldwide is rapidly increasing. In this context, our multiplex PCR-CGE-SC can be suitable for screening GM contents in food. PMID:16972302

Nadal, Anna; Coll, Anna; La Paz, Jose-Luis; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

2006-10-01

55

Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize. PMID:21873818

Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

2011-01-01

56

Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to ?40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators.  

PubMed

A total of 72 male weaned pigs were used in a 110-day study to investigate the effect of feeding genetically modified (GM) Bt MON810 maize on selected growth and health indicators. It was hypothesised that in pigs fed Bt maize, growth and health are not impacted compared with pigs fed isogenic maize-based diets. Following a 12-day basal period, pigs (10.7 ± 1.9 kg body weight (BW); ?40 days old) were blocked by weight and ancestry and randomly assigned to treatments: (1) non-GM maize diet for 110 days (non-GM), (2) GM maize diet for 110 days (GM), (3) non-GM maize diet for 30 days followed by GM maize diet up to day 110 (non-GM/GM) and (4) GM maize diet for 30 days followed by non-GM maize diet up to day 110 (GM/non-GM). BW and daily feed intake were recorded on days 0, 30, 60 and 110 (n = 15). Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 10) on day 80. Following slaughter on day 110, organs and intestines were weighed and sampled for histological analysis and urine was collected for biochemical analysis (n = 10). Serum biochemistry analysis was performed on days 0, 30, 60, 100 and 110. Growth performance and serum biochemistry were analysed as repeated measures with time and treatment as main factors. The slice option of SAS was used to determine treatment differences at individual time points. There was no effect of feeding GM maize on overall growth, body composition, organ and intestinal weight and histology or serum biochemistry on days 60 and 100 and on urine biochemistry on day 110. A treatment × time interaction was observed for serum urea (SU; P < 0.05), creatinine (SC; P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < 0.05). On day 30, SU was lower for the non-GM/GM treatment compared with the non-GM, GM and GM/non-GM treatments (P < 0.05). On day 110, SC was higher for the non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM treatments compared with non-GM and GM treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, serum total protein was lower for the GM/non-GM treatment compared with the non-GM/GM treatment (P < 0.05). The magnitude of change observed in some serum biochemical parameters did not indicate organ dysfunction and the changes were not accompanied by histological lesions. Long-term feeding of GM maize to pigs did not adversely affect growth or the selected health indicators investigated. PMID:23031560

Buzoianu, S G; Walsh, M C; Rea, M C; Cassidy, J P; Ross, R P; Gardiner, G E; Lawlor, P G

2012-10-01

57

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Following a request from Monsanto within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 on genetically modified food and feed, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the authorisation of the insect-resistant, glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810 (Unique Identifier MON88Ø17-3 x MON- ØØ81Ø-6). In delivering its scientific opinion, the

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Howard Davies

2009-01-01

58

Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt -maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental\\u000a Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms\\u000a belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically\\u000a modified

Stefan Rauschen; Frank Schaarschmidt; Achim Gathmann

2010-01-01

59

Results of an interlaboratory assessment of a screening method of genetically modified organisms in soy beans and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results on an interlaboratory trial on the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) are presented. The method applied is based on the detection of modified DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification. The amplified fragments analysed are derived from the 35S promotor and the NOS terminator used for modification and are present in 26 from the

M Lipp; E Anklam; P Brodmann; K Pietsch; J Pauwels

1999-01-01

60

Investigations on genetically modified maize (Bt-maize) in pig nutrition: fate of feed-ingested foreign DNA in pig bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passage and fate of ingested DNA in 48 pigs fed with diets containing (n=12) parental or (n=36) transgenic (Bt) maize were examined. Pigs were fattened from an initial live weight of 24 kg to approximately 108 kg. Animals fed transgenic maize were slaughtered in groups (n=6) 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding the last maize-containing

Tim Reuter; Karen Aulrich

2003-01-01

61

Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms using differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction: application to 35S in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has always presented an analytical challenge because the complete sequence data needed to detect them are generally unavailable although sequence similarity to known GMOs can be expected. A new approach, differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of nonauthorized GMOs is presented here. This method is based on the presence of several

Katarina Cankar; Valérie Chauvensy-Ancel; Marie-Noelle Fortabat; Kristina Gruden; André Kobilinsky; Jana Žel; Yves Bertheau

2008-01-01

62

A multiplex nested PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of genetically modified soybean, maize and rice in highly processed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of the GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. There are

Ao Jinxia; Li Qingzhang; Gao Xuejun; Yu Yanbo; Li Lu; Zhang Minghui

2011-01-01

63

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2012-12-04

64

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-NL-2007-37) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant genetically modified maize MON89034, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This document provides an opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO Panel) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on genetically modified maize MON89034 (Unique Identifier MON-89Ø34-3) developed to provide resistance to certain insect pests. In delivering its scientific opinion, the GMO Panel considered the new application EFSA- GMO-NL-2007-37, additional information provided by the applicant (Monsanto)

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Lieve Herman; Niels Hendriksen; Jozsef Kiss; Gijs Kleter; Ilona Kryspin-Sørensen; Harry Kuiper; Ingolf Nes; Nickolas Panopoulos; Joe Perry; Joachim Schiemann; Willem Seinen

2008-01-01

65

New Analysis of a Rat Feeding Study with a Genetically Modified Maize Reveals Signs of Hepatorenal Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the\\u000a world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies\\u000a performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from\\u000a regulatory reviewers in Europe,

Gilles-Eric Séralini; Dominique Cellier; Joël Spiroux de Vendomois

2007-01-01

66

Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

67

Quantification of Cry1Ab in genetically modified maize leaves by liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry using 18O stable isotope dilution.  

PubMed

Cry1Ab is one of the most common Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in genetically modified crops, which exhibits strong resistance against insect pests. In the present study, a sensitive and precise liquid chromatography stable isotope dilution multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry (LC-SID-MRM-MS) assay was developed and validated to quantify the amount of Cry1Ab expression in transgenic maize leaves. The measurement of protein was converted to measurement of unique peptides to Cry1Ab protein. Two peptides unique to Cry1Ab were synthesized and labeled in H(2)(18)O to generate (18)O stable isotope peptides as internal standards. The validated method obtained superior specificity and good linearity. And the inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy for all samples were satisfactory. The results demonstrated Cry1Ab protein was 31.7 ± 4.1 ?g g(-1) dry weight in Bt-176 transgenic maize leaves. It proved that the novel LC-SID-MRM-MS method was sensitive and selective to quantify Cry1Ab in the crude extract without time-consuming pre-separation or purification procedures. PMID:22543512

Zhang, Yongqian; Lai, Chengjun; Su, Rui; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Yan; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

2012-04-30

68

Subchronic feeding study with genetically modified stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran resistant (DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7) maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7 (1507×59122) is a genetically modified (GM) maize hybrid that was produced by crossing of two GM maize inbreds; DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and DAS-59122-7. This hybrid cross expresses four transgenic proteins: Cry1F and PAT (from DAS-Ø15Ø7-1) and Cry34Ab1\\/Cry35Ab1 and PAT (from DAS-59122-7) that confer resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current subchronic feeding

Laura M. Appenzeller; Linda Malley; Susan A. MacKenzie; Denise Hoban; Bryan Delaney

2009-01-01

69

Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.  

PubMed

Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

2012-11-09

70

Subchronic feeding study with genetically modified stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran resistant (DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7) maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7 (1507x59122) is a genetically modified (GM) maize hybrid that was produced by crossing of two GM maize inbreds; DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and DAS-59122-7. This hybrid cross expresses four transgenic proteins: Cry1F and PAT (from DAS-Ø15Ø7-1) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT (from DAS-59122-7) that confer resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current subchronic feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the potential health effects of long-term consumption of a rodent diet containing 1507x59122 maize grain compared with a diet containing maize grain from its near-isogenic control (091). Diets formulated with three unrelated non-GM commercial hybrids (3573, 35P12, 36G12) were also included for within study reference data. All diets contained 34% (w/wt) maize grain and were prepared according to the specifications of PMI((R)) Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet((R)) 5002 (PMI((R)) 5002). Diets were fed ad libitum to rats for at least 92days. OECD 408 response variables from rats fed the 1507x59122 diet were compared with those from rats fed the 091 control diet. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in nutritional performance variables, clinical and neurobehavioral signs, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology between rats in the 091 and 1507x59122 treatment groups. The results from this study demonstrate that 1507x59122 maize grain is as safe and nutritious as non-GM maize grain and support the concept that crossing of two safe GM maize events results in production of a safe stacked GM event. PMID:19358870

Appenzeller, Laura M; Malley, Linda; Mackenzie, Susan A; Hoban, Denise; Delaney, Bryan

2009-04-07

71

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. The Community Resource for Access to Diverse Maize Data1  

PubMed Central

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays) research community by making a wealth of genetics and genomics data available through an intuitive Web-based interface. The goals of the MaizeGDB project are 3-fold: to provide a central repository for public maize information; to present the data through the MaizeGDB Web site in a way that recapitulates biological relationships; and to provide an array of computational tools that address biological questions in an easy-to-use manner at the site. In addition to these primary tasks, MaizeGDB team members also serve the community of maize geneticists by lending technical support for community activities, including the annual Maize Genetics Conference and various workshops, teaching researchers to use both the MaizeGDB Web site and Community Curation Tools, and engaging in collaboration with individual research groups to make their unique data types available through MaizeGDB.

Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Brendel, Volker

2005-01-01

72

Use of Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC) to identify novel genetic loci that modify the maize hypersensitive response.  

PubMed

The partially dominant, autoactive maize disease resistance gene Rp1-D21 causes hypersensitive response (HR) lesions to form spontaneously on leaves and stems in the absence of pathogen recognition. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population consists of 25 200-line subpopulations each derived from a cross between the maize line B73 and one of 25 diverse inbred lines. By crossing a line carrying the Rp1-D21 gene with lines from three of these subpopulations and assessing the F(1) progeny, we were able to map several novel loci that modify the maize HR, using both single-population quantitative trait locus (QTL) and joint analysis of all three populations. Joint analysis detected QTL in greater number and with greater confidence and precision than did single population analysis. In particular, QTL were detected in bins 1.02, 4.04, 9.03, and 10.03. We have previously termed this technique, in which a mutant phenotype is used as a "reporter" for a trait of interest, Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC). PMID:21792633

Chaikam, Vijay; Negeri, Adisu; Dhawan, Rahul; Puchaka, Bala; Ji, Jiabing; Chintamanani, Satya; Gachomo, Emma W; Zillmer, Allen; Doran, Timothy; Weil, Cliff; Balint-Kurti, Peter; Johal, Guri

2011-07-27

73

Genetic Characterization of a Core Set of a Tropical Maize Race Tuxpe?o for Further Use in Maize Improvement  

PubMed Central

The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants). Clustering analyses (CA) based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD) clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size) representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community.

Chavez-Tovar, Victor H.; Yan, Jianbing; Taba, Suketoshi

2012-01-01

74

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45%

Cheah Yoke-Kqueen; Son Radu

2006-01-01

75

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2009-08-31

76

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics  

PubMed Central

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence, stock, phenotype, genotypic and karyotypic variation, and chromosomal mapping data. In addition, MaizeGDB provides contact information for over 2400 maize cooperative researchers, facilitating interactions between members of the rapidly expanding maize community. MaizeGDB represents the synthesis of all data available previously from ZmDB and from MaizeDB—databases that have been superseded by MaizeGDB. MaizeGDB provides web-based tools for ordering maize stocks from several organizations including the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center and the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS). Sequence searches yield records displayed with embedded links to facilitate ordering cloned sequences from various groups including the Maize Gene Discovery Project and the Clemson University Genomics Institute. An intuitive web interface is implemented to facilitate navigation between related data, and analytical tools are embedded within data displays. Web-based curation tools for both designated experts and general researchers are currently under development. MaizeGDB can be accessed at http://www.maizegdb.org/.

Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Dong, Qunfeng; Polacco, Mary L.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Brendel, Volker

2004-01-01

77

Prevention of Aerobic Spoilage of Maize Silage by a Genetically Modified Killer Yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, Defective in the Ability To Grow on Lactic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we propose a new process of adding a genetically modified killer yeast to improve the aerobic stability of silage. Previously constructed Kluyveromyces lactis killer strain PCK27, defective in growth on lactic acid due to disruption of the gene coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key enzyme for gluco- neogenesis, inhibited the growth of Pichia anomala inoculated as an

H. K. KITAMOTO; A. HASEBE; S. OHMOMO; E. G. SUTO; M. MURAKI; Y. IIMURA

1999-01-01

78

Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified maize at a grain receiving port and along transportation routes in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation area of genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing all over the world. Though no land in the Republic of Korea is currently used for the cultivation of GM crops, GM crop imports for food and foraging purposes are continuously increasing. This may promote the unintentional escape of GM crops. This study was conducted to investigate whether imported GM

Kee Woong Park; Bumkyu Lee; Chang-Gi Kim; Do Young Kim; Ji-Young Park; Eun-Mi Ko; Soon-Chun Jeong; Kyung-Hwa Choi; Won Kee Yoon; Hwan Mook Kim

2010-01-01

79

A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The cry1Ac-M gene, coding one of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins, was introduced into maize H99 × Hi IIB genome to produce insect-resistant GM maize BT-38. The food safety assessment of the BT-38 maize was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 90-days feeding study. We incorporated maize grains from BT-38 and H99 × Hi IIB into rodent diets at three concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50%) and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. A commercialized rodent diet was fed to an additional group as control group. Body weight, feed consumption and toxicological response variables were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. Moreover, detection of residual Cry1Ac-M protein in the serum of rats fed with GM maize was conducted. No death or adverse effects were observed in the current feeding study. No adverse differences in the values of the response variables were observed between rats that consumed diets containing GM maize BT-38 and non-GM maize H99 × Hi IIB. No detectable Cry1Ac-M protein was found in the serum of rats after feeding diets containing GM maize for 3 months. The results demonstrated that BT-38 maize is as safe as conventional non-GM maize. PMID:22709787

Liu, Pengfei; He, Xiaoyun; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Cao, Sishuo; Song, Huan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

2012-06-16

80

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

81

Setup, efforts and practical experiences of a monitoring program for genetically modified plants - an Austrian case study for oilseed rape and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  According to the Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC, genetically modified plants [GMPs] have to be monitored for unintended ecological impacts\\u000a during their release. Detrimental effects on the biodiversity of agro-ecosystems represent a prime focus of such a monitoring.\\u000a Although cropping of GMPs has already been permitted in the European Union, the establishment of appropriate monitoring networks\\u000a lags behind. Here, we

Kathrin Pascher; Dietmar Moser; Stefan Dullinger; Leopold Sachslehner; Patrick Gros; Norbert Sauberer; Andreas Traxler; Georg Grabherr; Thomas Frank

2011-01-01

82

The art and design of genetic screens: maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays) is an excellent model for basic research. Genetic screens have informed our understanding of developmental processes, meiosis, epigenetics and biochemical pathways — not only in maize but also in other cereal crops. We discuss the forward and reverse genetic screens that are possible in this organism, and emphasize the available tools. Screens exploit the well-studied behaviour of

Héctor Candela; Sarah Hake

2008-01-01

83

Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection.

Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

2013-01-01

84

Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of chinese waxy maize germplasm.  

PubMed

Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

2013-06-20

85

Suitable method for simultaneous and specifi c detection of maize (Zea mays l.) and genetically modifi ed soyabean (Glycine max l.) in animal feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present method allows a simple and rapid identifi cation of maize and specifi c transgenic soyabean event in raw materials and processed feed samples. The method combines two aspects: suitable DNA purifi cation and amplifi cation by means of multiplex RT-PCR. Effi ciency and accuracy of this method have been tested and the limit of detection (LOD) reached was of

A. Gómez Garay; I. Garrido Mayas; G. Vergara García

86

A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that a diet including insect-resistant Bt176 maize, fed to 53 ewes and their progeny for 3 years, did not have adverse effects on their health or performance and that no horizontal gene transfer to ruminal microorganisms or animal tissues was detected. No differences were observed regarding performance, reproductive traits, haematological parameters, antioxidant defences, lymphocyte proliferative capacity, phagocytosis and

Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci; Giorgio Brandi; Cristina Rondini; Luca Avellini; Camilla Giammarini; Silva Costarelli; Gabriele Acuti; Chiara Orlandi; Giovanni Filippini; Elisabetta Chiaradia; Manuela Malatesta; Silvia Crotti; Chiara Antonini; Giulia Amagliani; Elisabetta Manuali; Anna Rita Mastrogiacomo; Livia Moscati; Mohamed Naceur Haouet; Alberto Gaiti; Mauro Magnani

2008-01-01

87

Maize centromere mapping: A comparison of physical and genetic strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The location of chromosome centromeres in various maize genetic maps relative to physical maps has not been consistently and clearly identified due to the paucity of markers and low recombination in the highly heterochromatic centromeric and flanking regions. Centromere positions on seven maize chro...

88

Genetic diversity and selection in the maize starch pathway  

PubMed Central

Maize is both phenotypically and genetically diverse. Sequence studies generally confirm the extensive genetic variability in modern maize is consistent with a lack of selection. For more than 6,000 years, Native Americans and modern breeders have exploited the tremendous genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) to create the highest yielding grain crop in the world. Nonetheless, some loci have relatively low levels of genetic variation, particularly loci that have been the target of artificial selection, like c1 and tb1. However, there is limited information on how selection may affect an agronomically important pathway for any crop. These pathways may retain the signature of artificial selection and may lack genetic variation in contrast to the rest of the genome. To evaluate the impact of selection across an agronomically important pathway, we surveyed nucleotide diversity at six major genes involved in starch metabolism and found unusually low genetic diversity and strong evidence of selection. Low diversity in these critical genes suggests that a paradigm shift may be required for future maize breeding. Rather than relying solely on the diversity within maize or on transgenics, future maize breeding would perhaps benefit from the incorporation of alleles from maize's wild relatives.

Whitt, Sherry R.; Wilson, Larissa M.; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S.; Buckler, Edward S.

2002-01-01

89

Application of capillary electrophoretic chips in protein profiling of plant extracts for identification of genetic modifications of maize.  

PubMed

In this study, the chip gel electrophoresis with LIF detection was applied in protein profiling of fractionated and total extracts of maize standards. The sensitivity of such determinations can be enhanced by lyophilization of extracts or employing filtering and preconcentration with cutoff filters. Combinatorial peptide ligand library applied for sample processing prior to the electrophoretic analysis was, especially, an effective pretreatment step in the determination of low-abundance proteins. Several repeatable differences were observed for protein profiles between maize standards not containing the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and those containing GMO, which can be potentially employed for identification of GMO in maize samples and foods of maize origin. PMID:23856913

Pobo?y, Ewa; Filaber, Monika; Koc, Anna; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

2013-08-19

90

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

91

The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

92

Metabolite profiling of maize kernels--genetic modification versus environmental influence.  

PubMed

A metabolite profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to investigate the metabolite profiles of genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize (DKC78-15B, TXP 138F) and Roundup Ready-maize (DKC78-35R). For the comparative investigation of the impact of genetic modification versus environmental influence on the metabolite profiles, GM maize was grown together with the non-GM near-isogenic comparators under different environmental conditions, including several growing locations and seasons in Germany and South Africa. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between GM and non-GM maize grown in Germany and South Africa. For the factor genotype, 4 and 3%, respectively, of the total number of peaks detected by GC-MS showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in peak heights as compared to the respective isogenic lines. However, ANOVA for the factor environment (growing location, season) revealed higher numbers of significant differences (p < 0.01) between the GM and the non-GM maize grown in Germany (42%) and South Africa (10%), respectively. This indicates that the majority of differences observed are related to natural variability rather than to the genetic modifications. In addition, multivariate data assessment by means of principal component analysis revealed that environmental factors, that is, growing locations and seasons, were dominant parameters driving the variability of the maize metabolite profiles. PMID:22375597

Frank, Thomas; Röhlig, Richard M; Davies, Howard V; Barros, Eugenia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

2012-03-12

93

Why genetically modified crops?  

PubMed

This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term. PMID:21464072

Jones, Jonathan D G

2011-05-13

94

The genetic architecture of maize stalk strength.  

PubMed

Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,692 recombinant inbreds (RILs) comprising the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel derived from crosses of diverse inbreds to the inbred, B73. An intermated B73×Mo17 family (IBM) of 196 RILs and a panel of 2,453 diverse inbreds from the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were also evaluated. We measured RPR in three environments. Family-nested QTL were identified by joint-linkage mapping in the NAM panel. We also performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) in each panel. Broad sense heritability computed on a line means basis was low for RPR. Only 8 of 26 families had a heritability above 0.20. The NCRPIS diversity panel had a heritability of 0.54. Across NAM and IBM families, 18 family-nested QTL and 141 significant GWAS associations were identified for RPR. Numerous weak associations were also found in the NCRPIS diversity panel. However, few were linked to loci involved in phenylpropanoid and cellulose synthesis or vegetative phase transition. Using an identity-by-state (IBS) relationship matrix estimated from 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RPR measures from 20% of the NAM panel, genomic prediction by GBLUP explained 64±2% of variation in the remaining RILs. In the NCRPIS diversity panel, an IBS matrix estimated from 681,257 SNPs and RPR measures from 20% of the panel explained 33±3% of variation in the remaining inbreds. These results indicate the high genetic complexity of stalk strength and the potential for genomic prediction to hasten its improvement. PMID:23840585

Peiffer, Jason A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; De Leon, Natalia; McMullen, Michael D; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Buckler, Edward S

2013-06-20

95

Genetically modified myths and realities.  

PubMed

Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

Parrott, Wayne

2010-05-31

96

Genetic Control of Malate Dehydrogenase Isozymes in Maize  

PubMed Central

At least six nuclear loci are responsible for the genetic control of malate dehydrogenase (L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37; MDH) in coleoptiles of maize. Three independently segregating loci (Mdh1, Mdh2, Mdh3) govern the production of MDH isozymes resistant to inactivation by ascorbic acid and found largely or solely in the mitochondria. A rare recessive allele found at a fourth nuclear locus (mmm) causes increased electrophoretic mobility of the MDH isozymes governed by the Mdh1, Mdh2 and Mdh3 loci.—Two loci (Mdh4, Mdh5) govern MDH isozymes that are selectively inactivated by homogenization in an ascorbic acid solution and that appear to be nonmitochondrial (soluble). Mdh4 and Mdh5 segregate independently of each other and independently of Mdh1, Mdh2 and Mdh3. However, there is close linkage between the migration modifier and Mdh4.——Multiple alleles have been found for all of the Mdh loci except the migration modifier, and electrophoretically "null" or near "null" alleles (as expressed in standardized sections of maize coleoptile) have been found for all loci except Mdh4. Duplicate inheritance commonly occurs for Mdh1 and Mdh2 and also for Mdh4 and Mdh5.——Inter- and intragenic heterodimers are formed between sub-units specified by the three loci governing the mitochondrial MDH isozymes. The same is true of the alleles and nonalleles at the two loci governing the soluble variants. No such heterodimers are formed by interactions between mitochondrial and soluble MDH isozymes.

Goodman, M. M.; Stuber, C. W.; Lee, C. N.; Johnson, F. M.

1980-01-01

97

Genetic Analysis of Rough Sheath1 Developmental Mutants of Maize  

PubMed Central

Maize Rough sheath1 (Rs1) mutants are dominant and cause a proliferation of sheath-like tissue at the base of the blade and throughout the ligular region. They also cause ligule displacement, a chaotic pattern of vasculature and abnormal cellular structure of vascular bundles. The affected region of Rs1-O leaves displays genetic and morphological attributes of both sheath and auricle, suggesting an overlap of these genetic programs. The rs1 locus maps approximately 26 map units distal to opaque2 (o2) on chromosome 7S, defining a new distal-most locus on the genetic map. Three mutant alleles, Rs1-O, Rs1-1025 and Rs1-Z, all display similar phenotypes. The mutations are completely dominant and the Rs1-O phenotype is not affected by dosage of the chromosome arm carrying the rs1(+) allele, indicating that these alleles are neomorphic. Analysis of genetic mosaics showed that the Rs1-O phenotype is non-cell-autonomous, suggesting that intercellular signals convey the phenotype. Rs1 mutant phenotypes are affected by modifiers present in particular genetic backgrounds. An enhancer of Rs1-O was identified; segregation data imply a single recessive gene, ers1. Rs1 mutants were also found to enhance the expression of unlinked rs2 and Rs4 mutants, suggesting that these mutations affect similar developmental processes. We discuss the phenotypic and genetic similarities between Rs1 and Knotted1 (Kn1) mutants that led to the identification of rs1 as a kn1-like homeobox gene (unpublished data).

Becraft, P. W.; Freeling, M.

1994-01-01

98

[Detection of genetic modification in maize and maize products by ELISA-test].  

PubMed

Enzyme immunoassay methods--TRAIT Test--was applied for detection of genetic modification in maize seeds and foodstuffs, which have been produced from this crop. TRAIT Test is based on the identification GMO protein Cry 1Ab produced by a gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) incorporated into insect resistant corn grain. The experiment was carried out on maize standards and foodstuffs from Warsaw market. The positive result was obtained for one maize product, which was not labelled as GMO. The presence of GMO material was approximately equal to 1%. In conclusion, this test is proper for fast routine qualitative (yes/no) determination GMO material in maize seeds and unprocessed food products. PMID:15052732

Urbanek-Kar?owska, Bogumi?a; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Jedra, Ma?gorzata; Badowski, Pawe?

2003-01-01

99

From Many, One: Genetic Control of Prolificacy during Maize Domestication  

PubMed Central

A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb “causative region” upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize.

Wills, David M.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E.; Shannon, Laura M.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F.

2013-01-01

100

From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.  

PubMed

A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant), we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1) gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize. PMID:23825971

Wills, David M; Whipple, Clinton J; Takuno, Shohei; Kursel, Lisa E; Shannon, Laura M; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John F

2013-06-27

101

Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 have an elevated but incomplete risk of developing ovarian cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study (GWAS) for ovarian cancer in ...

F. J. Couch

2012-01-01

102

Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Maize.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mitochondrial genome encodes proteins essential for mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Nuclear gene products, however, are required for the expression of mitochondrial genes and the elaboration of functional mitochondrial protein complexes. We are exploiting a unique collection of maiz...

103

Genetically modified animals: ethical issues.  

PubMed

The method of ethical analysis is reviewed and applied to questions relating to the unintended consequences, ownership, and metaphysical significance of genetically modified animals. The question of how genetics and recombinant DNA discoveries have an impact on human understanding of the moral community and the limits of acceptable action are emphasized. The potential for genetically modified animals presents a challenge to implicit norms for defining these boundaries. Four philosophical responses to this challenge are reviewed: fundamentalism, conventionalism, dualism, and naturalism. The naturalist response is most consistent with contemporary biology, but it also entails that animals have limited moral significance. PMID:11653153

Thompson, Paul B

1993-01-01

104

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

105

Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

106

POPULATION GENETIC DIVERSITY IN A MAIZE RECIPROCAL RECURRENT SELECTION PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genetic structures of the Iowa Corn Borer Synthetic #1 (CB) and Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (SS) maize [Zea mays (L.)] populations are of particular significance because these populations serve as the model for development of modern commercial hybrids. In 1949, CB and SS were used to start a rec...

107

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this

Olivia Boyce

1999-01-01

108

A Modified Sourdough Procedure for Non-Wheat Bread from Maize Meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed a procedure for the production of sour bread from 100% maize meal. The modified method combined sponge\\u000a and dough methods in two mixing stages to form a batter rather than stiff dough. The baking quality of the maize meal was\\u000a improved by using starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria selected from indigenous micro-flora of the maize meal.

Mojisola O. Edema

109

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

110

Estimating maize genetic erosion in modernized smallholder agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of crop landraces by modern varieties is thought to cause diversity loss. We studied genetic erosion in maize\\u000a within a model system; modernized smallholder agriculture in southern Mexico. The local seed supply was described through\\u000a interviews and in situ seed collection. In spite of the dominance of commercial seed, the informal seed system was found to\\u000a persist. True landraces

Joost van Heerwaarden; J. Hellin; R. G. F. Visser; F. A. van Eeuwijk

2009-01-01

111

High throughput genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high throughput genetic transformation system in maize has been developed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated T-DNA delivery. With optimized conditions, stable callus transformation frequencies for Hi-II immature embryos averaged approximately 40%, with results in some experiments as high as 50%. The optimized conditions include N6 medium system for Agrobacterium inoculation, co-cultivation, resting and selection steps; no AgNo3 in the infection

Zuo-yu Zhao; Weining Gu; Tishu Cai; Laura Tagliani; David Hondred; Diane Bond; Sheryl Schroeder; Marjorie Rudert; Dottie Pierce

2002-01-01

112

Genetic analysis of heat shock proteins in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic analysis of heat shock protein (HSP) synthesis was performed in seedling leaf tissue of two maize inbred lines, their F1 hybrid and F2 progeny. Protein synthesis following a high temperature treatment was visualized by [35S]-methionine in vivo labelling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The parental lines' HSP synthesis patterns revealed both qualitative and quantitative polymorphisms implicative of differences in

J. A. Jorgensen; H. T. Nguyen

1995-01-01

113

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

114

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

115

Genetic and Physiological Analysis of Iron Biofortification in Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, where poverty is a major factor. Therefore, biofortification of maize by increasing Fe concentration and or bioavailability has great potential to alleviate this deficiency. Maize is also a model system for genomic research and thus allows the opportunity for gene discovery. Here we describe an integrated genetic and physiological analysis of Fe nutrition in maize kernels, to identify loci that influence grain Fe concentration and bioavailability. Methodology Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to dissect grain Fe concentration (FeGC) and Fe bioavailability (FeGB) from the Intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred (RI) population. FeGC was determined by ion coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). FeGB was determined by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell line bioassay. Conclusions Three modest QTL for FeGC were detected, in spite of high heritability. This suggests that FeGC is controlled by many small QTL, which may make it a challenging trait to improve by marker assisted breeding. Ten QTL for FeGB were identified and explained 54% of the variance observed in samples from a single year/location. Three of the largest FeGB QTL were isolated in sister derived lines and their effect was observed in three subsequent seasons in New York. Single season evaluations were also made at six other sites around North America, suggesting the enhancement of FeGB was not specific to our farm site. FeGB was not correlated with FeGC or phytic acid, suggesting that novel regulators of Fe nutrition are responsible for the differences observed. Our results indicate that iron biofortification of maize grain is achievable using specialized phenotyping tools and conventional plant breeding techniques.

Szalma, Stephen J.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Kochian, Leon V.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

2011-01-01

116

Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Health, Socioeconomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about genetically modified (GM) food seeds are serious and well-founded, the problems which these seeds raise are usually not unique to GM seeds alone. GM organisms are only one example of problematic new varieties or breeds. Large soybean and other monocultural plantations have serious environmental effects which GM seeds exacerbate. Although GM seeds may benefit large scale commercial

Frank J. Leavitt

117

GENETIC STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY AMONG MAIZE INBRED LINES AS INFERRED FROM DNA MICROSATELLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although the tremendous diversity of the maize genome has been well documented, the limited scope of previous studies failed to fully characterize the genetic structure and diversity inherent in the germplasm. In this study, 260 maize inbred lines, representing the majority of genetic diversity ava...

118

Construction of genetic linkage maps in maize and tomato using restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage maps were constructed for both maize and tomato, utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) as the source of genetic markers. In order to detect these RFLPs, unique DNA sequence clones were prepared from either maize or tomato tissue and hybridized to Southern blots containing restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA from different homozygous lines. A subsequent comparison of the RFLP

T. Helentjaris; M. Slocum; S. Wright; A. Schaefer; J. Nienhuis

1986-01-01

119

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

120

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and ligation detection reaction\\/universal array technology for the traceability of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for the simultaneous detection of target sequences in genetically modified soybean (Roundup Ready) and maize (MON810, Bt176, Bt11, and GA21). Primer pairs were designed to amplify the junction regions of the transgenic constructs analyzed and the endogenous genes of soybean (lectin) and maize (zein) were included as internal control targets to

C. Peano; R. Bordoni; M. Gulli; A. Mezzelani; M. C. Samson; G. De Bellis; N. Marmiroli

2005-01-01

121

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)|

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

122

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

123

Societal aspects of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and

L. J. Frewer; J. Lassen; B. Kettlitz; J. Scholderer; V. Beekman; K. G. Berdal

2004-01-01

124

Validation of a method based on polymerase chain reaction for the detection of genetically modified organisms in various processed foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative screening method was validated for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in various processed food matrices (cooked maize grit, infant formula, biscuits, meal of acidified soybeans). The prepared food matrices contained each 0%, 2%, 100% (10% instead of 100% in the case of biscuits) of Roundup-Ready© soybeans and\\/or of Bt-176 maize. The method was based on the

Markus Lipp; Anke Bluth; Fabrice Eyquem; Lothar Kruse; Heinz Schimmel; G. Van den Eede; E. Anklam

2001-01-01

125

Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

126

Genetic dissection of maize phenology using an intraspecific introgression library  

PubMed Central

Background Collections of nearly isogenic lines where each line carries a delimited portion of a donor source genome into a common recipient genetic background are known as introgression libraries and have already shown to be instrumental for the dissection of quantitative traits. By means of marker-assisted backcrossing, we have produced an introgression library using the extremely early-flowering maize (Zea mays L.) variety Gaspé Flint and the elite line B73 as donor and recipient genotypes, respectively, and utilized this collection to investigate the genetic basis of flowering time and related traits of adaptive and agronomic importance in maize. Results The collection includes 75 lines with an average Gaspé Flint introgression length of 43.1 cM. The collection was evaluated for flowering time, internode length, number of ears, number of nodes (phytomeres), number of nodes above the ear, number and proportion of nodes below the ear and plant height. Five QTLs for flowering time were mapped, all corresponding to major QTLs for number of nodes. Three additional QTLs for number of nodes were mapped. Besides flowering time, the QTLs for number of nodes drove phenotypic variation for plant height and number of nodes below and above the top ear, but not for internode length. A number of apparently Mendelian-inherited phenotypes were also observed. Conclusions While the inheritance of flowering time was dominated by the well-known QTL Vgt1, a number of other important flowering time QTLs were identified and, thanks to the type of plant material here utilized, immediately isogenized and made available for fine mapping. At each flowering time QTL, early flowering correlated with fewer vegetative phytomeres, indicating the latter as a key developmental strategy to adapt the maize crop from the original tropical environment to the northern border of the temperate zone (southern Canada), where Gaspé Flint was originally cultivated. Because of the trait differences between the two parental genotypes, this collection will serve as a permanent source of nearly isogenic materials for multiple studies of QTL analysis and cloning.

2011-01-01

127

In Situ conservation of maize in Mexico: Genetic diversity and Maize seed management in a traditional community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a study of maize varieties and seed sources in a traditional community in Jalisco, Mexico, raise questions about\\u000a the relationship between genetic erosion and the introduction of varieties. The relevance of models for in situ conservation\\u000a of crop genetic resources based on geographical isolation of a community is discussed. The morphophenological diversity of\\u000a local materials is shown to

Dominique Louette; André Charrier; Julien Berthaud

1997-01-01

128

Genetic analysis of vertical root pulling resistance (VRPR) in maize using two genetic populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root traits are important in improving nutrient and water use efficiency. Vertical root pulling resistance (VRPR) has been\\u000a shown to be closely related to root system characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.). In the present study, two genetic populations derived from the same parents, one containing 218 recombinant inbred lines\\u000a (RILs) and the other containing 187 advanced backcross BC4F3 lines,

Jianchao LiuHongguang; Hongguang Cai; Qun Chu; Xiaohui Chen; Fanjun Chen; Lixing Yuan; Guohua Mi; Fusuo Zhang

129

Out of America: tracing the genetic footprints of the global diffusion of maize.  

PubMed

Maize was first domesticated in a restricted valley in south-central Mexico. It was diffused throughout the Americas over thousands of years, and following the discovery of the New World by Columbus, was introduced into Europe. Trade and colonization introduced it further into all parts of the world to which it could adapt. Repeated introductions, local selection and adaptation, a highly diverse gene pool and outcrossing nature, and global trade in maize led to difficulty understanding exactly where the diversity of many of the local maize landraces originated. This is particularly true in Africa and Asia, where historical accounts are scarce or contradictory. Knowledge of post-domestication movements of maize around the world would assist in germplasm conservation and plant breeding efforts. To this end, we used SSR markers to genotype multiple individuals from hundreds of representative landraces from around the world. Applying a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic, linguistic, and historical data, we reconstructed possible patterns of maize diffusion throughout the world from American "contribution" centers, which we propose reflect the origins of maize worldwide. These results shed new light on introductions of maize into Africa and Asia. By providing a first globally comprehensive genetic characterization of landraces using markers appropriate to this evolutionary time frame, we explore the post-domestication evolutionary history of maize and highlight original diversity sources that may be tapped for plant improvement in different regions of the world. PMID:23921956

Mir, C; Zerjal, T; Combes, V; Dumas, F; Madur, D; Bedoya, C; Dreisigacker, S; Franco, J; Grudloyma, P; Hao, P X; Hearne, S; Jampatong, C; Laloë, D; Muthamia, Z; Nguyen, T; Prasanna, B M; Taba, S; Xie, C X; Yunus, M; Zhang, S; Warburton, M L; Charcosset, A

2013-08-07

130

Study of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular waxy maize starch was reacted with two levels (3 and 15%, based on the weight of starch) of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). Structure of the OSA and modified starches was studied by one-dimensional (1D) 1H and 13C and two-dimensional (2D) homonuclear correlation and heteronuclear correlation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The modified starches were converted to ?-limit dextrins prior

Yanjie Bai; Yong-Cheng Shi; Alvaro Herrera; Om Prakash

2011-01-01

131

Genetically modified crops deserve greater ecotoxicological scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians are keen to remind us that history tends to rhyme, even if it does not repeat itself. In a historical context, the story of today’s genetically modified (GM) crops resembles that of the synthetic organic insecticides beginning circa the second half of the last century. In practice, GM crops include crop cultivars that have been modified by incorporating one

Nicolas Desneux; Julio S. Bernal

2010-01-01

132

Targeting Genetically Modified Macrophages to the Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages are key players in the development of the majority of renal diseases and are therefore ideal cellular vectors for site specifically targeting gene therapy to inflamed glomeruli. Macrophages can be genetically modified using viral vectors ex vivo then re-introduced into the body where they can home to the diseased site. This review summarises current experience in efficiently targeting modified

H. M. Wilson; D. C. Kluth

2003-01-01

133

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of

Rinji Akada

2002-01-01

134

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

135

Genetically modified mouse models in cancer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified animals represent a resource of immense potential for cancer research. Classically, genetic modifications\\u000a in mice were obtained through selected breeding experiments or treatments with powerful carcinogens capable of inducing random\\u000a mutagenesis. A new era began in the early 1980s when genetic modifications by inserting foreign DNA genes into the cells of\\u000a an animal allowed for the development of

Javier Santos; Pablo Fernández-Navarro; María Villa-Morales; Laura González-Sánchez; José Fernández-Piqueras

2008-01-01

136

[Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].  

PubMed

Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene. PMID:21180840

Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

2011-01-01

137

Lysine-rich modified gamma-zeins accumulate in protein bodies of transiently transformed maize endosperms.  

PubMed

During maize seed development, endosperm cells synthesize large amounts of storage proteins, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-zeins, which accumulate within endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived protein bodies. The absence of lysine in all zein polypeptides results in an imbalance in the amino acid composition of maize seeds. We modified the maize gamma-zein gene through the introduction of lysine-rich (Pro-Lys)n coding sequences at different sites of the gamma-zein coding sequence. Maize endosperms were transiently transformed by biolistic bombardment with Lys-rich gamma-zein constructs under the control of the 1.7 kb gamma-zein seed-specific promoter and the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. When (Pro-Lys)n sequences were inserted contiguous to or in substitution of the Pro-Xaa region of the gamma-zein, high levels of protein were observed. In contrast, when (Pro-Lys)n sequences were inserted five residues from the C-terminal, the transcript was present but modified protein was not detected. These results suggest that only an appropriate positioning of Lys-rich inserts leads to the modified molecule displaying correct folding and stability. Subcellular localization analyses and immunoelectron microscopy studies on isolated protein bodies demonstrated that modified gamma-zeins accumulate within these organelles and co-localized with endogenous alpha- and gamma-zeins. The studies reported here show the feasibility of manipulating the gamma-zein gene in order to obtain stable and correctly targeted Lys-rich zeins in maize seeds. PMID:9177320

Torrent, M; Alvarez, I; Geli, M I; Dalcol, I; Ludevid, D

1997-05-01

138

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pre-treated corn meal were

Sergej Jerman; Aleš Podgornik; Katarina Cankar; Neža ?adež; Mihaela Skrt; Jana Žel; Peter Raspor

2005-01-01

139

Factors to consider before production and commercialization of aquatic genetically modified organisms: the case of transgenic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many genetically modified plants have been developed, and four of them (soya, maize, cotton, and colza) representing more than 99% of commercial crops, are widely distributed, mainly in the United States and in America [ISAAA, 2006. Report on global status on biotech\\/GM crops, Brief 35. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications organization, US]. Yet all over the world

Olivier Le Curieux-Belfond; Louise Vandelac; Joseph Caron; Gilles-Éric Séralini

2009-01-01

140

[Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].  

PubMed

Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

Tchórz, Micha?; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jaros?aw

2012-01-01

141

Genetic Variation at Bx 1 Controls DIMBOA Content in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main hydroxamic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to leaf-feeding by several corn borers. Most genes involved in the DIMBOA metabolic pathway are located on the short arm of chromosome 4, and QTLs involved in maize resis...

142

Breeding with Genetically Modified Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Plant breeding aims at the genetic improvement of cultivated plants. Depending on the reproduction system of a plant the breeding\\u000a process can last up to 15 years for crops and much longer for tree species. The breeding method is determined by the reproductive\\u000a system of a plant and on the presence of hybrid yield (heterosis). Since the 1970s biotechnology is

Christian Jung

143

Effects of genetics and environment on the metabolome of commercial maize hybrids: a multisite study.  

PubMed

This study was designed to elucidate the biological variation in expression of many metabolites due to environment, genotype, or both, and to investigate the potential utility of metabolomics to supplement compositional analysis for substantial equivalence assessments of genetically modified (GM) crops. A total of 654 grain and 695 forage samples from 50 genetically diverse non-GM DuPont Pioneer maize hybrids grown at six locations in the U.S. and Canada were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). A total of 156 and 185 metabolites were measured in grain and forage samples, respectively. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed extensively to compare and correlate the metabolite profiles. We show that the environment had far more impact on the forage metabolome compared to the grain metabolome, and the environment affected up to 50% of the metabolites compared to less than 2% by the genetic background. The findings from this study demonstrate that the combination of GC/TOF-MS metabolomics and comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis is a powerful approach to identify the sources of natural variation contributed by the environment and genotype. PMID:23113862

Asiago, Vincent M; Hazebroek, Jan; Harp, Teresa; Zhong, Cathy

2012-11-12

144

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene

Farid E. Ahmed

2002-01-01

145

Genetic Structure and Diversity Among Maize Inbred Lines as Inferred From DNA Microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and sixty maize inbred lines, representative of the genetic diversity among essentially all public lines of importance to temperate breeding and many important tropical and subtropical lines, were assayed for polymorphism at 94 microsatellite loci. The 2039 alleles identified served as raw data for estimating genetic structure and diversity. A model-based clustering analysis placed the inbred lines in

Kejun Liu; Major Goodman; Spencer Muse; J. Stephen Smith; Ed Buckler; John Doebley

2003-01-01

146

[Effect of genetically modified plants on the development of rat progeny].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of evaluating the effect of genetically modified (GM) maize on the prenatal and postnatal development of rat progeny in three generations. An experiment used 280 adult rats (160 females and 120 males) and 1545 infant rats of the first month of life. The animals were divided into 2 groups: 1) those given a diet including GM maize (an experimental group); 2) those fed on its isogenic control (a control group). The maize was included into the diet in maximally possible amount that did not impair the balance of essential nutrients (31.4% caloric value). Analysis of the data obtained from studies of the prenatal (preimplantation and postimplantation death and fetal somatometric parameters) and postnatal (physical development, survival, changes in somatometric parameters) development of rat offspring revealed no effect of GM maize as compared to the isogenic control. All the parameters were in the normal physiological range typical of the animals of this species and age. Thus, dietary intake of the given amount of GM maize had no impact on rat progeny development. PMID:22250399

Tyshko, N V; Zhminchenko, V M; Pashorina, V A; Saprykin, V P; Seliaskin, K E; Utembaeva, N T; Tutel'ian, V A

147

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of genetic engineering for the construction of GM yeast is reviewed and possible requirements for their application are discussed. 'Self-cloning' yeast will be the most likely candidate for the first commercial application of GM microorganisms in food and beverage industries. PMID:16233347

Akada, Rinji

2002-01-01

148

Genetically Modified Crops: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supporters of genetic engineering point to the potential of genetically modified (GM) crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. But some concerned groups argue that the risks of GM crops may outweigh their benefits. These groups urge avoiding GM crops, or at least subjecting them to more rigorous government scrutiny. Without taking sides, this module shows how to use the issues surrounding GM crops as a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science and genetics and how science and technology interact and influence each other in our society.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

149

Genetically modified plants and the precautionary principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European regulation of genetically modified plants is a particular example of technological risk management that has become an essential part of the management of change. The role of regulators in this management process, when there are demands for regulatory action concerning unquantified (and sometimes unquantifiable) technological risks – with regulation under conditions of uncertainty – is explored. Where the

Michael D. Rogers

2004-01-01

150

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

151

Genetically modified foods: the effect of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2005-01-01

152

Chinese gatekeeper perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of food distribution gatekeepers in China regarding likely acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by Chinese consumers. It also aims to consider policy implications for food exporting countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory approach using in-depth interviews was adopted. Key informants of a sample of 20 companies in five main

John G. Knight; Hongzhi Gao

2009-01-01

153

The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive

Matin Qaim

2009-01-01

154

Genetically Modified Foods: Threat or Opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gene technology has the potential to offer many improvements in the quality and quantity of the world's food supply provided that genuine concerns regarding safety, en- vironmental impact, information and ethics are satisfactorily addressed. In this article, some of the benefits as well as concerns about genetically modified foods are discussed using examples such as tomatoes, soybeans, corn and

Sibel Roller

155

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

156

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable

Keith T. Atherton

2002-01-01

157

Unpacking atitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and worry best accounted for the data. Negative - but not

Yaël de Liver; Joop van der Pligt; Daniël Wigboldus

2005-01-01

158

Measuring preferences for genetically modified food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the results of three experimental studies we have conducted to investigate consumers' willingness to pay for food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. We observe that about 65% of our sample is willing to purchase products containing GMOs if they are sufficiently inexpensive.

Charles Noussair; Stephane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2007-01-01

159

Should genetically modified organisms be patentable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some of the philosophical issues involved in patenting genetically modified organisms. In particular, what we think has been highly problematic has been the tendency to use terms such as intervention, identification, creation, authorship and artifact interchangeably as criteria for invention. We examine attempts by various people to formulate a philosophically precise set of criteria for

Justine Lacey; Julian Lamont

160

Genetically modified mouse models for pharmacogenomic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now evident that differences in the DNA sequence of genes involved with drug action can lead to interindividual differences in effectiveness and adverse reactions to therapeutic drugs. Pharmacogenomics raises the possibility that drug discovery and patient management could move from a 'one drug fits all' approach to one in which therapy is tailored to patients' genomes. Genetically modified

Stephen B. Liggett

2004-01-01

161

The patenting of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property protection, including patents, is a critical factor underpinning investment and progress in the development of genetically modified foods. The GATT agreement made suggestions for the harmonization of patent laws and also made provisions for the avoidance of discrimination based on place of invention. However, plant and animal ‘varieties’ are currently not patentable. Much of the debate concerns what

Hilary Newiss

1998-01-01

162

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

163

What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle

Keith G. Davies

2001-01-01

164

Trade Conflict Over Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the USA, seconded by Argentina and Canada, initiated litigation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union's regulatory policy for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The three plaintiffs claimed that the EU's GMO policy was creating illegal trade restrictions. Specifically, they argued (i) that the EU had implemented a de facto moratorium on approval of new biotech

Thomas Bernauer; Philipp Aerni; Kevin Gallagher

165

Release of genetically modified organisms: precautionary legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the debates surrounding the drafting and passage through the UK Parliament of the Environmental Protection Bill, Part VI, regarding the potential hazards arising from release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Both the previous voluntary and the current statutory systems have been precautionary (or proactive) in their approach to risk regulation.The EPA establishes a framework for guiding decisions

Les Levidow; Joyce Tait

1992-01-01

166

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

167

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

168

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

169

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

170

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

171

GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOYBEANS AND FOOD ALLERGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in genetically modified (GM) crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, incl...

172

A Second Generation of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was a cross-cultural investigation of views regarding Genetically Modified Organisms, specifically food crops, to determine if there were significant differences in the views of French and American respondents. In addition, we sought to introduce the issue of possible consumer benefits of second generation GMOs into the research by examining differences in acceptance of value-enhanced GMOs

Klervi N. Le Marre; Carl L. Witte; Timothy J. Burkink; Marko Grünhagen; Gary J. Wells

2007-01-01

173

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

PubMed

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293

Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

2006-03-20

174

Genetic modifiers of tauopathy in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

In Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, the microtubule-associated protein Tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated and aggregated into neurofibrillary tangles. Mutations in the tau gene cause familial frontotemporal dementia. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for Tau-induced neurodegeneration, we conducted a genetic modifier screen in a Drosophila model of tauopathy. Kinases and phosphatases comprised the major class of modifiers recovered, and several candidate Tau kinases were similarly shown to enhance Tau toxicity in vivo. Despite some clinical and pathological similarities among neurodegenerative disorders, a direct comparison of modifiers between different Drosophila disease models revealed that the genetic pathways controlling Tau and polyglutamine toxicity are largely distinct. Our results demonstrate that kinases and phosphatases control Tau-induced neurodegeneration and have important implications for the development of therapies in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

Shulman, Joshua M; Feany, Mel B

2003-01-01

175

[Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries. PMID:12046253

Drobník, J

2002-03-01

176

The physical and genetic framework of the maize B73 genome.  

PubMed

Maize is a major cereal crop and an important model system for basic biological research. Knowledge gained from maize research can also be used to genetically improve its grass relatives such as sorghum, wheat, and rice. The primary objective of the Maize Genome Sequencing Consortium (MGSC) was to generate a reference genome sequence that was integrated with both the physical and genetic maps. Using a previously published integrated genetic and physical map, combined with in-coming maize genomic sequence, new sequence-based genetic markers, and an optical map, we dynamically picked a minimum tiling path (MTP) of 16,910 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and fosmid clones that were used by the MGSC to sequence the maize genome. The final MTP resulted in a significantly improved physical map that reduced the number of contigs from 721 to 435, incorporated a total of 8,315 mapped markers, and ordered and oriented the majority of FPC contigs. The new integrated physical and genetic map covered 2,120 Mb (93%) of the 2,300-Mb genome, of which 405 contigs were anchored to the genetic map, totaling 2,103.4 Mb (99.2% of the 2,120 Mb physical map). More importantly, 336 contigs, comprising 94.0% of the physical map ( approximately 1,993 Mb), were ordered and oriented. Finally we used all available physical, sequence, genetic, and optical data to generate a golden path (AGP) of chromosome-based pseudomolecules, herein referred to as the B73 Reference Genome Sequence version 1 (B73 RefGen_v1). PMID:19936061

Wei, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhou, Shiguo; He, Ruifeng; Schaeffer, Mary; Collura, Kristi; Kudrna, David; Faga, Ben P; Wissotski, Marina; Golser, Wolfgang; Rock, Susan M; Graves, Tina A; Fulton, Robert S; Coe, Ed; Schnable, Patrick S; Schwartz, David C; Ware, Doreen; Clifton, Sandra W; Wilson, Richard K; Wing, Rod A

2009-11-20

177

An Evaluation of Genetically Modified Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module examines the production of genetically modified organisms as an environmental issue. Potential environmental impacts of genetically modified crops are emphasized, although human health concerns are also addressed. Our current state of knowledge and the viewpoints held by the various stakeholders are described in video and print resources. Students evaluate these viewpoints and formulate their own opinions based on an analysis of the issue. The module includes a detailed outline of a video production, student handouts, a key to the activity, a glossary and citations for print, video and web-based resources. The activity was developed for use in introductory courses in environmental science, general biology and natural resources and is designed to be completed in a single three-hour laboratory session.

Cudmore, Wynn

2008-01-01

178

Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?  

PubMed

So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

Weil, Jacques-Henry

179

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified potaoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow consumer acceptance has inhibited the market for genetically modified (GM) potato products. Logistic growth functions\\u000a were used to model market development patterns for three comparable products — diet sodas, frozen potatoes and microwave ovens.\\u000a Predictions of GMpotato acceptance were based on averages for the comparable products. The model predicts that consumer acceptance\\u000a will be in the introduction stage of

Joseph F. Guenthner

2002-01-01

180

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

181

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

182

Genetic relationships between the multiple alcohol dehydrogenases of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three electrophoretically separable sets of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in maize. Previous work has shown that two of these isozymes (Sets I and II) share a subunit in common, since mutations in one of the Adh genes, Adh1, alter both isozymes. A mutation in the second Adh gene, Adh2, has now been induced and recovered. This mutant allele also

Michael Freeling; Drew Schwartz

1973-01-01

183

Genetics and Biochemistry of Insect Resistance in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are a major concern for maize production worldwide. Host plant resistance to insects involves a number of chemical and biochemical factors that limit but rarely eliminate insect damage. Most chemical and many biochemical factors involved in resistance to insects are synthesized independent...

184

Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from maize in Italy: fumonisin production, pathogenicity and genetic variability.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is the main fungal agent of ear and kernel rot of maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, including Italy. F.verticillioides is a highly toxigenic species since it is able to produce the carcinogenic mycotoxins fumonisins. In this study, 25 F. verticillioides strains, isolated from maize in different regions of Italy were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisins, their pathogenicity and their genetic variability. A further referenced strain of G. moniliformis isolated from maize in USA was also used as outgroup. The fumonisins B?, B?, and B? were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by symptom observation and determination of growth parameters after inoculation of maize seeds, seedlings and wounded detached leaves. Total genomic DNA was used for Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. About 20% of the analyzed strains were unable to produce fumonisins in in vitro experiments on inoculated maize flour, while, among fumonisin producers, a great variability was observed, with values ranging from 1 to 115 mg kg?¹. The different analyzed strains showed a wide range of pathogenicity in terms of effect on seed germination, seedling development and of symptoms produced on detached leaves, which were not correlated with the different in vitro fumonisin production. AFLP analysis indicated the presence of genetic diversity not only between the Italian strains and the American reference but also among the Italian isolates. PMID:22475938

Covarelli, Lorenzo; Stifano, Simonetta; Beccari, Giovanni; Raggi, Lorenzo; Lattanzio, Veronica Maria Teresa; Albertini, Emidio

2012-02-13

185

SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS AND INDELS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED PHYSICAL AND GENETIC MAPS OF MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels) are becoming important genetic markers for major crop species. We amplified genomic regions corresponding to 678 unigenes across 12 maize inbred lines. The amplification products from 592 unigenes were sequenced (17...

186

GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

187

Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study, are at present used on roughly half of the tropical acreage of this crop. Several

Etten van J

2006-01-01

188

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE AB10 CHROMOSOME ON PRESERVATION OF MAIZE GENETIC RESOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 18,000 maize accessions are maintained by the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS). To ensure preservation of the original genetic profile of populations, stocks are propagated using the following methods. A balanced sample from 100 ears provides the seed for planting...

189

Assessment of Genetic Variability Induced by Chemical Mutagenesis in Elite Maize Germplasm via SSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breeding program, aimed at utilizing chemical mutagenesis and mutation breeding for induction of additional genetic variation in well-known elite maize (Zea mays L.) lines and hybrids, has been conducted in Bulgaria since 1973. The phenotypic variation created by chemically induced mutagenesis included important quantitative traits, such as grain yield, high protein content, reduced flowering time, changes in grain type,

A. Kostova; E. Todorovska; N. Christov; K. Hristov; A. Atanassov

2006-01-01

190

Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods

Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

2007-01-01

191

Genetically Modified Products in Lithuania: Situational Analysis and Consumers’ Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to

Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene

2012-01-01

192

Screening Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Western and Northern Corn Rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica spp.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are devastating pests of maize (Zea mays L.), with a subterranean larval stage that consumes root tissue. To lessen reliance on soil insecticides and provide alternatives for genetically modified maize hybrids, researchers have developed novel maize germpla...

193

Genetic basis of heterosis explored by simple sequence repeat markers in a random-mated maize population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis of heterosis in crop plants has not been completely resolved. Our objective in this study was to determine the level of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie heterosis in maize ( Zea mays L.). An F 2 population of an elite maize single cross, LH200 × LH216, was random mated for three generations in an

H. Lu; J. Romero-Severson; R. Bernardo

2003-01-01

194

Genetic manipulation of lysine catabolism in maize kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, lysine catabolism is thought to be controlled by a bifunctional enzyme, lysine ketoglutarate reductase\\/saccharopine\\u000a dehydrogenase (LKR\\/SDH). Lysine is converted to saccharopine, through condensation with ?-ketoglutarate, by LKR, and subsequently\\u000a to glutamate and ?-aminoadipate-?-semialdehyde by SDH. To investigate lysine catabolism in maize kernels, we generated transgenic\\u000a plants with suppressed LKR\\/SDH activity in either endosperm or embryo. We found that

Allan R. Reyes; Christopher P. Bonin; Nancy M. Houmard; Shihshieh Huang; Thomas M. Malvar

2009-01-01

195

Successful Agrobacterium -Mediated Genetic Transformation of Maize Elite Inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system was developed for maize (Zea mays L.) elite inbred lines using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer by identifying important factors that affected transformation efficiency. The hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 proved to be better than octopine LBA4404 and nopaline GV3101. Improved transformation efficiencies were obtained when immature embryos were inocubated with Agrobacterium suspension cells (A600 = 0.8) for 20 min in

Xueqing Huang; Zhiming Wei

2005-01-01

196

Genetic analysis of maturity and flowering characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the pattern of inheritance and determine the relative magnitude of various genetic effects for maturity and flowering attributes in subtropical maize. Methods Four white grain maize inbred lines from flint group of corn, two with late maturity and two with early maturity, were used. These contrasting inbred lines were crossed to form four crosses. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) were developed for each individual cross. These were evaluated in triplicate trial for two consecutive years. Results Both dominance gene action and epistatic interaction played major role in governing inheritance of days to pollen shedding, 50% silking, anthesis silking interval and maturity. Conclusions Preponderance of dominance gene action for these traits indicated their usefulness in hybrid programs of subtropical maize.

Sher, Hassan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Khan, Kiramat; yasir, Muhammad; Hameed-ur-Rahman

2012-01-01

197

Development of an innovative immunoassay for CP4EPSPS and Cry1AB genetically modified protein detection and quantification.  

PubMed

An innovative immunoassay, called enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) Reverse, based on a new conformation of the solid phase, was developed. The solid support was expressly designed to be immersed directly in liquid samples to detect the presence of protein targets. Its application is proposed in those cases where a large number of samples have to be screened simultaneously or when the simultaneous detection of different proteins is required. As a first application, a quantitative immunoassay for Cry1AB protein in genetically modified maize was optimized. The method was tested using genetically modified organism concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were determined as 0.0056 and 0.0168 (expressed as the percentage of genetically modified organisms content), respectively. A qualitative multiplex assay to assess the presence of two genetically modified proteins simultaneously was also established for the case of the Cry1AB and the CP4EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in genetically modified maize and soy, respectively. PMID:16901856

Ermolli, M; Prospero, A; Balla, B; Querci, M; Mazzeo, A; Van Den Eede, G

2006-09-01

198

Development of sampling approaches for the determination of the presence of genetically modified organisms at the field level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to comply with the European Union regulatory threshold for the adventitious presence of genetically modified organisms\\u000a (GMOs) in food and feed, it is important to trace GMOs from the field. Appropriate sampling methods are needed to accurately\\u000a predict the presence of GMOs at the field level. A 2-year field experiment with two maize varieties differing in kernel colour

Jelka Šuštar-Vozli?; Katja Rostohar; Andrej Blejec; Petra Kozjak; Zoran ?ergan; Vladimir Megli?

2010-01-01

199

A somatic gene rearrangement contributing to genetic diversity in maize.  

PubMed Central

We have discovered a somatic genomic rearrangement that occurs at high frequency at a duplicated zein locus in certain cultures of the maize inbred line A188. The rearranged allele arises from the duplication by a two-step process involving a homologous recombination and a second event, which may be a deletion, inversion, or insertion; both steps always occur together. The frequency of rearrangement is lower in homozygous states of the parental allele than in heterozygotes. In both cases, the rearrangement is shown to be mitotic. The rearranged product can be transmitted through meiosis, providing another mechanism for genome evolution in higher eukaryotes. Images

Das, O P; Levi-Minzi, S; Koury, M; Benner, M; Messing, J

1990-01-01

200

Population structure and genetic diversity in a commercial maize breeding program assessed with SSR and SNP markers  

PubMed Central

Information about the genetic diversity and population structure in elite breeding material is of fundamental importance for the improvement of crops. The objectives of our study were to (a) examine the population structure and the genetic diversity in elite maize germplasm based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, (b) compare these results with those obtained from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, and (c) compare the coancestry coefficient calculated from pedigree records with genetic distance estimates calculated from SSR and SNP markers. Our study was based on 1,537 elite maize inbred lines genotyped with 359 SSR and 8,244 SNP markers. The average number of alleles per locus, of group specific alleles, and the gene diversity (D) were higher for SSRs than for SNPs. Modified Roger’s distance (MRD) estimates and membership probabilities of the STRUCTURE matrices were higher for SSR than for SNP markers but the germplasm organization in four heterotic pools was consistent with STRUCTURE results based on SSRs and SNPs. MRD estimates calculated for the two marker systems were highly correlated (0.87). Our results suggested that the same conclusions regarding the structure and the diversity of heterotic pools could be drawn from both markers types. Furthermore, although our results suggested that the ratio of the number of SSRs and SNPs required to obtain MRD or D estimates with similar precision is not constant across the various precision levels, we propose that between 7 and 11 times more SNPs than SSRs should be used for analyzing population structure and genetic diversity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-009-1256-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Van Inghelandt, Delphine; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Lebreton, Claude

2010-01-01

201

Potential Adverse Health Effects of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins.

Anita Bakshi

2003-01-01

202

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

203

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

204

Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abun- dances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differ- ences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects

A. J. Haughton; G. T. Champion; C. Hawes; M. S. Heard; D. R. Brooks; D. A. Bohan; S. J. Clark; A. M. Dewar; L. G. Firbank; J. L. Osborne; J. N. Perry; P. Rothery; D. B. Roy; R. J. Scott; I. P. Woiwod; C. Birchall; M. P. Skellern; J. H. Walker; P. Baker; E. L. Browne; A. J. G. Dewar; B. H. Garner; L. A. Haylock; S. L. Horne; N. S. Mason; R. J. N. Sands; M. J. Walker

2003-01-01

205

The role of culture in risk regulations: a comparative case study of genetically modified corn in the United States of America and European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), herbicide tolerant (Roundup Ready or RR) and insect resistant (Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt) corn has “no significant impact” on human health and environmental integrity. In Europe, genetically modified (GM) maize strains – the identical Bt and RR biotech crops used in the USA – are

Nicholas P. Guehlstorf; Lars K. Hallstrom

2005-01-01

206

Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional crop management on invert- ebrate trophic groups (herbivores, detritivores, pollinators, predators and parasitoids) were compared in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape sites throughout the UK. These trophic groups were influenced by season, crop species and GMHT management. Many groups increased twofold to fivefold in abundance between early and late summer, and

C. Hawes; A. J. Haughton; J. L. Osborne; D. B. Roy; S. J. Clark; J. N. Perry; P. Rothery; D. A. Bohan; D. R. Brooks; G. T. Champion; A. M. Dewar; M. S. Heard; I. P. Woiwod; R. E. Daniels; M. W. Young; A. M. Parish; R. J. Scott; L. G. Firbank; G. R. Squire

2003-01-01

207

Genetic manipulation of lysine catabolism in maize kernels.  

PubMed

In plants, lysine catabolism is thought to be controlled by a bifunctional enzyme, lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH). Lysine is converted to saccharopine, through condensation with alpha-ketoglutarate, by LKR, and subsequently to glutamate and alpha-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde by SDH. To investigate lysine catabolism in maize kernels, we generated transgenic plants with suppressed LKR/SDH activity in either endosperm or embryo. We found that the suppression of LKR/SDH in endosperm induced an increase in free lysine in developing endosperm, which peaked at 32 days after pollination. At later stages of kernel development, most of the free lysine was found in the embryo along with an elevated level of saccharopine. By combining endosperm LKR/SDH suppression with embryo LKR/SDH suppression through crosses, the saccharopine level in embryo was reduced and resulted in higher lysine accumulation in mature kernels. These results reveal new insights into how free lysine level is regulated and distributed in developing maize kernels and demonstrate the possibility of engineering high lysine corn via the suppression of lysine catabolism. PMID:18839315

Reyes, Allan R; Bonin, Christopher P; Houmard, Nancy M; Huang, Shihshieh; Malvar, Thomas M

2008-10-07

208

Reduced Fitness of Daphnia magna Fed a Bt-Transgenic Maize Variety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) maize expressing the Bt-toxin Cry1Ab (Bt-maize) was tested for effects on survival, growth, and\\u000a reproduction of the water flea Daphnia magna, a crustacean arthropod commonly used as a model organism in ecotoxicological studies. In three repeated experiments, D. magna were fed 100% ground maize in suspension, using either GM or isogenic unmodified (UM) maize. D. magna fed

Thomas Bøhn; Raul Primicerio; Dag O. Hessen; Terje Traavik

2008-01-01

209

Segregation of genetic markers among wheat doubled haploid lines derived from wheat x maize crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat doubled haploid (DH) lines were produced from the F1 hybrid, Fukudo-komugi x Oligo Culm, through intergeneric crosses between wheat and maize. F2 plants and 203 DH lines were analyzed for the segregation of the eight genetic markers, namely, grain proteins, grain esterases, GA-insensitivity and glume traits. The segregation in the F2 plants fitted to the expected ratios. No deviation

Kazuhiro Suenaga; Kousuke Nakajima

1992-01-01

210

Modification of recombinant maize ChitA chitinase by fungal chitinase-modifying proteins.  

PubMed

In commercial maize, there are at least two different alleles of the chiA gene that encode alloforms of ChitA chitinase, a protein that is abundant in developing seed. Both known alloforms are modified by Bz-cmp, a chitinase-modifying protein (cmp) secreted by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris zeicola. One alloform (ChitA-B73) is also modified by Stm-cmp, a protein secreted by the fungal pathogen Stenocarpella maydis, whereas the other (ChitA-LH82) is resistant. The two ChitA alloforms possess six differences or polymorphisms (P1-P6). To determine whether the P2 polymorphism in the chitin-binding domain is responsible for resistance or susceptibility to modification by Stm-cmp, and to determine whether Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp are proteases, heterologous expression strains of the yeast Pichia pastoris that produce recombinant maize ChitA (rChitA) alloforms and mutant rChitAs were created. rChitA alloforms and mutant rChitAs were purified from yeast cultures and used as substrates in assays with Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp. As with native protein, Bz-cmp modified both rChitA-LH82 and rChitA-B73, whereas Stm-cmp modified rChitA-B73 only. Mutant rChitAs, in which the P2 amino acids were changed to those of the other alloform, resulted in a significant exchange in Stm-cmp susceptibility. Amino-terminal sequencing of unmodified and modified rChitA-B73 demonstrated that Stm-cmp cleaves the peptide bond on the amino-terminal side of the P2 alanine, whereas Bz-cmp cleaves in the poly-glycine hinge region, the site of P3. The results demonstrate that Stm-cmp and Bz-cmp are proteases that truncate ChitA chitinase at the amino terminus, but at different sites. Both sites correspond to polymorphisms in the two alloforms, suggesting that the sequence diversity at P2 and P3 is the result of selective pressure to prevent truncation by fungal proteases. PMID:21453431

Naumann, Todd A

2010-11-25

211

Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

2013-04-06

212

Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.  

PubMed

Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles. PMID:12597493

Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

2003-02-01

213

Changes in Genetic Variance during Advanced Cycle Breeding in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

a population genetics standpoint, crossing two inbreds to form a breeding population at each cycle creates a Advanced cycle breeding in crops aims to develop newer, improved bottleneck, which is defined as a severe reduction in versions of inbreds from crosses among current, elite inbreds. Al- though genetic gains in many crops have been achieved through ad- the number of

Jianming Yu; Rex Bernardo

214

Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize  

SciTech Connect

Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

Laughnan, J.R.

1992-01-01

215

Barriers to application of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the acceptability of food products containing genetically modified microorganisms it is necessary to provide in an early stage to the consumers that the product is safe and that the product provide a clear benefit to the consumer. To comply with the first requirement a systematic approach to analyze the probability that genetically modified lactic acid bacteria will transform

C. T. Verrips; D. J. C. Berg

1996-01-01

216

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time.

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2004-01-01

217

Genetically Modified Organisms and Biodiversity: Assessing the Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are those into whose genome a foreign well-characterized DNA from a different source (plant, animal or microorganism) has been stably inserted. Transgenic plants are a recognized ex- ample. Scientists genetically modify plants to: increase post-harvest life, resist biotic and abiotic stresses, improve plant nutrient qualities and use them as biofactories in pharmaceutical and vaccine production. For

Camilo Ayra Pardo

2003-01-01

218

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

219

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

220

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

221

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

222

Genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity in a tropical by temperate maize recombinant inbred population using molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoperiod sensitivity is an important consideration in maize cultivation. Flowering time is affected by photoperiod and\\u000a sensitivity to it limits the potential for successful exchange of germplasm across different latitudes. For resolving the\\u000a genetic basis of photoperiod sensitivity in maize, a set of 207 recombinant inbred lines derived from a temperate and tropical\\u000a inbred line cross was evaluated for 2 years

C. L. Wang; F. F. Cheng; Z. H. Sun; J. H. Tang; L. C. Wu; L. X. Ku; Y. H. Chen

2008-01-01

223

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

224

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

225

Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

2001-01-01

226

Unlocking the Genetic Diversity of Maize Landraces with Doubled Haploids Opens New Avenues for Breeding  

PubMed Central

Landraces are valuable genetic resources for broadening the genetic base of elite germplasm in maize. Extensive exploitation of landraces has been hampered by their genetic heterogeneity and heavy genetic load. These limitations may be overcome by the in-vivo doubled haploid (DH) technique. A set of 132 DH lines derived from three European landraces and 106 elite flint (EF) lines were genotyped for 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and evaluated in field trials at five locations in Germany in 2010 for several agronomic traits. In addition, the landraces were compared with synthetic populations produced by intermating DH lines derived from the respective landrace. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the phenotypic and molecular diversity captured within DH lines derived from European landraces, (2) assess the breeding potential (usefulness) of DH lines derived from landraces to broaden the genetic base of the EF germplasm, and (3) compare the performance of each landrace with the synthetic population produced from the respective DH lines. Large genotypic variances among DH lines derived from landraces allowed the identification of DH lines with grain yields comparable to those of EF lines. Selected DH lines may thus be introgressed into elite germplasm without impairing its yield level. Large genetic distances of the DH lines to the EF lines demonstrated the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to broaden the genetic base of the EF germplasm. The comparison of landraces with their respective synthetic population showed no yield improvement and no reduction of phenotypic diversity. Owing to the low population structure and rapid decrease of linkage disequilibrium within populations of DH lines derived from landraces, these would be an ideal tool for association mapping. Altogether, the DH technology opens new opportunities for characterizing and utilizing the genetic diversity present in gene bank accessions of maize.

Strigens, Alexander; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Reif, Jochen C.; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

2013-01-01

227

New Methods for Extraction and Quantitation of Zeins Reveal a High Content of ?-Zein in Modified opaque-2 Maize 1  

PubMed Central

We have developed methods for quantitative extraction and analysis of zeins from maize (Zea mays L.) flour. Extraction involved solubilization of total endosperm proteins in an alkaline buffer containing SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol with subsequent precipitation of nonzein proteins by the addition of ethanol to 70%. Analysis of these proteins by SDS-PAGE with Coomassie blue staining and by Western blotting and ELISA assay with zein antibodies revealed that this extraction method is more quantitative than the traditional Landry-Moureaux procedure, especially for the ?- and ?-zeins. This method was used to extract and analyze the zein content of several `Quality Protein Maize' (QPM) varieties developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. QPM varieties contain `modifier genes' that confer a vitreous phenotype on opaque-2 genotypes, while maintaining the elevated levels of lysine and tryptophan characteristic of this mutant. This analysis revealed that the QPM types contain 2 to 4 times the amount of the ?-zein than unmodified opaque-2 or normal maize varieties. Possible relationships between the high expression of the ?-zein and the modified opaque phenotype are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Wallace, John C.; Lopes, Mauricio A.; Paiva, Edilson; Larkins, Brian A.

1990-01-01

228

The Requirement of WHIRLY1 for Embryogenesis Is Dependent on Genetic Background in Maize  

PubMed Central

Plastid gene expression is essential to embryogenesis in higher plants, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. Through molecular characterization of an embryo defective 16 (emb16) locus, here we report that the requirement of plastid translation for embryogenesis is dependent on the genetic background in maize (Zea mays). The emb16 mutation arrests embryogenesis at transition stage and allows the endosperm to develop largely normally. Molecular cloning reveals that Emb16 encodes WHIRLY1 (WHY1), a DNA/RNA binding protein that is required for genome stability and ribosome formation in plastids. Interestingly, the previous why1 mutant alleles (why1-1 and why1-2) do not affect embryogenesis, only conditions albino seedlings. The emb16 allele of why1 mutation is in the W22 genetic background. Crosses between emb16 and why1-1 heterozygotes resulted in both defective embryos and albino seedlings in the F1 progeny. Introgression of the emb16 allele from W22 into A188, B73, Mo17, Oh51a and the why1-1 genetic backgrounds yielded both defective embryos and albino seedlings. Similar results were obtained with two other emb mutants (emb12 and emb14) that are impaired in plastid protein translation process. These results indicate that the requirement of plastid translation for embryogenesis is dependent on genetic backgrounds, implying a mechanism of embryo lethality suppression in maize.

Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Ming-Ming; Tan, Bao-Cai

2013-01-01

229

The requirement of WHIRLY1 for embryogenesis is dependent on genetic background in maize.  

PubMed

Plastid gene expression is essential to embryogenesis in higher plants, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. Through molecular characterization of an embryo defective 16 (emb16) locus, here we report that the requirement of plastid translation for embryogenesis is dependent on the genetic background in maize (Zea mays). The emb16 mutation arrests embryogenesis at transition stage and allows the endosperm to develop largely normally. Molecular cloning reveals that Emb16 encodes WHIRLY1 (WHY1), a DNA/RNA binding protein that is required for genome stability and ribosome formation in plastids. Interestingly, the previous why1 mutant alleles (why1-1 and why1-2) do not affect embryogenesis, only conditions albino seedlings. The emb16 allele of why1 mutation is in the W22 genetic background. Crosses between emb16 and why1-1 heterozygotes resulted in both defective embryos and albino seedlings in the F1 progeny. Introgression of the emb16 allele from W22 into A188, B73, Mo17, Oh51a and the why1-1 genetic backgrounds yielded both defective embryos and albino seedlings. Similar results were obtained with two other emb mutants (emb12 and emb14) that are impaired in plastid protein translation process. These results indicate that the requirement of plastid translation for embryogenesis is dependent on genetic backgrounds, implying a mechanism of embryo lethality suppression in maize. PMID:23840682

Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Ming-Ming; Tan, Bao-Cai

2013-06-28

230

Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include

Bruce A. Hamilton; Benjamin D. Yu

2012-01-01

231

Quantification of cuticular permeability in genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more studies on genetically modified plants are identifying parts of the genetic code with putative involvement in creating the cuticular barrier. Unfortu- nately, many of these studies suffer from the inade- quacy of the chosen methods to quantify, in a reasonably unambiguous way, if and how the efficacy of the cuticular barrier is affected by the genetic change.

Gerhard Kerstiens; Lukas Schreiber; Klaus J. Lendzian

2006-01-01

232

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

233

DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels

Rafaat M. Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Klaus Dieter Jany

2011-01-01

234

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

235

Methodological scheme for designing the monitoring of genetically modified crops at the regional scale.  

PubMed

According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g. unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods. These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used to develop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks. PMID:16311819

Graef, F; Züghart, W; Hommel, B; Heinrich, U; Stachow, U; Werner, A

2005-12-01

236

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

For thousands of years, humans have taken advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation within species to selectively breed organisms with desirable traits. Many of the characteristics of domestic animals and agricultural crops have been developed through selective breeding. What is revolutionary about genetic engineering is that it involves the transfer of genetic material between organisms that would never be able

Javed Akhter; Mohammed Qutub; Norman Burnham

2001-01-01

237

Epigenetic and genetic influences on DNA methylation variation in maize populations.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is frequently associated with epigenetic regulation in plants and mammals. However, genetic changes such as transposon insertions can also lead to changes in DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiles of DNA methylation for 20 maize (Zea mays) inbred lines were used to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The methylation level for each of these DMRs was also assayed in 31 additional maize or teosinte genotypes, resulting in the discovery of 1966 common DMRs and 1754 rare DMRs. Analysis of recombinant inbred lines provides evidence that the majority of DMRs are heritable. A local association scan found that nearly half of the DMRs with common variation are significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms found within or near the DMR. Many of the DMRs that are significantly associated with local genetic variation are found near transposable elements that may contribute to the variation in DNA methylation. Analysis of gene expression in the same samples used for DNA methylation profiling identified over 300 genes with expression patterns that are significantly associated with DNA methylation variation. Collectively, our results suggest that DNA methylation variation is influenced by genetic and epigenetic changes that are often stably inherited and can influence the expression of nearby genes. PMID:23922207

Eichten, Steven R; Briskine, Roman; Song, Jawon; Li, Qing; Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; Hermanson, Peter J; Waters, Amanda J; Starr, Evan; West, Patrick T; Tiffin, Peter; Myers, Chad L; Vaughn, Matthew W; Springer, Nathan M

2013-08-06

238

Distinct Genetic Architectures for Male and Female Inflorescence Traits of Maize  

PubMed Central

We compared the genetic architecture of thirteen maize morphological traits in a large population of recombinant inbred lines. Four traits from the male inflorescence (tassel) and three traits from the female inflorescence (ear) were measured and studied using linkage and genome-wide association analyses and compared to three flowering and three leaf traits previously studied in the same population. Inflorescence loci have larger effects than flowering and leaf loci, and ear effects are larger than tassel effects. Ear trait models also have lower predictive ability than tassel, flowering, or leaf trait models. Pleiotropic loci were identified that control elongation of ear and tassel, consistent with their common developmental origin. For these pleiotropic loci, the ear effects are larger than tassel effects even though the same causal polymorphisms are likely involved. This implies that the observed differences in genetic architecture are not due to distinct features of the underlying polymorphisms. Our results support the hypothesis that genetic architecture is a function of trait stability over evolutionary time, since the traits that changed most during the relatively recent domestication of maize have the largest effects.

Brown, Patrick J.; Upadyayula, Narasimham; Mahone, Gregory S.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter J.; Myles, Sean; Holland, James B.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; McMullen, Michael D.; Buckler, Edward S.; Rocheford, Torbert R.

2011-01-01

239

Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.  

PubMed

Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops. PMID:22120952

Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

2011-11-26

240

Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias.

Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

2003-01-01

241

Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in proteolysis in yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P < 0.05) concentration of lactic and acetic acids in comparison with that of MWMSY and the CY up to day 14, thereafter, the product showed a decrease in lactic acid content in all 3 batches until the end of storage. The level of syneresis was the lowest (2.14%) in MWMSY as compared with that of GOSY (2.35%) and CY (2.53%). There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. PMID:23278467

Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

2012-12-20

242

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses.

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

243

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

244

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can\\

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

245

High Genetic Variability of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emission within a Broad Range of Maize Inbred Lines1  

PubMed Central

Maize plants (Zea mays) attacked by caterpillars release a mixture of odorous compounds that attract parasitic wasps, natural enemies of the herbivores. We assessed the genetic variability of these induced volatile emissions among 31 maize inbred lines representing a broad range of genetic diversity used by breeders in Europe and North America. Odors were collected from young plants that had been induced by injecting them with caterpillar regurgitant. Significant variation among lines was found for all 23 volatile compounds included in the analysis: the lines differed enormously in the total amount of volatiles emitted and showed highly variable odor profiles distinctive of each genotype. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which may share common metabolic pathways. European and American lines belonging to established heterotic groups were loosely separated from each other, with the most clear-cut difference in the typical release of (E)-?-caryophyllene by European lines. There was no correlation between the distances among the lines based on their odor profiles and their respective genetic distances previously assessed by neutral RFLP markers. This most comprehensive study to date on intraspecific variation in induced odor emission by maize plants provides a further example of the remarkably high genetic diversity conserved within this important crop plant. A better understanding of the genetic control of induced odor emissions may help in the development of maize varieties particularly attractive to parasitoids and other biological control agents and perhaps more repellent for herbivores.

Degen, Thomas; Dillmann, Christine; Marion-Poll, Frederic; Turlings, Ted C.J.

2004-01-01

246

Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathway in maize  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial nuclear transformation is a novel method for the rapid production of multiplex-transgenic plants, which we have used to dissect and modify a complex metabolic pathway. To demonstrate the principle, we transferred 5 carotenogenic genes controlled by different endosperm-specific promoters into a white maize variety deficient for endosperm carotenoid synthesis. We recovered a diverse population of transgenic plants expressing different enzyme combinations and showing distinct metabolic phenotypes that allowed us to identify and complement rate-limiting steps in the pathway and to demonstrate competition between ?-carotene hydroxylase and bacterial ?-carotene ketolase for substrates in 4 sequential steps of the extended pathway. Importantly, this process allowed us to generate plants with extraordinary levels of ?-carotene and other carotenoids, including complex mixtures of hydroxycarotenoids and ketocarotenoids. Combinatorial transformation is a versatile approach that could be used to modify any metabolic pathway and pathways controlling other biochemical, physiological, or developmental processes.

Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Breitenbach, Jurgen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2008-01-01

247

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

248

Haplotype structure strongly affects recombination in a maize genetic interval polymorphic for Helitron and retrotransposon insertions  

PubMed Central

We have asked here how the remarkable variation in maize haplotype structure affects recombination. We compared recombination across a genetic interval of 9S in 2 highly dissimilar heterozygotes that shared 1 parent. The genetic interval in the common haplotype is ?100 kb long and contains 6 genes interspersed with gene-fragment-bearing Helitrons and retrotransposons that, together, comprise 70% of its length. In one heterozygote, most intergenic insertions are homozygous, although polymorphic, enabling us to determine whether any recombination junctions fall within them. In the other, most intergenic insertions are hemizygous and, thus, incapable of homologous recombination. Our analysis of the frequency and distribution of recombination in the interval revealed that: (i) Most junctions were circumscribed to the gene space, where they showed a highly nonuniform distribution. In both heterozygotes, more than half of the junctions fell in the stc1 gene, making it a clear recombination hotspot in the region. However, the genetic size of stc1 was 2-fold lower when flanked by a hemizygous 25-kb retrotransposon cluster. (ii) No junctions fell in the hypro1 gene in either heterozygote, making it a genic recombination coldspot. (iii) No recombination occurred within the gene fragments borne on Helitrons nor within retrotransposons, so neither insertion class contributes to the interval's genetic length. (iv) Unexpectedly, several junctions fell in an intergenic region not shared by all 3 haplotypes. (v) In general, the ability of a sequence to recombine correlated inversely with its methylation status. Our results show that haplotypic structural variability strongly affects the frequency and distribution of recombination events in maize.

He, Limei; Dooner, Hugo K.

2009-01-01

249

Genetically Modified Plants: Whats the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they

Burr

2006-01-01

250

Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase producer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields, while the next generation of GM food research is focusing on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers. ?Golden rice? has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of poor people

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jacskon; Chantal Pohl Nielsen

2004-01-01

251

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

252

Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ‘golden rice’, which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

2005-01-01

253

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

254

FIELD DECOMPOSITION OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CORN RESIDUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The decomposition of residue from three genetically-modified (GM) corn varieties expressing one or more Bt endotoxins was compared to that from a variety with the unmodified base genetics. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DK...

255

Environmental safety issues for genetically modified animals.  

PubMed

Organisms modified by the techniques of modern biotechnology may differ significantly from normal organisms or organisms modified by other methods. Before transgenic organisms are introduced into the environment, the potential environmental effects should be assessed. In general, modification of ecologically important traits in undomesticated species presents the greatest environmental risk. Transgenic livestock probably pose low risk to the environment. Transgenic fish and live virus-based vaccines pose greater risks and present challenging questions for environmental risk assessment. PMID:8505270

Bruggemann, E P

1993-01-01

256

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or\\u000a by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported\\u000a the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne,\\u000a 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For

Jaroslava Ovesná; Katerina Demnerová; Vladimíra Pouchová

2008-01-01

257

MaizeGDB - Past, present, and future  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) turns 20 this year. This editorial outlines MaizeGDB's history and connection to the Maize Genetics Cooperation, describes key components of how the MaizeGDB interface will be completely redesigned over the course of the next two years to meet cur...

258

[Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].  

PubMed

The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants. PMID:20449554

Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

2010-06-01

259

Development and validation of real-time PCR screening methods for detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes in genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primers and probes were developed for the element-specific detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes, based on their DNA sequence as present in GM maize MON89034. Cry genes are present in many genetically modified (GM) plants and they are important targets for developing GMO element-specific\\u000a detection methods. Element-specific methods can be of use to screen for the presence of GMOs in

Andréia Z. Dinon; Theo W. Prins; Jeroen P. van Dijk; Ana Carolina M. Arisi; Ingrid M. J. Scholtens; Esther J. Kok

2011-01-01

260

Tropical Maize: Exploiting Maize Genetic Diversity to Develop a Novel Annual Crop for Lignocellulosic Biomass and Sugar Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Maize (Zea mays L.) is truly a remarkable crop species, having been adapted from its tropical origins to a wide diversity of environments\\u000a and end uses. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT webpage, 792 million metric\\u000a tons of maize were produced worldwide in 2007, making it the world’s highest yielding grain crop (http:\\/\\/faostat.fao.org\\/site\\/339\\/default.aspx).\\u000a When

Wendy G. White; Stephen P. Moose; Clifford F. Weil; Maureen C. McCann; Nicholas C. Carpita

261

Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green

C. Neal Stewart

2002-01-01

262

Biopharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Modern biotechnology has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the production of new therapeutic agents using botanical sources. With nearly 500 biotechnology products approved or in develop- ment globally, and with production capacity lim- ited, the need for efficient means of therapeutic protein production is apparent. Through genetic engineering, plants can now be used to produce pharmacologically active

D. A. Goldstein; J. A. THOMAS

2004-01-01

263

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light

C. Neal Stewart Jr.

2002-01-01

264

Genetically modified immunocompetent cells in HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), gene therapy (GT) can remain a promising approach for suppressing HIV infection, especially if complemented with other forms of pharmacological and immunological intervention. A large number of vectors and targets have been studied. Here we discuss the potential of genetically treated, antigen-specific immunocompetent cells for adoptive autologous immunotherapy of HIV

G Palù; GLi Pira; F Gennari; D Fenoglio; C Parolin; F Manca

2001-01-01

265

Impact of inoculation with the phytostimulatory PGPR Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 on the genetic structure of the rhizobacterial community of field-grown maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytostimulatory PGPR Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 was inoculated to maize seeds and the impact on the genetic structure of the rhizobacterial community in the field was determined during maize growth by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) of rhizosphere DNA extracts. ARISA fingerprints could differ from one plant to the next as well as from one sampling to the next.

Ezékiel Baudoin; Sylvie Nazaret; Christophe Mougel; Lionel Ranjard; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz

2009-01-01

266

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer'?s decision to purchase GM

Abdullahi O. Abdulkadri; Simone Pinnock; Paula F. Tennant

2004-01-01

267

Complexity and Genetic Variability of Heat-Shock Protein Expression in Isolated Maize Microspores.  

PubMed Central

The expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in isolated maize (Zea mays L.) microspores has been investigated using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to immunodetection and fluorography of in vivo synthesized proteins. To this end, homogeneous and viable populations of microspores have been purified in sufficient amounts for molecular analysis from plants grown in controlled conditions. Appropriate conditions for thermal stress application have been defined. The analysis revealed that isolated microspores from maize display a classical heat-shock response characterized by the repression of the normal protein synthesis and the expression of a set of HSPs. A high complexity of the response was demonstrated, with numerous different HSPs being resolved in each known major HSP molecular weight class. However, the extent of this heat-shock response is limited in that some of these HSPs do not accumulate at high levels following temperature elevation. Comparative analysis of the heat-shock responses of microspores isolated from five genotypes demonstrated high levels of genetic variability. Furthermore, many HSPs were detected in microspores at control temperature, indicating a possible involvement of these proteins in pollen development at stages close to first pollen mitosis.

Magnard, J. L.; Vergne, P.; Dumas, C.

1996-01-01

268

The relationship between parental genetic or phenotypic divergence and progeny variation in the maize nested association mapping population  

PubMed Central

Appropriate selection of parents for the development of mapping populations is pivotal to maximizing the power of quantitative trait loci detection. Trait genotypic variation within a family is indicative of the family's informativeness for genetic studies. Accurate prediction of the most useful parental combinations within a species would help guide quantitative genetics studies. We tested the reliability of genotypic and phenotypic distance estimators between pairs of maize inbred lines to predict genotypic variation for quantitative traits within families derived from biparental crosses. We developed 25 families composed of ?200 random recombinant inbred lines each from crosses between a common reference parent inbred, B73, and 25 diverse maize inbreds. Parents and families were evaluated for 19 quantitative traits across up to 11 environments. Genetic distances (GDs) among parents were estimated with 44 simple sequence repeat and 2303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. GDs among parents had no predictive value for progeny variation, which is most likely due to the choice of neutral markers. In contrast, we observed for about half of the traits measured a positive correlation between phenotypic parental distances and within-family genetic variance estimates. Consequently, the choice of promising segregating populations can be based on selecting phenotypically diverse parents. These results are congruent with models of genetic architecture that posit numerous genes affecting quantitative traits, each segregating for allelic series, with dispersal of allelic effects across diverse genetic material. This architecture, common to many quantitative traits in maize, limits the predictive value of parental genotypic or phenotypic values on progeny variance.

Hung, H-Y; Browne, C; Guill, K; Coles, N; Eller, M; Garcia, A; Lepak, N; Melia-Hancock, S; Oropeza-Rosas, M; Salvo, S; Upadyayula, N; Buckler, E S; Flint-Garcia, S; McMullen, M D; Rocheford, T R; Holland, J B

2012-01-01

269

The fate of transgenic sequences present in genetically modified plant products in fish feed, investigating the survival of GM soybean DNA fragments during feeding trials in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable protein sources like soybeans, canola and maize gluten are good alternatives to fish meal. However, a large proportion of such products available on the international market may possess genetically modified (GM) components. This report concerns a study to investigate the fate and survival of ingested GM soy DNA fragments (120 and 195 bp) and a 180-bp fragment of the

Monica Sanden; Ian J Bruce; M. Azizur Rahman; Gro-Ingunn Hemre

2004-01-01

270

Genetic Design and Statistical Power of Nested Association Mapping in Maize  

PubMed Central

We investigated the genetic and statistical properties of the nested association mapping (NAM) design currently being implemented in maize (26 diverse founders and 5000 distinct immortal genotypes) to dissect the genetic basis of complex quantitative traits. The NAM design simultaneously exploits the advantages of both linkage analysis and association mapping. We demonstrated the power of NAM for high-power cost-effective genome scans through computer simulations based on empirical marker data and simulated traits with different complexities. With common-parent-specific (CPS) markers genotyped for the founders and the progenies, the inheritance of chromosome segments nested within two adjacent CPS markers was inferred through linkage. Genotyping the founders with additional high-density markers enabled the projection of genetic information, capturing linkage disequilibrium information, from founders to progenies. With 5000 genotypes, 30–79% of the simulated quantitative trait loci (QTL) were precisely identified. By integrating genetic design, natural diversity, and genomics technologies, this new complex trait dissection strategy should greatly facilitate endeavors to link molecular variation with phenotypic variation for various complex traits.

Yu, Jianming; Holland, James B.; McMullen, Michael D.; Buckler, Edward S.

2008-01-01

271

Genetic design and statistical power of nested association mapping in maize.  

PubMed

We investigated the genetic and statistical properties of the nested association mapping (NAM) design currently being implemented in maize (26 diverse founders and 5000 distinct immortal genotypes) to dissect the genetic basis of complex quantitative traits. The NAM design simultaneously exploits the advantages of both linkage analysis and association mapping. We demonstrated the power of NAM for high-power cost-effective genome scans through computer simulations based on empirical marker data and simulated traits with different complexities. With common-parent-specific (CPS) markers genotyped for the founders and the progenies, the inheritance of chromosome segments nested within two adjacent CPS markers was inferred through linkage. Genotyping the founders with additional high-density markers enabled the projection of genetic information, capturing linkage disequilibrium information, from founders to progenies. With 5000 genotypes, 30-79% of the simulated quantitative trait loci (QTL) were precisely identified. By integrating genetic design, natural diversity, and genomics technologies, this new complex trait dissection strategy should greatly facilitate endeavors to link molecular variation with phenotypic variation for various complex traits. PMID:18202393

Yu, Jianming; Holland, James B; McMullen, Michael D; Buckler, Edward S

2008-01-01

272

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, pigs have been used to develop some of the most important large animal models for biomedical research. Advances in pig genome research, genetic modification (GM) of primary pig cells and pig cloning by nuclear transfer, have facilitated the generation of GM pigs for xenotransplantation and various human diseases. This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Broadly used genetic engineering tools for porcine cells are also discussed. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated for xenotransplantation and human disease processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, bone diseases, cancers and epidermal skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this review provides an overview of the progress in GM pig research over the last two decades and perspectives for future development. PMID:22453682

Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt

2012-03-28

273

Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?  

PubMed

Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades. PMID:21865874

Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

274

Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Cell Wall Digestibility and Lignification in Silage Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

the European Union for silage making. Forage maize breeding in Europe has been based for a long time on Improving digestibility is a major goal for forage maize (Zea mays the concept that the best hybrids for grain production L.) breeding programs. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting forage maize digestibility-related and agronomic traits were mapped and were also the most

Valérie Méchin; Odile Argillier; Yannick Hébert; Emmanuelle Guingo; Laurence Moreau; Alain Charcosset; Yves Barrière

2001-01-01

275

Introduction: Strategies for developing genetically modified mice.  

PubMed

Advancements in transgenic technologies have made the mouse one of the most useful animal models for biomedical research. Several technological breakthroughs have allowed the generation transgenic and knockout mouse models some 25 years ago. Subsequently, the technology has undergone many improvements, advancing our ability to control the expression of the genes and determine the cell types where the genetic modification should take place. Hence, the mouse is unique in offering the possibility to understand genotype-phenotype relationships that are relevant for unraveling the biological role of these genes in the human. This chapter provides an introductory overview. PMID:21080271

Hofker, Marten H

2011-01-01

276

Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

1989-06-01

277

MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. PMID:21500243

García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2010-12-23

278

Nuclear mutations affecting plastoquinone accumulation in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized two nuclear mutations which affect plastoquinone accumulation in maize. The mutations, hcf103 and hcf114, modify the same genetic locus. Plants homozygous for either mutant allele exhibit reduced PS II electron transport activity, reduced variable chlorophyll fluorescence and reduced delayed fluorescence yield. In these ways, hcf103 and hcf114 resemble previously described PS II mutants which lack

William B. Cook; Donald Miles

1992-01-01

279

Analysis of genetically modified plant gene expression using GUS fluorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorimetric assay method for the analysis of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression in genetically modified\\u000a plants is described. Optimization of this method for woody plants and a statistical approach suitable for comparisons of gene\\u000a expression in different transformants or tissues of the same plant is described. Example data from elm (Ulmus procera) SR4 regenerant plants, shown to be genetically

Kevan M. A. Gartland; Angela T. McHugh; Stanislav Vitha; Karel Benes; Richard J. Irvine; Jill S. Gartland

2000-01-01

280

Genetically modified crops and agricultural landscapes: spatial patterns of contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial question facing the global agri-food system is whether genetically modified (GM) crops can co-exist with traditional crops. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the presence of GM crops and changes in the probability of genetic transfer between crops on an agricultural landscape can result in non-GM crop contamination. To investigate this issue, we develop and

Ken Belcher; James Nolan; Peter W. B. Phillips

2005-01-01

281

Transgenic coffee fruits from Coffea arabica genetically modified by bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic modification of Coffea arabica fruits is an important tool for the investigation of physiological characteristics and functional validation of genes related\\u000a to coffee bean quality traits. In this work, plants of C. arabica cultivar Catuaí Vermelho were successfully genetically modified by bombardment of embryogenic calli. Calli were obtained\\u000a from 90% of the leaf explants cultivated in a callogenesis-inducing

Erika V. S. Albuquerque; Welcimar G. Cunha; Aulus E. A. D. Barbosa; Poliene M. Costa; João B. Teixeira; Giovanni R. Vianna; Glaucia B. Cabral; Diana Fernandez; Maria F. Grossi-de-Sa

2009-01-01

282

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

283

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels of the filters. Being different from the normal genetic algorithm, the algorithm proposed reduces the problem space of the birefringent filter design to achieve faster speed and better performance. The design of 4-, 8-, and 14-section birefringent filters with an improved sidelobe suppression ratio is realized. A 4-section birefringent filter designed with the algorithm is experimentally realized. PMID:16761031

Wen, Mengtao; Yao, Jianping

2006-06-10

284

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

285

Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.  

PubMed

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2010-11-03

286

From pesticides to genetically modified plants: history, economics and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (3) has nonetheless many external effects which strongly reduce its social benefits, (4) early calculations on net benefits

J. C. Zadoks; H. Waibel

2000-01-01

287

Proposals for nutritional assessments of feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) increased from 1.7 to 81 million. ha from 1996 to 2004 (James, 2004). Scientists and farmers, but also consumers, are asking for a nutritional assessment, including safety aspects, of feeds from those plants. Substantial equivalence was created as a framework for the compositional assessment of feeds from GMP of the so-called first generation

G. Flachowsky; H. Böhme

288

Transgenic, transplastomic and other genetically modified plants: a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid 1990s, genetically modified (GM) crops have been grown commercially in Canada on a scale that has increased steadily over the years. An intense debate ensued, as elsewhere, and many fears were expressed regarding not only the technology itself but some of the main GM crops being grown. It would seem appropriate at this time to examine how

2002-01-01

289

Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers, in general, have negative attitudes towards the use of gene technology in food production. The objective of this study was to examine whether taste and health benefits influence the acceptability of genetically modified (gm) products when they are presented as real product alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as

Liisa Lähteenmäki; Klaus Grunert; Øydis Ueland; Annika Åström; Anne Arvola; Tino Bech-Larsen

2002-01-01

290

Acceptance of genetically modified food in India: perspectives of gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer and public policy resistance to genetically modified (GM) foods in rich countries has caused governments in many poor countries to withhold official permission for planting GM food crops for fear of damaging export markets for conventional crops. A total of 15 countries are already producing GM food crops. If China and India, the world's two most populous

John Knight; Amit Paradkar

2008-01-01

291

Evaluating Genetically Modified Food Labels: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Genetically modified (GM) organisms are commonplace,in modern agricultural practice. However, consumer polls and surveys have indicated a lack of acceptance of GM ingredients in food and a desire to see such products identifiedthrough the use of labels. In this study, three focus groups, comprised of consumers in two northwest Arkansas counties, evaluated and

Courtney Meyers; Jeff Miller

292

Competition with Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Modified Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical differentiation model is analyzed to study the placing on the market of genetically modified (GM) products in a context where labeling of such products is mandatory, as it is in the European Union. The model has two stages: firms first choose their technology (either GM or conventional) and then compete. We assume the GM product to have lower

Linda A. Toolsema

2008-01-01

293

The status and prospects for genetically modified crops in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid expansion in the global area planted with genetically modified (GM) crops, there has been resistance to this technology in Europe: this article considers why. Molecular technologies used to produce GM crops are reviewed and crops currently and soon to become available listed. It is argued that the prospects for GM crops depend on: (1) consumer acceptance —

Jeremy R. Franks

1999-01-01

294

Are genetically modified (GM) crops a commercial risk for Africa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What risks might Africa face if it decided to plant genetically modified (GM) agricultural crops? A rough calculation based on current export profiles for one sampling of eastern and southern African countries suggests that the commercial export risks incurred outside of Africa would be quite small. Most of Africa's exports of goods that might be considered GM currently go to

Robert Paarlberg

2006-01-01

295

ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) WHEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties is proceeding; however, several critical issues remain the focus of contention. This project summarizes the current state of knowledge on some of these critical issues for commercialization of GM wheats. Background on the evolution of GM Wheats is presented. Then, agronomic adoption and competitiveness of GM crops; research on GM traits in wheat;

William W. Wilson; Edward L. Janzen; Bruce L. Dahl; Cheryl J. Wachenheim

2003-01-01

296

Genetically modified plants with improved properties for phytoremediation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified plants should be considered as a potential tool for decontamination of environmental pollutants. Transgenic plant technology showed many obvious advantages over conventional plant breeding approaches for crop improvement. Recent discoveries allowed the engineering of new transgenic plants generating desirable products, such as enzymes, polymers and vaccines. Among new approaches, the use of transgenic plants specifically tailored for the

T. Macek; K. Francova; M. Sura; M. Mackova

297

Who Should Certify the Safety of Genetically Modified Foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of addressing consumer concerns regarding the use of genetically modified foods are evaluated using conjoint analysis � the use of a familiar brand and government certification. In one survey, consumers were asked to rate hypothetical products based on brand, price, and production technology attributes. In a second survey, consumers rated hypothetical products that included government certification, price, and

Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

2005-01-01

298

Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

2009-01-01

299

An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory

Kristian Borch; Birgitte Rasmussen

2000-01-01

300

The case for genetically modified crops with a poverty focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently seven National Academies of Science produced a report on transgenic plants and world agriculture. The report provides scientific perspectives to the ongoing public debate about the potential role for transgenic technology in world agriculture. In this article, we develop the themes of the report and emphasize the potential for future genetically modified (GM) crops with a poverty focus, emphasizing

Howard J. Atkinson; Jayne Green; Sue Cowgill; Aurora Levesley

2001-01-01

301

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

302

Response Dimensions Towards Genetically Modified Foods: A Consumer Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing public awareness of genetically modified (GM) foods and their availability on retail store shelves has resulted in profound cleavages of opinions amongst various interest groups regarding the possible risks they pose to consumers and their ethical implications. This paper proposes that response patterns of consumers may depend upon their moral and ethical orientations. This paper suggests that clearer groupings

Ali Quazi; Gamini Herath

2002-01-01

303

Consumer demands for organic and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning consumer demands for genetically modified and organic food remain topical. It is unclear how consumers perceive issues associated with food production such as food safety, environmental impacts or animal welfare. It is also unclear how consumers might value potential changes in those issues in regional and metropolitan centres. This paper reports on research using the choice modelling technique

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2003-01-01

304

Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Food: Empirical Evidence From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the advent of genetically modified (GM) foods changed the agricultural scenario in developed countries, existing research confirms that consumer perception about the consumption of the same is often distorted. GM foods entered the Indian market amid widespread controversies and criticisms. There exists a host of studies that tried to establish the factors that shape favorable consumer perception toward GM

Santanu Mandal; Rik Paul

2012-01-01

305

Changing Consumer Perceptions About Genetically Modified Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of college students about genetically modified (GM) food products and the role of agriculture and biotechnology in the environment were elicited. Perceptions were influenced bias in selection of information provided about environmental impacts of growing GM crop varieties. Information increased self-perceived level of knowledge among students and had unintended effects on perceptions of other crop production practices. Perceived risk

Cheryl J. Wachenheim

2006-01-01

306

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

307

Identifying farmer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food are well documented but there has been much less focus on farmer attitudes to GM technology in agriculture. This paper reports findings from a study investigating farmers’ attitudes to GM crops in Scotland. Results from a Q methodology study reveal three discourses, one apparently pro-GM and demonstrating an expectation of benefits, the second

Clare Hall

2006-01-01

308

Genetically modified crops and country image of food exporting countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Many countries have held back from planting genetically modified (GM) food crops due to perceived negative reaction in export and domestic markets. Three lines of research have tested the reality of this fear. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth interviews were conducted in European countries with key companies and organisations in the European food sector. Supermarket intercepts were used to ascertain

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

309

Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context,

Anne Constable

2002-01-01

310

Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products

Zhang-Liang Chen; Hongya Gu; Yi Li; Yilan Su; Ping Wu; Zhicheng Jiang; Xiaotian Ming; Jinhua Tian; Naisui Pan; Li-Jia Qu

2003-01-01

311

Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research using genetically modified mice has revealed significant sex differences in cardiac phenotypes. In the majority of strains, females display a lower mortality, less severe hypertrophy, better preserved function and mitigated cardiac pathology compared with male counterparts. Thus, gender is an independent determinant for the development of cardiac phenotype in murine models. While there is strong evidence for estrogen

Xiao-Jun Du

2004-01-01

312

Containment of regulated genetically modified cotton in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) insect and herbicide resistant cottons are now the mainstay of the cotton industry based in the eastern States of Australia. However, during the early years of breeding and seed increase, there was some uncertainty among regulators about containment measures needed to prevent the movement of regulated GM traits into adjacent fields of conventional cotton and possibly into

Danny Llewellyn; Chris Tyson; Greg Constable; Brian Duggan; Stephen Beale; Phil Steel

2007-01-01

313

Genetically modified organisms and risks of their introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this review is to assess food risks of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. The author analyzes the properties of the several classes of target proteins used in the transgenic constructions and discusses the problems that arise due to the pleiotropic action of transgenic proteins, the horizontal transfer of the transgenic constructions, primarily in bacteria,

A. M. Kulikov

2005-01-01

314

Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for genetically modified organisms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity biosensor based on DNA hybridisation is described. This biosensor has been applied to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor chip of an SPR device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the complementary sequence (target) was monitored. The probe sequences were

Elisa Mariotti; Maria Minunni; Marco Mascini

2002-01-01

315

Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

316

Genetically Modified Organisms in Peasant Farming: Social Impact and Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's first objective is to discuss the potential social impact of the diffusion of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into peasant sectors of less developed countries. While unwanted environmental impacts of the new technology can be partially assessed in controlled, experimental settings, assessment of social impacts requires experience and observation in particular farming systems. Owing to the absence of direct

STEPHEN B. BRUSH

2001-01-01

317

Enacting Closure in the Environmental Control of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of environmental law is to turn complex realities into coherent regulatory phenomena. The task requires ordering and boundary making. Motivated by this fact, this article studies the various types of closure through which releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are made manageable in the European Union. We analyse the legal framework for controlling environmental releases of

Helena Valve; Jussi Kauppila

2008-01-01

318

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

319

Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European Community (EC) legal measures that govern the contained use, deliberate release, and labeling of GMOs. To illustrate Member

MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN; A. BRYAN ENDRES

2000-01-01

320

Detection approaches for genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the various detection strategies for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. It begins with a brief discussion of the issues related to the technology especially the risks and public concerns. An introduction to the biological aspects of the major GMOs then follows. The bulk of the review is concerned with the different approaches toward detection: (a)

Anil K. Deisingh; Neela Badrie

2005-01-01

321

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

322

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

323

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

324

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

325

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

326

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

327

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

328

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

329

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

330

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

331

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

332

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

333

Challenges for methods to detect genetically modified DNA in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative detection methods for genetically modified (GM) DNA sequences in foods have evolved fast during the past years. The sensitivity of these systems is extremely high, even for processed foodstuffs. However, in future, quantitative results about the fraction of GM material in a composite food will be needed and the fast increasing number of GM foods on the market demands

Georg A Schreiber

1999-01-01

334

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

335

On consumers’ willingness to purchase nutritionally enhanced genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses consumers' willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food products with two different types of benefits: an input (i.e., reduced pesticides) and an output trait benefit (i.e., nutritionally enhanced). Data were collected using a telephone survey of an Italian households sample. Discrete choice approach is used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Four separate probit models

Maurizio Canavari; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr

2009-01-01

336

Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Food With Consumer Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread consumer resistance towards genetically modified (GM) food, particularly as reported in news media, has led to slow adoption of this technology outside of North America. Much of the consumer resistance appears to stem from public perceptions that GM crops benefit large multinational corporations, food producers, and typically have no apparent consumer benefits. In order to test whether clearly defined

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

337

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

338

Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

Renee B Kim

2009-01-01

339

Production of artemisinin by genetically-modified microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisinin, an endoperoxidized sesquiterpene originally extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a potent malaria-killing agent. Due to the urgent demand and short supply of this new antimalarial drug, engineering enhanced production of artemisinin by genetically-modified or transgenic microbes is currently being explored. Cloning and expression of the artemisinin biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have

Qingping Zeng; Frank Qiu; Ling Yuan

2008-01-01

340

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Genetically and Chemically Modified Bacteriorhodopsins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the preparation of bacteriorhodopsin for mass spectrometry is described, consisting of precipitation of the sample, removal of lipids by washing the sample, and dissolving it in an acidic mixture of organic solvents. Examples demonstrate the method's suitability for the analysis of genetically and chemically modified bacteriorhodopsins. The observed molecular masses are within 0.01% in accordance with

P. Hufnagel; U. Schweiger; C. Eckerskorn; D. Oesterhelt

1996-01-01

341

Maize Glutamine Synthetase Cdnas: Isolation by Direct Genetic Selection in Escherichia Coli  

PubMed Central

Maize glutamine synthetase cDNA clones were isolated by genetic selection for functional rescue of an Escherichia coli ?glnA mutant growing on medium lacking glutamine. The Black Mexican Sweet cDNA library used in this study was constructed in pUC13 such that cDNA sense strands were transcribed under the control of the lac promoter. E. coli ?glnA cells were transformed with cDNA library plasmid DNA, grown briefly in rich medium to allow phenotypic expression of the cDNAs and the pUC13 amp(r) gene, and challenged to grow on agar medium lacking glutamine. Large numbers of glutamine synthetase cDNA clones have been identified in individual 150-mm Petri dishes; all characterized cDNA clones carry complete coding sequences. Two cDNAs identical except for different 5' and 3' termini have been sequenced. The major open reading frame predicts a protein with an amino acid sequence that exhibits striking similarity to the amino acid sequences of the predicted products of previously sequenced eukaryotic glutamine synthetase cDNAs and genes. In addition, the maize glutamine synthetase cDNAs were shown to contain a 5' mini-ORF of 29 codons separated by 37 nucleotide pairs from the major ORF. This mini-ORF was shown not to be essential for the functional rescue of the E. coli ?glnA mutant. Expression of the cDNAs in E. coli is presumed to be due to the function of a polycistronic hybrid lac messenger RNA or translational fusions encoded by the pUC plasmids. Proteins of the expected sizes encoded by two different pUC clones were shown to react with antibodies to tobacco glutamine synthetase.

Snustad, D. P.; Hunsperger, J. P.; Chereskin, B. M.; Messing, J.

1988-01-01

342

GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84?885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14?896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a “least squares” type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated Annealing employs and instead we used a global technique based on grammatical evolution.

Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

2006-05-01

343

Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.  

PubMed

Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components. PMID:17080241

Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

2006-11-02

344

An Efficient Vector System to Modify Cells Genetically  

PubMed Central

The transfer of foreign genes into mammalian cells has been essential for understanding the functions of genes and mechanisms of genetic diseases, for the production of coding proteins and for gene therapy applications. Currently, the identification and selection of cells that have received transferred genetic material can be accomplished by methods, including drug selection, reporter enzyme detection and GFP imaging. These methods may confer antibiotic resistance, or be disruptive, or require special equipment. In this study, we labeled genetically modified cells with a cell surface biotinylation tag by co-transfecting cells with BirA, a biotin ligase. The modified cells can be quickly isolated for downstream applications using a simple streptavidin bead method. This system can also be used to screen cells expressing two sets of genes from separate vectors.

Han, Huamin; Liu, Qingjun; He, Wen; Ong, Kristy; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Bin

2011-01-01

345

Genetic modifiers of liver injury in hereditary liver disease.  

PubMed

The genetic background of patients with liver diseases modulates hepatic injury, with some individuals being predisposed to better defenses and regenerative capacity. In this review, we focus our description of this phenomenon on inherited disorders affecting the liver, with a particular emphasis on Wilson disease (WD), genetic hemochromatosis, and ?-1 anti-trypsin disease (A1-AT). Wide variations in the clinical phenotype of WD may in part be related to the mutations of the ATP7B genotype, though modifier genes and environmental factors also likely play an important role. There is also a significant variability in the expression of iron overload in patients with genetic hemochromatosis that are homozygous for the C282Y mutation. Homozygosity for the A1-ATZ mutation is generally required for the development of liver disease in A1-AT although there is increasing evidence for modifier effects from a heterozygous genotype in other liver diseases. PMID:21538285

Ala, Aftab; Schilsky, Michael

2011-05-02

346

Use of Genetically Modified Viruses and Genetically Engineered Virus-vector Vaccines: Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number

Vivian S. W. Chan

2006-01-01

347

Further characterization of AFLP® data as a tool in genetic diversity assessments among maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP® markers generated by CNG methylation sensitive (PstI\\/MseI) and CNG methylation insensitive (EcoRI\\/MseI) enzyme combinations and AFLP markers collected from hypomethylated (PstI\\/MseI) and hypermethylated (mPstI\\/MseI) regions were compared for their polymorphism information content, sampling variance and patterns of genetic diversity in a representative sample of 33 inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). We demonstrate that the mean polymorphism information

M. Vuylsteke; R. Mank; B. Brugmans; P. Stam; M. Kuiper

2000-01-01

348

Expression of a modified green fluorescent protein gene in transgenic maize plants and progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications of a wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were combined into a single construct, driven by\\u000a the ubi-1 promoter and intron region, and transformed into maize. Green fluorescence, indicative of GFP expression, was observed\\u000a in stably transformed callus as well as in leaves and roots of regenerated plants and their progeny. Cell wall autofluorescence\\u000a made GFP expression difficult

A. H. M. van der Geest; J. F. Petolino

1998-01-01

349

The Genetic Control and Biochemical Modification of Catechol Oxidase in Maize  

PubMed Central

Three isozyme variants of catechol oxidase have been shown to be determined by alleles of a gene, Cx, which has been located on chromosome 10 less than 0.1 recombination units from the endosperm marker du1.—The extractable form of the enzyme is modified by an endogeneous "modifier" which appears to function as an enzyme substrate. Enzyme and modifier are functionally isolated in intact cells. Modified enzyme has altered kinetics, does not migrate in electrophoresis and most probably results from a "tanning" of the enzyme by reaction products. The content of modifier varies in different lines and is genetically determined by gene(s) independent of Cx. Treatment with maleic hydrazide causes a ten-fold reduction in the modifier content of seedlings, allowing the enzyme to be extracted in an unmodified form which will migrate in electrophoresis.—This system of enzyme and modifier fits the requirements of hypersensitive disease resistance in plants and may provide a test system to investigate the biochemical basis of disease resistance.

Pryor, Tony; Schwartz, Drew

1973-01-01

350

The relationship between parental genetic or phenotypic divergence and progeny variation in the maize nested association mapping population.  

PubMed

Appropriate selection of parents for the development of mapping populations is pivotal to maximizing the power of quantitative trait loci detection. Trait genotypic variation within a family is indicative of the family's informativeness for genetic studies. Accurate prediction of the most useful parental combinations within a species would help guide quantitative genetics studies. We tested the reliability of genotypic and phenotypic distance estimators between pairs of maize inbred lines to predict genotypic variation for quantitative traits within families derived from biparental crosses. We developed 25 families composed of ~200 random recombinant inbred lines each from crosses between a common reference parent inbred, B73, and 25 diverse maize inbreds. Parents and families were evaluated for 19 quantitative traits across up to 11 environments. Genetic distances (GDs) among parents were estimated with 44 simple sequence repeat and 2303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. GDs among parents had no predictive value for progeny variation, which is most likely due to the choice of neutral markers. In contrast, we observed for about half of the traits measured a positive correlation between phenotypic parental distances and within-family genetic variance estimates. Consequently, the choice of promising segregating populations can be based on selecting phenotypically diverse parents. These results are congruent with models of genetic architecture that posit numerous genes affecting quantitative traits, each segregating for allelic series, with dispersal of allelic effects across diverse genetic material. This architecture, common to many quantitative traits in maize, limits the predictive value of parental genotypic or phenotypic values on progeny variance. PMID:22027895

Hung, H-Y; Browne, C; Guill, K; Coles, N; Eller, M; Garcia, A; Lepak, N; Melia-Hancock, S; Oropeza-Rosas, M; Salvo, S; Upadyayula, N; Buckler, E S; Flint-Garcia, S; McMullen, M D; Rocheford, T R; Holland, J B

2011-10-26

351

Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market.  

PubMed

The possible transfer and accumulation of novel DNA and/or proteins in food for human consumption derived from animals receiving genetically modified (GM) feed is at present the object of scientific dispute. A number of studies failed to identify GM DNA in milk, meat, or eggs derived from livestock receiving GM feed ingredients. The present study was performed in order to: (i) develop a valid protocol by PCR and multicomponent analysis for the detection of specific DNA sequences in milk, focused on GM maize and GM soybean; (ii) assess the stability of transgenic DNA after pasteurization treatment and (iii) determine the presence of GM DNA sequences in milk samples collected from the Italian market. Results from the screening of 60 samples of 12 different milk brands demonstrated the presence of GM maize sequences in 15 (25%) and of GM soybean sequences in 7 samples (11.7%). Our screening methodology shows a very high sensitivity and the use of an automatic identification of the amplified products increases its specificity and reliability. Moreover, we demonstrated that the pasteurization process is not able to degrade the DNA sequences in spiked milk samples. The detection of GM DNA in milk can be interpreted as an indicator of fecal or airborne contamination, respectively, with feed DNA or feed particles, although an alternative source of contamination, possibly recognizable in the natural environment can be suggested. Further studies, performed on a larger number of milk samples, are needed to understand the likely source of contamination of milk collected from the Italian market. PMID:16373205

Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Grillo, Agata; Sciacca, Salvatore

2005-09-29

352

A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

2011-02-05

353

Inbred maize line Ph0R8  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An inbred maize line, designated PH0R8, the plants and seeds of inbred maize line PH0R8, methods for producing a maize plant, either inbred or hybrid, produced by crossing the inbred maize line PH0R8 with itself or with another maize plant, and hybrid maize seeds and plants produced by crossing the inbred line PH0R8 with another maize line or plant and to methods for producing a maize plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic maize plants produced by that method. This invention also relates to inbred maize lines derived from inbred maize line PH0R8, to methods for producing other inbred maize lines derived from inbred maize line PH0R8 and to the inbred maize lines derived by the use of those methods.

2004-04-06

354

Genetic interactions and modifier genes in Hirschsprung's disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital disorder that occurs in 1:5000 live births. It is characterised by an absence of enteric neurons along a variable region of the gastrointestinal tract. Hirschsprung’s disease is classified as a multigenic disorder, because the same phenotype is associated with mutations in multiple distinct genes. Furthermore, the genetics of Hirschsprung’s disease are highly complex and not strictly Mendelian. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung’s disease also suggests the involvement of modifier genes. Here, we summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying Hirschsprung’s disease based on human and animal studies, focusing on the principal causative genes, their interactions, and the role of modifier genes.

Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Richard B

2011-01-01

355

VARIABILITY AND GENETIC EFFECTS FOR TRYPTOPHAN AND METHIONINE IN COMMERCIAL MAIZE GERMPLASM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea Mays L.) is a major food and feed crop, however, maize proteins are nutritionally imbalanced due to low levels of certain essential amino acids, including tryptophan and methionine. The objectives of this study were (1)to determine the variability in methionine and tryptophan levels pres...

356

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

357

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

358

Autecology of a genetically modified fluorescent pseudomonad on sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival, dispersal and impact of a genetically modified microorganism (GMM) in the phyllosphere of glasshouse grown sugar beet was investigated. The GMM, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25EeZY6KX (lacZY and kanr-xylE) derived from a bacterium originally isolated from field grown sugar beet, was introduced as a seed inoculum. It survived in the phyllosphere throughout the 531-day study on plants growing in field

Ian P. Thompson; Richard J. Ellis; Mark J. Bailey

1995-01-01

359

Explaining International Differences in Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have adopted labeling policies for genetically modified (GM) food, and the regulations vary considerably across countries. We evaluate the importance of political-economic factors implicit in the choice of GM food labeling regulations. Using an analytical model, we show that production and trade-related interests play a prominent role in labeling decision-making. This conclusion is validated by an empirical analysis

Guillaume P. Gruère; Colin A. Carter; Y. Hossein Farzin

2009-01-01

360

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

361

Genetically Modified Crops and Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genetically-modified (GM) crops presently are central components of pest management strategies for several important crops\\u000a worldwide. GM crops include insect-resistant varieties (expressing transgenes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or from plant species other than the GM crop, though only the former varieties are commercially available), and herbicide-tolerant\\u000a varieties (which tolerate post-emergent applications of particular herbicides). This chapter examines potential and

Julio S. Bernal

362

Detection of Genetically Modified Plants in Seeds, Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different techniques and analytical strategies are applied for detecting and quantifying the presence of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plants in food and feed products or in seeds. DNA-based detection is performed by qualitative PCR or by quantitative\\u000a real-time PCR, whereas for protein-based detection immunoassays such as lateral flow devices and ELISA are applied. The testing\\u000a strategy for GMO detection is constituted

Lutz Grohmann

363

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks can be characterised by several parameters. A risk is commonly defined to be the product of the extent of damage and\\u000a the probability of its occurrence. But there are several other characteristics to be taken into account: degree of certainty\\u000a in determining extent and probability, persistency, ubiquity, irreversibility, delay effect and mobilisation potential. As\\u000a potential risks of genetically modified

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

364

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  In Europe, the EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically\\u000a modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to:\\u000a (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved\\u000a ERA

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Jörg Römbke; Stephan Jänsch; Hanka Teichmann; Beatrix Tappeser

2011-01-01

365

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical\\u000a trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which\\u000a may arise due to the clinical use of

B. Anliker; S. Longhurst; C. J. Buchholz

2010-01-01

366

Efficiency of Modified Genetic Algorithms on Two-Dimensional System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic algorithms (GA) have been successfully applied to optimization problems in a variety of areas. In this paper, some modifications to GA are designed to study their performance and efficiency on a typical 2D system, 2D Ising spin glass. In particular, two kinds of modified GAs are compared for their searching ability (performance) and efficiency (convergence), by presenting a direct and visual criterion. Finally, some constructive comments and prospects on GA are presented.

Fan, Lewen; Fang, Haiping; Lin, Zhifang

367

Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops – European and American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified (GM) crops occupy a unique place in the evolution of risk governance approaches to dealing with modern,\\u000a path-breaking technologies. They were the first such technology to be regulated on a precautionary basis, in a generic sense,\\u000a from the earliest stages of a technology development process that began in the 1980s and is still evolving.\\u000a \\u000a Today, distinctively different risk

Joyce Tait

368

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

369

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

370

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

371

Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Food Products in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a large U.S. export market, there has been growing public opposition against genetically modified (GM) foods. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method, findings show the discount needed for Japanese Seikyou consumers to purchase GM food products is positively affected (i.e., a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM food, higher levels

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2003-01-01

372

CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation

Kristine M. Grimsrud; Jill J. McCluskey; Maria L. Loureiro; Thomas I. Wahl

2002-01-01

373

Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable\\u000a public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological\\u000a risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important\\u000a in regulating

Wenke Liu

2010-01-01

374

Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Foods in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi to determine attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for GM maize meal. WTP was estimated using the double-bounded logit model. Overall, 38% are aware of GM crops. Most consumers believe in the technology's positive impacts, but are concerned about environmental and health risks. Majority (68%) would buy GM maize meal at

Simon Chege Kimenju; Hugo de Groote

2005-01-01

375

Characterization of Genetic Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium of ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 Loci in Maize  

PubMed Central

Maize (Zea mays L.) lipoxygenases (ZmLOXs) are well recognized as important players in plant defense against pathogens, especially in cross kingdom lipid communication with pathogenic fungi. This study is among the first to investigate genetic diversity at important gene paralogs ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5. Sequencing of these genes in 400 diverse maize lines showed little genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium in the two genes. Importantly, we identified one inbred line in which ZmLOX5 has a disrupted open reading frame, a line missing ZmLOX5, and five lines with a duplication of ZmLOX5. Tajima's D test suggests that both ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 have been under neutral selection. Further investigation of haplotype data revealed that within the ZmLOX family members only ZmLOX12, a monocot specific ZmLOX, showed strong linkage disequilibrium that extends further than expected in maize. Linkage disequilibrium patterns at these loci of interest are crucial for future candidate gene association mapping studies. ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 mutations and copy number variants are under further investigation for crop improvement.

De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Park, Yong-Soon; Yan, Yuanxin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Kolomiets, Michael V.

2013-01-01

376

Genetic diversity among progenitors and elite lines from the Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) maize population: comparison of allozyme and RFLP data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of 144 clone-enzyme combinations and for 22 allozyme loci from 21 U.S. Corn Belt maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds were analyzed. The genetic materials included 14 progenitors of the Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) maize population, both parents of one missing BSSS progenitor, four elite inbreds derived from BSSS, and inbred Mo17. Objectives

M. M. Messmer; A. E. Melchinger; M. Lee; W. L. Woodman; E. A. Lee; K. R. Lamkey

1991-01-01

377

Molecular genetics of the R complex of maize. Final technical report DE-FG02-86ER13627  

SciTech Connect

A molecular genetic characterization of the maize R-r complex of maize was completed during the period of support. The complex was shown to consist of two main regions: the P region, containing the r-p gene which controlled pigmentation of plant parts, and the S subcomplex, containing two rl-s genes in head-to-head orientation and a nonfunctional component termed rl-q. By examining the DNA sequences at the junction of the rl genes, the complex was shown to be derived by a series of abortive transposition events. The transposable element involved in the gene duplication and rearrangements was characterized and called doppia. Meiotic instability of the R-r complex was also characterized. Loss of P or S function was associated with several structural changes including intrachromosomal recombination and excision of a novel transposable element that appears to show instability only during meiosis.

Dellaporta, Stephen

2000-10-01

378

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

379

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

380

Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some insights have been gained from previous studies on the acceptability of genetically modified (GM) foods, not many attempts have been made to understand consumer acceptability of genetically modified tomatoes. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of factors such as consumer knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on the acceptability of genetically modified tomatoes. The analysis draws

James O. Bukenya; Natasha R. Wright

2007-01-01

381

[Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].  

PubMed

This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

Spendeler, Liliane

382

The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.  

PubMed

A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:23549349

Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

2013-01-01

383

Genetic Analysis of Amino Acid Accumulation in opaque-2 Maize Endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opaque-2 mutation in maize (Zea mays) is associated with an increased level of free amino acids (FAA) in the mature endosperm. In particular, there is a high concentration of lysine, the most limiting essential amino acid. To investigate the basis for the high-FAA phenotype of opaque-2 maize, we characterized amino acid accumulation during endosperm development of several wild-type and

Xuelu Wang; Brian A. Larkins

2001-01-01

384

Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells for improved islet transplantation.  

PubMed

The use of adult stem cells for therapeutic purposes has met with great success in recent years. Among several types of adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) and other sources have gained popularity for basic research and clinical applications because of their therapeutic potential in treating a variety of diseases. Because of their tissue regeneration potential and immune modulation effect, MSCs were recently used as cell-based therapy to promote revascularization, increase pancreatic ?-cell proliferation, and avoid allograft rejection in islet transplantation. Taking advantage of the recent progress in gene therapy, genetically modified MSCs can further enhance and expand the therapeutic benefit of primary MSCs while retaining their stem-cell-like properties. This review aims to gain a thorough understanding of the current obstacles to successful islet transplantation and discusses the potential role of primary MSCs before or after genetic modification in islet transplantation. PMID:21707070

Wu, Hao; Ye, Zhaoyang; Mahato, Ram I

2011-07-07

385

Therapeutic potential of genetically modified adult stem cells for osteopenia  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells have therapeutic potential because of their intrinsic capacity for self-renewal, especially for bone regeneration. The present study demonstrates the utility of ex vivo modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to enhance bone density in an immunocompetent mouse model of osteopenia. MSC were transduced ex vivo with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV) expressing BMP-2 under the transcriptional control of collagen type-1? promoter. To enrich bone homing in vivo, the cells were further modified to transiently express the mouse ?-4 integrin. The modified MSC were systemically administered to ovariectomized, female C57BL/6 mice. Effects of the therapy were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, 3D micro-CT, histology, and immunohistochemistry for up to six months. Results indicated that mice transplanted with MSC expressing BMP-2 showed significant increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content(p<0.001) with relatively better proliferative capabilities of bone marrow stromal cells and higher osteocompetent pool of cells compared to control animals. Micro-CT analysis of femora and other bone histomorphometric analyses indicated more trabecular bone following MSC-BMP-2 therapy. Results obtained by transplanting genetically modified MSC from GFP transgenic mouse suggested that production of BMP2 from transplanted MSC also influenced the mobilization of endogenous progenitors for new bone formation.

Kumar, Sanjay; Nagy, Tim R.; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2010-01-01

386

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

387

Coral red fluorescence protein as genetic modified baculovirus tracer.  

PubMed

Genetic modified baculovirus (GMBV) are among the most promising alternatives to chemical insecticides. One of the deterrents to the GMBV development is the lack of simple and cost-effective methods for monitoring their efficacy and ecology in fields. Here, we demonstrate the DsRed gene from coral can serve as a convenient GMBV tracer. Insect larvae, including Trichoplusia ni, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura, infected the GMBV containing the DsRed gene can emit red fluorescence under sun light without any prosthetic apparatus. PMID:15979186

Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Kao, Suey-Sheng; Tzen, Jason T C; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

2005-09-29

388

Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.  

PubMed

Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czy?ewska, Krystyna

2013-09-20

389

Determination of insecticidal Cry1Ab protein in soil collected in the final growing seasons of a nine-year field trial of Bt-maize MON810  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of genetically modified maize (Bt-maize; event MON810) producing recombinant ?-endotoxin Cry1Ab, leads to introduction\\u000a of the insecticidal toxin into soil by way of root exudates and plant residues. This study investigated the fate of Cry1Ab\\u000a in soil under long-term Bt-maize cultivation in an experimental field trial performed over nine growing seasons on four South\\u000a German field sites cultivated with

Helga Gruber; Vijay Paul; Heinrich H. D. Meyer; Martin Müller

390

Design of matching transformers for UHF band power splitters using modified genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a matching transmission line for a 1:4 power splitter in the UHF band is designed using modified genetic algorithms (GA). Some viewpoints regarding an improvement of the continuous genetic algorithm as well as the conventional genetic algorithm, namely the discrete genetic algorithm, is presented. Several different techniques are presented for improving the discrete\\/continuous genetic algorithm.

A. Varahram; J. Rashed-Mohassel; K. Mafinezhad

2003-01-01

391

Benefits of alternate partial root-zone irrigation on growth, water and nitrogen use efficiencies modified by fertilization and soil water status in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) is a new water-saving technique and may improve crop water use efficiency without\\u000a much yield reduction. We investigated if the benefits of APRI on biomass accumulation, water and nitrogen use efficiencies\\u000a could be modified by different soil fertilization and watering levels in pot-grown maize (Zea mays L. cv. super-sweet No 28,\\u000a a local variety). Three

Fusheng Li; Jihua Liang; Shaozhong Kang; Jianhua Zhang

2007-01-01

392

Molecular genetics of the maize (Zea mays L.) aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene family.  

PubMed Central

Aspartate kinase (AK) and homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) are enzymes in the aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathway. Recent biochemical evidence indicates that an AK-HSDH bifunctional enzyme exists in maize (Zea mays L.). In this report, we characterize three genes that encode subunits of AK-HSDH. Two cDNAs, pAKHSDH1 and pAKHSDH2, containing the full-coding sequence, and one partial cDNA, pAKHSDH3, encode amino acid sequences similar to the reported monofunctional AK and HSDH enzymes from prokaryotes and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and to AK-HSDH bifunctional enzymes of prokaryotes, yeast, carrot (Daucus carota), and Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunological and biochemical analyses verify that the cDNAs encode AK-HSDH and indicate that both the AK and HSDH activities are feedback inhibited by threonine. RNA blots identify a 3.2-kb transcript in all maize tissues examined. pAKHSDH1 and pAKHSDH2 map to chromosomes 4L and 2S, respectively. This study shows that maize contains AK-HSDH bifunctional enzyme(s) encoded by a small gene family of at least three genes. Maize AK-HSDH has conserved sequences found in communication modules of prokaryotic two-component regulatory systems, which has led us to propose that maize AK-HSDH may be involved in a similar regulatory mechanism.

Muehlbauer, G J; Somers, D A; Matthews, B F; Gengenbach, B G

1994-01-01

393

Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and

W. K Novak; A. G Haslberger

2000-01-01

394

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

395

Reforming the WTO to Defuse Potential Trade Conflicts in Genetically Modified Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguably genetic modification is one of the most important technological change seen to date. Its effects on both human health and the environment are both profound and controversial. In particular consumers, mainly in the EU, have concerns regarding the long term effects of consuming genetically modified foods on their health. They are also concerned regarding the effect that genetically modified

Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr Shelburne; Jill E. Hobbs

2001-01-01

396

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

397

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

398

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

399

Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures.  

PubMed

Biodiversity research shows that diverse plant communities are more stable and productive than monocultures. Similarly, populations in which genotypes with different pathogen resistance are mixed may have lower pathogen levels and thus higher productivity than genetically uniform populations. We used genetically modified (GM) wheat as a model system to test this prediction, because it allowed us to use genotypes that differed only in the trait pathogen resistance but were otherwise identical. We grew three such genotypes or lines in monocultures or two-line mixtures. Phenotypic measurements were taken at the level of individual plants and of entire plots (population level). We found that resistance to mildew increased with both GM richness (0, 1, or 2 Pm3 transgenes with different resistance specificities per plot) and GM concentration (0%, 50%, or 100% of all plants in a plot with a Pm3 transgene). Plots with two transgenes had 34.6% less mildew infection and as a consequence 7.3% higher seed yield than plots with one transgene. We conclude that combining genetic modification with mixed cropping techniques could be a promising approach to increase sustainability and productivity in agricultural systems, as the fitness cost of stacking transgenes within individuals may thus be avoided. PMID:23092018

Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Flynn, Dan F B; Schmid, Bernhard

2012-09-01

400

Genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity in a tropical by temperate maize recombinant inbred population using molecular markers.  

PubMed

Photoperiod sensitivity is an important consideration in maize cultivation. Flowering time is affected by photoperiod and sensitivity to it limits the potential for successful exchange of germplasm across different latitudes. For resolving the genetic basis of photoperiod sensitivity in maize, a set of 207 recombinant inbred lines derived from a temperate and tropical inbred line cross was evaluated for 2 years in a long-day and short-day environment. Genetic linkage maps were constructed using 237 SSR markers with a total length 1,974.3 cM, and an average space between two makers of 8.33 cM. Twenty-nine QTL were detected for the five measured photoperiod sensitivity traits using composite interval mapping and multiple interval mapping. QTL for flowering time, plant height and leaf number, under long-day conditions, were found clustered on chromosome 10, while QTL for short-day conditions resided on chromosome 3. The QTL in the bin 10.04 region of chromosome 10 were detected associated with photoperiod sensitivity and related traits during long days. These results indicated that this region might contain an important photoperiod sensitivity element. PMID:18677461

Wang, C L; Cheng, F F; Sun, Z H; Tang, J H; Wu, L C; Ku, L X; Chen, Y H

2008-08-02

401

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

402

Genetic diversity and trichothecene chemotypes of the Fusarium graminearum clade isolated from maize in Nepal and identification of a putative new lineage.  

PubMed

On smallholder farms in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, fungi of the Fusarium graminearum clade cause Gibberella ear rot of maize and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Previous DNA marker analyses of the F. graminearum clade from maize in Nepal found a high level of genetic diversity but were limited in detail or scope. The present study incorporated a collection of 251 field strains from a wide geographic distribution in Nepal and utilized sequencing of the MAT1-1-3 gene of the mating type locus to determine the number and frequency of lineages and species of the F. graminearum clade. The frequency of nivalenol and deoxynivalenol chemotypes was determined by chemical analysis and by TRI13 deletion-marker analysis. We found that Gibberella ear rot of maize in Nepal is associated with a complex of species of the F. graminearum clade - mainly Fusarium asiaticum and Fusarium meridionale, but also Fusarium boothii and a putative new lineage, which we have designated the 'Nepal lineage'. Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, which dominates in maize elsewhere in Asia and worldwide, was not detected in Nepal. Although nivalenol production has been associated experimentally with lower virulence in maize ear rot and wheat head blight, this collection of the F. graminearum clade from maize in Nepal is dominated (4:1) by nivalenol producers, suggesting that traits other than crop plant pathogenesis affect population structure in this complex agroecosystem. PMID:21215953

Desjardins, Anne E; Proctor, Robert H

2010-10-15

403

Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.  

PubMed

Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification. PMID:14656521

Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

2003-12-15

404

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

405

Global market effects of alternative European responses to genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Market Effects of Alternative European Responses to Genetically Modified Organisms. — Current debates about genetically\\u000a modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture reveal substantial differences in the perception of the associated risks and benefits.\\u000a Genetically modified crop varieties allegedly provide farmers with agronomic benefits, but environmental, health and ethical\\u000a concerns are also being raised. This paper discusses the ways in which

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson

2001-01-01

406

Genetic analysis and characterization of a new maize association mapping panel for quantitative trait loci dissesction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium provides a promising method to identify genes responsible for quantitative variation underlying complex traits. Presented here is a maize association mapping panel consisting of 155 diverse (mainly temperate inbred lines) suitable for marker-trait ...

407

Genetic and molecular analysis of Sn , a light-inducible, tissue specific regulatory gene in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sn locus of maize is functionally similar to the R and B loci, in that Sn differentially controls the tissue-specific deposition of anthocyanin pigments in certain seedling and plant cells. We show that Sn shows molecular similarity to the R gene and have used R DNA probes to characterize several Sn alleles. Northern analysis demonstrates that all Sn alleles

Chiara Tonelli; Gabriella Consonni; Silvana Faccio Dolfini; Stephen L. Dellaporta; Angelo Viotti; Giuseppe Gavazzi

1991-01-01

408

Seed Quality of Maize Inbred Lines with Different Composition and Genetic Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

is one of the most important factors affecting early per- formance and productivity of most agricultural crops. By introgressing exotic germplasm into elite maize in the USA, Exotic germplasm may have seed quality traits that dif- breeders have developed lines with wider variability for seed oil and protein contents than in U.S. adapted lines. Seed quality of these fer from

Miriam Rukero Munamava; A. Susana Goggi; Linda Pollak

2004-01-01

409

Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Relevant to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Our objectives were to measure hybrid effect and combining ability patterns of traits related to cellulosic ethanol production, determine if germplasm and mutations used for silage production would also be beneficial for feedstock production, and examine relationships between traits that are relevant

A. J. Lorenz; J. G. Coors; N. de Leon; E. J. Wolfrum; B. R. Hames; A. D. Sluiter; P. J. Weimer

2009-01-01

410

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2013-06-20

411

Genetically modified mosquito: the Malaysian public engagement experience.  

PubMed

On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control. PMID:23125042

Subramaniam, T S Saraswathy; Lee, Han Lim; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-11-01

412

National Centre for Biotechnology Education Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Following the recent decision of Bayer CropScience to withdraw its herbicide-tolerant fodder maize, Chardon LL, the soonest we are likely to see commercial cultivation of any GM crop in the UK is 2008 . This mini-site examines the history of GM food in the UK. This content is appropriate for teachers or as an extension.

2006-01-01

413

Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the Ga1-S gene region conferring cross-incompatibility in maize.  

PubMed

Cross-incompatibility genes known as gametophyte factors (ga) are numerous in maize. Many popcorn strains carry these genes and cannot be fertilized by pollen of dent and flint maize strains although the reciprocal crosses are successful. A Chinese popcorn strain SDGa25 carries the strongest allele of Ga1 (Ga1-S) and the majority of Chinese dent and flint maize germplasm are incompatible with SDGa25. The incompatibility is due to pollen tube growth obstruction 2 h after pollination. The pollen tube is arrested in the silk segment 5.5 cm distal to the pollination area and never reaches the ovule. The Ga1-S carried by SDGa25 behaves as a single dominant gene. This gene was mapped between markers SD3 on BAC AC200747 0.827 cM apart on the telomere side and SD12 on BAC AC204382 0.709 cM apart on the centromere side. The genetic region mapped spanning the Ga1-S locus was estimated to be 1.5 cM in length and the physical distance is 2,056,343 bp on ctg156 based on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence. Gametophyte factors influence gene flow direction and the strongest Ga1-S allele is useful for isolating one category of commercial varieties from another. The eight tightly linked markers to Ga1-S developed in this study would greatly improve marker-assisted introgression efficiency and the fine mapping would facilitate the isolation of the Ga1-S. PMID:22009288

Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yu'e; Jiang, Chuan; Cui, Dezhou; Liu, Huaihua; Li, Detao; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Ning, Lihua; Ma, Xia; Chen, Huabang

2011-10-19

414

Variations in Maize Pollen Emission and Deposition in Relation to Microclimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-existence of genetically modified (GM) crops with conventional crops has become a subject of debate and inquiry. Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most cultivated crop plants in the world and there is a need to assess the risks of cross-pollination. Concentra- tion and deposition rate downwind from different-sized maize crops were measured during three flowering seasons,

Nathalie Jarosz; Benjamin Loubet; Brigitte Durand; Xavier Foueillassar; Laurent Huber

2005-01-01

415

Prediction of testcross means and variances among F3 progenies of F1 crosses from testcross means and genetic distances of their parents in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the means and genetic variances in segregating generations could help to assess the breeding potential of base\\u000a populations. In this study, we investigated whether the testcross (TC) means and variances of F3 progenies from F1 crosses in European maize can be predicted from the TC means of their parents and F1 crosses and four measures of parental genetic

A. E. Melchinger; R. K. Gumber; R. B. Leipert; M. Vuylsteke; M. Kuiper

1998-01-01

416

A large maize (Zea mays L.) SNP genotyping array: development and germplasm genotyping, and genetic mapping to compare with the B73 reference genome.  

PubMed

SNP genotyping arrays have been useful for many applications that require a large number of molecular markers such as high-density genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection. We report the establishment of a large maize SNP array and its use for diversity analysis and high density linkage mapping. The markers, taken from more than 800,000 SNPs, were selected to be preferentially located in genes and evenly distributed across the genome. The array was tested with a set of maize germplasm including North American and European inbred lines, parent/F1 combinations, and distantly related teosinte material. A total of 49,585 markers, including 33,417 within 17,520 different genes and 16,168 outside genes, were of good quality for genotyping, with an average failure rate of 4% and rates up to 8% in specific germplasm. To demonstrate this array's use in genetic mapping and for the independent validation of the B73 sequence assembly, two intermated maize recombinant inbred line populations - IBM (B73×Mo17) and LHRF (F2×F252) - were genotyped to establish two high density linkage maps with 20,913 and 14,524 markers respectively. 172 mapped markers were absent in the current B73 assembly and their placement can be used for future improvements of the B73 reference sequence. Colinearity of the genetic and physical maps was mostly conserved with some exceptions that suggest errors in the B73 assembly. Five major regions containing non-colinearities were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9, and are supported by both independent genetic maps. Four additional non-colinear regions were found on the LHRF map only; they may be due to a lower density of IBM markers in those regions or to true structural rearrangements between lines. Given the array's high quality, it will be a valuable resource for maize genetics and many aspects of maize breeding. PMID:22174790

Ganal, Martin W; Durstewitz, Gregor; Polley, Andreas; Bérard, Aurélie; Buckler, Edward S; Charcosset, Alain; Clarke, Joseph D; Graner, Eva-Maria; Hansen, Mark; Joets, Johann; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; McMullen, Michael D; Montalent, Pierre; Rose, Mark; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Sun, Qi; Walter, Hildrun; Martin, Olivier C; Falque, Matthieu

2011-12-08

417

Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.  

PubMed Central

The effects of herbicide management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on the abundance and diversity of soil-surface-active invertebrates were assessed. Most effects did not differ between years, environmental zones or initial seedbanks or between sugar and fodder beet. This suggests that the results may be treated as generally applicable to agricultural situations throughout the UK for these crops. The direction of the effects was evenly balanced between increases and decreases in counts in the GMHT compared with the conventional treatment. Most effects involving a greater capture in the GMHT treatments occurred in maize, whereas most effects involving a smaller capture were in beet and spring oilseed rape. Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Counts of carabids that feed on weed seeds were smaller in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape but larger in GMHT maize. In contrast, collembolan detritivore counts were significantly larger under GMHT crop management.

Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Bell, D; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Fairfax, C M; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Hulmes, S E; Mason, N S; Norton, L R; Nuttall, P; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Sands, R J N; Singer, E J; Walker, M J

2003-01-01

418

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred Association Panels1[W  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted joint-linkage quantitative trait locus mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kernel starch, protein, and oil in the maize nested association mapping population, composed of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealed that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21–26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous GWAS associations were detected, including several oil and starch associations in acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2, a gene that regulates oil composition and quantity. Results from nested association mapping were verified in a 282 inbred association panel using both GWAS and candidate gene association approaches. We identified many beneficial alleles that will be useful for improving kernel starch, protein, and oil content.

Cook, Jason P.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Buckler, Edward S.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

2012-01-01

419

Genetic analysis of fumonisin production and virulence of Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (Fusarium moniliforme) on maize (Zea mays) seedlings.  

PubMed Central

The phytopathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium moniliforme) produces fumonisins, which are toxic to a wide range of plant and animal species. Previous studies of field strains have identified a genetic locus, designated fum1, that can determine whether fumonisins are produced. To test the relationship between fumonisin production and virulence on maize seedlings, a cross between a fum1+ field strain that had a high degree of virulence and a fum1- field strain that had a low degree of virulence was made, and ascospore progeny were scored for these traits. Although a range of virulence levels was recovered among the progeny, high levels of virulence were associated with production of fumonisins, and highly virulent, fumonisin-nonproducing progeny were not obtained. A survey of field strains did identify a rare fumonisin-nonproducing strain that was quite high in virulence. Also, the addition of purified fumonisin B1 to virulence assays did not replicate all of the seedling blight symptoms obtained with autoclaved culture material containing fumonisin. These results support the hypothesis that fumonisin plays a role in virulence but also indicate that fumonisin production is not necessary or sufficient for virulence on maize seedlings.

Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D; Nelsen, T C; Leslie, J F

1995-01-01

420

Independent genetic control of maize starch-branching enzymes IIa and IIb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In maize (Zea mays L.) three isoforms of starch-branching enzyme (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb) are involved in the synthesis of amylopectin, the branched component of starch. To isolate a cDNA encoding SBEIIa, degenerate oligonucleotides based on domains highly conserved in Sbe2 family members were used to amplify Sbe2-family cDNA from tissues lacking SBEIIb activity. The predicted amino acid sequence of

Ming Gao; D. K. Fisher; Kyung-Nam Kim; J. C. Shannon; M. J. Guiltinan

1997-01-01

421

Genetic Variation for Starch Thermal and Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):281-286 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in previous < 0.01) inbred by year interaction was present for all DSC parameters studies to detect differences in thermal properties among starches of non- with the exception of AH. Differences were observed in starch viscosities mutant maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. This study was conducted to and gel strengths

M. R. CAMPBELL; L. M. POLLAK; P. J. WHITE

422

Genetic gain and cost efficiency of marker-assisted selection of maize for improved resistance to multiple foliar pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum, gray leaf spot (GLS) caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and maize streak caused by maize streak Mastrevirus (MSV) are the most destructive foliar diseases limiting maize production in sub-Saharan Africa. Most foliar diseases of maize\\u000a are managed using quantitative (partial) resistance, and previous studies have reported quantitative trait loci associated\\u000a with host

Godfrey AseaBindiganavile; Bindiganavile S. Vivek; Patrick E. Lipps; Richard C. Pratt

423

Evaluating the Allergic Risk of Genetically Modified Soybean  

PubMed Central

Genetically modified (GM) soybean (carrying the EPSPS transgene) is the most common GM food in Korea. In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic adults who had been sensitized to soybeans. We enrolled 1,716 adult allergy patients and 40 healthy, non-atopic controls. Skin prick tests and IgE enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed using wild-type and GM soybean extracts, along with other common inhaled allergens. The specificities of serum IgE antibodies from allergic patients and the identities of the IgE-reactive components of the soybean extracts were compared using ELISA inhibition testing, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and IgE immunoblotting. To evaluate the effects of digestive enzymes and heat treatment, the soybean extracts were heated or pre- incubated with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The IgE sensitization rates to wild-type and GM soybeans were identical (3.8% of allergic adults), and circulating IgE antibodies specific for the two extracts were comparable. The results of the ELISA inhibition test, SDS-PAGE, and IgE immunoblotting showed a similar composition of IgE-binding components within the wild-type and GM extracts, which was confirmed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, IgE immunoblotting, and amino acid sequencing. None of the subjects had a positive response to purified EPSPS protein in the skin prick test, ELISA, or IgE immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that the IgE sensitization rate to GM soybean extracts is identical to that of wild-type soybean extracts in adult allergy patients. In addition, based on both in vivo and in vitro methods, the allergenicity of wild type and GM soybean extracts was identical.

Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

2006-01-01

424

Possible Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects in the Plant Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: During the last years, there has been increasing focus on the environmental effects of genetically modified plants, not only hybridization and gene flow, but also effects on insects. A general overview of possible effects of genetically modified plants on insects ,is presented. Insects from different levels of the plant food web ,are included: herbivores (pests and non-pests), pollinators, predators\\/parasitoids

Eline B. Hågvar; Solveig Aasen

425

Introducing Genetically Modified Plants: Now or Later - An Option Value Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using market data, we have estimated the quasi option value of delaying to grow genetically modified corn and soybeans in Europe. We find that the current quasi option value of growing genetically modified soybeans and corn in Europe is high. This makes it likely that for the time being the information value of waiting exceeds the market gains of growing

Eirik Romstad; Live Brimi; Urda Ljorerud

2005-01-01

426

Evaluating the Behavioural Impact of the Australian and New Zealand Genetically Modified Food Labelling Provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a choice experiment that encompassed the labelling options outlined in the Australian and New Zealand government's recently finalized mandatory labelling system for genetically modified foods (GMF's) and foods that contain genetically modified ingredients. The labelling scheme is to be implemented across both countries from December 2001 onwards. Results suggest difficulties ahead for manufacturers and

Terry Macpherson; Zane Kearns; Duncan Hedderley; Simon Sharland

2001-01-01

427

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

428

Multielemental analysis of genetically modified food using ANAA and PIXE techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of two techniques, ANAA and PIXE, used in the analyses of some availa- ble commercial food containing regular and genetically modified ingredients, as well as soybens cultivated with regular and genetically modified seeds (GMS). The aim of this work is determine their elemental composition to perform a comparative analysis. The elemental composition results of both

Ilca Marli; Moitinho Amaral; Cibele Bugno Zamboni Medeiros; Jos ´ e; Agostinho Goncalves de Medeiros; Marcia de Almeida Rizzutto

2005-01-01

429

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

430

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

431

The factualization of uncertainty: Risk, politics, and genetically modified crops – a case of rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandatory risk assessment is intended to reassure concerned citizens and introduce reason into the heated European controversies on genetically modified crops and food. The authors, examining a case of risk assessment of genetically modified oilseed rape, claim that the new European legislation on risk assessment does nothing of the sort and is not likely to present an escape from the

Gitte Meyer; Anna Paldam Folker; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen; Martin Krayer von Krauss; Peter Sandøe; Geir Tveit

2005-01-01

432

An Analysis of McLean County, Illinois Farmers' Perceptions of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLean County, Illinois farmers were surveyed in order to explore and analyze their perceptions of genetically modified crops and their genetically modified cropping decisions. Questionnaires were mailed to 400 randomly selected farmers, and 156 were returned. The 134 respondents who reported that they planned to plant crops in 2003 were asked to provide information about gender, age, education, and number

Nagesh Chimmiri; Kerry W. Tudor; Aslihan D. Spaulding

2005-01-01

433

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

434

A critique of ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops as reported by the Nuffield Bioethics Committee are summarised. A critique of their findings is presented. It is argued that the apparent benefits are outweighed by the ecological, social and economic costs, and that the yields of some genetically modified crops are poorer when compared to conventional species. Furthermore, the current

Ian Moffatt

2000-01-01

435

A Multiplex PCR?Based Assay for the Detection of Genetically Modified Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of nucleotide sequences specific for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in raw and processed food is based on different technological strategies, such as the extraction of DNA and the amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allow to obtain qualitative and quantitative information. We developed a multiplex PCR?based DNA assay for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified

Enrico Dainese; Clotilde Angelucci; Paola De Santis; Mauro Maccarrone; Ivo Cozzani

2004-01-01

436

Evaluating the fate of genetically modified microorganisms in the environment: Are they inherently less fit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified microorganisms hold great promise for environmental applications. Nonetheless, some may have unintended adverse effects. Of particular concern for risk assessment is the simple fact that microorganisms are self-replicating entities, so that it may be impossible to control an adverse effect simply by discontinuing further releases of the organism. It has been suggested, however, that genetically modified microorganisms will

R. E. Lenski

1993-01-01

437

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

438

Assessing the risks of releasing genetically modified virus insecticides: progress to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their speed of kill. Whilst these viruses show considerable promise for improving crop protection, any risks that might be attached to their wide-scale release need to be assessed. The potential hazards of releasing genetically modified baculoviruses are (i) negative effects on susceptible non-target species, and (ii) movement of the introduced gene. One

Jenny S Cory

2000-01-01

439

Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the

Yuyuan Li; Da Xing; Chunsun Zhang

2009-01-01

440

Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: a history of the genetically modified organisms debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and

Ryuma Shineha; Kazuto Kato

2009-01-01

441

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system

M. Miraglia; K. G. Berdal; C. Brera; P. Corbisier; A. Holst-Jensen; E. J. Kok; H. J. P. Marvin; H. Schimmel; J. Rentsch; J. P. P. F. van Rie; J. Zagon

2004-01-01

442

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

443

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

444

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

445

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

446

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

447

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

448

Acceptance of genetically modified foods: The relation between technology and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. De Vries; Gerard van Breukelen; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2008-01-01

449

Quasi-option values for enhanced information regarding genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning the long-term environmental and health risks associated with the production of genetically modified foods remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers values for a precautionary approach to the release of genetically modified crops compares to the opportunity costs of forgoing economic growth associated with the use of these technologies. In this paper, an application of

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2004-01-01

450

Method of detecting genetically modified chicken containing human erythropoietin gene.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) chickens carrying the human erythropoietin (hEpo) gene have been developed to produce recombinant hEpo protein in eggs. However, such animals have not been approved as food sources in Japan. We developed a method for detecting the hEpo gene in chicken meat using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The hEpo gene was clearly detected in genomic DNA extracted from magnum and heart of a chimeric chicken containing the hEpo gene. A plasmid containing the hEpo gene was used as a standard reference molecule as well. The results clearly showed that our method was capable of detecting the hEpo gene contained in the plasmid in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from a raw chicken meat sample. We successfully used this method to test six samples of raw chicken meat and six samples of chicken meat in processed foods. This method will be useful for monitoring chicken meat that might have originated from GM chickens carrying the hEpo gene to assure food safety. PMID:23995657

Nakajima, Osamu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

2013-01-01

451

Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited. PMID:21247941

von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

2011-01-19

452

Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.  

PubMed

Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives. PMID:22430852

Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

2012-01-01

453

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

454

Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the environmental consequences of genetically modified rice. Within the next few years, many types of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) will be ready for commercialization, including varieties with higher yields, greater tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, resistance to herbicides, improved nutritional quality, and novel pharmaceutical proteins. Although rice is primarily self-pollinating, its transgenes are expected to disperse to nearby weedy and wild relatives through pollen-mediated gene flow. Sexually compatible Oryza species often co-occur with the crop, especially in tropical countries, but little is known about how quickly fitness-enhancing transgenes will accumulate in these populations and whether this process will have any unwanted environmental consequences. For example, weedy rice could become much more difficult to manage if it acquires herbicide resistance, produces more seeds, or occurs in a wider range of habitats because of the spread of certain transgenes. Rice-growing countries urgently need publicly available ecological assessments of the risks and benefits of transgenic rice before new varieties are released.

BAO-RONG LU and ALLISON A. SNOW (;)

2005-08-01

455

Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT)-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-\\/- rat and

Judith Homberg; Isaäc J Nijman; Sylvia Kuijpers; Edwin Cuppen

2010-01-01

456

Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are

R. PRIBYLOVA; I. PAVLIK; M. BARTOS

2006-01-01

457

Genetic and molecular characterization of the maize rp3 rust resistance locus.  

PubMed Central

In maize, the Rp3 gene confers resistance to common rust caused by Puccinia sorghi. Flanking marker analysis of rust-susceptible rp3 variants suggested that most of them arose via unequal crossing over, indicating that rp3 is a complex locus like rp1. The PIC13 probe identifies a nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) gene family that maps to the complex. Rp3 variants show losses of PIC13 family members relative to the resistant parents when probed with PIC13, indicating that the Rp3 gene is a member of this family. Gel blots and sequence analysis suggest that at least 9 family members are at the locus in most Rp3-carrying lines and that at least 5 of these are transcribed in the Rp3-A haplotype. The coding regions of 14 family members, isolated from three different Rp3-carrying haplotypes, had DNA sequence identities from 93 to 99%. Partial sequencing of clones of a BAC contig spanning the rp3 locus in the maize inbred line B73 identified five different PIC13 paralogues in a region of approximately 140 kb.

Webb, Craig A; Richter, Todd E; Collins, Nicholas C; Nicolas, Marie; Trick, Harold N; Pryor, Tony; Hulbert, Scot H

2002-01-01

458

Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed Central

Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

2003-01-01

459

Genetic modifiers of MeCP2 function in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The levels of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT) as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins) and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction) abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax), the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself. PMID:18773074

Cukier, Holly N; Perez, Alma M; Collins, Ann L; Zhou, Zhaolan; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Botas, Juan

2008-09-05

460

Transgene x Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.

Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-01-01

461

Definition and feasibility of isolation distances for transgenic maize cultivation.  

PubMed

A major concern related to the adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops in agricultural systems is the possibility of unwanted GM inputs into non-GM crop production systems. Given the increasing commercial cultivation of GM crops in the European Union (EU), there is an urgent need to define measures to prevent mixing of GM with non-GM products during crop production. Cross-fertilization is one of the various mechanisms that could lead to GM-inputs into non-GM crop systems. Isolation distances between GM and non-GM fields are widely accepted to be an effective measure to reduce these inputs. However, the question of adequate isolation distances between GM and non-GM maize is still subject of controversy both amongst scientists and regulators. As several European countries have proposed largely differing isolation distances for maize ranging from 25 to 800 m, there is a need for scientific criteria when using cross-fertilization data of maize to define isolation distances between GM and non-GM maize. We have reviewed existing cross-fertilization studies in maize, established relevant criteria for the evaluation of these studies and applied these criteria to define science-based isolation distances. To keep GM-inputs in the final product well below the 0.9% threshold defined by the EU, isolation distances of 20 m for silage and 50 m for grain maize, respectively, are proposed. An evaluation using statistical data on maize acreage and an aerial photographs assessment of a typical agricultural landscape by means of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) showed that spatial resources would allow applying the defined isolation distances for the cultivation of GM maize in the majority of the cases under actual Swiss agricultural conditions. The here developed approach, using defined criteria to consider the agricultural context of maize cultivation, may be of assistance for the analysis of cross-fertilization data in other countries. PMID:17562214

Sanvido, Olivier; Widmer, Franco; Winzeler, Michael; Streit, Bernhard; Szerencsits, Erich; Bigler, Franz

2007-06-12

462

Exploring the genetic characteristics of two recombinant inbred line populations via high-density SNP markers in maize.  

PubMed

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43-11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08-0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. PMID:23300772

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

2012-12-27

463

Exploring the Genetic Characteristics of Two Recombinant Inbred Line Populations via High-Density SNP Markers in Maize  

PubMed Central

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43–11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08–0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop.

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

2012-01-01

464

[New technology in maize breeding].  

PubMed

Results obtained by several approaches in the application of Biotechnology in maize breeding are reviewed. RFLP technology in the determination of genetic variation; gene transfer by the use of different methods of gene delivery and the determination of gene integration. Three technologies for foreign gene introduction have been applied; injection of plasmid pRT100 neo into archesporial tissue before micro and macro sporogenesis, slightly modified pollen-tube pathway technology and dry seed incubation in plasmid DNA solution. NPTII gene integration was followed by dot-blot and Southern blot analysis of plant DNA of both T1 and T2 plants. Gene expression was analysed by neomycin phosphotransferase activity. Transformed plants contained the selective NPTII gene sequence in an active form. Bacterial gene integration induced several heritable changes of plant phenotype. As an important change, alteration of the flowering time has been used as a criterion for selection and plant propagation to keep transformed progeny. Besides plant genome transformation, endogenous bacteria living in different maize tissue were found. As a perspective approach for biotechnology application in maize breeding biological vaccine construction has been selected. Therefore, antagonistic effect of gram positive bacterial strains to several pathogenic fungi was investigated. Results obtained after in vivo experiments are discussed. PMID:1340483

Konstantinov, K; Mladenovi?, S; Stojkov, S; Deli?, N; Gosi?, S; Petrovi?, R; Levi?, J; Deni?, M

1992-01-01

465

The iojap gene in maize  

SciTech Connect

The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

Martienssen, Robert

2001-12-01

466

Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFN? production from mitogenic stimulated

Maria C. Walsh; Stefan G. Buzoianu; Gillian E. Gardiner; Mary C. Rea; Eva Gelencsér; Anna Jánosi; Michelle M. Epstein; R. Paul Ross; Peadar G. Lawlor

2011-01-01

467

Genetic mapping of maize streak virus resistance from the Mascarene source. II. Resistance in line CIRAD390 and stability across germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streak disease has a major effect on maize in sub-Saharan Africa. Various genetic factors for resistance to the virus\\u000a have been identified and mapped in several populations; these factors derive from different sources of resistance. We have\\u000a focused on the Runion island source and have recently identified several factors in the D211 line. A second very resistant\\u000a line, CIRAD390,

A. Pernet; D. Hoisington; J. Dintinger; D. Jewell; C. Jiang; M. Khairallah; P. Letourmy; J.-L. Marchand; J.-C. Glaszmann; D. González de León

1999-01-01

468

Molecular Genetic Analysis of Maize Starch Branching Isoforms: Modulation of Starch Branching Enzyme Isoform Activities in Maize to Produce Starch with Novel Branching Architecture and Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main long-term objectives of this project were to understand the molecular and biochemical basis for starch biosynthesis and utilization in plants. Towards these goals, this project focused on the Starch Branching Enzymes (SBE) of maize, which are cri...

D. Thompson M. J. Guiltinan

2008-01-01

469

Diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and root interior of field-grown genetically modified Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant roots significantly affect microbial diversity in soil, but little is known on how genetically modified plants influence soil microbial communities. We conducted a 2-year field study to assess the effects of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified canola (oilseed rape, Brassica sp.) on microbial biodiversity in the rhizosphere. During the 1998 and 1999 field seasons, four genetically modified and four conventional canola

Kari E Dunfield; James J Germida

2001-01-01

470

Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract,

John L. Cummings; Levis W. Handley; Bruce Macbryde; Shelagh K. Tupper; Scott J. Werner; Zachary J. Byram

2008-01-01

471

An integrated statistical analysis of the genetic variability of nitrogen metabolism in the ear of three maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

During the grain-filling period of maize, the changes in metabolite content, enzyme activities, and transcript abundance of marker genes of amino acid synthesis and interconversion and carbon metabolism in three lines F2, Io, and B73 have been monitored in the cob and in the kernels. An integrative statistical approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering of physiological and transcript abundance data in the three maize lines was performed to determine if it was possible to link the expression of a physiological trait and a molecular biomarker to grain yield and its components. In this study, it was confirmed that, in maize, there was a genetic and organ-specific control of the main steps of nitrogen (N) and carbon metabolism in reproductive sink organs during the grain-filling period. PCA analysis allowed the identification of groups of physiological and molecular markers linked to either a genotype, an organ or to both biological parameters. A hierarchical clustering analysis was then performed to identify correlative relationships existing between these markers and agronomic traits related to yield. Such a clustering approach provided new information on putative marker traits that could be used to improve yield in a given genetic background. This can be achieved using either genetic manipulation or breeding to increase transcript abundance for the genes encoding the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine amino transferase (AlaAT), aspartate amino transferase (AspAT), and ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS). PMID:21112957

Cañas, Rafael A; Amiour, Nardjis; Quilleré, Isabelle; Hirel, Bertrand

2010-11-26

472

Dent corn genetic background influences QTL detection for grain yield and yield components in high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-recognized importance of grain yield in high-oil maize (Zea mays L.) breeding and production, few studies have reported the application of QTL mapping of such traits. An inbred line of high-oil\\u000a maize designated ‘GY220’ was crossed with two dent maize inbred lines to generate two connected F2:3 populations with 284 and 265 F2:3 families. Our main objective was

Y. L. Li; X. H. Li; J. Z. Li; J. F. Fu; Y. Z. Wang; M. G. Wei

2009-01-01

473

Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.  

PubMed

Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed. PMID:21424096

Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

2011-01-01

474

In vivo characterization of skeletal phenotype of genetically modified mice.  

PubMed

Genetically modified mouse models provide an important tool for understanding of the roles of specific gene in skeletal growth, development, and aging. Appropriate study design is essential for characterization of skeletal phenotype of these mice. It is important to characterize the bone status of the different phases of skeletal development including the early rapid growth, attainment of peak bone mass, and age-related bone loss phases. In C57BL/6 strain mice, cancellous and cortical bone mass rapidly increases with age before 3 months of age, and reaches the peak cancellous bone mass at approximately 6-8 months of age, while cortical bone mass continuously increases until 12 months of age. Thereafter, age-related decrease in bone mass occurs. According to these observations, at least three different age groups need to be evaluated for bone status to cover the different phases of the life span: 1-3 months of age for rapid growth, 6-9 months for peak bone mass, and >12 months for aged phases. Furthermore, bone resorption and formation activities on all bone surfaces (periosteal, endocortical, intracortical, and cancellous) need to be evaluated. In this article, we briefly summarize our findings in the estrogen receptor-beta knockout (BERKO) and the P2X7 receptor (an ATP-gated ion channel) knockout mice. In BERKO female mice, bone status at 6, 13, and 21 months of ages was evaluated as compared with the wild-type littermate controls. We found that estrogen receptor-beta plays an inhibitory role in periosteal bone formation and longitudinal and radial growth during the growth period, whereas it plays a role in stimulation of bone resorption, bone turnover, and bone loss on cancellous and endocortical bone surfaces during the aging process. We also found that ER-beta knockout improves the survival rate between 6 and 21 months of age. In P2X7R knockout mice, bone status at 2, 5, 9, and 15 months of age was evaluated for both sexes as compared with their wild-type littermate controls. We found that P2X7R plays a role in stimulating periosteal and cancellous bone formation and inhibiting cancellous bone resorption during the growth period. PMID:15984421

Ke, Hua Zhu

2005-01-01