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1

Identity Preservation Systems for Genetically Modified Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of benefits to growers, processors, consumers and the environment, genetically modified (GM) potatoes were a market\\u000a failure in North America. Contributing to the failure was the lack of an identity preservation (IP) system that could have\\u000a prevented unapproved GM potato products from entering export markets. We interviewed 26 industry experts to identify recommended\\u000a practices for GM potato IP

Elliot A. Toevs; Joseph F. Guenthner; Aaron J. Johnson; Christopher S. McIntosh; Michael K. Thornton

2

Persistence of Genetically Modified Potatoes in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteers from genetically modified (GM) potatoes may pose an environmental problem if allowed to grow in the field after\\u000a the annual crop is harvested. We tested whether they are more likely to produce volunteers than non-GM potatoes. Specifically,\\u000a we compared the number of volunteers, number of tubers per plant, tuber size, and their vertical distribution in the soil.\\u000a More volunteer

Chang-Gi Kim; Do Young Kim; Ye Seul Moon; Hyo-Jeong Kim; Dae In Kim; Young Jin Chun; Kee Woong Park; Soon Chun Jeong; Soo Young Kim; Hwan Mook Kim

2010-01-01

3

New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes.  

PubMed

In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study. PMID:15340215

Watanabe, Takahiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Kasama, Kikuko; Toyota, Akie; Nouno, Masanori; Saita, Ayako; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Kubo, Misao

2004-09-01

4

[A detection method for recombinant DNA from genetically modified potato (NewLeaf Y potato)].  

PubMed

A detection method using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect genetically modified (GM) potato (NewLeaf Y potato; NL-Y), of which the mandatory assessment has not yet been completed in Japan. The potato sucrose synthase gene was used as an internal control. We designed a primer pair to specifically detect NL-Y without false-positive results in processed potato foods infected with the potato virus Y (PVY). The DNA introduced into NL-Y using the primer pair could be detected from potato powder samples containing 0.05% NL-Y. In addition, we designed primer pairs for recognizing the CryIIIA gene to detect the NewLeaf potato (NL), NewLeaf Plus potato (NL-P) and NL-Y and for recognizing p-FMV in order to detect NL-P and NL-Y. The proposed method was applied to the detection of NL-Y in 26 processed potato foods and NL-Y was not detected in any samples. PMID:12607929

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Wakui, Chiseko; Chiba, Yoshiko; Shibuya, Masaaki; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake

2002-10-01

5

Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are

R. PRIBYLOVA; I. PAVLIK; M. BARTOS

2006-01-01

6

Microbial and nematode communities associated with potatoes genetically modified to express the antimicrobial peptide magainin and unmodified potato cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial peptide magainin II has activity against a range of micro-organisms. Tubers harvested from potatoes genetically modified (GM) to express a synthetic magainin gene show improved resistance to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. The microbial and nematode communities associated with three magainin-expressing potato lines, their near-isogenic, unmodified parental cultivar (Iwa) and an unrelated cultivar (Karaka) were investigated on field-grown

Maureen O’Callaghan; Emily M. Gerard; Nigel L. Bell; Nick W. Waipara; Lee T. Aalders; David B. Baird; Anthony J. Conner

2008-01-01

7

Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However,\\u000a zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding\\u000a or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk\\u000a of age-related macular degeneration.

Achim Bub; Jutta Möseneder; Gerhard Wenzel; Gerhard Rechkemmer; Karlis Briviba

2008-01-01

8

Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.  

PubMed

Diets containing genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing the lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had variable effects on different parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Some effects, such as the proliferation of the gastric mucosa, were mainly due to the expression of the GNA transgene. However, other parts of the construct or the genetic transformation (or both) could also have contributed to the overall biological effects of the GNA-GM potatoes, particularly on the small intestine and caecum. PMID:10533866

Ewen, S W; Pusztai, A

1999-10-16

9

Rhizosphere Communities of Genetically Modified Zeaxanthin-Accumulating Potato Plants and Their Parent Cultivar Differ Less than Those of Different Potato Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 19 February 2009\\/Accepted 10 April 2009 The effects of genetically modified (GM), zeaxanthin-accumulating potato plants on microbial communities in the rhizosphere were compared to the effects of different potato cultivars. Two GM lines and their parental cultivar, as well as four other potato cultivars, were grown in randomized field plots at two sites and in different years. Rhizosphere samples

Nicole Weinert; Remo Meincke; Christine Gottwald; Holger Heuer; Newton C. M. Gomes; Michael Schloter; Gabriele Berg; Kornelia Smalla

2009-01-01

10

Evaluation of the sensitization rates and identification of IgE-binding components in wild and genetically modified potatoes in patients with allergic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The potato is one of the most common types of genetically modified (GM) food. However, there are no published data evaluating the impact of genetic manipulations on the allergenicity of GM potatoes. To compare the allergenicity of GM potatoes with that of wild-type potatoes using in vivo and in vitro methods in adult allergy patients sensitized to potatoes. METHODS:

Soo-Keol Lee; Young-Min Ye; Sung-Ho Yoon; Bou-Oung Lee; Seung-Hyun Kim; Hae-Sim Park

2006-01-01

11

Qualitative and quantitative PCR methods for detection of three lines of genetically modified potatoes.  

PubMed

Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been developed for the detection of genetically modified (GM) potatoes. The combination of specific primers for amplification of the promoter region of Cry3A gene, potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and potato virus Y coat protein gene allows to identify each line of NewLeaf, NewLeaf Y, and NewLeaf Plus GM potatoes. Multiplex PCR method was also established for the simple and rapid detection of the three lines of GM potato in a mixture sample. For further quantitative detection, the realtime PCR method has been developed. This method features the use of a standard plasmid as a reference molecule. Standard plasmid contains both a specific region of the transgene Cry3A and an endogenous UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene of the potato. The test samples containing 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% GM potatoes were quantified by this method. At the 3.0% level of each line of GM potato, the relative standard deviations ranged from 6.0 to 19.6%. This result shows that the above PCR methods are applicable to detect GM potatoes quantitatively as well as qualitatively. PMID:15161181

Rho, Jae Kyun; Lee, Theresa; Jung, Soon-Il; Kim, Tae-San; Park, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mi

2004-06-01

12

Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome \\

Gareth S. Catchpole; Manfred Beckmann; David P. Enot; Madhav Mondhe; Britta Zywicki; Janet Taylor; Nigel Hardy; Aileen Smith; Ross D. King; Douglas B. Kell; Oliver Fiehn; John Draper

2005-01-01

13

[A detection method of recombinant DNA from genetically modified potato (NewLeaf Plus potato) and detection of NewLeaf Plus potato in snack].  

PubMed

A detection method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) potato (NewLeaf Plus potato; NL-P), which has not been authorized as safe in foods in Japan. The potato sucrose synthase gene was used as an internal control. The DNA from NL-P specifically provided an amplified band using PCR with a primer pair recognizing PLRV-rep gene. In addition, to prevent false-positive results in processed potato foods infected with PLRV, we designed a primer pair recognizing sequences derived from two organisms to detect specifically NL-P in processed potato. The PCR product obtained using the designed primer pair was specific for NL-P. The DNA introduced into NL-P could be detected from potato powder samples containing 0.05% NL-P. The proposed method was applied to the detection of NL-P in 25 processed potato foods. NL-P was detected in 3 snack products. PMID:11998315

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kazue; Matsumoto, Misao; Isuzugawa, Kazuto; Shibuya, Masaaki; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake

2002-02-01

14

An oligonucleotide array to detect genetically modified events in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

For rapid and simultaneous detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified (GM) food crops, we explored DNA array\\u000a technology. Forty-four oligonucleotide 23-to 31-mers were selected to use in an array on the basis of melting temperature\\u000a and sequence specificity. Selected oligonucleotides consisted of DNA fragments corresponding to structural and regulatory\\u000a elements and selectable markers used in developing transgenic crops, such

Malliga M. Nagarajan; Solke H. De Boer

2003-01-01

15

Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.  

PubMed

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

2005-12-10

16

Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops.  

PubMed

There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome "fingerprinting" to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

2005-10-01

17

Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.  

PubMed

Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products. PMID:12537422

Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

2003-01-29

18

General surveillance – Cultivation of genetically modified starch potatoes in a closed-loop system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The objective of general surveillance is to identify unforeseen adverse effects of the genetically modified (GM) plant or\\u000a its use on human health or the environment, which were not anticipated in the environmental risk assessment. Methods and approaches\\u000a proposed for the general surveillance of a GM starch potato to be cultivated within a closed-loop system will be presented.\\u000a This system,

C. Wandelt

2006-01-01

19

Structural characteristics and plant-beneficial effects of bacteria colonizing the shoots of field grown conventional and genetically modified T4-lysozyme producing potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial protein T4 lysozyme may offer effective control strategies for bacterial pathogens causing severe potato diseases. Apart from this beneficial effect, it is very important to investigate such engineered potatoes carefully for potential adverse effects on potato-associated bacteria which frequently exhibit plant beneficial functions such as plant growth promotion and antagonism towards pathogens invading the plant.

Frank Rasche; Ester Marco-Noales; Henk Velvis; Leo S. van Overbeek; María M. López; Jan D. van Elsas; Angela Sessitsch

2006-01-01

20

A PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified potatoes by the gene ac 2 from Amaranthus caudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms have become a part of our everyday life. New modifications arise every year. The most of papers is focused on publication of detection protocols for genetically modified corn, soyabean, rape, or cotton. Minor modification, such as in potatoes attracts little attention. This work is based on developing an easy and cheap PCR method for the detection of

Radka Pribylova; Ivo Pavlik; Zdenka Rozsypalova; Milan Bartos

2006-01-01

21

Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.  

PubMed

The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Hĺkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

2007-06-13

22

Comparison of tuber proteomes of potato varieties, landraces, and genetically modified lines.  

PubMed

Crop improvement by genetic modification remains controversial, one of the major issues being the potential for unintended effects. Comparative safety assessment includes targeted analysis of key nutrients and antinutritional factors, but broader scale-profiling or "omics" methods could increase the chances of detecting unintended effects. Comparative assessment should consider the extent of natural variation and not simply compare genetically modified (GM) lines and parental controls. In this study, potato (Solanum tuberosum) proteome diversity has been assessed using a range of diverse non-GM germplasm. In addition, a selection of GM potato lines was compared to assess the potential for unintended differences in protein profiles. Clear qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the protein patterns of the varieties and landraces examined, with 1,077 of 1,111 protein spots analyzed showing statistically significant differences. The diploid species Solanum phureja could be clearly differentiated from tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) genotypes. Many of the proteins apparently contributing to genotype differentiation are involved in disease and defense responses, the glycolytic pathway, and sugar metabolism or protein targeting/storage. Only nine proteins out of 730 showed significant differences between GM lines and their controls. There was much less variation between GM lines and their non-GM controls compared with that found between different varieties and landraces. A number of proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and added to a potato tuber two-dimensional protein map. PMID:15951487

Lehesranta, Satu J; Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Nunan, Naoise; McNicol, Jim W; Auriola, Seppo; Koistinen, Kaisa M; Suomalainen, Soile; Kokko, Harri I; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O

2005-07-01

23

Comparison of Tuber Proteomes of Potato Varieties, Landraces, and Genetically Modified Lines1  

PubMed Central

Crop improvement by genetic modification remains controversial, one of the major issues being the potential for unintended effects. Comparative safety assessment includes targeted analysis of key nutrients and antinutritional factors, but broader scale-profiling or “omics” methods could increase the chances of detecting unintended effects. Comparative assessment should consider the extent of natural variation and not simply compare genetically modified (GM) lines and parental controls. In this study, potato (Solanum tuberosum) proteome diversity has been assessed using a range of diverse non-GM germplasm. In addition, a selection of GM potato lines was compared to assess the potential for unintended differences in protein profiles. Clear qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the protein patterns of the varieties and landraces examined, with 1,077 of 1,111 protein spots analyzed showing statistically significant differences. The diploid species Solanum phureja could be clearly differentiated from tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) genotypes. Many of the proteins apparently contributing to genotype differentiation are involved in disease and defense responses, the glycolytic pathway, and sugar metabolism or protein targeting/storage. Only nine proteins out of 730 showed significant differences between GM lines and their controls. There was much less variation between GM lines and their non-GM controls compared with that found between different varieties and landraces. A number of proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and added to a potato tuber two-dimensional protein map.

Lehesranta, Satu J.; Davies, Howard V.; Shepherd, Louise V.T.; Nunan, Naoise; McNicol, Jim W.; Auriola, Seppo; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Suomalainen, Soile; Kokko, Harri I.; Karenlampi, Sirpa O.

2005-01-01

24

Identification of genetically modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars using event specific polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Several genetically modified (GM) cultivars are registered in Canada although they are not currently in commercial production. The GM cultivars can be distinguished from the non-GM and other GM cultivars by analyzing the DNA nucleotide sequence at the insertion site of the transgene corresponding to a single transformation event in the plant genome. Techniques based on modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies were used to generate sequence information from the plant genome flanking the insertion site of transgenic DNA for specific GM potato events. The plant genome sequence adjacent to the transgenic insertion was used to design PCR primers, which could be used in combination with a primer annealing to one of the nearby inserted genetic elements to amplify an event specific DNA fragment. The event specific PCR fragments generated were sequenced to confirm the specificity of the method. PMID:16104786

Côté, Marie-José; Meldrum, Allison J; Raymond, Philippe; Dollard, Cheryl

2005-08-24

25

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foreign-made processed foods containing corn and potato.  

PubMed

Investigations of the validity of labeling regarding genetically modified (GM) products were conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for foreign-made processed foods made from corn and potato purchased in the Tokyo area and in the USA. Several kinds of GM crops were detected in 12 of 32 samples of processed corn samples. More than two GM events for which safety reviews have been completed in Japan were simultaneously detected in 10 samples. GM events MON810 and Bt11 were most frequently detected in the samples by qualitative PCR methods. MON810 was detected in 11 of the 12 samples, and Bt11 was detected in 6 of the 12 samples. In addition, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one of the 12 samples. On the other hand, CBH351, for which the safety assessment was withdrawn in Japan, was not detected in any of the 12 samples. A trial quantitative analysis was performed on six of the GM maize qualitatively positive samples. The estimated amounts of GM maize in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.8%, except for one sample, which contained 24.1%. For this sample, the total amount found by event-specific quantitative analysis was 23.8%. Additionally, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one sample of 21 potato-processed foods, although GM potatoes were not detected in any sample. PMID:16042293

Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Sagi, Naoki; Satoh, Masaki; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Satoh, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

2005-06-01

26

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in

Frederick J. Perlak; Terry B. Stone; Yvonne M. Muskopf; Lisa J. Petersen; Gregory B. Parker; Sylvia A. McPherson; Jeff Wyman; Stephen Love; Gary Reed; Duane Biever; David A. Fischhoff

1993-01-01

27

Different Selective Effects on Rhizosphere Bacteria Exerted by Genetically Modified versus Conventional Potato Lines  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we assessed the actively metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of potato using two potato cultivars, i.e. the genetically-modified (GM) cultivar Modena (having tubers with altered starch content) and the near-isogenic non-GM cultivar Karnico. To achieve our aims, we pulse-labelled plants at EC90 stage with 13C-CO2 and analysed their rhizosphere microbial communities 24 h, 5 and 12 days following the pulse. In the analyses, phospholipid fatty acid/stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) as well as RNA-SIP followed by reverse transcription and PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis, were used to determine the bacterial groups that actively respond to the root-released 13C labelled carbonaceous compounds. Methodology/Principal findings The PLFA-SIP data revealed major roles of bacteria in the uptake of root-released 13C carbon, which grossly increased with time. Gram-negative bacteria, including members of the genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, were strong accumulators of the 13C-labeled compounds at the two cultivars, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were lesser responders. PCR-DGGE analysis of cDNA produced from the two cultivar types showed that these had selected different bacterial, alpha- and betaproteobacterial communities at all time points. Moreover, an effect of time was observed, indicating dynamism in the structure of the active bacterial communities. PCR-DGGE as well as clone library analyses revealed that the main bacterial responders at cultivar Karnico were taxonomically affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, next to Gluconacetobacter and Paracoccus. Cultivar Modena mainly attracted Burkholderia, next to Moraxella-like (Moraxellaceae family) and Sphingomonas types. Conclusions/Significance Based on the use of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia as proxies for differentially-selected bacterial genera, we conclude that the selective forces exerted by potato cultivar Modena on the active bacterial populations differed from those exerted by cultivar Karnico.

Hannula, Silja Emilia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Salles, Joana Falcao; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2013-01-01

28

Multitrophic interactions involving genetically modified potatoes, nontarget aphids, natural enemies and hyperparasitoids.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) have been developed as an option for the management of plant parasitic nematodes. The relative impact of such plants on predators and parasitoids (natural enemies) of nontarget insects was determined in a field trial. The trial consisted of GM plants, control plants grown in soil treated with a nematicide and untreated control plants. The quantity of nontarget aphids and their quality as hosts for natural enemies were studied. Aphid density was significantly reduced by nematicide treatment and few natural enemies were recorded from treated potatoes during the study. In contrast, similar numbers of aphids and their more abundant predators were recorded from the untreated control and the GM potatoes. The size of aphids on GM and control plants was recorded twice during the study. During the first sampling period (2-9 July) aphids clip-caged on GM plants were smaller than those on control plants. During the second sampling period (23-30 July) there was no difference in aphid size between those from the GM and control plants. Host size is an important component of host quality. It can affect the size and fecundity of parasitoid females and the sex ratio of their offspring. However, neither the fitness of females of Aphidius ervi, the most prevalent primary parasitoid, nor the sex ratio of their progeny, were affected when the parasitoids developed on aphids feeding on GM plants. Two guilds of secondary parasitoid were also recorded during the study. The fitness of the most abundant species, Aspahes vulgaris, was not affected when it developed on hosts from GM plants. The transgene product, OC I Delta D86, was not detected in aphids that had fed on GM plants in the field, suggesting that there is minimal secondary exposure of natural enemies to the inhibitor. The results indicate that transgenic nematode resistance is potentially more compatible with aphid biological control than is current nematicide use. PMID:14871367

Cowgill, S E; Danks, C; Atkinson, H J

2004-03-01

29

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is one of the world’s principal food crops. Important potato insect pests include Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), and aphids, especially as they transmit potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of\\u000a potato relies almost entirely on chemical insecticides. Potato breeding is complicated by the potato’s

Edward J. Grafius; David S. Douches

30

Effects of genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato plants on the abundance of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the potential effects of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) on plant beneficial bacteria and fungi as well as on phytopathogens in the rhizosphere were investigated in a greenhouse\\u000a experiment and a field trial. For comparison, the non-transgenic parental cultivar of the GM line and a second non-transgenic\\u000a cultivar were included in the

Silvia Gschwendtner; Michael Reichmann; Martin Müller; Viviane Radl; Jean Charles Munch; Michael Schloter

2010-01-01

31

Rhizosphere communities of genetically modified zeaxanthin-accumulating potato plants and their parent cultivar differ less than those of different potato cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of genetically modified (GM), zeaxanthin-accumulating potato plants on microbial communities in the rhizosphere were compared to the effects of different potato cultivars. Two GM lines and their parental cultivar, as well as four other potato cultivars, were grown in randomized field plots at two sites and in different years. Rhizosphere samples were taken at three developmental stages during plant growth and analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, Bacillus, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonas, gacA, Fungi, and Ascomycetes. In the bacterial DGGE gels analyzed, significant differences between the parental cultivar and the two GM lines were detected mainly for Actinobacteria but also for Betaproteobacteria and Streptomycetaceae, yet these differences occurred only at one site and in one year. Significant differences occurred more frequently for Fungi, especially Ascomycetes, than for bacteria. When all seven plant genotypes were compared, DGGE analysis revealed that different cultivars had a greater effect on both bacterial and fungal communities than genetic modification. The effects of genetic modification were detected mostly at the senescence developmental stage of the plants. The site was the overriding factor affecting microbial community structure compared to the plant genotype. In general, the fingerprints of the two GM lines were more similar to that of the parental cultivar, and the differences observed did not exceed natural cultivar-dependent variability. PMID:19376893

Weinert, Nicole; Meincke, Remo; Gottwald, Christine; Heuer, Holger; Gomes, Newton C M; Schloter, Michael; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

2009-06-01

32

Quality and safety evaluation of genetically modified potatoes spunta with Cry V gene: compositional analysis, determination of some toxins, antinutrients compounds and feeding study in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition, nutritional and toxicology safety of GM potato Spunta lines compared to that of conventional potato Spunta. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 14 components, total solid, protein, lipid, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, starch, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. Some toxins and anti-nutrients compounds were determined. Feeding study of GM potatoes line (G2 and G3) in rats were done for 30 days. Four groups of albino rats were used for studying the effect and the safety assessment of GM potatoes Spunta G2 and G3. Group (I) was fed on control basal diet, group (II) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried nongenetically modified potato Spunta, group (III) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta, and group (IV) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta GMO G3. There were no significant differences between GM potatoes G2, G3, and Spunta control potato line in the proximate chemical composition. The levels of glycoalkaloids in transgenic potato tubers and nontransgenic were determined and there were also no significant differences between the GM potatoes and conventional potato line, the levels were in agreement with a safety level recommended by FAO/WHO (200 mg/ kg) for acute toxicity. Protease inhibitor activity and total phenol were estimated and no significant differences between the GM potatoes line and conventional potato Spunta line were found. During the period tested, rats in each group (I, II, III, IV) grew well without marked differences in appearance. No statistical difference were found in food intake, daily body weight gain and feed efficiency. But there is a slightly significant difference in finally body weight between the control group and experimental groups. No significant difference were found in serum biochemical value between each groups, and also between relative organs weight (liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testes). From these results, it can be concluded that the GM potatoes Spunta line (G2 and G3) with Cry V gene are confirmed to have nearly the composition and biochemical characteristics as non-GM potato Spunta. PMID:15053345

El Sanhoty, Rafaat; El-Rahman, Ahamed Ali Abd; Bögl, Klaus Werner

2004-02-01

33

Effects of genetically modified potatoes with increased zeaxanthin content on the abundance and diversity of rhizobacteria with in vitro antagonistic activity do not exceed natural variability among cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess potential effects of genetically modified (GM) potatoes on the abundance and diversity of rhizobacteria with in\\u000a vitro antagonistic activity in relation to natural variability among cultivars, two GM potato lines accumulating the carotenoid\\u000a zeaxanthin in their tubers, the parental cultivar and four additional commercial cultivars were planted at two field sites\\u000a in Germany. Rhizosphere samples were taken at

Nicole Weinert; Remo Meincke; Christine Gottwald; Viviane Radl; Xia Dong; Michael Schloter; Gabriele Berg; Kornelia Smalla

2010-01-01

34

Comparison of Tuber Proteomes of Potato Varieties, Landraces, and Genetically Modified Lines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement by genetic modification remains controversial, one of the major issues being the potential for unintended effects. Comparative safety assessment includes targeted analysis of key nutrients and antinutritional factors, but broader scale-profiling or ''omics'' methods could increase the chances of detecting unintended effects. Comparative assessment should consider the extent of natural variation and not simply compare genetically modified (GM)

Satu J. Lehesranta; Howard V. Davies; Louise V. T. Shepherd; Naoise Nunan; Jim W. McNicol; Seppo Auriola; Kaisa M. Koistinen; Soile Suomalainen; Harri I. Kokko; Sirpa O. Karenlampi

35

Metabolic profiles of genetically modified potatoes using a combination of metabolite fingerprinting and multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive metabolite fingerprinting of transgenic potatoes that constitutively express human beta amyloid, curdlan synthase\\u000a (CRDS), and glycogen synthase (glgA); and of wild-type potatoes was carried out using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analyses. Comparison of metabolic patterns between transgenic and wild-type\\u000a potatoes revealed that there were neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in metabolites between transgenic potatoes

Hyun Soon Kim; Suk Weon Kim; Young Seok Park; Suk Youn Kwon; Jang Ryol Liu; Hyouk Joung; Jae Heung Jeon

2009-01-01

36

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

37

Chapter 7 The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is one of the world's principal food crops. Important potato insect pests include Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), and aphids, especially as they transmit potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of potato relies almost entirely on chemical insecticides. Potato breeding is complicated by the potato's

Edward J. Grafius; David S. Douches

38

13C pulse-labeling assessment of fungal community structure and activity in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato cultivar and its parental isoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP).\\u000a •\\u000a The microbes receiving 13C from the plant were assessed through RNA\\/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP)

S. E. Hannula; H. T. S. Boschker; W. De Boer; J. A. Van Veen

2012-01-01

39

Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted compositional analysis was carried out on transgenic potato tubers of either cultivar (cv.) Record or cv. Desirée\\u000a to assess the potential for unintended effects caused by the genetic modification process. The range of transgenic lines analysed\\u000a included those modified in primary carbohydrate metabolism, polyamine biosynthesis and glycoprotein processing. Controls included\\u000a wildtype tubers, tubers produced from plants regenerated through tissue

Louise V. T. Shepherd; James W. McNicol; Ruth Razzo; Mark A. Taylor; Howard V. Davies

2006-01-01

40

Potato plants genetically modified to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones increase susceptibility to soft rot erwiniae.  

PubMed

Many gram-negative bacteria employ N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) to regulate diverse physiological processes in concert with cell population density (quorum sensing [QS]). In the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora, the AHL synthesized via the carI/expI genes are responsible for regulating the production of secreted plant cell wall-degrading exoenzymes and the antibiotic carbapen-3-em carboxylic acid. We have previously shown that targeting the product of an AHL synthase gene (yenI) from Yersinia enterocolitica to the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco plants caused the synthesis in planta of the cognate AHL signaling molecules N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL), which in turn, were able to complement a carI-QS mutant. In the present study, we demonstrate that transgenic potato plants containing the yenI gene are also able to express AHL and that the presence and level of these AHL in the plant increases susceptibility to infection by E. carotovora. Susceptibility is further affected by both the bacterial level and the plant tissue under investigation. PMID:15305609

Toth, I K; Newton, J A; Hyman, L J; Lees, A K; Daykin, M; Ortori, C; Williams, P; Fray, R G

2004-08-01

41

[Laboratory-performance study of the notified methods to detect genetically modified maize (CBH351) and potato (NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y)].  

PubMed

To investigate the key factors affecting the reliability of the analytical results, a laboratory-performance study was attempted for the notified methods to detect genetically modified (GM) maize (CBH351) and GM potato (NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y). The test samples were designed as three pairs of blind duplicates, which included 0%, 0.1% and 1.0% GM maize (CBH351) or GM potato (NewLeaf Plus or NewLeaf Y). Fourteen laboratories participated in the study. The test samples were sent to the participating laboratories along with the protocol. The data were collected from all laboratories and statistically analyzed. For the 0% sample of the CBH351 maize, one laboratory reported a false-positive result. It was considered that contamination could have occurred via the common use of equipment or tools for the test. For the 0.1% samples of the NewLeaf Plus potato or NewLeaf Y potato, on the other hand, three laboratories reported false-negative results. It was presumed that these results were due to changes of the conditions of the electrophoresis and agarose-gel staining. The other laboratories reported appropriate results. It was considered that the method employed in this study was suitable for the assessment of laboratory performance. PMID:15038109

Watanabe, Takahiro; Kasama, Kikuko; Wakui, Chiseko; Shibuya, Masaaki; Matsuki, Akihiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio

2003-12-01

42

Effects of genetically modified starch metabolism in potato plants on photosynthate fluxes into the rhizosphere and on microbial degraders of root exudates.  

PubMed

A high percentage of photosynthetically assimilated carbon is released into soil via root exudates, which are acknowledged as the most important factor for the development of microbial rhizosphere communities. As quality and quantity of root exudates are dependent on plant genotype, the genetic engineering of plants might also influence carbon partitioning within the plant and thus microbial rhizosphere community structure. In this study, the carbon allocation patterns within the plant-rhizosphere system of a genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) were linked to microbial degraders of root exudates under greenhouse conditions, using (13)C-CO(2) pulse-chase labelling in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, GM plants were compared with the parental cultivar as well as a second potato cultivar obtained by classical breeding. Rhizosphere samples were obtained during young leaf developmental and flowering stages. (13)C allocation in aboveground plant biomass, water-extractable organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and PLFA as well as the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied significantly between the natural potato cultivars. However, no differences between the GM line and its parental cultivar were observed. Besides the considerable impact of plant cultivar, the plant developmental stage affected carbon partitioning via the plant into the rhizosphere and, subsequently, microbial communities involved in the transformation of root exudates. PMID:21348886

Gschwendtner, Silvia; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Reichmann, Michael; Müller, Martin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

2011-06-01

43

Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients.  

PubMed

Targeted compositional analysis was carried out on transgenic potato tubers of either cultivar (cv.) Record or cv. Desirée to assess the potential for unintended effects caused by the genetic modification process. The range of transgenic lines analysed included those modified in primary carbohydrate metabolism, polyamine biosynthesis and glycoprotein processing. Controls included wildtype tubers, tubers produced from plants regenerated through tissue culture (including a callus phase) and tubers derived from transformation with the 'empty vector' i.e. no specific target gene included (with the exception of the kanamycin resistance gene as a selectable marker). Metabolite analysis included soluble carbohydrates, glycoalkaloids, vitamin C, total nitrogen and fatty acids. Trypsin inhibitor activity was also assayed. These cover the major compounds recommended by the OECD in their Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of Potatoes: Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-Nutrients and Toxicants (2002). Data was statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for individual compounds and, where applicable, principal component analysis (PCA). In general, targeted compositional analysis revealed no consistent differences between GM lines and respective controls. No construct specifically induced unintended effects. Statistically significant differences between wildtype controls and specific GM lines did occur but appeared to be random and not associated with any specific construct. Indeed such significant differences were also found between wildtypes and both tissue culture derived tubers and tubers derived from transformation with the empty vector. This raises the possibility that somaclonal variation (known to occur significantly in potato, depending on genotype) may be responsible for an unknown proportion of any differences observed between specific GM lines and the wildtype. The most obvious differences seen in GC-MS profiles were between the two potato varieties used in the study. PMID:16906442

Shepherd, Louise V T; McNicol, James W; Razzo, Ruth; Taylor, Mark A; Davies, Howard V

2006-08-01

44

In situ dynamics of soil fungal communities under different genotypes of potato, including a genetically modified cultivar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi are key to the functioning of soil ecosystems, and exhibit a range of interactions with plants. Given their close associations with plants, and importance in ecosystem functioning, soil-borne fungi have been proposed as potential biological indicators of disturbance and useful agents in monitoring strategies, including those following the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. Here we report on the

S. E. Hannula; W. de Boer; J. A. van Veen

2010-01-01

45

Genetic stability of transgenic potato expressing cry1Aa7 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is seriously infested with potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller). Accordingly, genetically modified (GM) potato (cv. Desiree) expressing cry1Aa7 gene from a local Bacillus thuringiensis isolate (Bt-C12) was previously generated and analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bt-transgenic potato lines D8, D9, D26, D27 and D37 at cytological, morphological and molecular

E. A. Metry; M. A. Ibrahim; S. A. Moustafa; T. M. Nasr El-din

46

Validation of ST-LS1 as an Endogenous Reference Gene for Detection of AmA1 and cry1Ab Genes in Genetically Modified Potatoes using Multiplex and Real Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum tuberosum L. belonging to family Solanaceae being the most important tuberous vegetable crop, the development of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) potato with improved traits is the need of the hour. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays are being widely used in\\u000a GM detection to meet the regulatory and legislative requirements. Detection of target sequences along with plant species specific\\u000a endogenous reference

Gurinder Jit Randhawa; Monika Singh; Ruchi Sharma

2009-01-01

47

Analysis of protein profiles of genetically modified potato tubers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Traceability of genetically modified (GM) foods demands the development of appropriate reliable techniques in order to identify and quantify peptide or nucleic acid residues in GM plants and food products through the food chain. In this study the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was demonstrated for the characterization of proteins of transformed and untransformed potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) tubers. In GM tubers the expression level of the G1-1 gene, which regulates transition from dormancy to sprouting tubers, was inhibited by antisense technology. The analysis of antisense transformed lines showed that several of them exhibited a significant delay in sprouting relative to the control lines, in accordance with a decrease in the transcript level. Preliminary attempts to compare the protein patterns obtained from transformed and control lines using traditional electrophoresis were not able to reveal differences in the low-kDa range. Instead, MALDI-TOFMS applied to total peptide extract without any purification was able to distinguish spectral patterns of transformed and untransformed lines. In particular, several characteristic peaks from m/z 4373 to 4932 were detected only in the mass spectra of GM tuber samples. PMID:12590397

Careri, M; Elviri, L; Mangia, A; Zagnoni, I; Agrimonti, C; Visioli, G; Marmiroli, N

2003-01-01

48

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified potaoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow consumer acceptance has inhibited the market for genetically modified (GM) potato products. Logistic growth functions\\u000a were used to model market development patterns for three comparable products — diet sodas, frozen potatoes and microwave ovens.\\u000a Predictions of GMpotato acceptance were based on averages for the comparable products. The model predicts that consumer acceptance\\u000a will be in the introduction stage of

Joseph F. Guenthner

2002-01-01

49

The Canon of Potato Science: 6. Genetic Modification and Cis and Transgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is it? Genetic modification is the act of inserting one or more agriculturally important genes into the genome of a potato plant by in vitro techniques and by using modified Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a natural gene transfer tool. The end product is a genetically modified (GM) plant. Important preconditions for transformation are in vitro regeneration and transformation ability of

E. Jacobsen

2007-01-01

50

Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of potato accessions preserved in Lithuanian potato gene bank genetic diversity research was carried out at the Voke branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in years 1990-2006. Research was provided with potato collection covering 200 varieties and hybrids from the main potato origin and growing regions and selection material bred in Lithuania. Potato varieties varied in accordance of

A. Razukas; Z. Jankauskiene; J. Jundulas; R. Asakaviciute

2009-01-01

51

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2012-12-04

52

13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline.  

PubMed

• The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP). • The microbes receiving (13)C from the plant were assessed through RNA/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). • Ascomycetes and glomeromycetes received carbon from the plant as early as 1 and 5 d after labeling, while basidiomycetes were slower in accumulating the labeled carbon. The rate of carbon allocation in the GM variety differed from that in its parental variety, thereby affecting soil fungal communities. • We conclude that both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi rapidly metabolize organic substrates flowing from the root into the rhizosphere, that there are large differences in utilization of root-derived compounds at a lower phylogenetic level within investigated fungal phyla, and that active communities in the rhizosphere differ between the GM plant and its parental cultivar through effects of differential carbon flow from the plant. PMID:22413848

Hannula, S E; Boschker, H T S; de Boer, W; van Veen, J A

2012-05-01

53

Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.  

PubMed

Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules). PMID:24243237

Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

2014-01-01

54

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

55

Potato Steroidal Glycoalkaloids: Biosynthesis and Genetic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are important components of plant resistance against pests and pathogens but can\\u000a be toxic to humans at high levels. SGAs derive their toxicity from anticholinesterase activity affecting the central nervous\\u000a system and the disruptive effects on cell membrane integrity affecting the digestive system and other organs. Accordingly,\\u000a current safety regulations limit their content in the

Idit Ginzberg; James G. Tokuhisa; Richard E. Veilleux

2009-01-01

56

Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 have an elevated but incomplete risk of developing ovarian cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study (GWAS) for ovarian cancer in ...

F. J. Couch

2012-01-01

57

A genetic approach to the species problem in wild potato.  

PubMed

Wild potatoes are native to the Americas, where they present very wide geographical and ecological distribution. Most are diploid, obligate out-crossers due to a multiallelic gametophytic self-incompatibility (S) locus that prevents self-fertilisation and crossing between individuals carrying identical S-alleles. They have two alternative modes of reproduction: sexual (by seeds) and asexual (by stolons and tubers), which provide, respectively, for genetic flexibility in changing environments and high fitness of adapted genotypes under stable conditions. Since the early twentieth century, their taxonomic classification has been mostly based on morphological phenotypes (Taxonomic Species Concept). More recently, attempts have been made to establish phylogenetic relationships, applying molecular tools in samples of populations (accessions) with a previously assigned specific category. However, neither the reproductive biology and breeding relations among spontaneous populations nor the morphological and genetic variability expected in obligate allogamous populations are considered when the taxonomic species concept is applied. In nature, wild potato populations are isolated through external and internal hybridisation barriers; the latter, which are genetically determined, can be either pre-zygotic (pollen-pistil incompatibility) or post-zygotic (abortion of embryo, endosperm or both tissues, sterility, and hybrid weakness and breakdown in segregating generations). The internal barriers, however, can be incomplete, providing opportunities for hybridisation and introgression within and between populations and ploidy levels in areas of overlap. The widespread occurrence of spontaneous hybrids in nature was recognised in the mid-twentieth century. Using genetic approaches, results have been obtained that provide strong support to the assertion that populations are at different stages of genetic divergence and are not at the end of the evolutionary process, as presupposed by the Taxonomic Species Concept. Furthermore, since wild potatoes have uniparental and biparental overlapping generations, the Biological Species Concept - developed for sexually reproducing biparental organisms - cannot be applied to them. In this paper, morphological, genetic, molecular and taxonomic studies in wild potato are reviewed, considering the genetic consequences of their reproductive biology, in an attempt to shed light on the species problem, because of its relevance in germplasm conservation and breeding. PMID:22372767

Camadro, E L; Erazzú, L E; Maune, J F; Bedogni, M C

2012-07-01

58

Genetic diversity of sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between sweet potato leaf curl virus and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, two sweet potato begomoviruses, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia\\u000a virus (SPLCGV), were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweet potato begomoviruses\\u000a have been identified in other parts of the world. In an effort to determine the genetic diversity and distribution of sweet\\u000a potato begomoviruses

Shuo Cheng Zhang; Kai-Shu Ling

2011-01-01

59

Genetically modified probiotics in foods.  

PubMed

Probiotics have many potential therapeutic uses, but have not been universally accepted because of a lack of understanding of their action. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been modified by traditional and genetic engineering methods to produce new varieties. Modern techniques of molecular biology have facilitated the identification of probiotic LAB strains, but only a few LAB have been modified by recombinant-DNA technology because of consumer resistance to their introduction to markets, especially in Europe. PMID:14573362

Ahmed, Farid E

2003-11-01

60

Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating the Potato Genome with Genetic and Physical Maps  

PubMed Central

The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker?based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal “pseudomolecules”.

Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; S?nderkaer, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martin; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S.; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A.; Hamilton, John P.; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejia, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J.; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E.; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E.; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M. E.; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J.

2013-01-01

61

Genetic Structure of Populations of the Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of a Colorado potato beetle population from Kiev oblast was examined by cluster analysis of individual RAPD patterns. The obtained clustering indicates that the population is structured. This may be explained by adaptation to pyrethroid insecticides used for controlling the population size of this pest. Microevolutionary factors affecting the genetic structure of local populations of Colorado potato

A. P. Sidorenko; O. P. Berezovska

2002-01-01

62

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2009-08-31

63

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

64

Potential adoption and management of insect-resistant potato in Peru, and implications for genetically engineered potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes some important issues surrounding possible deployment of genetically engineered (GE) insect-resistant potato in Peru, based on a large farmer survey held in Peru in 2003. We found that the formal seed system plays a limited role compared with the informal seed system, especially for smallholder farmers. Although 97% of smallholder farmers would buy seed of an insect-resistant

Jasper Buijs; Marianne Martinet; Felipe de Mendiburu; Marc Ghislain

2005-01-01

65

The effect of consumer risk perceptions on the propensity to purchase genetically modified foods in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates consumer purchase propensity for genetically modified (GM) food products in Romania, shedding light on consumer preferences in developing Eastern European nations. Results based on a bivariate probit model of purchase propensity for GM sunflower oil and table potatoes show that consumers in Romania are generally opposed to GM food consumption, similar to consumers in Western Europe, but

Kynda R. Curtis; Klaus Moeltner

2007-01-01

66

Combining genetic engineering and traditional breeding to provide elevated resistance in potatoes to Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable deployment of resistant crop varieties is a critical issue for the implementation of bio- technology in crop pest management. Feeding, biomass accumulation, and mortality were evaluated for susceptible, insecticide-resistant, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry 3A-selected Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) larvae fed on: cultivated potato, a Solanum chacoense line expressing leptine glycoalkaloids, a transformed

Susannah G. Cooper; David S. Douches; Edward J. Grafius

2004-01-01

67

Calystegines in potatoes with genetically engineered carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calystegines are hydroxylated nortropane alkaloids derived from the tropane alkaloid biosynthetic path- way. They are strong glycosidase inhibitors and occur in vegetables such as potatoes, tomatoes, and cabbage. Calystegine accumulation in root cultures was described to increase with carbohydrate availability. Whether this is indicative for the in planta situation is as yet un- known. Potatoes are model plants for the

Ute Richter; Uwe Sonnewald; Birgit Drager

2007-01-01

68

Genetic Analysis of Isozyme Variants in Diploid and Tetraploid Potatoes  

PubMed Central

Genetic segregations for six enzyme-coding genes were studied in diploid and tetraploid progenies obtained from various Solanum species. The loci identified are Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-5, Mdh-1, Pgi-1 and Sdh-1. Prx-2 and Prx-3 were found to be linked; alleles at these loci segregated concomitantly in most of the diploid progenies. The putative homologous loci in tomato, Prx-2 and Prx-3, have also been reported to be linked, suggesting that this linkage block has been conserved since the divergence of Solanum and Lycopersicon. Several interspecific crosses between the species S. phureja and S. tuberosum, S. phureja and S. chacoense, and S. tuberosum and S. chacoense, yielded segregations for Prx-2 that deviated from expected Mendelian ratios. In these progenies unexpected phenotypes were commonly found, most likely due to posttranscriptional modification. Products of some of the alleles of Mdh-1 probably suffered posttranscriptional modifications, although most of their segregations fitted expected Mendelian ratios. The most extreme case of posttranscriptional modification was found in phenotypes involving allele Mdh-14. Instead of the expected heterodimers in the heterozygous individuals, a slowly migrating band close to the origin was observed in these phenotypes. Some of the accessions of the diploid species S. sparsipilum were found to have a unique zymogram for a second MDH zone of electrophoretic activity, MDH-2. We propose in this paper a common nomenclature for potato isozymes based on the nomenclature used for Capsicum and Lycopersicon.

Quiros, Carlos F.; McHale, Neil

1985-01-01

69

Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.  

PubMed

Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. PMID:21281424

Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

2011-10-01

70

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

71

Gene transfer from genetically modified food.  

PubMed

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material. PMID:11024371

Gasson, M J

2000-10-01

72

Genetically Modified Animals and Pharmacological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the\\u000a domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of\\u000a the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in\\u000a generating affordable models of human disease although

Dominic J. Wells

73

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

74

Characteristics of oxidative stress in potato plants with modified carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sugars on the development of hypothermia-induced oxidative stress were studied in leaves of two potato genotypes\\u000a (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Désirée): with normal carbohydrate metabolism and a genotype with increased sugar content modified by insertion of\\u000a yeast-derived invertase gene. It was found that generation of proceeds more actively in transformed plants than in control\\u000a plants. On the contrary

M. S. Sin’kevich; A. N. Deryabin; T. I. Trunova

2009-01-01

75

The preparation and characterisation of a series of chemically modified potato starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of substituted starches has been prepared at moderate temperature (?90°C) from gelatinised potato starch by treatment in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution with acyl chlorides. Oleoyl, palmitoyl, lauroyl, capryloyl and butyryl modified starches have been synthesised with degrees of substitution (DS-values) ranging from 0.3 to 3. Characterisation by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis has confirmed reaction and degree of

J. M Fang; P. A Fowler; J Tomkinson; C. A. S Hill

2002-01-01

76

The case for genetically modified crops with a poverty focus.  

PubMed

Recently seven National Academies of Science produced a report on transgenic plants and world agriculture. The report provides scientific perspectives to the ongoing public debate about the potential role for transgenic technology in world agriculture. In this article, we develop the themes of the report and emphasize the potential for future genetically modified (GM) crops with a poverty focus, emphasizing the potential of GM resistance to plant parasitic nematodes for subsistence potato farmers in Bolivia. We judge that a range of incremental gains to crop yields from many transgenes are valuable for future world security. We advocate the establishment of a standard that GM crops must achieve before they are both biosafe and appropriate for resource-poor farmers and we believe that the best interests of the poor require biotechnologists to work towards that objective. PMID:11179801

Atkinson, H J; Green, J; Cowgill, S; Levesley, A

2001-03-01

77

GENETICALLY MODIFIED MICE IN NEUROPHARMACOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first transgenic mouse was reported in 1980, genetically engineered mice have become an invaluable biological tool for better understanding of physiological and pathological processes in many fields of biomedical research. The transgenic technology allows researchers to carry out specific genetic manipulation in all cells of a laboratory animal, and makes it possible to dissect gene function in a

ROSSELLA BRUSA

1999-01-01

78

NMR and HPLC-UV profiling of potatoes with genetic modifications to metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Metabolite profiling has been carried out to assess the compositional changes occurring in potato tubers after genetic modifications have been made to different metabolic pathways. Most major features in the (1)H NMR and HPLC-UV profiles of tuber extracts have been assigned. About 40 GM lines and controls belonging to 4 groups of samples (derived from cv. Record or cv. Desirée and modified in primary carbon metabolism, starch synthesis, glycoprotein processing, or polyamine/ethylene metabolism) were analyzed. Differences were assessed at the level of whole profiles (by PCA) or individual compounds (by ANOVA). The most obvious differences seen in both NMR and HPLC-UV profiles were between the two varieties. There were also significant differences between two of the four Desirée GM lines with modified polyamine metabolism and their controls. Compounds notably affected were proline, trigonelline, and numerous phenolics. However, that modification gave rise to a very abnormal phenotype. Certain lines from the other groups had several compounds present in significantly higher or lower amounts compared to the control, but the differences in mean values amounted to no more than a 2-3-fold change: in the context of variability in the whole data set, such changes did not appear to be important. PMID:15453669

Defernez, Marianne; Gunning, Yvonne M; Parr, Adrian J; Shepherd, Louise V T; Davies, Howard V; Colquhoun, Ian J

2004-10-01

79

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

80

Splicing regulation as a potential genetic modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases are associated with profound phenotypic variability, which is affected strongly by genetic modifiers. The splicing machinery could be one such modifying system, through a mechanism involving splicing motifs and their interaction with a complex repertoire of splicing factors. Mutations in splicing motifs and changes in levels of splicing factors can result in different splicing patterns. Changes in the

Malka Nissim-Rafinia; Batsheva Kerem

2002-01-01

81

Analysis of genetic stability of in vitro propagated potato microtubers using DNA markers.  

PubMed

The genetic stability of in vitro propagated potato microtubers was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Microtubers were developed through in vitro from potato microplants using standardized protocols. The microtubers were conserved for 1 year under three different culture media and consequently microplants were regenerated for the DNA analyses. During the study, a total of 38 (10 RAPD, 11 ISSR, 12 SSR and 5 AFLP) primers produced a total of 407 (58 RAPD, 56 ISSR, 96 SSR and 197 AFLP) clear, distinct and reproducible amplicons. Cluster analysis revealed 100 % genetic similarity among the mother plant and its derivatives within the clusters by SSR, ISSR and RAPD analyses, whereas AFLP analysis revealed from 85 to 100 % genetic similarity. Dendrogram analysis based on the Jaccard's coefficient classified the genotypes into five clusters (I-V), each cluster consisting of mother plant and its derivatives. Principal component analysis (PCA) also plotted mother plant and its genotypes of each cluster together. Based on our results, it is concluded that AFLP is the best method followed by SSR, ISSR and RAPD to detect genetic stability of in vitro conserved potato microtubers. The in vitro conservation medium (T2) is a safe method for conservation of potato microtubers to produce true-to-type plans. PMID:24431528

Tiwari, Jagesh K; Chandel, Poonam; Gupta, Shruti; Gopal, Jai; Singh, B P; Bhardwaj, Vinay

2013-10-01

82

Genetically modified mice and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition in transgenic and knockout mice is preferentially assessed by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Awareness is growing, however, that the putative cognitive deficits observed using such a paradigm may be biased by the genetic background and behavioral peculiarities of the specific animals used. Recent progress in cognitive research includes new behavioral tests and refined analysis of performance

Hans-Peter Lipp; David P Wolfer

1998-01-01

83

Genetic bottleneck in invasive species: the potato tuber moth adds to the list  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of genetic diversity within populations of introduced species has received increasing attention as an important\\u000a factor influencing their survival and adaptive potential. We examined this issue with the Guatemalan potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora, an agricultural pest which has successfully invaded South America and the Canary Islands within the last 20 years. To analyse\\u000a changes in T. solanivora genetic diversity,

N. Puillandre; S. Dupas; O. Dangles; J.-L. Zeddam; C. Capdevielle-Dulac; K. Barbin; M. Torres-Leguizamon; J.-F. Silvain

2008-01-01

84

[Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].  

PubMed

Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

Tchórz, Micha?; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jaros?aw

2012-01-01

85

Genetic localisation of transformation competence in diploid potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of improving diploid potato genotypes for transformation ability, selection for specific components affecting regeneration and transformation was carried out. From a segregating population between two good regenerating clones a selection was made to yield an optimal well-transforming and fertile genotype J92-6400-A16. This plant yielded predominantly diploid transformants and was heterozygous for the gene R1, conferring resistance to

A. El-Kharbotly; E. Jacobsen; W. J. Stiekema; A. Pereira

1995-01-01

86

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

87

Genetically modified mice and cognition.  

PubMed

Cognition in transgenic and knockout mice is preferentially assessed by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Awareness is growing, however, that the putative cognitive deficits observed using such a paradigm may be biased by the genetic background and behavioral peculiarities of the specific animals used. Recent progress in cognitive research includes new behavioral tests and refined analysis of performance impairments. Advances in our understanding of memory and learning are being made possible through use of transgenic rescue of disrupted genes, inducible and reversible gene targeting in selected brain regions, and single-cell recordings of hippocampal place cells in mutant mice. PMID:9635213

Lipp, H P; Wolfer, D P

1998-04-01

88

Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

Wells, Dominic J

2010-01-01

89

Frankenfoods? The Debate Over Genetically Modified Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This discussion case, in which a university research laboratory is vandalized by environmental activists opposed to genetic engineering, focuses on the science and ethics of genetically modified crops. Students consider both the risks and benefits of biotechnology and explore the positions of various stakeholders, including environmentalists, conservationists, agricultural businesses, research scientists, and farmers. Originally written for a vegetable crops course, the case would be appropriate for a wide variety of courses in which biotechnology is discussed.

Rhodes, Bill; Alkhazindar, Maha M.; Schiller, Nancy A.

2001-01-01

90

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene

Farid E. Ahmed

2002-01-01

91

RAPD and pedigree-based genetic diversity estimates in cultivated diploid potato hybrids.  

PubMed

In this study, RAPD and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationships in a group of 45 diploid hybrid potato clones used in the breeding and genetics program of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Potato Research Centre in Fredericton, New Brunswick, and used for the potato after-cooking darkness program at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. These hybrids were derived from crossing primitive cultivated South American diploid species such as Solanum phureja or Solanum stenotomum and wild diploid species such as Solanum chacoense and other wild Argentine species with haploids of Solanum tuberosum. These hybrids have subsequently undergone up to 30 years of breeding and selection, for adaptation to local growing and storage conditions, processing traits and pest resistances. The objectives of this study were to estimate the level of genetic similarity (GS) among these sets of clones and to investigate the correlation between RAPD-based GS and f, based on pedigree information. Genetic similarity coefficients varied from 0.29 to 0.90 with a mean of 0.65 when based on the RAPD data, whereas the coefficient of parentage varied from zero to 0.75 with a mean of 0.11. The degree of relationship between the similarity matrices based on RAPD and pedigree was measured by comparing the similarity matrices with the normalized Mantel test. A low positive correlation (R = 0.104, p = 0.999) between the two matrices was observed. Cluster analysis using GS divided the clones into many subgroups that did not correspond well with the grouping based on pedigree. The level of genetic variation present in this set of potato clones is very high. Rigorous selection pressure aimed at different breeding purposes may result in the genetic differentiation of the clones from the same origin. PMID:12835936

Sun, Genlou; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Mayich, Michael; Jong, Hielke

2003-06-01

92

Genetically modified myths and realities.  

PubMed

Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

Parrott, Wayne

2010-11-30

93

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

94

Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD? cotton

Ross S. Kingwell

2000-01-01

95

What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle

Keith G. Davies

2001-01-01

96

Trade Conflict Over Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the USA, seconded by Argentina and Canada, initiated litigation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union's regulatory policy for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The three plaintiffs claimed that the EU's GMO policy was creating illegal trade restrictions. Specifically, they argued (i) that the EU had implemented a de facto moratorium on approval of new biotech

Thomas Bernauer; Philipp Aerni; Kevin Gallagher

97

Release of genetically modified organisms: precautionary legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the debates surrounding the drafting and passage through the UK Parliament of the Environmental Protection Bill, Part VI, regarding the potential hazards arising from release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Both the previous voluntary and the current statutory systems have been precautionary (or proactive) in their approach to risk regulation.The EPA establishes a framework for guiding decisions

Les Levidow; Joyce Tait

1992-01-01

98

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

99

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods: A Brief Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever-increasing population burden, genetically modified (GM) foods promised great potential, to solve many of the world's hunger and malnutrition problems, and also to preserve the environment. The authentic GM foods may not only have better nutritional and pharmaceutical values but are also resistant to pest and diseases, tolerant to extreme temperatures and herbicides. Yet they pose many challenges

Farrukh Jamal; Q. S. Haque; Tabish Qidwai; U. P. India

100

[Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].  

PubMed

Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%. PMID:15568468

Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

2004-08-01

101

Genetic parameters for agronomic characteristics. I. Early and intermediate breeding populations of true potato seed.  

PubMed

The original variation in the source population as well as the selection method may influence the genetic variation in further cycles of genetic improvement. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine genetic parameters (variance components and heritability) in source and intermediate stages of a true potato seed (TPS) breeding population and to calculate the genetic and phenotypic correlations in this breeding material developed by the Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP). The intermediate stage was derived from a source population adapted to the warm lowland tropics plus introduction of exotic germplasm from North America and Europe. Non-additive genetic variation was almost nil for plant survival, tuber yield and tuber shape uniformity in both stages of the breeding population and no quantitative genetic variation for uniformity of tuber color was observed in both source and intermediate breeding materials. Heritability was higher in the intermediate stage than in the source population for plant survival (0.86 vs 0.66), tuber yield (0.30 vs 0.14) and tuber shape (0.77 vs 0.51), but it was the reverse for tuber uniformity (0.11 vs 0.72). These results suggest that potato breeders at CIP were able to keep enough genetic variation for most important characteristics for potato production from true seed in their intermediate breeding materials by adding new sources of variation to the original breeding population. Additive genetic and phenotypic correlations were significant and positive between plant vigor after transplanting and tuber yield, and tuber shape and tuber uniformity, which suggest that high yielding offspring result from early vigorous growth, and that tuber uniformity could depend on tuber shape uniformity in this breeding material. PMID:15061803

Ortiz, Rodomiro; M Golmirzaie, Ali

2003-01-01

102

Shall I compare thee to a GM potato?  

PubMed

A fundamental issue in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops is the question of whether unintentional changes have occurred in the crop plant as a consequence of the genetic modification. This question was addressed recently by using a powerful metabolite fingerprinting and metabolite profiling method to assess whether genetically modified potatoes are substantially similar to their corresponding conventional cultivars. PMID:16904227

Colquhoun, Ian J; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Elliott, Katherine A; Mellon, Fred A; Michael, Anthony J

2006-10-01

103

Violaxanthin Cycle Pigment Contents in Potato and Tobacco Plants with Genetically Reduced Photosynthetic Capacity.  

PubMed Central

The influence of photosynthetic activity on the light-dependent adaptation of the pool size of the violaxanthin cycle pigments (violaxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin) was studied in leaves of wild-type and transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. The genetically manipulated plants expressed an antisense mRNA coding for the chloroplastic fructose-bisphosphatase. Chl fluorescence quenching analysis revealed that the transformed plants exhibited a greatly impaired electron transport capacity. Light-limited and light-saturated non-photochemical quenching was strongly enhanced in the mRNA antisense potato plants. After 7 d of adaptation at various high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs), the violaxanthin cycle pool size increased, with a progressive elevation in PPFD. The pool size was higher for transgenic potatoes than for wild-type plants at all PPFDs. This difference vanished when pool size was correlated with the PPFD in excess of photosynthesis, as indicated by the epoxidation state of the violaxanthin cycle. Contrasting results were obtained for tobacco; in this species, photosynthetic activity did not affect the pool size. We conclude that regulatory mechanisms exist in potato, by which photosynthetic activity can influence the violaxanthin cycle pool size. Furthermore, evidence is provided that this adaptation of the pool size may contribute to an improved photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus under high-light conditions. However, tobacco plants seem to regulate their pool size independently of photosynthetic activity.

Bilger, W.; Fisahn, J.; Brummet, W.; Kossmann, J.; Willmitzer, L.

1995-01-01

104

[Genetically modified food--great unknown].  

PubMed

Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food. PMID:23009001

Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

2012-08-01

105

Genetically modified pigs to model human diseases.  

PubMed

Genetically modified mice are powerful tools to investigate the molecular basis of many human diseases. Mice are, however, of limited value for preclinical studies, because they differ significantly from humans in size, general physiology, anatomy and lifespan. Considerable efforts are, thus, being made to develop alternative animal models for a range of human diseases. These promise powerful new resources that will aid the development of new diagnostics, medicines and medical procedures. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genetically modified porcine models described in the scientific literature: various cancers, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, autosomal polycystic kidney disease, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, haemophilia A, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Alzheimer’s disease, various forms of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24234401

Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

2014-02-01

106

Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?  

PubMed

So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

Weil, Jacques-Henry

2005-01-01

107

Mailing of Genetically Modified Microorganisms: A Field Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research institutions exchange genetically modified bacterial strains by mail on a regular basis. Therefore, most countries have introduced strict rules which regulate the way in which genetically modified microorganisms are mailed. Also the IATA has form...

H. C. J. C. Cremers H. F. Groot

1991-01-01

108

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

109

Genetic Analysis of Resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi Introgressed from Solanum hougasii into Cultivated Potato.  

PubMed

An accession of Solanum hougasii, a wild tuber-bearing potato species native to Mexico, was found to be resistant to races 1 and 2 of Meloidogyne chitwoodi. A resistant selection was selfed and its progeny possessed the same combined resistance uniformly. A selected resistant seedling from the selfed progeny was crossed to cultivated tetraploid potato (S. tuberosum) to form an F hybrid, and was backcrossed to cultivated tetraploid potato to form a BC population in which resistance to the two races segregated. Progeny of the BC were tested in inoculation experiments with four replicates for each progeny genotype for each race of nematode. Resistance was evaluated on the basis of extracted egg counts from the entire root system of pot-grown plants. Considering resistance to each race separately, for race 1, non-host (Rf genetic control for the two races appears to be independently segregating. Although genes for resistance to race 1 derived from S. bulbocastanum and S. fendleri were previously described, this report is the first analysis showing independent genetic control in Solanum spp. for resistance to race 2 of M. chitwoodi only. PMID:19270896

Brown, C R; Mojtahedi, H; Santo, G S

1999-09-01

110

Genetic Studies and Breeding for Stable Late Blight Resistance of Potato in the United States and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lozoya-Saldańa, H., Hernández-Vilchis, A. Garay-Serrano, E., Brown, C.R., Grünwald, N. and Helgeson, J.P. 2001. Genetic studies and breeding for stable late blight resistance of potato in the United States and Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 19:253-259. New forms of the potato late blight pathogen (Phytophthora infestans) have recently migrated from Mexico to the rest of the world. The best long

Héctor Lozoya-Saldańa; Alejandro Hernández-Vilchis; Edith Garay-Serrano; Charles R. Brown; Niklaus Grünwald; John P. Helgeson

111

Plastidial Starch Phosphorylase in Sweet Potato Roots Is Proteolytically Modified by Protein-Protein Interaction with the 20S Proteasome  

PubMed Central

Post-translational regulation plays an important role in cellular metabolism. Earlier studies showed that the activity of plastidial starch phosphorylase (Pho1) may be regulated by proteolytic modification. During the purification of Pho1 from sweet potato roots, we observed an unknown high molecular weight complex (HX) showing Pho1 activity. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and reverse immunoprecipitation analyses showed that HX is composed of Pho1 and the 20S proteasome. Incubating sweet potato roots at 45°C triggers a stepwise degradation of Pho1; however, the degradation process can be partially inhibited by specific proteasome inhibitor MG132. The proteolytically modified Pho1 displays a lower binding affinity toward glucose 1-phosphate and a reduced starch-synthesizing activity. This study suggests that the 20S proteasome interacts with Pho1 and is involved in the regulation of the catalytic activity of Pho1 in sweet potato roots under heat stress conditions.

Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Han-Min; Chou, I-Min; Chen, An-Na; Chen, Chia-Pei; Young, Guang-Huar; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chung; Juang, Rong-Huay

2012-01-01

112

Unpacking atitudes towards genetically modified food.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and worry best accounted for the data. Negative--but not positive--components directly affected behavioural intentions. Implications of these findings for our understanding of attitudes towards GM food and their impact on behaviour are discussed. PMID:16154663

de Liver, Yaël; van der Pligt, Joop; Wigboldus, Daniël

2005-12-01

113

Genetically modified T cells to target glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Despite advances in surgical procedures, radiation, and chemotherapy the outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. While GBM cells express antigens that are potentially recognized by?T cells, GBMs prevent the induction of GBM-specific immune responses by creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The advent of gene transfer has allowed the rapid generation of antigen-specific?T cells as well as?T cells with enhanced effector function. Here we review recent advances in the field of cell therapy with genetically modified?T cells and how these advances might improve outcomes for patients with GBM in the future. PMID:24427741

Krebs, Simone; Rodríguez-Cruz, Tania G; Derenzo, Christopher; Gottschalk, Stephen

2013-01-01

114

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods & Teaching Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes instructional materials developed to address two major needs in biology education--how to form scientific opinions and providing a link between students and literature. Presents two essays, rats and potatoes and butterflies and corn, introduces students to article searching, reading peer-reviewed scientific studies, writing, critical…

Flores, Vanessa S.; Tobin, Allan J.

2003-01-01

115

Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by chemically modified potato starch: equilibrium and kinetic studies.  

PubMed

The biosorption capacity of chemically modified potato starch (CPS) for Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was investigated. The materials derived from carbohydrates are biodegradable and are generally regarded as safe and environmentally acceptable. The hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl groups are responsible for the biosorption process. In the present study, the influence of various important parameters such as pH, time, biosorbent dose and initial Cr(VI) concentration on the biosorption capacity were investigated. The isotherms such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin were studied. The Freundlich and the Redlich-Peterson isotherms had been well fitted the biosorption of Cr(VI) with chemically modified potato starch. The kinetics of Cr(VI) removal using chemically modified potato starch was well explained by second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated from the biosorption measurements. Among the various desorbing agents tested, 98.2 percent chromium recovery was achieved with 0.1molL(-1) NaOH. PMID:23499185

Pillai, Saumya S; Mullassery, Manohar D; Fernandez, Noeline B; Girija, N; Geetha, P; Koshy, Mathew

2013-06-01

116

Effects of concentration dependence of retrogradation behaviour of dispersions for native and chemically modified potato starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of concentration on the retrogradation behaviour and effects of concentration for native potato starch (NPS) and hydroxypropylated and phosphate cross-linked potato starch (HPS) were studied by heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transparency, granule size distribution and dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. DSC and dynamic viscoelasticity measurements showed that the retrogradation of NPS dispersions was far more conspicuous than that of

K Morikawa; K Nishinari

2000-01-01

117

Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods.  

PubMed

For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and antinutrients. Analysed were documents of rape (glucosinolates, phytate), maize (phytate), tomato (tomatine, solanine, chaconine, lectins, oxalate), potato (solanine, chaconine, protease-inhibitors, phenols) and soybean (protease-inhibitors, lectins, isoflavones, phytate). In several documents used for notifications no declarations even on essential inherent plant toxins and antinutrients could be found, for instance data on phytate in modified maize were provided only in one of four documents. Significant variations in the contents of these compounds in parental and modified plants especially due to environmental influences were observed: drought stress, for example, was made responsible for significantly increased glucosinolate levels of up to 72.6micromol/g meal in modified and parental rape plants in field trials compared to recommended standard concentrations of less than 30micromol/g. Taking into account these wide natural variations generally the concentrations of inherent plant toxins and antinutrients in modified products were in the range of the concentrations in parental organisms. The results presented indicate that the concept of the substantial equivalence is useful for the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) used for novel foods but possible environmental influences on constituents of modified crops need more attention. Consistent guidelines, specifying data of relevant compounds which have to be provided for notification documents of specific organisms have to be established. Because of the importance of inherent plant toxins and antinutrients on nutritional safety, also coherent databases of standard parental lines and clear criteria for mandatory declarations are necessary. PMID:10828499

Novak, W K; Haslberger, A G

2000-06-01

118

Protein and fat modify the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato-based meal.  

PubMed

Potatoes, especially mashed potatoes, are known to result in high glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, in most meals, potatoes are accompanied by other foods. The objective of the present study was to investigate how glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato meal changed when a high-fat food (rapeseed oil), a high-protein food (chicken breast) and/or salad were added to the meal. Healthy subjects (n 11) ingested the test meals once and the reference food (glucose solution) twice in a random order at 1-week intervals. Capillary blood samples were then drawn for 2 h, and glucose and insulin were analysed. The 2 h glycaemic responses to six mashed potato-containing meals varied more than twofold. The glycaemic index (GI) of pure mashed potato was 108, whereas combined with chicken breast, rapeseed oil and salad, it was only 54. The latter GI also differed considerably from its predicted value of 103, which was based on the individual GI of the components of the meal. The insulinaemic indices of the mashed potato-based meals varied between 94 and 148. Chicken breast in the meal increased the insulinaemic response, and rapeseed oil diminished it. However, the insulinaemic response to mashed potato with chicken breast and rapeseed oil was lower than that to mashed potato alone. In conclusion, the protein, fat and salad contents of a meal exert considerable influence on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to mashed potatoes. Furthermore, the estimation of the GI of a mixed meal by calculation is imprecise. PMID:21338539

Hätönen, Katja A; Virtamo, Jarmo; Eriksson, Johan G; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Valsta, Liisa M

2011-07-01

119

Multiresponsive macroporous semi-IPN composite hydrogels based on native or anionically modified potato starch.  

PubMed

Macroporous semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) composite hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BAAm) in the presence of potato starch (PS) or an anionic polyelectrolyte derived from PS (PA), below the freezing point of the reaction solution (-18 °C). The composite cryogels have been further modified by the partial hydrolysis of the amide groups in poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) matrix, under alkaline conditions. The influence of the entrapped polymer on the properties of the composite gels, both before and after the hydrolysis, has been evaluated by the swelling kinetics, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and external stimuli responsiveness. The potential of the anionic composite cryogels as intelligent hydrogels has been evaluated by the investigation of the deswelling/reswelling kinetics as a function of solvent nature, ionic strength, and environment pH. Cryogels with fast responsivity at variation of the external stimuli, which withstood repeated deswelling/reswelling cycles, have been obtained at a low cross-linker ratio (one mole BAAm for 80 moles of AAm) and a monomer concentration around 3 wt%. PMID:23218261

Dragan, Ecaterina Stela; Apopei, Diana Felicia

2013-01-30

120

[Nutrition and health--genetically modified food].  

PubMed

The genetically modified (GM) crops cultivated at present have new properties of benefit to agriculture. It is expected that in the future GM crops will also be cultivated with more complex genetic modifications that are aimed at improving the nutritional and health value to the consumer. The safety assessment of GM foods before market approval is based on a comparison of the characteristics of the GM food with those of the conventional counterpart. Identified differences are thoroughly tested for their toxicological and nutritional consequences. Supplementary modern analytical techniques are being developed for the assessment of future complex GM foods. No cases of adverse health or nutritional effects in consumers have been reported for the existing generation of GM foods. The feasibility of post-market surveillance of (GM) foods, in order to identify small or chronic effects that have not been noticed in the pre-market phase, is being investigated, yet its value should not be overestimated. Surveillance can be informative in case of specific questions concerning certain products as long as the consumer intake is well documented. To this end traceability and labelling systems must be set up. PMID:12602068

Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Kok, E J

2003-01-11

121

Genetic diversity in Brazilian sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Solanales, Convolvulaceae) landraces assessed with microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the genetic diversity of 78 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) accessions (58 landraces and 20 putative clones) from traditional agricultural households from 19 local communities in the Vale do Ribeira, Săo Paulo, Brazil. Eight SSR loci were assessed using 6% (w\\/v) polyacrylamide gels stained with silver nitrate and the accessions genotyped considering

Elizabeth Ann Veasey; Aline Borges; Mariana Silva Rosa; Jurema R. Queiroz-Silva; Eduardo de Andrade Bressan; Nivaldo Peroni

2008-01-01

122

Spatial and temporal genetic variability in French populations of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

The peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), has a complex reproductive mode in which some lineages reproduce by continuous parthenogenesis, whereas others reproduce sexually once a year. The climate is thought to act directly on the reproductive mode, because sexual eggs are the only form that can resist frost in cold regions. Sexual reproduction necessitates an obligatory host alternation that may result in long-distance dispersal. Here, we examined the genetic variability at seven microsatellite loci of populations of M. persicae in France, where both reproductive modes occur. We provide clear genetic evidence that the breeding system affects genotypic variability, as cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are far more variable than their obligately parthenogenetic counterparts. A temporal decrease in genetic variability and a temporal genetic differentiation effect suggest the existence of selective factors that play an important role in shaping the genetic structure of M. persicae populations. Lastly, differences in the population structure between reproductive modes suggest that the migration associated with the change of host during sexual reproduction lowers the level of population differentiation. PMID:12886281

Guillemaud, T; Mieuzet, L; Simon, J-C

2003-08-01

123

Frying performance of genetically modified canola oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frying performance of low linolenic and high oleic canola oils was compared to regular and hydrogenated canola oils. The\\u000a antifoaming agent dimethylpolysiloxane (2 ppm) was added to all frying oils. Potato chips were fried in the four oils over\\u000a a 5-d period for a total of 40 h of frying. Oil samples were collected each day and analyzed for

I. Petukhov; L. J. Malcolmson; R. Przybylski; L. Armstrong

1999-01-01

124

PCR detection of genetically modified soya and maize in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genetically modified foodstuffs is becoming both a food sales and legal necessity. This study reports a rapid DNA extraction\\/PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified soya (GMS) and maize (GMM) in mixed samples of transgenic and unmodified soybeans and maize kernels, and a variety of processed samples including soya flour, soya protein isolates, extruded defatted soya,

Carolyn D. Hurst; Angus Knight; Ian J. Bruce

1999-01-01

125

Genetically Modified Organisms and Biodiversity: Assessing the Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are those into whose genome a foreign well-characterized DNA from a different source (plant, animal or microorganism) has been stably inserted. Transgenic plants are a recognized ex- ample. Scientists genetically modify plants to: increase post-harvest life, resist biotic and abiotic stresses, improve plant nutrient qualities and use them as biofactories in pharmaceutical and vaccine production. For

Camilo Ayra Pardo

2003-01-01

126

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time.

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2004-01-01

127

Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation. PMID:17956000

Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

2007-01-01

128

Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

129

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

130

Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. PMID:24607250

Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

2014-03-01

131

Genetically modified crops and food security.  

PubMed

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

132

Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

133

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

134

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

135

Global Genetics and Invasion History of the Potato Powdery Scab Pathogen, Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea  

PubMed Central

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss) causes two diseases on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lesions on tubers and galls on roots, which are economically important worldwide. Knowledge of global genetic diversity and population structure of pathogens is essential for disease management including resistance breeding. A combination of microsatellite and DNA sequence data was used to investigate the structure and invasion history of Sss. South American populations (four countries, 132 samples) were consistently more diverse than those from all other regions (15 countries, 566 samples), in agreement with the hypothesis that Sss originated in South America where potato was domesticated. A substantial genetic differenciation was found between root and tuber-derived samples from South America. Estimates of past and recent gene flow suggested that Sss was probably introduced from South America into Europe. Subsequently, Europe is likely to have been the recent source of migrants of the pathogen, acting as a “bridgehead” for further global dissemination. Quarantine measures must continue to be focussed on maintaining low global genetic diversity and avoiding exchange of genetic material between the native and introduced regions. Nevertheless, the current low global genetic diversity of Sss allows potato breeders to select for resistance, which is likely to be durable.

Gau, Rebecca D.; Merz, Ueli; Falloon, Richard E.; Brunner, Patrick C.

2013-01-01

136

Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.  

PubMed

In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

2014-01-01

137

[Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].  

PubMed

The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

2012-03-01

138

Safety assessment and public concerns for genetically modified food products: the Japanese experience.  

PubMed

The recombinant DNA (rDNA) technique is expected to bring about great progress in the improvement of breeding technology and the development of new plant varieties showing high quality and high yield, such as those with excellent pest and disease resistance, those with environmental stress tolerance, and so forth. In the United States and Canada, many genetically modified (GM) crop plants were commercialized as early as 1994. In Japan, 35 transgenic crop plants, such as herbicide tolerant soybean, cotton, and canola, and insect-resistant corn, cotton, and potatos, were authorized and considered marketable until April 2001. The general public, however, is not familiar with rDNA technology, and some people seem to feel uncomfortable with biotechnology, frequently because of the difficulty of the technology and lacking of sufficient information. New labeling systems were initiated in April 2001 in Japan to provide information regarding the use of GM crops as raw material. PMID:11890464

Hino, Akihiro

2002-01-01

139

Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

2014-01-01

140

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses.

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

141

Genetic Analysis of Isozyme Loci in Tetraploid Potatoes ( SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)  

PubMed Central

The genetic control of eight isozyme loci revealed by starch gel electrophoresis was studied through the analysis of three progenies derived from four tetraploid cultivars of Solanum tuberosum (groups Andigena and Tuberosum). Duplicate gene expression was found in seven (Got-A, Got-B, Pgd-C, Pgi-B, Pgm-A, Pgm-B and Pox-C) isozyme loci. In another isozyme gene (Adh-A), the parental genotypes were not adequate to distinguish between a monogenic or a digenic model of genetic control. Tetrasomic inheritance was demonstrated in four (Got-A, Got-B, Pgd-C and Pgi-B) isozyme loci. In the remaining duplicate genes, the parental genotypes precluded discrimination between disomic or tetrasomic models. Tetrasomic segregations of the chromosomal type were generally found; however, the isozyme phenotypes shown by three descendants from selfing cv. Katahdin indicate the occurrence of chromatid segregations, although aneuploidy cannot be ruled out. Either autoploidy or amphidiploidy with lack of chromosome differentiation between the two diploid ancestors can account for the existence of tetrasomic inheritance in the common potato.

Martinez-Zapater, J. M.; Oliver, Jose L.

1984-01-01

142

Potato: a comparative study of the effect of cultivars and cultivation conditions and genetic modification on the physico-chemical properties of potato tubers in conjunction with multivariate analysis towards authenticity.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly nutritious, mild flavored, easy to blend food that has many possibilities for "building in" desired nutrients. Varietal and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size, and nutritional content of potatoes. Different populations opt for varying sensory properties in relation to their diets. Potatoes are a low energy food in comparison to cereals and legumes. The aim of this review was to present an update of the currently conducted studies both on the characterization of several potato varieties (physical, chemical, and sensory analysis) and by means of genetic modification. Towards this target, five comprehensive tables were compiled where all recent data (physicochemical properties) and GM varieties were presented in conjunction with multivariate analysis (chemometrics). The latter was shown to be effectively used towards authenticity purposes (identification of geographical origin, variety, GM). PMID:18788007

Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Vaitsi, Olga; Mavromatis, Athanassios

2008-10-01

143

Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ‘golden rice’, which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

2005-01-01

144

Modified Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Selection of Compartmental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified genetic algorithm has been developed for the task of optimal parameter selection for compartmental models. As a case study, a predictive model of the emerging health threat of obesity in America was developed which incorporated varying levels of three treatment strategies in an attempt to decrease the amount of overweight Americans over a ten-year period. The genetic algorithm

Neil A. Shah; Richard A. Moffitt; May D. Wang

2007-01-01

145

Review: genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the “first generation” were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent

Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara; Kazuki Saito

2006-01-01

146

Complete Genome Sequence of Potato leafroll virus Isolates Infecting Potato in the Different Geographical Areas of India Shows Low Level Genetic Diversity.  

PubMed

Five Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) isolates were collected from five states representing different potato growing parts of India. The ssRNA genome sequences of these isolates were determined. The genome comprised of 5,883 nucleotides and deduced genome organization resembled other PLRV isolates. About 97.6-98.7 % similarities was observed within the Indian isolates and were more close to European, Canadian, African, American and Czech isolates (95.8-98.6 %) than to an Australian isolate (92.9-93.4 %). These isolates were 43.7-53.1 % similar to other poleroviruses and 29.1-29.3 % to Barley yellow dwarf virus, a luteovirus. Out of five isolates, the isolate PBI-6 was recombinant one as detected by RDP3 software. Multiple sequence alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of different ORFs indicated that the ORF 3 and ORF 4, corresponding to coat protein and movement proteins are more conserved than other ORFs. Amino acid changes specific to Indian isolates were observed and it was more in ORF 2 than in ORF 0, ORF 3 and ORF 4. This is the first report of complete genome sequence of PLRV isolates from India, which reveals low level genetic diversity. PMID:24426276

Jeevalatha, A; Kaundal, Priyanka; Shandil, R K; Sharma, N N; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, B P

2013-09-01

147

Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice  

PubMed Central

Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include induced mutations and spontaneous or wild-derived variations captured in inbred strains. Identification of modifiers among wild-derived variants in particular should detect disease modifiers that have been shaped by selection and might therefore be compatible with high fitness and function. Here we review selected examples and argue that modifier genes derived from natural variation may provide a bias for nodes in genetic networks that have greater intrinsic plasticity and whose therapeutic manipulation may therefore be more resilient to side effects than conventional targets.

Hamilton, Bruce A.; Yu, Benjamin D.

2012-01-01

148

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or\\u000a by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported\\u000a the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne,\\u000a 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For

Jaroslava Ovesná; Katerina Demnerová; Vladimíra Pouchová

2008-01-01

149

Hybridization between wild and cultivated potato species in the Peruvian Andes and biosafety implications for deployment of GM potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and extent of past and current hybridization between cultivated potato and wild relatives in nature is of interest\\u000a to crop evolutionists, taxonomists, breeders and recently to molecular biologists because of the possibilities of inverse\\u000a gene flow in the deployment of genetically-modified (GM) crops. This research proves that natural hybridization occurs in\\u000a areas of potato diversity in the Andes,

Maria Scurrah; Carolina Celis-Gamboa; Susana Chumbiauca; Alberto Salas; Richard G. F. Visser

2008-01-01

150

Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.  

PubMed

The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20Mgha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200kgha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among qualitative descriptors and among potatoes coming from the two differently fertilized soils. PMID:25016108

Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

2014-09-15

151

Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.  

PubMed

Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. PMID:24426015

Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

2013-12-01

152

Intrathymic implants of genetically modified fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of autologous rodent fibro- blasts genetically altered to express human growth hor- mone has recently been shown to be a feasible approach to the delivery of new gene products in somatic gene ther- apy. However, the novel gene product elicited in its recipients an intense antibody response that would have curtailed the effectiveness ofsuch therapy.The possibility of inducing tolerance

A. M. P. BEHABA; A. J. WESIUYrT

153

Antisense Repression of Both ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase and Triose Phosphate Translocator Modifies Carbohydrate Partitioning in Potato Leaves.  

PubMed

Previous experiments have shown that carbohydrate partitioning in leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants can be modified by antisense repression of the triose phosphate translocator (TPT), favoring starch accumulation during the light period, or by leaf-specific antisense repression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), reducing leaf starch content. These experiments showed that starch and sucrose synthesis can partially replace each other. To determine how leaf metabolism acclimates to an inhibition of both pathways, transgenic potato (S. tuberosum L. cv Desiree) plants, with a 30% reduction of the TPT achieved by antisense repression, were transformed with an antisense cDNA of the small subunit of AGPase, driven by the leaf-specific ST-LS1 promoter. These double-transformed plants were analyzed with respect to their carbohydrate metabolism, and starch accumulation was reduced in all lines of these plants. In one line with a 50% reduction of AGPase activity, the rate of CO2 assimilation was unaltered. In these plants the stromal level of triose phosphate was increased, enabling a high rate of triose phosphate export in spite of the reduction of the TPT protein by antisense repression. In a second line with a 95% reduction of AGPase activity, the amount of chlorophyll was significantly reduced as a consequence of the lowered triose phosphate utilization capacity. PMID:12223818

Hattenbach, A.; Muller-Rober, B.; Nast, G.; Heineke, D.

1997-10-01

154

Antisense Repression of Both ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase and Triose Phosphate Translocator Modifies Carbohydrate Partitioning in Potato Leaves.  

PubMed Central

Previous experiments have shown that carbohydrate partitioning in leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants can be modified by antisense repression of the triose phosphate translocator (TPT), favoring starch accumulation during the light period, or by leaf-specific antisense repression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), reducing leaf starch content. These experiments showed that starch and sucrose synthesis can partially replace each other. To determine how leaf metabolism acclimates to an inhibition of both pathways, transgenic potato (S. tuberosum L. cv Desiree) plants, with a 30% reduction of the TPT achieved by antisense repression, were transformed with an antisense cDNA of the small subunit of AGPase, driven by the leaf-specific ST-LS1 promoter. These double-transformed plants were analyzed with respect to their carbohydrate metabolism, and starch accumulation was reduced in all lines of these plants. In one line with a 50% reduction of AGPase activity, the rate of CO2 assimilation was unaltered. In these plants the stromal level of triose phosphate was increased, enabling a high rate of triose phosphate export in spite of the reduction of the TPT protein by antisense repression. In a second line with a 95% reduction of AGPase activity, the amount of chlorophyll was significantly reduced as a consequence of the lowered triose phosphate utilization capacity.

Hattenbach, A.; Muller-Rober, B.; Nast, G.; Heineke, D.

1997-01-01

155

Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry of rhizodeposits - a new approach to identify potential effects of genetically modified plants on soil organisms.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were (1) to investigate the qualitative composition of rhizodeposits leached from soils cropped with non-transgenic and genetically modified (GM) potatoes, and disclose if there were GM-specific modifications in potato rhizodeposition, and (2) to compare these results with conventional bulk parameters of microbial activity in soil. We have raised potatoes from a non-transgenic line (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) and three GM lines, which expressed a gene for the resistance to kanamycin (DLH 9000) and a gene for T4 lysozyme (DL10 and DL12). A sandy soil placed in 340 cm3-"CombiSart" containers was used, from which the rhizodeposit was leached after a six-week growth period. The freeze-dried leachates were analyzed by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The Py-FI mass spectra gave detailed molecular-chemical information about the composition of leachates, indicating that the potato growth generally altered the composition of the soil solution. Moreover, a principal component analysis of the mass spectra showed differences between the leachates from the non-transgenic parent line and the GM potatoes as well as among the latter group. However, these differences in molecular composition could not be assigned to the release of T4-lysozyme into soil. Dehydrogenase activity and substrate-induced soil respiration as more common bulk parameters of soil microbial activity failed to disclose any significant effects of the various potatoes grown. The limitations of the described rhizodeposit leaching and analysis for risk assessment of GM potato cropping under field conditions are discussed critically. However, it could be concluded that the Py-FI mass spectrometric "fingerprint" can be developed as a fast, comprehensive, highly sensitive and reproducible analytical approach to discern any effects GM-crops may exert on soil ecological parameters. PMID:16978573

Melnitchouck, Alexei; Leinweber, Peter; Broer, Inge; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe

2006-01-01

156

Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.  

PubMed

The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay. PMID:21975255

Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

2010-01-01

157

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment. PMID:18289760

Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

2008-05-01

158

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

159

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food.  

PubMed

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as less natural. The extent to which GM affects the perceived naturalness of a product partly depends on the kind of product. PMID:15896875

Tenbült, Petra; de Vries, Nanne K; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

2005-08-01

160

A PIEZOELECTRIC AFFINITY BIOSENSOR FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs) DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoelectric affinity sensor, based on DNA hybridisation has been studied for applications to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) detection. The thiol\\/dextran modified surfaces were coupled to streptavidin for immobilising 5'-biotinyltead probes (25-mer). The probes sequences were respectively internal to the amplified product of P35S and T-NOS. These target sequences were chosen on the base of their wide presence in GMOs.

M. Minunni; S. Tombelli; S. Pratesi; M. Mascini; P. Piatti; P. Bogani; M. Buiatti

2001-01-01

161

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

162

Huntingtin Interacting Proteins Are Genetic Modifiers of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%–4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to co-immunoprecipitate with full-length Htt from mouse brain. These studies demonstrate that high-throughput screening for protein interactions combined with genetic validation in a model organism is a powerful approach for identifying novel candidate modifiers of polyglutamine toxicity.

Becklin, Robert R; Chettier, Rakesh; Bell, Russell; Phansalkar, Amit; Strand, Andrew; Torcassi, Cameron; Savage, Justin; Hurlburt, Anthony; Cha, Guang-Ho; Ukani, Lubna; Chepanoske, Cindy Lou; Zhen, Yuejun; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Olson, James; Kurschner, Cornelia; Ellerby, Lisa M; Peltier, John M; Botas, Juan; Hughes, Robert E

2007-01-01

163

On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity  

PubMed Central

New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

2013-01-01

164

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

165

Therapeutic potential of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells of mesodermal origin localized within the bone marrow compartment. MSC possess multilineage property making them useful for a number of potential therapeutic applications. MSC can be isolated from the bone marrow, expanded in culture and genetically modified to serve as cell carriers for local or systemic therapy. Despite their

S Kumar; D Chanda; S Ponnazhagan

2008-01-01

166

Genetically modified tumour vaccines (GMTV) in melanoma clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since melanoma is a model immunogenic malignancy incurable in the disseminated phase of its natural course different immunotherapeutic approaches are tested in clinical trials. A number of tumour vaccines genetically modified (GMTV), with various immunostimulatory factors, are tested in phase I\\/II clinical trials. These factors include cytokines, tumour antigens (TA), costimulatory molecules or HLA antigens. We have designed a novel,

Sergiusz Nawrocki; Pawe? Murawa; Julian Malicki; Malgorzata Kapcinska; Katarzyna Gryska; Dariusz Izycki; Aldona Kaczmarek; Maria Laciak; Anna Czapczyk; Aldona Karczewska; Stefan Rose-John; Andrzej Mackiewicz

2000-01-01

167

Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research using genetically modified mice has revealed significant sex differences in cardiac phenotypes. In the majority of strains, females display a lower mortality, less severe hypertrophy, better preserved function and mitigated cardiac pathology compared with male counterparts. Thus, gender is an independent determinant for the development of cardiac phenotype in murine models. While there is strong evidence for estrogen

Xiao-Jun Du

2004-01-01

168

Proposals for nutritional assessments of feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) increased from 1.7 to 81 million. ha from 1996 to 2004 (James, 2004). Scientists and farmers, but also consumers, are asking for a nutritional assessment, including safety aspects, of feeds from those plants. Substantial equivalence was created as a framework for the compositional assessment of feeds from GMP of the so-called first generation

G. Flachowsky; H. Böhme

169

Detection approaches for genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the various detection strategies for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. It begins with a brief discussion of the issues related to the technology especially the risks and public concerns. An introduction to the biological aspects of the major GMOs then follows. The bulk of the review is concerned with the different approaches toward detection: (a)

Anil K. Deisingh; Neela Badrie

2005-01-01

170

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in bioremediation and legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some authors expect genetically modified organisms (GMO) to bring a breakthrough in bioremediation. Besides biochemistry and microbial ecology, legislation and biosafety should be considered in this regard. World wide rules request risk assessment to be performed before any release of GMO to the environment. Recently, the protocol has been negotiated by UNEP to the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), which

Jaroslav Drobn??k

1999-01-01

171

Genetically Modified Organisms in Peasant Farming: Social Impact and Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's first objective is to discuss the potential social impact of the diffusion of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into peasant sectors of less developed countries. While unwanted environmental impacts of the new technology can be partially assessed in controlled, experimental settings, assessment of social impacts requires experience and observation in particular farming systems. Owing to the absence of direct

STEPHEN B. BRUSH

2001-01-01

172

Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

173

Enacting Closure in the Environmental Control of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of environmental law is to turn complex realities into coherent regulatory phenomena. The task requires ordering and boundary making. Motivated by this fact, this article studies the various types of closure through which releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are made manageable in the European Union. We analyse the legal framework for controlling environmental releases of

Helena Valve; Jussi Kauppila

2008-01-01

174

Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for genetically modified organisms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity biosensor based on DNA hybridisation is described. This biosensor has been applied to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor chip of an SPR device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the complementary sequence (target) was monitored. The probe sequences were

Elisa Mariotti; Maria Minunni; Marco Mascini

2002-01-01

175

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

176

Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European Community (EC) legal measures that govern the contained use, deliberate release, and labeling of GMOs. To illustrate Member

MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN; A. BRYAN ENDRES

2000-01-01

177

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45%

Cheah Yoke-Kqueen; Son Radu

2006-01-01

178

Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context,

Anne Constable

2002-01-01

179

Examining Consumer Behavior Toward Genetically Modified (GM) Food in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the

Alexa Spence; Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

180

Challenges for methods to detect genetically modified DNA in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative detection methods for genetically modified (GM) DNA sequences in foods have evolved fast during the past years. The sensitivity of these systems is extremely high, even for processed foodstuffs. However, in future, quantitative results about the fraction of GM material in a composite food will be needed and the fast increasing number of GM foods on the market demands

Georg A Schreiber

1999-01-01

181

Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science—biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized.

Peter Celec; Martina Kuku?ková; Veronika Renczésová; Satheesh Natarajan; Roland Pálffy; Roman Gardlík; Július Hodosy; Michal Behuliak; Barbora Vlková; Gabriel Minárik; Tomáš Szemes; Stanislav Stuchlík; Ján Tur?a

2005-01-01

182

Methodological scheme for designing the monitoring of genetically modified crops at the regional scale.  

PubMed

According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g. unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods. These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used to develop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks. PMID:16311819

Graef, F; Züghart, W; Hommel, B; Heinrich, U; Stachow, U; Werner, A

2005-12-01

183

Use of Genetically Modified Viruses and Genetically Engineered Virus-vector Vaccines: Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number

Vivian S. W. Chan

2006-01-01

184

Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.  

PubMed

Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components. PMID:17080241

Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

2006-12-01

185

Water distribution network optimization using a modified genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for water distribution network optimization. Several changes are introduced in the selection and mutation processes of a simple GA. In each generation a constant number of solutions is eliminated, the selected ones are ranked for crossover, and the new solutions are allowed to undergo at most one mutation. All these modifications greatly increase the algorithm convergence. The modified GA is tested on the New York City water supply expansion problem. It obtains the lowest-cost feasible solution reported in the literature in far fewer generations than any previous GA.

Montesinos, Pilar; Garcia-Guzman, Adela; Ayuso, Jose Luis

1999-11-01

186

A genetic analysis of quantitative resistance to late blight in potato: towards marker-assisted selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the most important fungal disease in potato cultivation worldwide. Resistance to late blight is controlled by a few major genes (R genes) which can be easily overcome by new races of P. infestans and\\/or by an unknown number of genes expressing a quantitative type of resistance which may be more durable. Quantitative

Petra Oberhagemann; Catherine Chatot-Balandras; Ralf Schäfer-Pregl; Dorothee Wegener; Carmen Palomino; Francesco Salamini; Eric Bonnel; Christiane Gebhardt

1999-01-01

187

Functional Analysis of Cystathionine ?-Synthase in Genetically Engineered Potato Plants1  

PubMed Central

In plants, metabolic pathways leading to methionine (Met) and threonine diverge at the level of their common substrate, O-phosphohomoserine (OPHS). To investigate the regulation of this branch point, we engineered transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants affected in cystathionine ?-synthase (CgS), the enzyme utilizing OPHS for the Met pathway. Plants overexpressing potato CgS exhibited either: (a) high transgene RNA levels and 2.7-fold elevated CgS activities but unchanged soluble Met levels, or (b) decreased transcript amounts and enzyme activities (down to 7% of wild-type levels). In leaf tissues, these cosuppression lines revealed a significant reduction of soluble Met and an accumulation of OPHS. Plants expressing CgS antisense constructs exhibited reductions in enzyme activity to as low as 19% of wild type. The metabolite contents of these lines were similar to those of the CgS cosuppression lines. Surprisingly, neither increased nor decreased CgS activity led to visible phenotypic alterations or significant changes in protein-bound Met levels in transgenic potato plants, indicating that metabolic flux to Met synthesis was not greatly affected. Furthermore, in vitro feeding experiments revealed that potato CgS is not subject to feedback regulation by Met, as reported for Arabidopsis. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that potato CgS catalyzes a near-equilibrium reaction and, more importantly, does not display features of a pathway-regulating enzyme. These results are inconsistent with the current hypothesis that CgS exerts major Met metabolic flux control in higher plants.

Kreft, Oliver; Hoefgen, Rainer; Hesse, Holger

2003-01-01

188

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

189

A genetic model for the endosperm balance number (EBN) in the wild potato Solanum acaule Bitt. and two related diploid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum acaule Bitt. is a disomic tetraploid potato which has been assigned two endosperm balance numbers (EBN). It readily crosses with diploids but does not cross with other tetraploid species, although exceptions have been reported. The genetic basis of this behavior was studied in intra- and interspecific crosses involving plants of four introductions of this species and plants of one

E. L. Camadro; R. W. Masuelli

1995-01-01

190

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  In Europe, the EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically\\u000a modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to:\\u000a (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved\\u000a ERA

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Jörg Römbke; Stephan Jänsch; Hanka Teichmann; Beatrix Tappeser

2011-01-01

191

In vivo characterization of skeletal phenotype of genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mouse models provide an important tool for understanding of the roles of specific gene in skeletal growth,\\u000a development, and aging. Appropriate study design is essential for characterization of skeletal phenotype of these mice. It\\u000a is important to characterize the bone status of the different phases of skeletal development including the early rapid growth,\\u000a attainment of peak bone mass,

Hua Zhu Ke

2005-01-01

192

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

193

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

194

Examining consumer behaviour toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study examined,behaviour towards genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based,sample. We used an equivalent gaintask in which participants actually received the options they chose to encoura ge truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behaviour (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavio ural influences in this domain. Here the

Alexa Spence

2006-01-01

195

Sequence-modified primers for the differential RT-PCR detection of Andean potato latent and Andean potato mild mosaic viruses in quarantine tests.  

PubMed

To enable the differential PCR detection of Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and Andean potato mild mosaic virus (APMMV) strains, sense primers were designed that correspond to regions directly upstream of the coat protein genes. Their differentiating power was increased by A->C or T->C replacements in their 3'-terminal parts. Together with the broad-specificity antisense primer EM3, primer AL-a-mod3C detected all APLV strains tested, but none of the APMMV strains. Primer AM-a-mod4C yielded PCR products with all APMMV preparations, but also with some APLV preparations. Sequence analysis revealed that this was not due to a lack of primer specificity, but to the sensitive detection of contaminating APMMV in some of our APLV preparations. PMID:24221248

Koenig, Renate; Ziebell, Heiko

2014-05-01

196

Environmental biosafety and transgenic potato in a centre of diversity for this crop.  

PubMed

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics suggests that introgression of genetic material into related species in centres of crop biodiversity is an insufficient justification to bar the use of genetically modified crops in the developing world. They consider that a precautionary approach to forgo the possible benefits invokes the fallacy of thinking that doing nothing is itself without risk to the poor. Here we report findings relevant to this and other aspects of environmental biosafety for genetically modified potato in its main centre of biodiversity, the central Andes. We studied genetically modified potato clones that provide resistance to nematodes, principal pests of Andean potato crops. We show that there is no harm to many non-target organisms, but gene flow occurs to wild relatives growing near potato crops. If stable introgression were to result, the fitness of these wild species could be altered. We therefore transformed the male sterile cultivar Revolucion to provide a genetically modified nematode-resistant potato to evaluate the benefits that this provides until the possibility of stable introgression to wild relatives is determined. Thus, scientific progress is possible without compromise to the precautionary principle. PMID:15538370

Celis, Carolina; Scurrah, Maria; Cowgill, Sue; Chumbiauca, Susana; Green, Jayne; Franco, Javier; Main, Gladys; Kiezebrink, Daan; Visser, Richard G F; Atkinson, Howard J

2004-11-11

197

Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR.  

PubMed

Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by (13)C and (31)P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced by enzyme-assisted catalytic branching with branching enzyme (BE) or combined BE and ?-amylase (BB) catalyzed exo-hydrolysis. Carbons of the glycosidic ?-1,6 linkages required high hydration rates before adopting uniform chemical shifts indicating solid-state disorder and poor water accessibility. Comparative analysis of wheat and waxy maize starches demonstrated that starches were similar upon gelatinization independent of botanical origin and that the torsion angles of the glycosidic linkages were averages of the crystalline A and B type structures. In starch suspension phosphorous in immobile regions was only observed in NA starch. Moreover phosphorous was observed in a minor pH-insensitive form and as major phosphate in hydrated GEL and BE starches. PMID:23911477

Larsen, Flemming H; Kasprzak, Miros?aw M; Lćrke, Helle N; Knudsen, Knud Erik B; Pedersen, Sven; Jřrgensen, Anne S; Blennow, Andreas

2013-09-12

198

Heterogeneity of genetic modifiers ensures normal cardiac development  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the transcription factor Nkx2-5 cause pleiotropic heart defects with incomplete penetrance. This variability suggests that additional factors can affect or prevent the mutant phenotype. We assess here the role of genetic modifiers and their interactions. Methods and Results Heterozygous Nkx2-5 knockout mice in the inbred strain background C57Bl/6 frequently have atrial and ventricular septal defects (ASD, VSD). The incidences are substantially reduced in the Nkx2-5+/? progeny of first generation (F1) outcrosses to the strains FVB/N or A/J. Defects recur in the second generation (F2) of the F1 × F1 intercross or backcrosses to the parental strains. Analysis of >3000 Nkx2-5+/? hearts from five F2 crosses demonstrates the profound influence of genetic modifiers on disease presentation. Based upon their incidences and co-incidences, anatomically distinct malformations have shared and unique modifiers. All three strains carry susceptibility alleles at different loci for ASD and VSD. Relative to the other two strains, A/J carries polymorphisms that confer greater susceptibility to ASD and atrioventricular septal defects, and C57Bl/6 to muscular VSD. Segregation analyses reveal that two or more loci influence membranous VSD susceptibility, whereas three or more loci and at least one epistatic interaction affect muscular VSD and ASD. Conclusion Alleles of modifier genes can either buffer perturbations on cardiac development or direct the manifestation of a defect. In a genetically heterogeneous population the predominant effect of modifier genes is health.

Winston, Julia B.; Erlich, Jonathan M.; Green, Courtney A.; Aluko, Ashley; Kaiser, Kristine A.; Takematsu, Mai; Barlow, Robert S.; Sureka, Ashish O.; LaPage, Martin J.; Janss, Luc L.; Jay, Patrick Y.

2010-01-01

199

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kate?ina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

200

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

201

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

202

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

203

Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.  

PubMed

In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here. PMID:11890465

Harlander, Susan K

2002-01-01

204

Detection of glycoalkaloids using disposable biosensors based on genetically modified enzymes.  

PubMed

In this work we present a rapid, selective, and highly sensitive detection of ?-solanine and ?-chaconine using cholinesterase-based sensors. The high sensitivity of the devices is brought by the use of a genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE), combined with a one-step detection method based on the measurement of inhibition slope. The selectivity was obtained by using butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme able to detect these two toxins with differential inhibition kinetics. The enzymes were immobilized via entrapment in PVA-AWP polymer directly on the working electrode surface. The analysis of the resulting inhibition slope was performed employing linear regression function included in Matlab. The high toxicity of ?-chaconine compared to ?-solanine due to a better affinity to the active site was proved. The inhibition of glycoalkaloids (GAs) mixture was performed over AChE enzyme wild-type AChE and BChE biosensors resulting in the detection of synergism effect. The developed method allows the detection of (GAs) at 50ppb in potato matrix. PMID:24747413

Espinoza, Michelle Arredondo; Istamboulie, Georges; Chira, Ana; Noguer, Thierry; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Marty, Jean-Louis

2014-07-15

205

Multitarget Real-Time PCR-Based System: Monitoring for Unauthorized Genetically Modified Events in India.  

PubMed

A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context. PMID:24971889

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

2014-07-23

206

Toxicity studies of genetically modified plants: a review of the published literature.  

PubMed

According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals during the current decade did not find, or the number was particularly small, references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods. In this paper, the scientific information concerning the potential toxicity of GM/transgenic plants using the Medline database is reviewed. Studies about the safety of the potential use of potatoes, corn, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomatoes, sweet pepper, peas, and canola plants for food and feed were included. The number of references was surprisingly limited. Moreover, most published studies were not performed by the biotechnology companies that produce these products. This review can be concluded raising the following question: where is the scientific evidence showing that GM plants/food are toxicologically safe? PMID:17987446

Domingo, José L

2007-01-01

207

[Identification of genetically modified vegetable sources in food and feed using hydrogel oligonucleotide microchip].  

PubMed

A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by the hybridization on a hydrogel oligonucleotide biochip was developed for simultaneous identification of ten different transgenic elements of plant DNA in feed and food products. The biochip contained 22 immobilized probes intended for (i) detection of plant DNA; (ii) plant species determination (soybean, maize, potato, rice); (iii) identification of transgenic elements, including 35S CaMV, 35S FMV, rice actine gene promoters, nos, 35S CaMV, ocs, pea rbcS1 gene terminators, and bar, gus, nptII marker genes. The limit of detection was 0.5% of genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize in analyzed samples. Identification of transgenic DNA in food and feed products using either the developed approach or real-time PCR led to virtually identical results. The assay can be used for selection of GM samples by screening food and feed products for subsequent quantitative determination of the GM component based on the identified transgene. PMID:22295567

Griadunov, D A; Getman, I A; Chizhova, S I; Mikha?lovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S; Romanov, G A

2011-01-01

208

Genetic Variability in the Potato Pathogen Colletotrichum coccodes as Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Vegetative Compatibility Group Analyses.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using three primer sets was used to characterize 211 Colletotrichum coccodes isolates from North America, 112 of which were assigned to six vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) using nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. These isolates clustered into five corresponding groups by unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic means-based cluster analysis of AFLP banding patterns. Isolates of C. coccodes belonging to NA-VCG1 and NA-VCG3 were closely related, as were isolates belonging to NA-VCG2 and NA-VCG5. Based on bootstrap analysis of AFLP data, the two isolates originally assigned to NA-VCG4 clustered with isolates belonging to NA-VCG2 and NA-VCG5. C. coccodes isolates that clustered with two isolates belonging to NA-VCG6 were the most diverged from other groups, including seven isolates collected from hosts other than potato. As opposed to the bootstrap analysis, a quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) of AFLP data correctly categorized the two isolates of NA-VCG4. Furthermore, in isolates where VCG determinations had been made, this model correctly classified isolates of all VCGs. QDA classifications were identical to those made by the bootstrap analysis, with the exception of VCG4. Overall, classifications made by the QDA model were strongly correlated (r = 0.970, P < 0.001) to the VCGs assigned by traditional methods. All 99 C. coccodes isolates evaluated only by AFLP also were subjected to QDA, leading to the assignment of a presumptive VCG for each isolate. No isolates of VCG4 or VCG6 were identified by QDA within this population. Symptoms of black dot developed in plants inoculated with isolates collected from both potato and non-potato hosts. However, total yield was not significantly reduced by infection with non-potato isolates. The lack of any additional groups identified by AFLP analysis may be an indicator of a limited level of genetic variation among North American C. coccodes isolates. AFLP is a much more efficient technique for subspecific characterization in C. coccodes than VCG analysis utilizing nit mutants and will provide an effective means by which the population biology of this pathogen can be further investigated worldwide. PMID:18943498

Heilmann, Larry J; Nitzan, Nadav; Johnson, Dennis A; Pasche, Julie S; Doetkott, Curt; Gudmestad, Neil C

2006-10-01

209

Direct production of ethanol from raw sweet potato starch using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct production of ethanol from sweet potato starch by Zymomonas mobilis required the construction of four fused glucoamylase genes from Aspergillus awamori using recombinant polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and inserted into the broad-host-range vector pBBR1MCS-2. After electro transformation of the four recombinant plasmids into Z. mobilis, it was discovered that only the plasmid pGA0 offered the transformants the phenotype

Ming-xiong He; Hong Feng; Fan Bai; Yi Li; Xun Liu; Yi-zheng Zhang

2009-01-01

210

Field resistance against potato virus Y infection using natural and genetically engineered resistance genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial tobacco cultivars BB16 (burley) and PBD6 (dark air cured) were transformed with the coat protein gene of lettuce mosaic potyvirus (LMV). Transgenic BB16 plants showed resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) infection, against the necrotic strain PVY-N Versailles, as well as the resistance breaking necrotic strain PVY-N 107. Transgenic PBD6, which carries the recessive ‘va’ gene conferring resistance to

S. Dinant; C. Kusiak; B. Cailleteau; J. L. Verrier; M. C. Chupeau; Y. Chupeau; Thi Anh Hong Le; R. Delon; J. Albouy

1998-01-01

211

Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for Potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however, one report in the literature describes the presence of viroid RNA in the xylem ring of potato tubers. In this study, a modified method based on an EDTA-mediated phloem exudation technique was applied for detection of PSTVd in the phloem of infected tomato plants. RT-PCR, nucleic acid sequencing, and Southern blot analyses of RT-PCR products verified the presence of viroid RNA in phloem exudates. In addition, the guttation fluid collected from the leaves of PSTVd-infected tomato plants was analyzed revealing the absence of viroid RNA in the xylem sap. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PSTVd RNA detection in phloem exudates obtained by the EDTA-mediated exudation technique. PMID:24388932

Kovalskaya, Natalia; Owens, Robert; Baker, C Jacyn; Deahl, Kenneth; Hammond, Rosemarie W

2014-03-01

212

[Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].  

PubMed

This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

Spendeler, Liliane

2005-01-01

213

The genetic architecture of a niche: variation and covariation in host use traits in the Colorado potato beetle.  

PubMed

The genetic basis of host plant use by phytophagous insects can provide insight into the evolution of ecological niches, especially phenomena such as specialization and phylogenetic conservatism. We carried out a quantitative genetic analysis of multiple host use traits, estimated on five species of host plants, in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Mean values of all characters varied among host plants, providing evidence that adaptation to plants may require evolution of both behavioral (preference) and post-ingestive physiological (performance) characteristics. Significant additive genetic variation was detected for several characters on several hosts, but not in the capacity to use the two major hosts, a pattern that might be caused by directional selection. No negative genetic correlations across hosts were detected for any 'performance' traits, i.e. we found no evidence of trade-offs in fitness on different plants. Larval consumption was positively genetically correlated across host plants, suggesting that diet generalization might evolve as a distinct trait, rather than by independent evolution of feeding responses to each plant species, but several other traits did not show this pattern. We explored genetic correlations among traits expressed on a given plant species, in a first effort to shed light on the number of independent traits that may evolve in response to selection for host-plant utilization. Most traits were not correlated with each other, implying that adaptation to a novel potential host could be a complex, multidimensional 'character' that might constrain adaptation and contribute to the pronounced ecological specialization and the phylogenetic niche conservatism that characterize many clades of phytophagous insects. PMID:17465909

Forister, M L; Ehmer, A G; Futuyma, D J

2007-05-01

214

Improvement of plastid transformation efficiency in potato by using vectors with homologous flanking sequences.  

PubMed

Low transformation frequencies limit the use of plastid transformation in potato and other crops. Hence, a breakthrough in chloroplast genetic engineering of agronomically important species is a highly desirable goal. We succeeded in achieving potato transformation efficiency up to one shoot every bombardment using a modified regeneration procedure and novel vectors containing potato flanking sequences for transgene integration by homologous recombination in the Large Single Copy region of the plastome. Vector delivery was performed by the biolistic approach. Such efficiency corresponds to 15-18-fold improvement compared to previous results obtained in potato with a progenitor vector of that used in our study, and is comparable to that usually achieved with tobacco. The results obtained represent a significant advancement towards the implementation of the plastid transformation technology in potato breeding and biotechnology. PMID:21865861

Scotti, Nunzia; Valkov, Vladimir T; Cardi, Teodoro

2011-01-01

215

Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.  

PubMed

Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czy?ewska, Krystyna

2013-01-01

216

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900

Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

2006-12-15

217

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

218

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

219

Genetically modified T lymphocytes: more than just direct effectors.  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Russo V, Pilla L, Lunghi F et al. Clinical and immunologic responses in melanoma patients vaccinated with MAGE-A3-genetically modified lymphocytes. Int. J. Cancer 132(11), 2557-2566 (2012). When one mentions T lymphocytes, one easily recognizes the effective and antigen-specific manner by which T lymphocytes execute cellular immune responses towards pathogen-infected or cancerous cells. Russo and coworkers recognized the other side of the coin and exploited the potency of T cells to act as a cellular vaccine, to which end they used T cells transduced with the cancer-testis antigen MAGE-A3. Twenty-three patients with MAGE-A3-expressing melanoma were treated and six patients developed MAGE-A3-specific immune responses and showed clinical benefit, whereas patients without a MAGE-A3-specific immune response did not show clinical benefit. This report includes and extends on results from a pilot study including ten patients, of which three developed MAGE-A3-specific immune responses. The present study further explores a potential beneficial application of the observed immunogenicity of genetically modified T cells. PMID:23829619

Lamers, Cor H J; Debets, Reno

2013-07-01

220

Mucosal vaccination and therapy with genetically modified lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vehicles that overcome the problem of delivering functional proteins to the mucosal tissues. By the intranasal route, both live and killed LAB vaccine strains have been shown to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses that afford protection against infectious challenges. To be effective via oral administration, frequent dosing over several weeks is required but new targeting and adjuvant strategies have clearly demonstrated the potential to increase the immunogenicity and protective immunity of LAB vaccines. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis has been shown to induce antigen-specific oral tolerance (OT) to secreted recombinant antigens. LAB delivery is more efficient at inducing OT than the purified antigen, thus avoiding the need for purification of large quantities of antigen. This approach holds promise for new therapeutic interventions in allergies and antigen-induced autoimmune diseases. Several clinical and research reports demonstrate considerable progress in the application of genetically modified L. lactis for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New medical targets are on the horizon, and the approval by several health authorities and biosafety committees of a containment system for a genetically modified L. lactis that secretes Il-10 should pave the way for new LAB delivery applications in the future. PMID:22129390

Wells, Jerry

2011-01-01

221

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces.

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

222

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

223

[Current approaches to the evaluation of genetically modified food products. Soybean 40-3-2 data].  

PubMed

Different methodological approaches were elaborated to evaluate quality and safety of genetically modified food products. The new engineering is proposed to rate medical, biological, genetic and technological advantage of these products. Using the same engineering, a complete analysis of the genetically modified soybean 40-3-2 ("Monsanto Co", USA) has been performed. PMID:10641272

Onishchenko, G G; Tutel'ian, V A; Petukhov, A I; Korolev, A A; Aksiuk, I N; Sorokina, E Iu

1999-01-01

224

Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. Objective: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. Design: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5–10 y of age (BMI-z5to10). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z5to10 (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. Results: The median BMI-z5to10 was ?0.07 (range: ?3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z5to10 was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z5to10 than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ?16% and ?15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. Conclusions: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.

Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

2012-01-01

225

In vivo osteoarthritis target validation utilizing genetically-modified mice.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease of cartilage degradation that significantly impacts quality of life. There are currently no effective treatments and, while a large number of potential therapeutic targets exist, most have not been validated in vivo. The range of OA models in the mouse has dramatically expanded in the last decade, beyond spontaneous models, to include genetically modified transgenic, knockout (KO) and knock-in (KI) mice that can develop premature cartilage degeneration reminiscent of OA. In addition, instability models of OA, either induced by intra-articular (IA) collagenase or surgery, are providing a set of tools to assist in the identification of disease-modifying OA drug (DMOAD) targets. These models are now vital tools to dissect the pathways essential to the pathogenesis of OA. Two targets, ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like motifs)-5 and IL-1beta (interleukin-1 beta), have been validated in the surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus model (DMM) in KO mice. Other potential targets evaluated in instability models, either showed no disease modification or a worsening of disease, suggesting that those targets have no role, a protective role or that other, more destructive enzymes etc., can overcompensate. Development of small molecule or protein antagonist inhibitors of therapeutic targets require many years to bring to clinical trials and often confront potency and safety issues which impede successful progress. Validation, or confirmation of therapeutic targets in vivo is most clearly and efficiently obtained by using KO studies, than by creating potent and selective DMOADs to multiple potential targets. While the results in the mouse will not always transpose to the human condition, the track record of mouse knockouts corresponding to the human phenotype have been excellent. These results indicate that the evaluation of genetically modified mice will become increasingly important as we unravel the genes contributing to OA. PMID:17305514

Glasson, Sonya S

2007-02-01

226

Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and

W. K Novak; A. G Haslberger

2000-01-01

227

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

228

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

229

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

230

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods by protein- and DNA-based techniques: bridging the methods.  

PubMed

According to European Commission (EC) Regulation 1139/98, foods and food ingredients that are to be delivered to the final consumer in which either protein or DNA resulting from genetic modification is present, shall be subject to additional specific labeling requirements. Since 1994, genetically altered tomatoes, squash, potatoes, canola, cotton, and soy have been on the market. Recently, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize varieties have been introduced. Soy and maize are 2 of the most important vegetable crops in the world. During the past 4 years, both protein- and DNA-based methods have been developed and applied for detection of transgenic soy and maize, and their derivatives. For protein-based detection, specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have been developed; for immunochemical detection, Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are the most prominent examples. For detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) at the level of DNA, polymerase chain reaction-based methods are mainly used. For these reactions, highly specific primer sets are needed. This study compares the principally different methods. Specificity of methods and the possible risks of false-positive or false-negative results are considered in relation to sampling, matrix effects, and food processing procedures. In addition, quantitative aspects of protein- and DNA-based GM detection methods are presented and discussed. This is especially relevant as EC regulation 49/2000, which defines a threshold for an unintentional comingling of 1%, came into force on April 10, 2000. PMID:12083276

van Duijn, Gert J; van Biert, Ria; Bleeker-Marcelis, Henriette; Van Boeijen, Ineke; Adan, Abdi Jama; Jhakrie, Soeniei; Hessing, Martin

2002-01-01

231

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

PubMed

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

232

Ascomycete communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat are not affected by introductions of genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r.  

PubMed

A long-term field experiment (1999-2002) was conducted to monitor effects on the indigenous microflora of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and two transgenic derivatives constitutively producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) or 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). The strains were introduced as seed coating on wheat into the same field plots each year. Rhizosphere populations of ascomycetes were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). To evaluate the significance of changes caused by the genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs), they were compared with effects caused by a crop rotation from wheat to potato. In the first year, only the combination of both GMMs caused a significant shift in the ascomycete community. After the repeated introductions this effect was no longer evident. However, cropping potato significantly affected the ascomycete community. This effect persisted into the next year when wheat was grown. Clone libraries were constructed from samples taken in 1999 and 2000, and sequence analysis indicated ascomycetes of common genera to be present. Most species occurred in low frequencies, distributed almost evenly in all treatments. However, in 1999 Microdochium occurred in relatively high frequencies, whereas in the following year no Microdochium species were detected. On the other hand, Fusarium-like organisms were low in 1999, and increased in 2000. Both the DGGE and the sequence analysis revealed that repeated introduction of P. putida WCS358r had no major effects on the ascomycete community in the wheat rhizosphere, but demonstrated a persistent difference between the rhizospheres of potato and wheat. PMID:16232292

Viebahn, Mareike; Doornbos, Rogier; Wernars, Karel; van Loon, Leendert C; Smit, Eric; Bakker, Peter A H M

2005-11-01

233

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

234

Global market effects of alternative European responses to genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Market Effects of Alternative European Responses to Genetically Modified Organisms. — Current debates about genetically\\u000a modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture reveal substantial differences in the perception of the associated risks and benefits.\\u000a Genetically modified crop varieties allegedly provide farmers with agronomic benefits, but environmental, health and ethical\\u000a concerns are also being raised. This paper discusses the ways in which

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson

2001-01-01

235

Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food. PMID:16298508

Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

2005-12-01

236

Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.  

PubMed

Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively. PMID:17184407

Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

2006-12-01

237

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

2010-01-01

238

Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.  

PubMed

The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods. PMID:19146501

Magańa-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

2009-01-01

239

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges  

PubMed Central

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

240

A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

2011-05-01

241

In vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed--with particular regard to ingredients consisting of genetically modified plant materials.  

PubMed

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration:--ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals/fish--ingredients produced by/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present--studies on consequences for the environment or biodiversity--in vitro studies or computer simulations. According to a Norwegian report "Gen-mat" (NOU 2000:29), and a more recent search in Medline and Citations Index, to our knowledge a total of ten studies have been published on the health effects of GM-foods and feeds. In this minireview the data made available in these published studies is discussed. PMID:12803276

Pryme, Ian F; Lembcke, Rolf

2003-01-01

242

Evaluation of modified PCR quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean using reference molecules: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative methods were previously developed and validated for genetically modified (GM) maize or soy. In this study, the quantification step of the validated methods was modified, and an interlaboratory study was conducted. The modification included the introduction of the PCR system SSIIb 3 instead of SSIIb 1 for the detection of the taxon-specific sequence of maize, as well as the adoption of colE1 as a carrier included in a reference plasmid solution as a replacement for salmon testis. The interlaboratory study was conducted with the ABI PRISM 7700 and consisted of 2 separate stages: (1) the measurement of conversion factor (Cf) value, which is the ratio of recombinant DNA (r-DNA) sequence to taxon-specific sequence in each genuine GM seed, and (2) the quantification of blind samples. Additionally, Cf values of other instruments, such as the ABI PRISM 7900 and the ABI PRISM 7000, were measured in a multilaboratory trial. After outlier laboratories were eliminated, the repeatability and reproducibility for 5.0% samples were <15.8 and 20.6%, respectively. The quantitation limits of these methods were 0.5% for Bt11, T25, and MON810, and 0.1% for GA21, Event176, and RR soy. The quantitation limits, trueness, and precision of the current modified methods were equivalent to those of the previous methods. Therefore, it was concluded that the modified methods would be a suitable replacement for the validated methods. PMID:19382580

Kodama, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2009-01-01

243

Origin and genetic diversity of Western European populations of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) inferred from mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Native to South America, the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is one of the principal pests of Andean potato crops and is also an important global pest following its introduction to Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and Oceania. Building on earlier work showing a clear south to north phylogeographic pattern in Peruvian populations, we have been able to identify the origin of Western European populations with high accuracy. They are all derived from a single restricted area in the extreme south of Peru, located between the north shore of the Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Only four cytochrome b haplotypes are found in Western Europe, one of them being also found in some populations of this area of southern Peru. The allelic richness at seven microsatellite loci observed in the Western European populations, although only one-third of that observed in this part of southern Peru, is comparable to the allelic richness observed in the northern region of Peru. This result could be explained by the fact that most of the genetic variability observed at the scale of a field or even of a region is already observed at the scale of a single plant within a field. Thus, even introduction via a single infected potato plant could result in the relatively high genetic variability observed in Western Europe. This finding has important consequences for the control of this pest and the development of quarantine measures. PMID:18410291

Plantard, O; Picard, D; Valette, S; Scurrah, M; Grenier, E; Mugniéry, D

2008-05-01

244

Risk assessment for volunteer and seedling GM potatoes in the northernmost European growing areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) could represent a risk to conventional production if volunteer plants develop from tubers or true seeds that survive until the following growing season. We studied such risks under northernmost European conditions and monitored the effects of cultivar, tuber size and tuber depth in the soil on winter survival at MTT

Leo Mustonen; Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Katri Pahkala

2009-01-01

245

Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging.

Muhlisin, S. M. Kang; Choi, W. H.; Lee, K. T.; Cheong, S. H.; Lee, S. K.

2012-01-01

246

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

247

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2001-01-01

248

Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: a history of the genetically modified organisms debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and

Ryuma Shineha; Kazuto Kato

2009-01-01

249

A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2014-02-01

250

Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study.

Kleter, Gijs A.

2005-01-01

251

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cańas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

252

Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.  

PubMed

India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule. PMID:23143480

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

2013-01-01

253

Improved properties of micronized genetically modified flax fibers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of micronization on the compound content, crystalline structure and physicochemical properties of fiber from genetically modified (GM) flax. The GM flax was transformed with three bacterial (Ralstonia eutropha) genes coding for enzymes of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis and under the control of the vascular bundle promoter. The modification resulted in fibers containing the 3-hydroxybutyrate polymer bound to cellulose via hydrogen and ester bonds and antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids, vanillin, vitexin, etc.). The fibers appeared to have a significantly decreased particle size after 20h of ball-milling treatment. Micronized fibers showed reduced phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity compared to the results for untreated fibers. An increased level of PHB was also detected. Micronization introduces structural changes in fiber constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, PHB) and micronized fibers exhibit more functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl) derived from those constituents. It is thus concluded that micronization treatments improve the functional properties of the fiber components. PMID:23353730

Dymi?ska, Lucyna; Szatkowski, Micha?; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Magdalena; Kurzawa, Adam; Syska, Wojciech; G?gor, Anna; Zawadzki, Miros?aw; Ptak, Maciej; M?czka, Miros?aw; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

2012-12-15

254

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

255

Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm  

PubMed Central

We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout of the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide that show enhanced (i.e. prolonged) freezing in fear conditioning. We have tested the hypothesis that the mutants freeze longer because they are more uncertain than wild types about when to expect the electric shock. The knockouts however show normal accuracy and precision in timing, so we have rejected this alternative hypothesis. Last, we conduct the pharmacological validation of our behavioral screen using D-amphetamine and methamphetamine. We suggest including the analysis of interval timing and temporal memory in tests of genetically modified mice for learning and memory and argue that our paradigm allows this to be done simply and efficiently.

Balci, F.; Papachristos, E. B.; Gallistel, C. R.; Brunner, D.; Gibson, J.; Shumyatsky, G. P.

2009-01-01

256

Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.  

PubMed

This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price. PMID:16834625

Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

2006-06-01

257

Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore–natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid–parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited.

von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J. F.; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jorg

2011-01-01

258

Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the environmental consequences of genetically modified rice. Within the next few years, many types of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) will be ready for commercialization, including varieties with higher yields, greater tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, resistance to herbicides, improved nutritional quality, and novel pharmaceutical proteins. Although rice is primarily self-pollinating, its transgenes are expected to disperse to nearby weedy and wild relatives through pollen-mediated gene flow. Sexually compatible Oryza species often co-occur with the crop, especially in tropical countries, but little is known about how quickly fitness-enhancing transgenes will accumulate in these populations and whether this process will have any unwanted environmental consequences. For example, weedy rice could become much more difficult to manage if it acquires herbicide resistance, produces more seeds, or occurs in a wider range of habitats because of the spread of certain transgenes. Rice-growing countries urgently need publicly available ecological assessments of the risks and benefits of transgenic rice before new varieties are released.

BAO-RONG LU and ALLISON A. SNOW (;)

2005-08-01

259

Potato with growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

260

Normal operating range of bacterial communities in soil used for potato cropping.  

PubMed

In this study, the impacts of six potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars with different tuber starch allocations (including one genetically modified [GM] line) on the bacterial communities in field soil were investigated across two growth seasons interspersed with 1 year of barley cultivation, using quantitative PCR, clone library, and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. It was hypothesized that the modifications in the tuber starch contents of these plants, yielding changed root growth rates and exudation patterns, might have elicited altered bacterial communities in the soil. The data showed that bacterial abundances in the bulk soil varied over about 2 orders of magnitude across the 3 years. As expected, across all cultivars, positive potato rhizosphere effects on bacterial abundances were noted in the two potato years. The bulk soil bacterial community structures revealed progressive shifts across time, and moving-window analysis revealed a 60% change over the total experiment. Consistent with previous findings, the community structures in the potato rhizosphere compartments were mainly affected by the growth stage of the plants and, to a lesser extent, by plant cultivar type. The data from the soil under the non-GM potato lines were then taken to define the normal operating range (NOR) of the microbiota under potatoes. Interestingly, the bacterial communities under the GM potato line remained within this NOR. In regard to the bacterial community compositions, particular bacterial species in the soil appeared to be specific to (i) the plant species under investigation (barley versus potato) or, with respect to potatoes, (ii) the plant growth stage. Members of the genera Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Rhodanobacter, and Dokdonella were consistently found only at the flowering potato plants in both seasons, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sporosarcina were observed only in the soil planted to barley. PMID:23220956

Inceoglu, Özgül; van Overbeek, Leo Simon; Falcăo Salles, Joana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2013-02-01

261

Normal Operating Range of Bacterial Communities in Soil Used for Potato Cropping  

PubMed Central

In this study, the impacts of six potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars with different tuber starch allocations (including one genetically modified [GM] line) on the bacterial communities in field soil were investigated across two growth seasons interspersed with 1 year of barley cultivation, using quantitative PCR, clone library, and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. It was hypothesized that the modifications in the tuber starch contents of these plants, yielding changed root growth rates and exudation patterns, might have elicited altered bacterial communities in the soil. The data showed that bacterial abundances in the bulk soil varied over about 2 orders of magnitude across the 3 years. As expected, across all cultivars, positive potato rhizosphere effects on bacterial abundances were noted in the two potato years. The bulk soil bacterial community structures revealed progressive shifts across time, and moving-window analysis revealed a 60% change over the total experiment. Consistent with previous findings, the community structures in the potato rhizosphere compartments were mainly affected by the growth stage of the plants and, to a lesser extent, by plant cultivar type. The data from the soil under the non-GM potato lines were then taken to define the normal operating range (NOR) of the microbiota under potatoes. Interestingly, the bacterial communities under the GM potato line remained within this NOR. In regard to the bacterial community compositions, particular bacterial species in the soil appeared to be specific to (i) the plant species under investigation (barley versus potato) or, with respect to potatoes, (ii) the plant growth stage. Members of the genera Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Rhodanobacter, and Dokdonella were consistently found only at the flowering potato plants in both seasons, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sporosarcina were observed only in the soil planted to barley.

Inceoglu, Ozgul; van Overbeek, Leo Simon; Falcao Salles, Joana

2013-01-01

262

Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed Central

Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

2003-01-01

263

Evaluation of catalytic free energies in genetically modified proteins.  

PubMed

A combination of the empirical valence bond method and a free energy perturbation approach is used to simulate the activity of genetically modified enzymes. The simulations reproduce in a semiquantitative way the observed effects of mutations on the activity and binding free energies of trypsin and subtilisin. This suggests that we are approaching a stage of quantitative structure-function correlation of enzymes. The analysis of the calculations points towards the electrostatic energy of the reacting system as the key factor in enzyme catalysis. The changes in the charges of the reacting system and the corresponding changes in "solvation" free energy (generalized here as the interaction between the charges and the given microenvironment) are emphasized. It is argued that a reliable evaluation of these changes might be sufficient for correlating structure and catalysis. The use of free energy perturbation methods and thermodynamic cycles for evaluation of solvation energies and reactivity is discussed, pointing out our early contributions. The apparent elaborated nature of our treatment is clarified, explaining that such a treatment is essential for consistent calculations of chemical reactions in polar environments. The problems associated with seemingly more rigorous quantum mechanical methods are discussed, emphasizing the inconsistency associated with using gas phase charge distributions. The importance of dynamic aspects is examined by evaluating the autocorrelation of the protein "reaction field" on the reacting substrate. It is found that, at least in the present case, dynamic effects are not important. The nature of the catalytic free energy is considered, arguing that the protein provides preoriented dipoles (polarized to stabilize the transition state charge distribution) and small reorganization energy, thus reducing the activation free energy. The corresponding catalytic free energy is related to the folding free energy, which is being invested in aligning the active site dipoles. PMID:3047396

Warshel, A; Sussman, F; Hwang, J K

1988-05-01

264

Transgene x Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.

Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-01-01

265

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

266

Glasshouse behaviour of eight transgenic potato clones with a modified nitrate reductase expression under two fertilization regimes.  

PubMed

In this study, eight transformed Solanum tuberosum L. plants, affected in their nitrate assimilatory pathway by the introduction of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (Nia2), were cultivated in glasshouse conditions at INRA Ploudaniel (West Brittany, France). Two irrigation regimes were compared and plants were sampled at four stages of vegetation. Yield, tuber dry matter content, total nitrogen content, nitrate content in the whole plant, and nitrate reductase activities were studied. High frequency irrigation with nutritive solutions negatively affects both yield and dry matter content in tubers. Moreover, the introduction of the tobacco Nia2 gene in the potato genome does not seem to affect the agronomical parameters of the initial genotype apart from the nitrate content of tubers. Five transgenic genotypes out of eight, in fact, showed a drastic decrease (of around 98%) in their tuber nitrate content. This nitrate decrease in the tubers was also correlated with the presence of the mRNA transgene, whereas the potato nitrate reductase transcript does not seem to be expressed in wild-type tubers. Regarding these genotypes, developmental stage and nutritive solution supply were found to have no effect on tuber nitrate content. In fact, tubers derived from these clones exhibited low nitrate content throughout the vegetation period, while nitrate accumulation in wild-type tubers is progressive and increases sharply with high nutritive solution supply. PMID:11971915

Djennane, Samia; Chauvin, Jean-Eric; Meyer, Christian

2002-05-01

267

Potato: A Comparative Study of the Effect of Cultivars and Cultivation Conditions and Genetic Modification on the PhysicoChemical Properties of Potato Tubers in Conjunction with Multivariate Analysis Towards Authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly nutritious, mild flavored, easy to blend food that has many possibilities for “building in” desired nutrients. Varietal and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size, and nutritional content of potatoes. Different populations opt for varying sensory properties in relation to their diets. Potatoes are a low energy food in comparison

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Olga Vaitsi; Athanassios Mavromatis

2008-01-01

268

Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States,\\u000a accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking,\\u000a boiling, roasting, frying, steaming, and microwaving, allowing for a diversity of uses. Most people find potatoes to be an\\u000a agreeable food and

Shelley H. Jansky

2010-01-01

269

5'Nuclease PCR for quantitative event-specific detection of the genetically modified Mon810 MaisGard maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified maize is grown extensively in the world today. MaisGard (Monsanto, Yieldgard in the USA) is a genetically modified maize harbouring the Mon810 transformation event. European Community legislation requires that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) be approved before they are placed on the market. Labelling is required when more than 1% of any ingredient of a food originates from a

Askild Holck; Marc Vaďtilingom; Luc Didierjean; Knut Rudi

2002-01-01

270

Diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and root interior of field-grown genetically modified Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant roots significantly affect microbial diversity in soil, but little is known on how genetically modified plants influence soil microbial communities. We conducted a 2-year field study to assess the effects of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified canola (oilseed rape, Brassica sp.) on microbial biodiversity in the rhizosphere. During the 1998 and 1999 field seasons, four genetically modified and four conventional canola

Kari E Dunfield; James J Germida

2001-01-01

271

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431

Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

2010-03-01

272

Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most significant research findings in this time period include: 1) data supporting the effectiveness of skin grafts from genetically-modified swine transplanted onto full-thickness wounds on baboons when compared to the standard treatment (allogeneic ...

D. Sachs

2011-01-01

273

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

274

Oviposition of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and natural predation on its egg masses in Bt-expressing fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalist predators are relevant natural enemies of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) in Europe. In fields of insect resistant genetically modified plants (GMPs), predators could be exposed to toxins either directly (e.g., via pollen), or indirectly through feeding on herbivorous prey. Hence, they represent an important functional group to consider when studying environmental impacts of GMPs. CPB females show a

S. Arpaia; J. E. U. Schmidt; G. M. Di Leo; M. C. Fiore

2009-01-01

275

Three vitrification-based cryopreservation procedures cause different cryo-injuries to potato shoot tips while all maintain genetic integrity in regenerants.  

PubMed

We previously reported successful cryopreservation of shoot tips of potato 'Zihuabai' by three vitrification-based protocols. In the present study, cryo-injury to shoot tips and genetic stability in regenerants recovered from cryopreserved shoot tips by the three vitrification-based protocols were further investigated. The results showed that sucrose preculture caused no obviously different injuries, while dehydration with plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) was the step causing major damage to cells of shoot tips, regardless of the cryogenic procedures. Compared with droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification caused the most severe injury to cells of the shoot tips, thus resulting in much longer time duration for shoot recovery and much lower shoot regrowth rate. Cells in apical dome and the youngest leaf primordia were able to survive and subsequently some of them regrew into shoots following all three vitrification-based cryopreservation procedures. Analyses using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in shoots regrown from all three vitrification-based protocols did not find any polymorphic bands. The results reported here suggest that vitrification-based cryo-procedures can be considered promising methods for long-term preservation of potato genetic resources. PMID:24858678

Wang, Biao; Li, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Ren-Rui; Ma, Yan-Li; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Keller, E R Joachim; Wang, Qiao-Chun

2014-08-20

276

Growth promotion of genetically modified hematopoietic progenitors using an antibody\\/c-Mpl chimera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombopoietin is a potent cytokine that exerts proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through its cognate receptor, c-Mpl. Therefore, mimicry of c-Mpl signaling by a receptor recognizing an artificial ligand would be attractive to attain specific expansion of genetically modified HSCs. Here we propose a system enabling selective expansion of genetically modified cells using an antibody\\/receptor chimera that can be

Masahiro Kawahara; Jianhong Chen; Takahiro Sogo; Jinying Teng; Makoto Otsu; Masafumi Onodera; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Hiroshi Ueda; Teruyuki Nagamune

2011-01-01

277

Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both

G. Moulin

278

Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods.

Bahri Karli; Abdulbaki Bilgic; Bulent Miran

2008-01-01

279

Implications of Genetically Modified Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ?golden rice,? which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

2004-01-01

280

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

2007-01-01

281

Mutant and genetically modified mice as models for studying the relationship between aging and carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest is emerging in using mouse models to assess the genetics of aging and age-related diseases, including cancer. However, only limited information is available regarding the relationship between aging and spontaneous tumor development in genetically modified mice. Analysis of various transgenic and knockout rodent models with either a shortened or an extended life span, provides a unique opportunity to

Vladimir N Anisimov

2001-01-01

282

Erratum: Invasion of transgenes from salmon or other genetically modified organisms into natural populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been widespread concern about the ecological and genetic effects of genetically modified organisms. In salmon and other fishes, transgenic growth hormone genes have been shown to have large ef- fects on size and various traits related to fitness. In this paper, I have shown by using a deterministic model that if such a transgene has

Philip W. Hedrick

2001-01-01

283

EU–US Trade Disputes about Risk Regulation: The Case of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of crops increasingly employs genetically modified organisms worldwide. The nature and the probability of side and latent effects of the mass use of genetic engineering are, at present, unforeseeable. A trade-off between risks and benefits is therefore hard to define. The precautionary principle is a globally known though not undisputed approach to handling such uncertainties. Its application is

Arno Scherzberg

2006-01-01

284

The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler

285

Potato homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes functional in defense signaling--identification, genetic mapping, and molecular cloning.  

PubMed

Defense against pests and pathogens is a fundamental process controlled by similar molecular mechanisms in all flowering plants. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model, steps of the signal transduction pathways that link pathogen recognition to defense activation have been identified and corresponding genes have been characterized. Defense signaling (DS) genes are functional candidates for controlling natural quantitative variation of resistance to plant pathogens. Nineteen Arabidopsis genes operating in defense signaling cascades were selected. Solanaceae EST (expressed sequence tag) databases were employed to identify the closest homologs of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Sixteen novel DS potato homologs were positioned on the molecular maps. Five DS homologs mapped close to known quantitative resistance loci (QRL) against the oomycete Phytophthora infestans causing late blight and the bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica causing blackleg of stems and tuber soft rot. The five genes are positional candidates for QRL and are highly sequence related to Arabidopsis genes AtSGT1b, AtPAD4, and AtAOS. Full-length complementary DNA and genomic sequences were obtained for potato genes StSGT1, StPAD4, and StEDS1, the latter being a putative interactor of StPAD4. Our results form the basis for further studies on the contributions of these candidate genes to natural variation of potato disease resistance. PMID:16255250

Pajerowska, Karolina M; Parker, Jane E; Gebhardt, Christiane

2005-10-01

286

[Principles of production of genetically modified food sources].  

PubMed

Methods of genetic engineering have given a powerful impulse to the development of fundamental and applied biology and biotechnology of plants. Methods of genetic plant transformation, such as agrobacterium-mediated and microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation have been used for a long time. These methods allow production of transgenic plants which express the genes of interest. Dozens of transgenic plants have been obtained by now, and their number is steadily increasing. PMID:16320704

Kirpichnikov, M P; Tyshko, N V

2005-01-01

287

Simultaneous antisense inhibition of two starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers leads to accumulation of grossly modified amylopectin.  

PubMed Central

A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch granules, which became extremely distorted in appearance compared with the control lines. Analysis of the starch indicated that the amounts produced in the tubers, and the amylose content of the starch, were not affected by the reduction in activity. In order to understand why the starch granules were distorted, amylopectin was isolated and the constituent chain lengths analysed. This indicated that the amylopectin was very different to that of the control. It contained more chains of fewer than 15 glucose units in length, and fewer of between 15 and 80 glucose units. In addition, the amylopectin contained more very long chains. Amylopectin from plants repressed in just one of the activities of the two starch-synthase isoforms, which we have reported upon previously, were also analysed. Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together.

Lloyd, J R; Landschutze, V; Kossmann, J

1999-01-01

288

Do You Really Know What You're Eating? A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting from a fictional “news” report about an apparent allergic reaction to a taco tainted by genetically modified corn, students consider some of the techniques and procedures used in modern molecular genetics and microbiology as well as some of the issues associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Originally designed for role-play and PowerPoint assignments, suggestions for a shortened version are also provided. Suitable for a general microbiology course, the case could also be used in an introductory molecular biology course with appropriate modifications. Various levels of coverage of the topic of recombinant DNA are possible.

Shew, Wayne; Reese, Mary C.

2007-01-01

289

Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy.

Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

2013-01-01

290

Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

2013-01-01

291

Systemic Delivery of Recombinant Proteins by Genetically Modified Myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth

Eliav Barr; Jeffrey M. Leiden

1991-01-01

292

Genetic mechanisms and modifying factors in hereditary hemochromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary iron overload is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. Several genetic mutations underlie the various forms of the disease, which have similar pathophysiological profiles but distinct clinical presentations. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis absorb too much iron from the diet, which accumulates over time within parenchymal cells. This accumulation leads to eventual organ failure as a consequence of

Günter Weiss

2009-01-01

293

Memory and behavior: a second generation of genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of standard genetic techniques, such as gene targeting and transgenesis, to study cognitive function in adult animals suffers from the limitations that the gene under study is often altered in many brain regions, and that this alteration is present during the entire developmental history of the animal. Furthermore, to relate cognitive defects to neuronal mechanisms of memory, studies

Mark Mayford; Isabelle M Mansuy; Robert U Muller; Eric R Kandel

1997-01-01

294

Genetic Rearrangements Can Modify Chromatin Features at Epialleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogous to genetically distinct alleles, epialleles represent heritable states of different gene expression from sequence-identical genes. Alleles and epialleles both contribute to phenotypic heterogeneity. While alleles originate from mutation and recombination, the source of epialleles is less well understood. We analyze active and inactive epialleles that were found at a transgenic insert with a selectable marker gene in Arabidopsis. Both

Andrea M. Foerster; Huy Q. Dinh; Laura Sedman; Bonnie Wohlrab; Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid

2011-01-01

295

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

2007-01-01

296

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

297

ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

298

Implementation of genetic algorithm and modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm for transmission loss minimum re-scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission loss minimum re-scheduling method by genetic algorithm and modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are proposed. The problem is a complex mixed integer programming problem. A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search or optimization algorithm based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics where modified shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (MSFLA), which is an improved version of memetic algorithm,

Priyanka Roy; A. Chakrabarti

2011-01-01

299

[Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].  

PubMed

Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. PMID:21111655

Aris, A; Paris, K

2010-12-01

300

Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts  

SciTech Connect

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1991-12-06

301

Genetically Modified Food: GM Crops: Time to Choose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this Nature Web focus explains, "just four countries account for 99% of the world's commercially grown transgenic crops," and other countries "have been stalling over whether to embrace transgenic agriculture, but won't be able to put off the decision for much longer." Readers can get an in-depth look at this issue with free features from Nature, including recent news articles, an interactive map of the world, and a link to Nature Reviews Genetics_ (also free of charge).

302

Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic\\u000a engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines\\u000a and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors,\\u000a biotechnology has the potential to make significant

John P. Morrissey; Ultan F. Walsh; Anne O'Donnell; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; Fergal O'Gara

2002-01-01

303

Bridging Traditional and Molecular Genetics in Modifying Cottonseed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton breeding has traditionally focused on improving crop productivity and fiber quality. While this is still the major\\u000a objective, there is increased interest in improving the nutritional and functional properties of the cotton seed oil. The\\u000a nutritional and industrial value of cottonseed oil, like other vegetable oils, is determined by its fatty acid profile. Conventional\\u000a genetics and breeding approaches to

Qing Liu; Surinder Singh; Kent Chapman; Allan Green

304

First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis. PMID:17300145

Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

2007-02-21

305

Genetic and environmental modifiers of Alzheimer's disease phenotypes in the mouse.  

PubMed

As a group, strains of laboratory mice carrying Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related transgenes are currently the most widely studied animal models of AD. Many AD mouse models carrying the same or similar transgene constructs demonstrate strikingly different phenotypic responses to transgene expression, mimicking the apparent genetic complexity of AD pathogenesis seen in the human population. Genetic differences between the numerous mouse model strains used for AD research can significantly affect correct interpretation and cross-comparison of experimental findings, making genetic background an important consideration for all work in mouse models of AD. Furthermore, because of the potential for discovering novel genetic modifiers of AD pathogenesis, the effects of genetic background on AD phenotypes in the mouse can prove a worthwhile subject of study in their own right. This review discusses the implications of genetic modifiers for mouse and human AD research, and summarizes recent findings identifying significant roles for genetic background in modifying important phenotypes in AD mouse models, including premature death, amyloid deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation, and responsiveness to environmental or treatment interventions. PMID:17168645

Ryman, Davis; Lamb, Bruce T

2006-12-01

306

Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.  

PubMed

The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process. PMID:15123387

Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I

2004-07-01

307

Pre-invasion history and demography shape the genetic variation in the insecticide resistance-related acetylcholinesterase 2 gene in the invasive Colorado potato beetle  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive pest species offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of genetic architecture, demography and selection on patterns of genetic variability. Invasive Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) populations have experienced a rapid range expansion and intense selection by insecticides. By comparing native and invasive beetle populations, we studied the origins of organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2) gene, and the role of selection and demography on its genetic variability. Results Analysis of three Mexican, two US and five European populations yielded a total of 49 haplotypes. Contrary to the expectations all genetic variability was associated with a point mutation linked to insecticide resistance (S291G), this mutation was found in 100% of Mexican, 95% of US and 71% of European beetle sequences analysed. Only two susceptible haplotypes, genetically very differentiated, were found, one in US and one in Europe. The genetic variability at the AChE2 gene was compared with two other genes not directly affected by insecticide selection, diapause protein 1 and juvenile hormone esterase. All three genes showed reduction in genetic variability indicative of a population bottleneck associated with the invasion. Conclusions Stochastic effects during invasion explain most of the observed patterns of genetic variability at the three genes investigated. The high frequency of the S291G mutation in the AChE2 gene among native populations suggests this mutation is the ancestral state and thus, either a pre-adaptation of the beetle for OP resistance or the AChE2 is not the major gene conferring OP resistance. The long historical association with host plant alkaloids together with recombination may have contributed to the high genetic variation at this locus. The genetic diversity in the AChE2 locus of the European beetles, in turn, strongly reflects founder effects followed by rapid invasion. Our results suggest that despite the long history of insecticide use in this species, demographic events together with pre-invasion history have been strongly influential in shaping the genetic diversity of the AChE2 gene in the invasive beetle populations.

2013-01-01

308

New trends in bioanalytical tools for the detection of genetically modified organisms: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the production of GM crops is increasing, especially\\u000a in developing countries. Thanks to new technologies involving genetic engineering and unprecedented access to genomic resources,\\u000a the next decade will certainly see exponential growth in GMO production. Indeed, EU regulations based on the precautionary\\u000a principle require any food containing more than 0.9% GM content

Elisa Michelini; Patrizia Simoni; Luca Cevenini; Laura Mezzanotte; Aldo Roda

2008-01-01

309

A Precautionary Approach to Genetically Modified Organisms: Challenges and Implications for Policy and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has revealed a broad range of views among scientists\\u000a and other stakeholders on perspectives of genetic engineering (GE) and if and how GMOs should be regulated. Within this controversy,\\u000a the precautionary principle has become a contentious issue with high support from skeptical groups but resisted by GMO advocates.\\u000a How to handle lack

Anne Ingeborg Myhr

2010-01-01

310

Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been\\u000a altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries\\u000a require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical\\u000a methods for GMO

Dimitrios S. Elenis; Despina P. Kalogianni; Kyriaki Glynou; Penelope C. Ioannou; Theodore K. Christopoulos

2008-01-01

311

A PCR-microarray method for the screening of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to screen and to identify genetically modified organisms (GMO) is presented in this paper. It is based on the\\u000a detection of multiple genetic elements common to GMO by their amplification via PCR followed by direct hybridisation of the\\u000a amplicons on microarray. The pattern of the elements is then compared to a database of the composition of EU-approved

Sandrine Hamels; Thomas Glouden; Karine Gillard; Marco Mazzara; Frédéric Debode; Nicoletta Foti; Myriam Sneyers; Teresa Esteve Nuez; Maria Pla; Gilbert Berben; William Moens; Yves Bertheau; Colette Audéon; Guy Van den Eede; José Remacle

2009-01-01

312

Genetically modified wine yeasts and risk assessment studies covering different steps within the wine making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of gene technology to modify the genome of wine yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae began in the early 1990s. From a purely scientific point of view, many yeast constructs [genetically modified organisms (GMO)]\\u000a have been made so far, covering more or less all stages of the wine making process in which microorganisms or commercial enzymes\\u000a play

Manfred Grossmann; Falk Kießling; Julian Singer; Heidi Schoeman; Max-Bernd Schröder; Christian von Wallbrunn

2011-01-01

313

Genetic relationships among populations of Gibberella zeae from barley, wheat, potato, and sugar beet in the upper Midwest of the United States.  

PubMed

Gibberella zeae, a causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically harmful pathogens of cereals in the United States. In recent years, the known host range of G. zeae has also expanded to noncereal crops. However, there is a lack of information on the population genetic structure of G. zeae associated with noncereal crops and across wheat cultivars. To test the hypothesis that G. zeae populations sampled from barley, wheat, potato, and sugar beet in the Upper Midwest of the United States are not mixtures of species or G. zeae clades, we analyzed sequence data of G. zeae, and confirmed that all populations studied were present in the same clade of G. zeae. Ten variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers were used to determine the genetic structure of G. zeae from the four crop populations. To examine the effect of wheat cultivars on the pathogen populations, 227 strains were sampled from 10 subpopulations according to wheat cultivar types. The VNTR markers also were used to analyze the genetic structure of these subpopulations. In all populations, gene (H = 0.453 to 0.612) and genotype diversity (GD = or >0.984) were high. There was little or no indication of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in all G. zeae populations and subpopulations. In addition, high gene flow (Nm) values were observed between cereal and noncereal populations (Nm = 10.69) and between FHB resistant and susceptible wheat cultivar subpopulations (Nm = 16.072), suggesting low population differentiation of G. zeae in this region. Analysis of molecular variance also revealed high genetic variation (>80%) among individuals within populations and subpopulations. However, low genetic variation (<5%) was observed between cereal and noncereal populations and between resistant and susceptible wheat subpopulations. Overall, these results suggest that the populations or subpopulations are likely a single large population of G. zeae affecting crops in the upper Midwest of the United States. PMID:18943734

Burlakoti, R R; Ali, S; Secor, G A; Neate, S M; McMullen, M P; Adhikari, T B

2008-09-01

314

Modulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue functions with genetically modified Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria are a group of taxonomically diverse, Gram-positive food-grade bacteria that have been safely consumed throughout history. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis, well-known for its use in the manufacture of cheese, can be genetically engineered and orally formulated to deliver therapeutic proteins in the gastrointestinal tract. This review focuses on the genetic engineering of Lactococcus lactis to secrete high-quality, correctly processed bioactive molecules derived from a eukaryotic background. The therapeutic applications of these genetically modified strains are discussed, with special regards to immunomodulation. PMID:19954359

Rottiers, Pieter; De Smedt, Tim; Steidler, Lothar

2009-01-01

315

Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

Burr, Ben (Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept) [Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept

2006-03-16

316

Genetic Diversity and Ecological Evaluation of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Isolated from the Leaves and Roots of Potato Plants  

PubMed Central

A total of 828 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads (FPs) were obtained from the leaves (305 isolates) and roots (523 isolates) of potato plants grown in different geographical locations in Japan, and 16S rRNA gene sequences of 776 isolates were successfully determined by direct PCR sequencing. Clustering analysis (?99% identity) identified 13 and 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for leaf- and root-associated FPs, respectively, and 29 OTUs were identified in the phytosphere of potato plants. Among them, 7 and 9 OTUs showed a significantly biased distribution to the leaves and roots, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 3 dominant OTUs for leaf-associated FPs were grouped in a cluster of leaf-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas viridiflava. In contrast, 4 OTUs were located in a cluster of saprophytic pseudomonads. Among them, 3 OTUs showed high similarity to Pseudomonas koreensis and Pseudomonas vancouverensis, both of which have been reported to be beneficial for biological control or plant growth promotion. These data provide key information for efficient surveying and utilization of beneficial FPs in agricultural practices.

Someya, Nobutaka; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Ikeda, Seishi

2012-01-01

317

Genetic diversity and ecological evaluation of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the leaves and roots of potato plants.  

PubMed

A total of 828 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads (FPs) were obtained from the leaves (305 isolates) and roots (523 isolates) of potato plants grown in different geographical locations in Japan, and 16S rRNA gene sequences of 776 isolates were successfully determined by direct PCR sequencing. Clustering analysis (?99% identity) identified 13 and 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for leaf- and root-associated FPs, respectively, and 29 OTUs were identified in the phytosphere of potato plants. Among them, 7 and 9 OTUs showed a significantly biased distribution to the leaves and roots, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 3 dominant OTUs for leaf-associated FPs were grouped in a cluster of leaf-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas viridiflava. In contrast, 4 OTUs were located in a cluster of saprophytic pseudomonads. Among them, 3 OTUs showed high similarity to Pseudomonas koreensis and Pseudomonas vancouverensis, both of which have been reported to be beneficial for biological control or plant growth promotion. These data provide key information for efficient surveying and utilization of beneficial FPs in agricultural practices. PMID:22791043

Someya, Nobutaka; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Ikeda, Seishi

2012-01-01

318

Genetic Rearrangements Can Modify Chromatin Features at Epialleles  

PubMed Central

Analogous to genetically distinct alleles, epialleles represent heritable states of different gene expression from sequence-identical genes. Alleles and epialleles both contribute to phenotypic heterogeneity. While alleles originate from mutation and recombination, the source of epialleles is less well understood. We analyze active and inactive epialleles that were found at a transgenic insert with a selectable marker gene in Arabidopsis. Both converse expression states are stably transmitted to progeny. The silent epiallele was previously shown to change its state upon loss-of-function of trans-acting regulators and drug treatments. We analyzed the composition of the epialleles, their chromatin features, their nuclear localization, transcripts, and homologous small RNA. After mutagenesis by T-DNA transformation of plants carrying the silent epiallele, we found new active alleles. These switches were associated with different, larger or smaller, and non-overlapping deletions or rearrangements in the 3? regions of the epiallele. These cis-mutations caused different degrees of gene expression stability depending on the nature of the sequence alteration, the consequences for transcription and transcripts, and the resulting chromatin organization upstream. This illustrates a tight dependence of epigenetic regulation on local structures and indicates that sequence alterations can cause epigenetic changes at some distance in regions not directly affected by the mutation. Similar effects may also be involved in gene expression and chromatin changes in the vicinity of transposon insertions or excisions, recombination events, or DNA repair processes and could contribute to the origin of new epialleles.

Foerster, Andrea M.; Dinh, Huy Q.; Sedman, Laura; Wohlrab, Bonnie; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

2011-01-01

319

[Medico-genetic evaluation of sugar sand, obtained from genetically-modified sugar beet line 77 (toxicologico-biochemical studies)].  

PubMed

The rats were fed with the Suger from the Genetically Modified Suger Beet line 77 (Monsanto Ko, USA) 3 g/rat/day for 3 months. Their blood, urea and liver were investigated to measure total protein and glucose levels, aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, pH, creatinine level as well as hepatic enzyme activity of the I and II phases of henobiotic metabolism and whole and non-sedimentated lysosomal enzyme activities and activity of antioxidant system. PMID:12227014

Kravchenko, L V; Sorokina, E Iu; Tyshko, N V; Chernysheva, O N; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V

2002-01-01

320

Immunodiagnostic analysis of transgenic vegetative insecticidal protein in genetically modified crops\\/produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of development of insect resistant genetically modified (GM) crops and also to evaluate the consistency in the expression of toxin under field conditions, immunological assays are commonly being used. We have developed immunoassay to support labelling of vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A) based GM produce. The developed ELISA for measurement of Vip3A is a triple antibody sandwich procedure

Chandra K. Singh; Rajesh Kumar; Rajeshwar P. Sinha; Prakash C. Misra

2011-01-01

321

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH Cultivos alimenticios genéticamente modificados y salud pública  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM) crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom,

ORLANDO ACOSTA

322

Monitoring of MON810 genetically modified maize in foods in Brazil from 2005 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations for the use and labeling of genetically modified (GM) products and derived ingredients were implemented in Brazil in 2003. In 2008, GM maize line MON810 was approved for commercialization in Brazil; nevertheless, maize Bt11, Bt176 and MON810 were found in Brazilian market products sold in 2000 and 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the

Andréia Zilio Dinon; Jaqueline Elis de Melo; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

2008-01-01

323

Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin in Mice by Genetically Modified Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined whether the secretion of erythropoietin (Epo) from genetically modified cells could represent an alternative to repeated injections of the recombinant hormone for treating chronic anemias responsive to Epo. Primary mouse skin fibroblasts were transduced with a retroviral vector in which the murine Epo cDNA is expressed under the control of the murine phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. \\

N. Naffakh; A. Henri; J. L. Villeval; P. Rouyer-Fessard; P. Moullier; N. Blumenfeld; O. Danos; W. Vainchenker; J. M. Heard; Y. Beuzard

1995-01-01

324

An introduction to the Farm-Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Several genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have cleared most of the regulatory hurdles required for commercial growing in the United Kingdom. However, concerns have been expressed that their management will have negative impacts on farmland biodiversity as a result of improved control given by the new herbicide regimes of the arable plants that support farmland birds and other

L. G. Firbank; M. S. Heard; I. P. Woiwod; C. Hawes; A. J. Haughton; G. T. Champion; R. J. Scott; M. O. Hill; A. M. Dewar; G. R. Squire; M. J. May; D. R. Brooks; D. A. Bohan; R. E. Daniels; J. L. Osborne; D. B. Roy; H. I. J. Black; P. Rothery; J. N. Perry

2003-01-01

325

A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops, with claims of improved weed control, has prompted fears about possible environmental impacts of their widespread adoption, particularly on arable weeds, insects and associated farmland birds. In response to this, we have developed a novel weed-management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered

Alan M. Dewar; Mike J. May; Ian P. Woiwod; Lisa A. Haylock; Gillian T. Champion; Beulah H. Garner; Richard J. N. Sands; Aiming Qi; John D. Pidgeon

2003-01-01

326

Genetically Modified Rice, Yields, and Pesticides: Assessing Farm-Level Productivity Effects in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genetically modified (GM) crops are being grown on increasing large areas in both developed and developing countries, with few minor exceptions, there has been almost no country that has commercialized a GM major food crop. One reason may be that it is unclear how the commercialization of GM crops will help poor, small farmers. The objective of this article

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Scott Rozelle; Carl Pray

2008-01-01

327

Labeling genetically modified food in India: Economic consequences in four marketing channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, India proposed a draft rule requiring the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) foods and products derived thereof. In this paper, we use primary and secondary market data to assess the economic implications of introducing such a mandatory labeling policy for GM food. We focus on four products that would likely be the first affected by such a

Sangeeta Bansal; Guillaume Gručre

2010-01-01

328

Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of

Shangxin Song; Guanghong Zhou; Feng Gao; Wei Zhang; Liangyan Qiu; Sifa Dai; Xinglian Xu; Hongmei Xiao

2011-01-01

329

Quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in processed food by PCR-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different PCR-based approaches for the quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) – components in foods are presented using Soybean derived samples as an example. The first method – a double competitive PCR – is well suited to determine threshold levels of GMO content in food. The other – PCR on-line measurement – is suited to determine ratios of

A. Wurz; A. Bluth; P. Zeltz; C. Pfeifer; R. Willmund

1999-01-01

330

PCR technology for screening and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although PCR technology has obvious limitations, the potentially high degree of sensitivity and specificity explains why it has been the first choice of most analytical laboratories interested in detection of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) and derived materials. Because the products that laboratories receive for analysis are often processed and refined, the quality and quantity of target analyte (e.g. protein

Arne Holst-Jensen; Sissel B. Rřnning; Astrid Lřvseth; Knut G. Berdal

2003-01-01

331

Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) affinity biosensor for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA piezoelectric sensor has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The probe sequences were internal to the sequence of the 35S

Ilaria Mannelli; Maria Minunni; Sara Tombelli; Marco Mascini

2003-01-01

332

Suggestions for the Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing continuously and, accordingly, there is a great desire to evaluate the allergenic potential of components in our daily environment (e.g., food). Although there is almost no scientific evidence that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) exhibit increased allergenicity compared with the corresponding wild type significant concerns have been raised regarding this matter. In principle,

Armin Spök; Helmut Gaugitsch; Sylvia Laffer; Gabrielle Pauli; Hirohisa Saito; Hugh Sampson; Elopy Sibanda; Wayne Thomas; Marianne van Hage; Rudolf Valenta

2005-01-01

333

KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

334

ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

335

DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE BY PCR AND CAPILLARY GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (CGE) USING UNCOATED COLUMNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, analysis of genetically modified insect- resistant Bt maize is demostrated by combining amplification of a DNA fragment by PCR and subsequent detection by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (CGE). A new CGE method is developed that allows obtaining reproducible separations of DNA fragments using bare fused silica capillaries. The method combines a washing routine of the column with 0.1

Virginia García-Cańas; Ramón González; Alejandro Cifuentes

336

Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most significant research findings in this time period include the fact that we have demonstrated that our genetically-modified pigskin grafts will perform as well human cadaveric allogeneic skin grafts as a temporary biologic cover for severe burn in...

D. H. Sachs J. C. Cetrulo

2010-01-01

337

Protection of the Neostriatum against Excitotoxic Damage by Neurotrophin-Producing, Genetically Modified Neural Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative dis- ease that affects the striatum, above all, the GABAergic striatal projection neurons. In the present study, we have explored the use of genetically modified neural stem cell lines producing nerve growth factor (NGF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a means to protect the striatal neurons against excitotoxic damage after transplantation to the

Alberto Martinez-Serrano; Anders Bjorklund

1996-01-01

338

Ethical, legal and social issues of genetically modifying insect vectors for public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified (GM) insects for control of human disease can be consistent with common ethical norms of international society to reduce human suffering. This paper considers a range of ethical issues including animal rights, informed consent, community consensus and environmental viewpoints. Each community needs to decide its own priorities for methodology of disease policy guidance for ethical

Darryl Macera

2005-01-01

339

A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last ten years, in accordance with the increased use of genetically modified (GM) foods for human and livestocks, a large number of feeding studies have been carried out. However, the evidence is still far from proving whether the long-term consumption of GM foods posses a possible danger for human or animal health. Therefore, this study was designed to

Aysun K?l?ç; M. Turan Akay

2008-01-01

340

Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM

B. L. Ma; Robert E. Blackshaw; Julie Roy; Tianpei He

2011-01-01

341

[Medical and biological safety assessment of genetically modified maize strain MIR604].  

PubMed

The results of toxicologo-hygienic examinations, which were conducted within the framework of integrated medical and biological assessment of genetically modified rootworm Diabrotica spp.-protected maize event MIR604, are presented. Analysis of morphological, hematological, biochemical parameters and system (sensitive) biomarkers has not confirmed any toxic effect of maize event MIR604. PMID:19514339

Tutel'ian, V A; Gapparov, M M G; Avren'eva, L I; Aksiuk, I N; Guseva, G V; Kravchenko, L V; L'vova, L S; Saprykin, V P; Tyshko, N V; Chernysheva, O N

2009-01-01

342

Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from The Italian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible transfer and accumulation of novel DNA and\\/or proteins in food for human consumption derived from animals receiving genetically modified (GM) feed is at present the object of scientific dispute. A number of studies failed to identify GM DNA in milk, meat, or eggs derived from livestock receiving GM feed ingredients. The present study was performed in order to:

Antonella Agodi; Martina Barchitta; Agata Grillo; Salvatore Sciacca

2006-01-01

343

Unplanned Exposure to Genetically Modified OrganismsDivergent Responses in the Global South  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the divergent political responses to unplanned exposure to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Global South. Although scientific and domestic political considerations have some relevance to explaining different positions among developing countries, trade considerations appear to be a principal driver of GMO policy. This consideration is strikingly clear when we compare the different responses to unplanned GMO

Jennifer Clapp

2006-01-01

344

Virus-host co-evolution under a modified nuclear genetic code  

PubMed Central

Among eukaryotes with modified nuclear genetic codes, viruses are unknown. However, here we provide evidence of an RNA virus that infects a fungal host (Scheffersomyces segobiensis) with a derived nuclear genetic code where CUG codes for serine. The genomic architecture and phylogeny are consistent with infection by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Totivirus. We provide evidence of past or present infection with totiviruses in five species of yeasts with modified genetic codes. All but one of the CUG codons in the viral genome have been eliminated, suggesting that avoidance of the modified codon was important to viral adaptation. Our mass spectroscopy analysis indicates that a congener of the host species has co-opted and expresses a capsid gene from totiviruses as a cellular protein. Viral avoidance of the host’s modified codon and host co-option of a protein from totiviruses suggest that RNA viruses co-evolved with yeasts that underwent a major evolutionary transition from the standard genetic code.

Ballinger, Matthew J.; Bowman, Shaun M.; Bruenn, Jeremy A.

2013-01-01

345

Incommensurate risks and the regulator's dilemma: considering culture in the governance of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand's 1996 Hazardous Substance and New Organisms (HSNO) Act defines environmental effects as physical, social, and cultural. However, recent debates in this country about the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) revealed the Act's fault lines. Relying on probabilistic assessments of risk, New Zealand's GMO regulator, the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA), found itself unable to address adequately cultural

Terre Satterfield; Mere Roberts

2008-01-01

346

Screening genetically modified organisms using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex-PCR) coupled with a DNA microarray system simultaneously aiming at many targets in a consecutive reaction to detect a genetically modified organism (GMO). There are a total of 20 probes for detecting a GMO in a DNA microarray which can be classified into three categories according to their purpose: the

Jia Xu; Haizhen Miao; Houfei Wu; Wensheng Huang; Rong Tang; Minyan Qiu; Jianguo Wen; Shuifang Zhu; Yao Li

2006-01-01

347

Walking backwards into the future: Mori views on genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of research conducted among Mori people in New Zealand concerning their views on genetically modified organisms (GMO's). Participants invoked a number of traditional principles, values and beliefs that were used to assess and evaluate the risks and benefits posed by GMO's to Mori culture. Suggestions for a decision-making framework incorporating these principles and capable of

Roma Mere Roberts

348

Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in Food: Comparison Among Three Different DNA Extraction Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vodret, B., Milia, M., Orani, M.G., Serratrice, G. and Mancuso, M.R., 2007. Detection of genetically modified organisms in\\u000a food: Comparison among three different DNA extraction methods. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 385–388

B. Vodret; M. Milia; M. G. Orani; G. Serratrice; M. R. Mancuso

2007-01-01

349

Genetically Modified Organisms and Trade Rules: Identifying Important Challenges for the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial debates associated with the establishment of international market access rules for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) illustrate a more general challenge facing the World Trade Organisation (WTO); to acceptably accommodate growing consumer concerns regarding a product's production and processing methods (PPM). This paper aims to clarify the debates by examining the foundations of and the procedures for the WTO's decision–making

Grant E. Isaac; William A. Kerr

2003-01-01

350

Genetically modified organisms, consumer scepticism and trade law: implications for the organisation of international supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rapid rates of technological improvements possible, using modern biotechnology, the product life cycle of new genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is likely to be short and, hence, those investing in their development will desire access to the widest international market possible. There is, however, considerable consumer scepticism regarding GMOs, which is being translated into both government policy responses and

William A. Kerr

1999-01-01

351

The role of risk assessments in the governance of genetically modified organisms in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy abounds in the governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for use in agriculture, partly due to ideological differences. Technological optimism and the “shallow” and the “deep” ecology movements are three influential ideologies that are seen to differ both on value commitments and factual beliefs with respect to GMOs. Factual matters are clarified but not resolved by science, since the

Roger Strand

2001-01-01

352

A simple procedure for quantification of genetically modified organisms using hybrid amplicon standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the genetically modified organism (GMO) content in foods and feeds by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires appropriate calibration standards. For this purpose, commercial certified reference materials calibrants (CRMCs) are commonly used. However, quantitative results depend on the actual GMO content of the standards, which may vary from lot to lot. Furthermore, commercial CRMCs are available

Andreas Pardigol; Stéphanie Guillet; Bert Pöpping

2003-01-01

353

Understanding governance and networks: EU–US interactions and the regulation of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

EU–US (European Union–United States) interactions in relation to the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been examined in detail in recent years. To do this scholars have tended to focus on a small number of high profile processes, such as the formal complaint of the US to the World Trade Organisation regarding the regulation of GMOs in the Europe.

Joseph Murphy; Helen Yanacopulos

2005-01-01

354

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction\\/membrane hybridization assay for detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve detection efficiency and result accuracy, four screening primer pairs, four identifying primer pairs, one common primer pair and corresponding probes were designed for the development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction\\/membrane hybridization assay (MPCR–MHA) for detection of the foreign genes insert in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). After detecting condition and parameter were optimized and determined, MPCR reactions were developed

Wenijn Su; Siyang Song; Minnan Long; Guangming Liu

2003-01-01

355

Community Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: a Difficult Relationship Between Law and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:The European Community legislator regulates the area of genetically modified organisms according to the precautionary principle, which implies keeping a distance from scientific results in decision-making. However, a positivist approach continues to exist within the same legislation. Paradoxically, this approach is promoted by the means of implementation of the precautionary principle. But to a large extent, it takes root in

Zeynep Kivilcim Forsman

2004-01-01

356

Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods by DNA Amplification Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the different DNA amplification techniques that are being used for detecting genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods are examined. This study intends to provide an updated overview (including works published till June 2002) on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in GMO detection in foods. Some relevant facts on sampling,

VIRGINIA GARCÍA-CAŃAS; ALEJANDRO CIFUENTES; RAMÓN GONZÁLEZ

2004-01-01

357

The debate over genetically modified organisms: scientific uncertainty and public controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversy over genetically modified organisms in the UK came to a head with the publication of three official reports in May 1999. A review of the three reports leads to the suggestion that the controversy is exacerbated in part by the conflation of three sets of issues: the underlying uncertainty of the physical processes involved, the nature of scientific

Linda Hadfield

2000-01-01

358

A global perspective on the utilization of genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate globally the use, desires and constraints associated with the development of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fisheries and aquaculture, a questionnaire was distributed internationally. The questionnaire focused on five main areas: (1) the current status of aquatic biotechnology, i.e. activities; (2) existing or proposed policies regulating the research, release, commercialization and patenting of GMO; (3) the level of

Devin M. Bartley; Eric M. Hallerman

1995-01-01

359

A developmental risk society? The politics of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past years, China has grown to become one of the largest growers of genetically modified crops in the world. At the same time, international and domestic biotechnological corporations are attempting to conquer the domestic seed market. Some Western observers fear that the pressure of food security and increased international competition, coupled with a lack of civil society, might

Jennifer H. Zhao; Peter Ho

2005-01-01

360

Nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor for visual detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although screening of raw ingredients and food products for genetically modified organisms (GMO) may be accomplished by detecting either the exogenous DNA or the novel protein, DNA is the preferred analyte because of its superior stability during food processing. The development of DNA biosensors is of increasing importance due to the growing demand for rapid and reliable methods for GMO

Despina P. Kalogianni; Theodora Koraki; Theodore K. Christopoulos; Penelope C. Ioannou

2006-01-01

361

Catalan agriculture and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) — An application of DPSIR model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a strong controversy regarding the introduction and commercialisation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Europe, GM maize has been sown in Spain since 1998. Stakeholders' positions on the role that GMOs play in trends of the state of agriculture and environment in Catalonia are analysed. The application of the Driving forces –Pressures – State – Impact –

Rosa Binimelis; Iliana Monterroso; Beatriz Rodríguez-Labajos

2009-01-01

362

Are the Precautionary Principle and the International Trade of Genetically Modified Organisms Reconcilable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to find possibilities forreconciliation of the implementation of theprecautionary principle and the promotion ofinternational trade of genetically modified organisms,based on the assumption that a sustainabledevelopment is a right objective to strive for. Itstarts with an explanation of the background and therole of the precautionary principle, and describes inwhat way measures based on the precautionary principlecan easily lead

Mariëlle Matthee; Dominique Vermersch

2000-01-01

363

Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: Usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in biotechnology in the plant industry have led to increasing crop production and yield that in turn has increased the usage of genetically modified (GM) food in the human food chain. The usage of GM foods for human consumption has raised a number of fundamental questions including the ability of GM foods to elicit potentially harmful immunological

Vanessa E. Prescott; Simon P. Hogan

2006-01-01

364

In Vivo Selection of Genetically Modified Erythroid Cells Using a Jak2Based Cell Growth Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-based therapies have potential widespread applications in clinical medicine, and methods for controlling the fate of transplanted cells are needed. We have previously described a means for directing the growth of genetically modified cells in vivo using a derivative of the thrombopoietin receptor, mpl, that is reversibly activated by a drug called a chemical inducer of dimerization (CID). Since Jak2

Shengming Zhao; Michael A. Weinreich; Kenji Ihara; Robert E. Richard; C. Anthony Blau

2004-01-01

365

Potential market segments for genetically modified food: Results from cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial success of genetically modified (GM) food may be improved with appropriately targeted marketing. To that end, data from a survey of supermarket shoppers in New Zealand were analysed with a cluster analysis. A six-cluster solution found three clusters with positive intentions to purchase GM apples and three clusters with negative intentions. Positive intentions appeared to result from either

William Kaye-Blake; Anna OConnell; Charles Lamb

2007-01-01

366

TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED  

EPA Science Inventory

Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

367

Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

368

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

369

Effects of genetically modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has been a topic of considerable public debate in recent years. GMPs hold great promise for improving agricultural output, but the potential for unwanted effects of GMP use is still not fully understood. The majority of studies addressing potential risks of GMP cultivation have addressed only aboveground effects. However, recent methodological

M. Bruinsma; G. A. Kowalchuk; J. A. van Veen

2003-01-01

370

Genetically modified Streptococcus mutans for the prevention of dental caries.  

PubMed

There are many examples of positive and negative interactions between different species of bacteria inhabiting the same ecosystem. This observation provides the basis for a novel approach to preventing microbial diseases called replacement therapy. In this approach, a harmless effector strain is permanently implanted in the host's microflora. Once established, the presence of the effector strain prevents the colonization or outgrowth of a particular pathogen. In the case of dental caries, replacement therapy has involved construction of an effector strain called BCS3-L1, which was derived from a clinical Streptococcus mutans isolate. Recombinant DNA technology was used to delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase in BCS3-L1 making it entirely deficient in lactic acid production. This effector strain was also designed to produce elevated amounts of a novel peptide antibiotic called mutacin 1140 that gives it a strong selective advantage over most other strains of S. mutans. In laboratory and rodent model studies, BCS3-L1 was found to be genetically stable and to produce no apparent deleterious side effects during prolonged colonization. BCS3-L1 was significantly less cariogenic than wild-type S. mutans in gnotobiotic rats, and it did not contribute at all to the cariogenic potential of the indigenous flora of conventional Sprague-Dawley rats. And, its strong colonization properties indicated that a single application of the BCS3-L1 effector strain to human subjects should result in its permanent implantation and displacement over time of indigenous, disease-causing S. mutans strains. Thus, BCS3-L1 replacement therapy for the prevention of dental caries is an example of biofilm engineering that offers the potential for a highly efficient, cost effective augmentation of conventional prevention strategies. It is hoped that the eventual success of replacement therapy for the prevention of dental caries will stimulate the use of this approach in the prevention of other bacterial diseases. PMID:12369203

Hillman, Jeffrey D

2002-08-01

371

Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.  

PubMed

The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

2013-01-01

372

Construction of a potato consensus map and QTL meta-analysis offer new insights into the genetic architecture of late blight resistance and plant maturity traits  

PubMed Central

Background Integrating QTL results from independent experiments performed on related species helps to survey the genetic diversity of loci/alleles underlying complex traits, and to highlight potential targets for breeding or QTL cloning. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) late blight resistance has been thoroughly studied, generating mapping data for many Rpi-genes (R-genes to Phytophthora infestans) and QTLs (quantitative trait loci). Moreover, late blight resistance was often associated with plant maturity. To get insight into the genomic organization of late blight resistance loci as compared to maturity QTLs, a QTL meta-analysis was performed for both traits. Results Nineteen QTL publications for late blight resistance were considered, seven of them reported maturity QTLs. Twenty-one QTL maps and eight reference maps were compiled to construct a 2,141-marker consensus map on which QTLs were projected and clustered into meta-QTLs. The whole-genome QTL meta-analysis reduced by six-fold late blight resistance QTLs (by clustering 144 QTLs into 24 meta-QTLs), by ca. five-fold maturity QTLs (by clustering 42 QTLs into eight meta-QTLs), and by ca. two-fold QTL confidence interval mean. Late blight resistance meta-QTLs were observed on every chromosome and maturity meta-QTLs on only six chromosomes. Conclusions Meta-analysis helped to refine the genomic regions of interest frequently described, and provided the closest flanking markers. Meta-QTLs of late blight resistance and maturity juxtaposed along chromosomes IV, V and VIII, and overlapped on chromosomes VI and XI. The distribution of late blight resistance meta-QTLs is significantly independent from those of Rpi-genes, resistance gene analogs and defence-related loci. The anchorage of meta-QTLs to the potato genome sequence, recently publicly released, will especially improve the candidate gene selection to determine the genes underlying meta-QTLs. All mapping data are available from the Sol Genomics Network (SGN) database.

2011-01-01

373

GENETIC MODIFIERS OF LIVER DISEASE IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS  

PubMed Central

Context A subset (~3–5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease (CFLD) with portal hypertension. Objective To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (SERPINA1, ACE, GSTP1, MBL2, and TGFB1) are associated with severe liver disease in CF patients. Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-stage design was used in this case–control study. CFLD subjects were enrolled from 63 U.S., 32 Canadian, and 18 CF centers outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) as the coordinating site. In the initial study, we studied 124 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/1999–12/2004) and 843 CF controls (patients without CFLD) by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously implicated as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/2005–2/2007) and 1088 CF controls. Main Outcome Measures We compared differences in distribution of genotypes in CF patients with severe liver disease versus CF patients without CFLD. Results The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 (also known as ?1-antiprotease and ?1-antitrypsin) Z allele (P value=3.3×10?6; odds ratio (OR) 4.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31–9.61), and with transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGFB1) codon 10 CC genotype (P=2.8×10?3; OR 1.53, CI 1.16–2.03). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.4×10?3; OR 3.42, CI 1.54–7.59), but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.5×10?8; OR 5.04, CI 2.88–8.83). Conclusion The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater odds (OR ~5) to develop severe liver disease with portal hypertension.

Bartlett, Jaclyn R.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Ling, Simon C.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Bell, Scott C.; Bourke, Billy; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Colombo, John L.; Debray, Dominique; Fernandez, Adriana; Lacaille, Florence; Macek, Milan; Rowland, Marion; Salvatore, Francesco; Taylor, Christopher J.; Wainwright, Claire; Wilschanski, Michael; Zemkova, Dana; Hannah, William B.; Phillips, M. James; Corey, Mary; Zielenski, Julian; Dorfman, Ruslan; Wang, Yunfei; Zou, Fei; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Knowles, Michael R.

2013-01-01

374

[Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people tolerates foreign antigens. Food allergies in adults occur mainly among those allergic to pollen. PMID:10321121

Wüthrich, B

1999-04-01

375

Landscape gene flow, coexistence and threshold effect: The case of genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape ( Brassica napus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally there have been a number of concerns about the development of genetically modified crops many of which relate to the implications of gene flow at various levels. In Europe these concerns have led the European Union (EU) to promote the concept of ‘coexistence’ to allow the freedom to plant conventional and genetically modified (GM) varieties but to minimise the

M. Graziano Ceddia; Mark Bartlett; Charles Perrings

2007-01-01

376

Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in

Marta Hernández; David Rodr??guez-Lázaro; Teresa Esteve; Salomé Prat; Maria Pla

2003-01-01

377

Use of cloned DNA fragments for event-specific quantification of genetically modified organisms in pure and mixed food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An event-specific PCR method for detection and quantification of genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) is described in this article. The complete DNA sequence at both the right and left integration sites of this genetically modified organism has recently been determined. Based on these sequence data, transformation event-specific primer pairs were developed. These primers amplify a fragment of the unique

Isabel Taverniers; Pieter Windels; Erik Van Bockstaele; Marc De Loose

2001-01-01

378

Potato Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use potatoes to light an LED clock (or light bulb) as they learn how a battery works in a simple circuit and how chemical energy changes to electrical energy. As they learn more about electrical energy, they better understand the concepts of voltage, current and resistance.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

379

Mapping genes for resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum in tetraploid and diploid potato populations using haplotype association tests and genetic linkage analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt disease of potato is caused predominantly by Verticillium albo-atrum and V. dahliae. StVe1 —a putative QTL for resistance against V. dahliae —was previously mapped to potato chromosome 9. To develop allele-specific, SNP-based markers within the locus, the StVe1 fragment from a set of 30 North American potato cultivars was analyzed. Three distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be

I. Simko; K. G. Haynes; E. E. Ewing; S. Costanzo; B. J. Christ; R. W. Jones

2004-01-01

380

Presentation of Tumor Antigens by Dendritic Cells Genetically Modified With Viral and Nonviral Vectors  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetic modification of dendritic cells (DCs) with recombinant vectors encoding tumor antigens may aid in developing new immunotherapeutic treatments for patients with cancer. Here, we characterized antigen presentation by human DCs genetically modified with plasmid cDNAs, RNAs, adenoviruses, or retroviruses, encoding the melanoma antigen gp100 or the tumor-testis antigen NY-ESO-1. Monocyte-derived DCs were electroporated with cDNAs or RNAs, or transduced with adenoviruses. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-derived DCs were used for retroviral transduction. Genetically modified DCs were coincubated with CD8+ and CD4+ T cells that recognized major histocompatibility complex class I- and class II-restricted epitopes from gp100 and NY-ESO-1, and specific recognition was evaluated by interferon? secretion. Cytokine release by both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells was consistently higher in response to DCs modified with adenoviruses than cDNAs or RNAs, and maturation of DCs after genetic modification did not consistently alter patterns of recognition. Also, retrovirally transduced DCs encoding gp100 were well recognized by both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that DCs transduced with viral vectors may be more efficient than DCs transfected with cDNAs or RNAs for the induction of tumor reactive CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in vitro and in human vaccination trials.

Lotem, Michal; Zhao, Yangbing; Riley, John; Hwu, Patrick; Morgan, Richard A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Parkhurst, Maria R.

2007-01-01

381

Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.  

PubMed

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

382

Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

383

Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrp(rd6) identified by quantitative trait locus analysis.  

PubMed

The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrp(rd6)/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrp(rd6) retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrp(rd6)-associated photoreceptor loss. PMID:24200520

Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R; Philip, Vivek M; Stearns, Timothy M; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K; Krebs, Mark P; Nishina, Patsy M

2014-01-01

384

Genetically modified species in research: Opportunities and challenges for the histology core laboratory  

PubMed Central

Translational research using animal models has traditionally involved genetically modified rodents; however there is increasing use of other novel genetically engineered species. As histology laboratories interface with researchers studying these novel species there will be many situations in which protocols will need to be adapted to the species, model and research goals. This paper gives examples of protocol adaptations to meet research needs and addresses common considerations that should be addressed for all research tissues submitted to the histotechnology laboratory. Positioning the histotechnologist, as well as the investigator, to meet the challenges associated with novel research models will help maximize research efficacy and quality.

Olivier, Alicia K.; Naumann, Paul; Goeken, Adam; Hochstedler, Christine; Sturm, Mary; Rodgers, Janis R.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Meyerholz, David K.

2012-01-01

385

Repeated introduction of genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r without intensified effects on the indigenous microflora of field-grown wheat.  

PubMed

To investigate the impact of genetically modified, antibiotic-producing rhizobacteria on the indigenous microbial community, Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and two transgenic derivatives were introduced as a seed coating into the rhizosphere of wheat in two consecutive years (1999 and 2000) in the same field plots. The two genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs), WCS358r::phz and WCS358r::phl, constitutively produced phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), respectively. The level of introduced bacteria in all treatments decreased from 10(7) CFU per g of roots soon after sowing to less than 10(2) CFU per g after harvest 132 days after sowing. The phz and phl genes remained stable in the chromosome of WCS358r. The amount of PCA produced in the wheat rhizosphere by WCS358r::phz was about 40 ng/g of roots after the first application in 1999. The DAPG-producing GMMs caused a transient shift in the indigenous bacterial and fungal microflora in 1999, as determined by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. However, after the second application of the GMMs in 2000, no shifts in the bacterial or fungal microflora were detected. To evaluate the importance of the effects induced by the GMMs, these effects were compared with those induced by crop rotation by planting wheat in 1999 followed by potatoes in 2000. No effect of rotation on the microbial community structure was detected. In 2000 all bacteria had a positive effect on plant growth, supposedly due to suppression of deleterious microorganisms. Our research suggests that the natural variability of microbial communities can surpass the effects of GMMs. PMID:12788705

Viebahn, M; Glandorf, D C M; Ouwens, T W M; Smit, E; Leeflang, P; Wernars, K; Thomashow, L S; van Loon, L C; Bakker, P A H M

2003-06-01

386

Repeated Introduction of Genetically Modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r without Intensified Effects on the Indigenous Microflora of Field-Grown Wheat  

PubMed Central

To investigate the impact of genetically modified, antibiotic-producing rhizobacteria on the indigenous microbial community, Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and two transgenic derivatives were introduced as a seed coating into the rhizosphere of wheat in two consecutive years (1999 and 2000) in the same field plots. The two genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs), WCS358r::phz and WCS358r::phl, constitutively produced phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), respectively. The level of introduced bacteria in all treatments decreased from 107 CFU per g of roots soon after sowing to less than 102 CFU per g after harvest 132 days after sowing. The phz and phl genes remained stable in the chromosome of WCS358r. The amount of PCA produced in the wheat rhizosphere by WCS358r::phz was about 40 ng/g of roots after the first application in 1999. The DAPG-producing GMMs caused a transient shift in the indigenous bacterial and fungal microflora in 1999, as determined by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. However, after the second application of the GMMs in 2000, no shifts in the bacterial or fungal microflora were detected. To evaluate the importance of the effects induced by the GMMs, these effects were compared with those induced by crop rotation by planting wheat in 1999 followed by potatoes in 2000. No effect of rotation on the microbial community structure was detected. In 2000 all bacteria had a positive effect on plant growth, supposedly due to suppression of deleterious microorganisms. Our research suggests that the natural variability of microbial communities can surpass the effects of GMMs.

Viebahn, M.; Glandorf, D. C. M.; Ouwens, T. W. M.; Smit, E.; Leeflang, P.; Wernars, K.; Thomashow, L. S.; van Loon, L. C.; Bakker, P. A. H. M.

2003-01-01

387

Long-term phenotypic correction of rodent hemiparkinsonism by gene therapy using genetically modified myoblasts.  

PubMed

Rat myoblasts were genetically modified to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and produce dopamine in culture. Implanting TH gene-transfected myoblasts into the denervated striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats significantly decreased rotational asymmetry by 50 to approximately 60%. Improvement persisted for up to 13 months. Genetically modified cells could survive and express transgene in the striatum as demonstrated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical stain-ing. The dopamine content in the striatum tissue of the gene therapy group recovered to 49% of the normal level and was 25-fold higher than that of a control group receiving parental cells. Neither tumor formation nor immunorejection was observed in this study. These results show that myoblasts may be useful as gene carriers for ex vivo gene therapy in the CNS. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 445-449. PMID:10694827

Cao, L; Zhao, Y C; Jiang, Z H; Xu, D H; Liu, Z G; Chen, S D; Liu, X Y; Zheng, Z C

2000-03-01

388

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.  

PubMed

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-11-01

389

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

390

Novel Surface Display System for Proteins on Non-Genetically Modified Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A novel display system is described that allows highly efficient immobilization of heterologous proteins on bacterial surfaces in applications for which the use of genetically modified bacteria is less desirable. This system is based on nonliving and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial cells, designated gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles, which are used as substrates to bind externally added heterologous proteins by means of a high-affinity binding domain. This binding domain, the protein anchor (PA), was derived from the Lactococcus lactis peptidoglycan hydrolase AcmA. GEM particles were typically prepared from the innocuous bacterium L. lactis, and various parameters for the optimal preparation of GEM particles and binding of PA fusion proteins were determined. The versatility and flexibility of the display and delivery technology were demonstrated by investigating enzyme immobilization and nasal vaccine applications.

Bosma, Tjibbe; Kanninga, Rolf; Neef, Jolanda; Audouy, Sandrine A. L.; van Roosmalen, Maarten L.; Steen, Anton; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Robillard, George; Leenhouts, Kees

2006-01-01

391

Applications of Genetically Modified Tools to Safety Assessment in Drug Development  

PubMed Central

The process of new drug development consists of several stages; after identifying potential candidate compounds, preclinical studies using animal models link the laboratory and human clinical trials. Among many steps in preclinical studies, toxicology and safety assessments contribute to identify potential adverse events and provide rationale for setting the initial doses in clinical trials. Gene modulation is one of the important tools of modern biology, and is commonly employed to examine the function of genes of interest. Advances in new drug development have been achieved by exploding information on target selection and validation using genetically modified animal models as well as those of cells. In this review, a recent trend of genetically modified methods is discussed with reference to safety assessments, and the exemplary applications of gene-modulating tools to the tests in new drug development were summarized.

Kay, Hee Yeon; Wu, Hongmin; Lee, Seo In

2010-01-01

392

Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.  

PubMed Central

On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field.

Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

2003-01-01

393

Evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics  

PubMed Central

Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28?days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. Thus, the full-length cDNA clone of FMDV can be a useful tool to develop genetically engineered FMDV vaccine candidates to help control porcinophilic FMD epidemics in China.

2012-01-01

394

Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.  

PubMed

This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food. PMID:21761979

Wohlers, Anton E

2010-09-01

395

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

396

Unraveling Genetic Modifiers in the Gria4 Mouse Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy (AE) is a common type of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), particularly in children. AE and GGE are complex genetic diseases with few causal variants identified to date. Gria4 deficient mice provide a model of AE, one for which the common laboratory inbred strain C3H/HeJ (HeJ) harbors a natural IAP retrotransposon insertion in Gria4 that reduces its expression 8-fold. Between C3H and non-seizing strains such as C57BL/6, genetic modifiers alter disease severity. Even C3H substrains have surprising variation in the duration and incidence of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the characteristic electroencephalographic feature of absence seizures. Here we discovered extensive IAP retrotransposition in the C3H substrain, and identified a HeJ-private IAP in the Pcnxl2 gene, which encodes a putative multi-transmembrane protein of unknown function, resulting in decreased expression. By creating new Pcnxl2 frameshift alleles using TALEN mutagenesis, we show that Pcnxl2 deficiency is responsible for mitigating the seizure phenotype – making Pcnxl2 the first known modifier gene for absence seizures in any species. This finding gave us a handle on genetic complexity between strains, directing us to use another C3H substrain to map additional modifiers including validation of a Chr 15 locus that profoundly affects the severity of SWD episodes. Together these new findings expand our knowledge of how natural variation modulates seizures, and highlights the feasibility of characterizing and validating modifiers in mouse strains and substrains in the post-genome sequence era.

Frankel, Wayne N.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; McGarr, Tracy C.; Beyer, Barbara J.; Letts, Verity A.

2014-01-01

397

Report of the Questionnaire Survey for Consumers' Recognition to Genetically Modified Food in Beijing, China 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Based on the questionnaire surveys to 1000 consumers from 12 supermarkets in Beijing, China, 2004, this paper revealed consumers' attitudes on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM foods. The results show that 64.9% interviewees are not acquaintance to GMOs and GM products, while only 2.3% of respondents have a good understanding. With respect to GMOs labeling, 45.3% of interviewees

Dayuan XUE; Yuqing WANG

398

Innovation and Trade with Endogenous Market Failure: The Case of Genetically Modified Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial-equilibrium, two-country model is developed to analyze implications from the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. In the model, innovators hold proprietary rights, farmers are (competitive) adopters, some consumers deem GM food to be inferior in quality to traditional food, and the mere introduction of GM crops affects the costs of non-GM food (because of costly identity preservation). Among

Harvey E. Lapan; GianCarlo Moschini

2004-01-01

399

Quantitative competitive PCR for the detection of genetically modified soybean and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surveillance of food labelling concerning genetically modified organisms (GMOs) requires DNA-based analytical techniques.\\u000a Present assay systems allow the detection of GMO in food; however, they do not permit their quantitation. In this study, we\\u000a report the development of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) systems for the detection and quantitation\\u000a of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and the Maximizer

Edgar Studer; Claudio Rhyner; Jürg Lüthy; P. Hübner

1998-01-01

400

Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops in the European Union. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union (EU) raises questions on the feasibility of coexistence\\u000a between GM and non-GM crops. Regulations to ensure that different cropping systems can develop side-by-side without excluding\\u000a any agricultural option are currently implemented or developed by member states. The aim of this review is to explore whether\\u000a nationally or regionally proposed

Yann Devos; Matty Demont; Koen Dillen; Dirk Reheul; Matthias Kaiser; Olivier Sanvido

2009-01-01

401

Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities in a Genetically Modified (GM) Rice Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a soil ecosystem supporting genetically modified\\u000a (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L., ABC-TPSP; fusion of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase). Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism\\u000a analysis and real-time quantitative PCR, we compared bacterial and fungal communities in the soils underlying GM rice (ABC-TPSP),\\u000a and its host cultivar (Nakdong) during growing

Seung-Hoon Lee; Chang-Gi Kim; Hojeong Kang

2011-01-01

402

Biosensors as new analytical tool for detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different biosensors for detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are presented. The sensing principle is\\u000a based on the affinity interaction between nucleic acids: the probe is immobilised on the sensor surface and the target analyte\\u000a is free in solution. The immobilised probes are specific for most inserted sequences in GMOs: the promoter P35S and the terminator\\u000a TNOS. Electrochemical methods

M. Minunni; S. Tombelli; E. Mariotti; M. Mascini

2001-01-01

403

Genetic modifiers affecting severity of epilepsy caused by mutation of sodium channel Scn2a  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channels SCN1A and SCN2A are responsible for several types of human epilepsy. Variable expressivity among family members is a common feature of these inherited epilepsies, suggesting that genetic modifiers may influence the clinical manifestation of epilepsy. The transgenic mouse model Scn2aQ54 has an epilepsy phenotype as a result of a mutation in Scn2a that slows

Sarah K. Bergren; Shu Chen; Andrzej Galecki; Jennifer A. Kearney

2005-01-01

404

Absolute quantification of genetically modified MON810 maize ( Zea mays L.) by digital polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) foods requires estimation of the amount of the transgenic event relative\\u000a to an endogenous gene. Regulatory authorities in the European Union (EU) have defined the labelling threshold for GM food\\u000a on the copy number ratio between the transgenic event and an endogenous gene. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is\\u000a currently being used for quantification

Philippe Corbisier; Somanath Bhat; Lina Partis; Vicki Rui Dan Xie; Kerry R. Emslie

2010-01-01

405

Consumer protection from an EU regulation on the mandatory labelling of genetically modified food.  

PubMed

On the 7. November 2003 a new regulation was enforced in the states of the EU to govern the authorisation and labelling of genetically modified food in standardized and legally binding form. Raw materials from GM crops now have to feature in the list of ingredients of the end products. The consumer is free to choose whether or not he accepts gene technology in his food purchases. PMID:15209444

2004-01-01

406

Economic Effects of the Consumer-oriented Genetically Modified Products in Markets with a Labelling Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the literature on the economic effects of the second-generation, consumer-oriented genetically modified products (GMPs). It analyses the market and welfare impacts of the introduction of these new products in markets, like the EU, that mandate the segregation and labelling of the first-generation, producer-oriented GMPs. Developing an empirically relevant model of heterogeneous consumers and producers, the study

Rim Lassoued; Konstantinos Giannakas

2010-01-01

407

Regionalisation of flora elements in field boundaries sensitive to hybridisation with genetically modified oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  \\u000a Background, aim, and scope Gene flow via pollen dispersal to neighbouring non-genetically modified (GM) and organic fields or to biotopes containing\\u000a the same crop species and\\/or their wild relatives are among the most debated potential environmental risks of GM crops. These\\u000a crosses permit ingression of GM traits and may produce viable progeny. Current GM crop monitoring plans and concepts

A. Wurbs; M. Glemnitz; F. Graef; B. Funke; S. Ehlert

2010-01-01

408

Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM) fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM). RESULTS: Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82) transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very

Giuseppe Leonardo Rotino; Nazareno Acciarri; Emidio Sabatini; Giuseppe Mennella; Roberto Lo Scalzo; Andrea Maestrelli; Barbara Molesini; Tiziana Pandolfini; Jessica Scalzo; Bruno Mezzetti; Angelo Spena

2005-01-01

409

Correction of anemia in uremic mice by genetically modified peritoneal mesothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correction of anemia in uremic mice by genetically modified peritoneal mesothelial cells.BackgroundDuring peritoneal dialysis, mesothelial cells become detached from the peritoneum and accumulate in the dialysate. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of peritoneal effluent (PF)-derived human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) as target for gene therapy. We used erythropoietin (EPO) as our target gene.MethodsVarious extracellular matrixes (ECM) were tested

Tom Einbinder; Yuval Sufaro; Igor Yusim; Gerardo Byk; Jutta Passlick-Deetjen; Cidio Chaimovitz; Amos Douvdevani

2003-01-01

410

Kinetics of cell death in T lymphocytes genetically modified with two novel suicide fusion genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation are known to mediate graft-versus-leukemia effect (GVL). A major side effect of these immunotherapies is the development of graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD). One promising approach to prevent GVHD is to genetically modify donor T cells with a suicide mechanism that can be induced in the case of GVHD. Here we report on

K Junker; U Koehl; S Zimmerman; S Stein; D Schwabe; T Klingebiel; M Grez

2003-01-01

411

Expression of human dystrophin following the transplantation of genetically modified mdx myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of genetically modified autologous myoblasts has been proposed as a possible solution to avoid long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. To determine the conditions to be used in this kind of approach for possible treatment of dystrophin deficiency, mdx myoblasts were infected at different multiplicities of infection (MOI of 0.01–1000) with an adenoviral vector containing a CMV promoter\\/enhancer driven 6.3

P-A Moisset; Y Gagnon; G Karpati; JP Tremblay

1998-01-01

412

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Fattening Performance and Slaughtering Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grower finisher performance trial with forty-eight pigs was designed to compare the growth performance of pigs fed diets containing either genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize (NX6262) or its parental maize (Prelude) line. During the experiment, the pigs were fed with a grower and a finisher diet both containing 70% maize investigated in a previously study which showed that they contained

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk

2002-01-01

413

Lymphatic Dissemination and Comparative Pathology of Recombinant Measles Viruses in Genetically Modified Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissemination of the Edmonston measles virus (Ed-MV) vaccine strain was studied with genetically modified mice defective for the alpha\\/beta interferon receptor and expressing human CD46 with human-like tissue specificity and efficiency. A few days after intranasal infection, macrophages expressing Ed-MV RNA were detected in the lungs, in draining lymph nodes, and in the thymus. In lymph nodes, large syncytia

BRANKA MRKIC; BERNHARD ODERMATT; MICHAEL A. KLEIN; MARTIN A. BILLETER; JOVAN PAVLOVIC; ROBERTO CATTANEO

2000-01-01

414

An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed. The results were extracted using content analysis by theme. The investigation confirmed that

R. Thon; H. Vondeling; J. Lassen; A. K. Hansen; M. Ritskes-Hoitinga

2009-01-01

415

Use of genetically modified mice to examine the skeletal anabolic activity of vitamin D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employed genetically modified mice to examine the role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on skeletal and calcium homeostasis. In mice expressing the null mutation for 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1? hydroxylase (1OHase?\\/?), or the vitamin D receptor (VDR?\\/?), 1,25(OH)2D3 and calcium were both required for optimal epiphyseal growth plate development, serum calcium and phosphorus alone were sufficient to mineralize skeletal tissue independent

David Goltzman

2007-01-01

416

Triacylglycerol composition and structure in genetically modified sunflower and soybean oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in composition were examined in oils extracted from genetically modified sunflower and soybean seeds. Improvements\\u000a were made to the analytical methods to accomplish these analyses successfully. Triacylglycerols (TAG) were separated on two\\u000a 300 mm 3.9 mm 4 Novapak C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns and detected with a Varex MKIII evaporative\\u000a light-scattering detector. Peaks were identified by coelution with

Johanna Reske; Jodi Siebrecht; Jan Hazebroek

1997-01-01

417

[Medical and biological safety assessment of genetically modified maize event MIR604].  

PubMed

There are presented the results of genotoxicologic, immunologic and allergologic examinations which were conducted within the framework of integrated medical and biological assessment of genetically modified rootworm Diabrotica spp.-protected maize event MIR604. Analysis of damages of DNA and structural chromosome aberrations, assessment of the allergenic potential and immunoreactive properties has not confirmed any genotoxic, allergenic and immunotoxic effect of maize event MIR604. PMID:19514340

Tyshko, N V; Britsina, M V; Gmoshinski?, I V; Zhanataev, A K; Zakharova, N S; Zorin, S N; Mazo, V K; Ozeretskovskaia, M N; Semenov, B F

2009-01-01

418

Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns\\u000a of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for\\u000a a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this\\u000a hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes

Yann Devos; Mathias Cougnon; Sofie Vergucht; Robert Bulcke; Geert Haesaert; Walter Steurbaut; Dirk Reheul

2008-01-01

419

A practical approach to screen for authorised and unauthorised genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In routine analysis, screening methods based on real-time PCR are most commonly used for the detection of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plant material in food and feed. In this paper, it is shown that the combination of five DNA target sequences can be\\u000a used as a universal screening approach for at least 81 GM plant events authorised or unauthorised for placing

Hans-Ulrich Waiblinger; Lutz Grohmann; Joachim Mankertz; Dirk Engelbert; Klaus Pietsch

2010-01-01

420

Construction of a reference plasmid molecule containing eight targets for the detection of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard plasmid containing eight targets was developed for quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) soybeans\\u000a and cotton. These eight targets were joined in tandem to form the pTLE8 plasmid with a length of 3,680 bp. This plasmid contains\\u000a part of the endogenous soybean Lec1 gene, the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, the

Xiumin Wang; Da Teng; Yalin Yang; Fang Tian; Qingfeng Guan; Jianhua Wang

2011-01-01

421

Development of a quadruplex-real-time-PCR for screening food for genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ever increasing number of genetically modified plants authorized worldwide, including in the European Union, high\\u000a throughput detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, a quadruplex-real-time-PCR method is described which allows\\u000a rapid and simultaneous screening of food for the presence of target DNA sequences from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter,\\u000a the NOS terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens,

Thomas Gaudron; Claude Peters; Elodie Boland; André Steinmetz; Gilbert Moris

2009-01-01

422

QCM-based DNA biosensor for detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based DNA biosensor for the detection of the hybridization of CaMV 35S promoter sequence (P35S) was investigated for the screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Attention was focused on the choice of the coating chemistry that could be used for the immobilization of probe sequences on the gold surface of the quartz

?rem Karamollao?lu; Hüseyin Avni Öktem; Mehmet Mutlu

2009-01-01

423

Detection of genetically modified organisms in food: critical points for quality assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a complex multiparameter\\u000a problem. Therefore, a number of critical issues in respect to quality control need to be considered. For practical purposes,\\u000a the PCR process itself can be divided into three subprocesses: template isolation and reaction setup (pre-PCR), PCR reaction\\u000a and detection of amplification products, and

P. Hübner; Edgar Studer; Daniel Häfliger; Markus Stadler; Christian Wolf; Martin Looser

1999-01-01

424

Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States: Implementation, Concerns, and Public Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture.\\u000a Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date,\\u000a the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer\\u000a of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from

Max Oeschger; Catherine Silva

425

Detection of genetically modified soya and maize: Impact of heat processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of processed foods entails a number of complications, which negatively affect the performance of DNA based detection methods. Heat-processing methods viz. autoclaving and micro-waving, that mimic processing and manufacturing, as model unit operation systems were used to study their effect on the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This study confirms the premise that high temperature and\\/or pressure

K. R. Vijayakumar; Asha Martin; Lalitha R. Gowda; V. Prakash

2009-01-01

426

A Microarray-based Detection System for Genetically Modified (GM) Food Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex DNA microarray chip was developed for simultaneous identification of nine genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a five plant species and three GMO screening elements, i.e. the 35S promoter, the nos terminator and the nptII gene. The chips also include several controls, such as that for the possible presence of CaMV. The on-chip detection was\\u000a performed directly with PCR amplified products.

Serge Leimanis; Marta Hernández; Sophie Fernández; Francine Boyer; Malcolm Burns; Shirin Bruderer; Thomas Glouden; Neil Harris; Othmar Kaeppeli; Patrick Philipp; Maria Pla; Pere Puigdomčnech; Marc Vaitilingom; Yves Bertheau; José Remacle

2006-01-01

427

Unraveling genetic modifiers in the gria4 mouse model of absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Absence epilepsy (AE) is a common type of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), particularly in children. AE and GGE are complex genetic diseases with few causal variants identified to date. Gria4 deficient mice provide a model of AE, one for which the common laboratory inbred strain C3H/HeJ (HeJ) harbors a natural IAP retrotransposon insertion in Gria4 that reduces its expression 8-fold. Between C3H and non-seizing strains such as C57BL/6, genetic modifiers alter disease severity. Even C3H substrains have surprising variation in the duration and incidence of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the characteristic electroencephalographic feature of absence seizures. Here we discovered extensive IAP retrotransposition in the C3H substrain, and identified a HeJ-private IAP in the Pcnxl2 gene, which encodes a putative multi-transmembrane protein of unknown function, resulting in decreased expression. By creating new Pcnxl2 frameshift alleles using TALEN mutagenesis, we show that Pcnxl2 deficiency is responsible for mitigating the seizure phenotype - making Pcnxl2 the first known modifier gene for absence seizures in any species. This finding gave us a handle on genetic complexity between strains, directing us to use another C3H substrain to map additional modifiers including validation of a Chr 15 locus that profoundly affects the severity of SWD episodes. Together these new findings expand our knowledge of how natural variation modulates seizures, and highlights the feasibility of characterizing and validating modifiers in mouse strains and substrains in the post-genome sequence era. PMID:25010494

Frankel, Wayne N; Mahaffey, Connie L; McGarr, Tracy C; Beyer, Barbara J; Letts, Verity A

2014-07-01

428

Genetic and Environmental Influences on BMI From Late Childhood to Adolescence are Modified by Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how parental education modifies genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI during adolescence, self-reported BMI at 11–12, 14, and 17 years of age was collected from a population sample of 2,432 complete Finnish twin pairs born in 1983–1987. Based on parental report, twins were divided to those with high (both parents high school graduates), mixed level (one

Hanna-Reetta Lajunen; Jaakko Kaprio; Richard J. Rose; Lea Pulkkinen; Karri Silventoinen

2012-01-01

429

Suggested Improvements for the Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants Used in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population\\u000a has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather\\u000a patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding,\\u000a random mutagenesis, increased pesticide

Richard E. Goodman; Afua O. Tetteh

2011-01-01

430

Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-existence with Conventional Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of

GianCarlo Moschini

2006-01-01

431

Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence with Conventional Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of

GianCarlo Moschini

2006-01-01

432

Identification and detection method for genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus YK strain.  

PubMed

Unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya LINNAEUS) was detected in a commercially processed product, which included papaya as a major ingredient, in Japan. We identified the transgenic vector construct generated based on resistance to infection with the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) YK strain. A specific detection method to qualitatively monitor papaya products for contamination with the GM papaya was developed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. PMID:21963512

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2011-01-01

433

Molecular genetic analysis of virus isolates from wild and cultivated plants demonstrates that East Africa is a hotspot for the evolution and diversification of sweet potato feathery mottle virus.  

PubMed

Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) is globally the most common pathogen of cultivated sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas; Convolvulaceae). Although more than 150 SPFMV isolates have been sequence-characterized from cultivated sweet potatos across the world, little is known about SPFMV isolates from wild hosts and the evolutionary forces shaping SPFMV population structures. In this study, 46 SPFMV isolates from 14 wild species of genera Ipomoea, Hewittia and Lepistemon (barcoded for the matK gene in this study) and 13 isolates from cultivated sweet potatoes were partially sequenced. Wild plants were infected with the EA, C or O strain, or co-infected with the EA and C strains of SPFMV. In East Africa, SPFMV populations in wild species and sweet potato were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-host transmission of SPFMV. Globally, spatial diversification of the 178 isolates analysed was observed, strain EA being largely geographically restricted to East Africa. Recombination was frequently detected in the 6K2-VPg-NIaPro region of the EA strain, demonstrating a recombination 'hotspot'. Recombination between strains EA and C was rare, despite their frequent co-infections in wild plants, suggesting purifying selection against strain EA/C recombinants. Positive selection was predicted on 17 amino acids distributed over the entire coat protein in the globally distributed strain C, as compared to only four amino acids in the coat protein N-terminus of the EA strain. This selection implies a more recent introduction of the C strain and a higher adaptation of the EA strain to the local ecosystem. Thus, East Africa appears as a hotspot for evolution and diversification of SPFMV. PMID:20609081

Tugume, Arthur K; Cuéllar, Wilmer J; Mukasa, Settumba B; Valkonen, Jari P T

2010-08-01

434

Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.  

PubMed

Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended. PMID:23904260

Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

2013-10-01

435

A case study for assessment of microbial community dynamics in genetically modified Bt cotton crop fields.  

PubMed

Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used for growing Bt cotton is postulated to be considerably low as compared to their non-Bt counterparts. Alternatively, it is also speculated that application of a genetically modified crop may alter the bio-geochemical balance of the agriculture field(s). Microbial community composition and dynamics is an important descriptor for assessment of such alterations. In the present study, we have assessed the culturable and non-culturable microbial diversities in Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton soils to determine the ecological consequences of application of Bt cotton. The analyses of microbial community structures indicated that cropping of Bt cotton did not adversely affect the diversity of the microbial communities. PMID:20098990

Kapur, Manisha; Bhatia, Ranjana; Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

2010-08-01

436

Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme, Transporter and Nuclear Receptor Genetically Modified Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Determining the in vivo significance of a specific enzyme, transporter or xenobiotic receptor in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics may be hampered by gene multiplicity and complexity, levels of expression and interaction between various components involved. The development of knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mouse models opens the door to the improved understanding of gene function in a whole body system. There is also growing interest in the development of humanized mice to overcome species difference in drug metabolism and disposition. This review, therefore, aims to summarize and discuss some successful examples of drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear receptor genetically modified mouse models. These genetically modified mouse models have proven as invaluable models for understanding in vivo function of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and xenobiotic receptors in drug metabolism and transport, as well as predicting potential drug-drug interaction and toxicity in humans. Nevertheless, concerns remain about interpretation of data obtained from such genetically modified mouse models in which the expression of related genes is altered significantly.

Jiang, Xi-Ling; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yu, Ai-Ming

2011-01-01

437

Genetic Variation of DKK3 May Modify Renal Disease Severity in ADPKD  

PubMed Central

Significant variation in the course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease ( ADPKD) within families suggests the presence of effect modifiers. Recent studies of the variation within families harboring PKD1 mutations indicate that genetic background may account for 32 to 42% of the variance in estimated GFR (eGFR) before ESRD and 43 to 78% of the variance in age at ESRD onset, but the genetic modifiers are unknown. Here, we conducted a high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping association study of 173 biological candidate genes in 794 white patients from 227 families with PKD1. We analyzed two primary outcomes: (1) eGFR and (2) time to ESRD (renal survival). For both outcomes, we used multidimensional scaling to correct for population structure and generalized estimating equations to account for the relatedness among individuals within the same family. We found suggestive associations between each of 12 SNPs and at least one of the renal outcomes. We genotyped these SNPs in a second set of 472 white patients from 229 families with PKD1 and performed a joint analysis on both cohorts. Three SNPs continued to show suggestive/significant association with eGFR at the Dickkopf 3 (DKK3) gene locus; no SNPs significantly associated with renal survival. DKK3 antagonizes Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which may modulate renal cyst growth. Pending replication, our study suggests that genetic variation of DKK3 may modify severity of ADPKD resulting from PKD1 mutations.

Liu, Michelle; Shi, Sally; Senthilnathan, Sean; Yu, Julie; Wu, Elliot; Bergmann, Carsten; Zerres, Klaus; Bogdanova, Nadja; Coto, Eliecer; Deltas, Constantinos; Pierides, Alkis; Demetriou, Kyproula; Devuyst, Olivier; Gitomer, Berenice; Laakso, Marku; Lumiaho, Anne; Lamnissou, Klea; Magistroni, Riccardo; Parfrey, Patrick; Breuning, Martijn; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Torra, Roser; Winearls, Christopher G.; Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.; Paterson, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

438

Genetically modified mouse models for the study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (1) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (2) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; to (3) cirrhosis. The animal models to study NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are extremely useful, as there are still many events to be elucidated in the pathology of NASH. The study of the established animal models has provided many clues in the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis, but these remain incompletely understood. The different mouse models can be classified in two large groups. The first one includes genetically modified (transgenic or knockout) mice that spontaneously develop liver disease, and the second one includes mice that acquire the disease after dietary or pharmacological manipulation. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, genetically modified animal models may be a key for the treatment of NAFLD. Ideal animal models for NASH should closely resemble the pathological characteristics observed in humans. To date, no single animal model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but they can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that the researchers choose the appropriate animal model. This review discusses various genetically modified animal models developed and used in research on NAFLD.

Nagarajan, Perumal; Mahesh Kumar, M Jerald; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Majundar, Subeer S; Juyal, Ramesh C

2012-01-01

439

N-methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles as adsorbents for solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from genetically modified soybeans.  

PubMed

N-Methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles (MIm-MPs) were prepared and applied in the solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from genetically modified soybeans. The adsorption of MIm-MPs for DNA mainly resulted from the strong electrostatic interaction between the positively charged MPs and the negatively charged DNA. The elution of DNA from MPs-DNA conjugates using phosphate buffer resulted from the stronger electrostatic interaction of phosphate ions with MPs than DNA. In the extraction procedure, no harmful reagents (e.g. phenol, chloroform and isopropanol, etc.) used, high yield (10.4 ?g DNA per 30 mg sample) and high quality (A260/A280=1.82) of DNA can be realized. The as-prepared DNA was used as template for duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were analyzed by a sieving capillary electrophoresis method. Quick and high quality extraction of DNA template, and fast and high resolution detection of duplex PCR products can be realized using the developed method. No toxic reagents are used throughout the method. PMID:23522109

Deng, Manchen; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Li

2013-04-10

440

Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress.

Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perello, Mario

2013-01-01

441

Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean in Relation to Natural Variation in the Soybean Seed Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Genetically modified (GM) crops currently constitute a significant and growing part of agriculture. An important aspect of GM crop adoption is to demonstrate safety and equivalence with respect to conventional crops. Untargeted metabolomics has the ability to profile diverse classes of metabolites and thus could be an adjunct for GM crop substantial equivalence assessment. To account for environmental effects and introgression of GM traits into diverse genetic backgrounds, we propose that the assessment for GM crop metabolic composition should be understood within the context of the natural variation for the crop. Using a non-targeted metabolomics platform, we profiled 169 metabolites and established their dynamic ranges from the seeds of 49 conventional soybean lines representing the current commercial genetic diversity. We further demonstrated that the metabolome of a GM line had no significant deviation from natural variation within the soybean metabolome, with the exception of changes in the targeted engineered pathway.

Clarke, Joseph D.; Alexander, Danny C.; Ward, Dennis P.; Ryals, John A.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Guo, Lining

2013-01-01

442

[Application of DNA extraction kit, 'GM quicker' for detection of genetically modified soybeans].  

PubMed

Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans. PMID:22450668

Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

2012-01-01

443

Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified corn has been ap- proved as an animal feed in several countries, but infor- mation about the fate of genetically modified DNA and protein in vivo is insufficient. Genetically modified corn Bt11 is developed by inserting a recombinant DNA se- quence encoding insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Ba- cillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. We examined the presence of corn intrinsic

E. H. Chowdhury; H. Kuribara; A. Hino; P. Sultana; O. Mikami; N. Shimada; K. S. Guruge; M. Saito; Y. Nakajima

2008-01-01

444

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

445

Russian Federation: Biotechnology. Registration Procedure for GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) Feeds, 2007. GAIN Report Number RS7078.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an unofficial translation of the procedure to register feeds produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In accordance with the resolution of the Russian Government that transferred the testing and registration of biotechnolo...

K. Svec M. Pyrtel Y. Vassilieva

2007-01-01

446

Genetically Modified Foods: Experts View Regimen of Safety Tests as Adequate, but FDA's Evaluation Process Could Be Enhanced.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proponents and opponents of modern agricultural biotechnology hold passionate views about the benefits and risks of using this technology to produce genetically modified (GM) food. To ensure public confidence in GM foods, the U.S. biotechnology industry r...

2002-01-01

447

METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCIENCE QUESTIONS: -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants? -How can it be measured? -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities? RESEARCH: The objectives ...

448

A Novel Lung Disease Phenotype Adjusted for Mortality Attrition for Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Modifier Studies  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genetic studies of lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis are hampered by the lack of a severity measure that accounts for chronic disease progression and mortality attrition. Further, combining analyses across studies requires common phenotypes that are robust to study design and patient ascertainment. Using data from the North American Cystic Fibrosis Modifier Consortium (Canadian Consortium for CF Genetic Studies, Johns Hopkins University CF Twin and Sibling Study, and University of Nor