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1

Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.  

PubMed

Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products. PMID:12537422

Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

2003-01-29

2

Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.  

PubMed

The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

2007-06-13

3

Different Selective Effects on Rhizosphere Bacteria Exerted by Genetically Modified versus Conventional Potato Lines  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we assessed the actively metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of potato using two potato cultivars, i.e. the genetically-modified (GM) cultivar Modena (having tubers with altered starch content) and the near-isogenic non-GM cultivar Karnico. To achieve our aims, we pulse-labelled plants at EC90 stage with 13C-CO2 and analysed their rhizosphere microbial communities 24 h, 5 and 12 days following the pulse. In the analyses, phospholipid fatty acid/stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) as well as RNA-SIP followed by reverse transcription and PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis, were used to determine the bacterial groups that actively respond to the root-released 13C labelled carbonaceous compounds. Methodology/Principal findings The PLFA-SIP data revealed major roles of bacteria in the uptake of root-released 13C carbon, which grossly increased with time. Gram-negative bacteria, including members of the genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, were strong accumulators of the 13C-labeled compounds at the two cultivars, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were lesser responders. PCR-DGGE analysis of cDNA produced from the two cultivar types showed that these had selected different bacterial, alpha- and betaproteobacterial communities at all time points. Moreover, an effect of time was observed, indicating dynamism in the structure of the active bacterial communities. PCR-DGGE as well as clone library analyses revealed that the main bacterial responders at cultivar Karnico were taxonomically affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, next to Gluconacetobacter and Paracoccus. Cultivar Modena mainly attracted Burkholderia, next to Moraxella-like (Moraxellaceae family) and Sphingomonas types. Conclusions/Significance Based on the use of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia as proxies for differentially-selected bacterial genera, we conclude that the selective forces exerted by potato cultivar Modena on the active bacterial populations differed from those exerted by cultivar Karnico. PMID:23844136

Hannula, Silja Emilia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cássia; Salles, Joana Falcão; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2013-01-01

4

Quality and safety evaluation of genetically modified potatoes spunta with Cry V gene: compositional analysis, determination of some toxins, antinutrients compounds and feeding study in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition, nutritional and toxicology safety of GM potato Spunta lines compared to that of conventional potato Spunta. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 14 components, total solid, protein, lipid, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, starch, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. Some toxins and anti-nutrients compounds were determined. Feeding study of GM potatoes line (G2 and G3) in rats were done for 30 days. Four groups of albino rats were used for studying the effect and the safety assessment of GM potatoes Spunta G2 and G3. Group (I) was fed on control basal diet, group (II) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried nongenetically modified potato Spunta, group (III) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta, and group (IV) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta GMO G3. There were no significant differences between GM potatoes G2, G3, and Spunta control potato line in the proximate chemical composition. The levels of glycoalkaloids in transgenic potato tubers and nontransgenic were determined and there were also no significant differences between the GM potatoes and conventional potato line, the levels were in agreement with a safety level recommended by FAO/WHO (200 mg/ kg) for acute toxicity. Protease inhibitor activity and total phenol were estimated and no significant differences between the GM potatoes line and conventional potato Spunta line were found. During the period tested, rats in each group (I, II, III, IV) grew well without marked differences in appearance. No statistical difference were found in food intake, daily body weight gain and feed efficiency. But there is a slightly significant difference in finally body weight between the control group and experimental groups. No significant difference were found in serum biochemical value between each groups, and also between relative organs weight (liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testes). From these results, it can be concluded that the GM potatoes Spunta line (G2 and G3) with Cry V gene are confirmed to have nearly the composition and biochemical characteristics as non-GM potato Spunta. PMID:15053345

El Sanhoty, Rafaat; El-Rahman, Ahamed Ali Abd; Bögl, Klaus Werner

2004-02-01

5

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

6

Potato plants genetically modified to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones increase susceptibility to soft rot erwiniae.  

PubMed

Many gram-negative bacteria employ N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) to regulate diverse physiological processes in concert with cell population density (quorum sensing [QS]). In the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora, the AHL synthesized via the carI/expI genes are responsible for regulating the production of secreted plant cell wall-degrading exoenzymes and the antibiotic carbapen-3-em carboxylic acid. We have previously shown that targeting the product of an AHL synthase gene (yenI) from Yersinia enterocolitica to the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco plants caused the synthesis in planta of the cognate AHL signaling molecules N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL), which in turn, were able to complement a carI-QS mutant. In the present study, we demonstrate that transgenic potato plants containing the yenI gene are also able to express AHL and that the presence and level of these AHL in the plant increases susceptibility to infection by E. carotovora. Susceptibility is further affected by both the bacterial level and the plant tissue under investigation. PMID:15305609

Toth, I K; Newton, J A; Hyman, L J; Lees, A K; Daykin, M; Ortori, C; Williams, P; Fray, R G

2004-08-01

7

Analysis of protein profiles of genetically modified potato tubers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Traceability of genetically modified (GM) foods demands the development of appropriate reliable techniques in order to identify and quantify peptide or nucleic acid residues in GM plants and food products through the food chain. In this study the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was demonstrated for the characterization of proteins of transformed and untransformed potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) tubers. In GM tubers the expression level of the G1-1 gene, which regulates transition from dormancy to sprouting tubers, was inhibited by antisense technology. The analysis of antisense transformed lines showed that several of them exhibited a significant delay in sprouting relative to the control lines, in accordance with a decrease in the transcript level. Preliminary attempts to compare the protein patterns obtained from transformed and control lines using traditional electrophoresis were not able to reveal differences in the low-kDa range. Instead, MALDI-TOFMS applied to total peptide extract without any purification was able to distinguish spectral patterns of transformed and untransformed lines. In particular, several characteristic peaks from m/z 4373 to 4932 were detected only in the mass spectra of GM tuber samples. PMID:12590397

Careri, M; Elviri, L; Mangia, A; Zagnoni, I; Agrimonti, C; Visioli, G; Marmiroli, N

2003-01-01

8

Genetic modification of respiratory capacity in potato.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial respiration was altered in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) lines by overexpression of the alternative oxidase Aox1 gene. Overexpressing lines showed higher levels of Aox1 mRNA, increased levels of alternative oxidase protein(s), and an unusual higher molecular weight polypeptide, which may be a normal processing/modification intermediate. Evidence suggests that the alternative oxidase protein is further processed/modified beyond removal of the transit peptide. Addition of pyruvate to mitochondria oxidizing succinate or NADH increased the alternative pathway capacity but did not eliminate the difference in the capacity between these two substrates. Induction of alternative pathway capacity by aging of tubers appeared to be more dependent on increased levels of alternative oxidase protein than changes in its oxidation state. In leaf and tuber mitochondria, overexpressing lines possessed higher alternative pathway capacity than the control line, which suggests that changing the alternative oxidase protein level by genetic engineering can effectively change alternative pathway capacity. PMID:8587988

Hiser, C; Kapranov, P; McIntosh, L

1996-01-01

9

The Canon of Potato Science: 6. Genetic Modification and Cis and Transgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is it? Genetic modification is the act of inserting one or more agriculturally important genes into the genome of a potato plant by in vitro techniques and by using modified Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a natural gene transfer tool. The end product is a genetically modified (GM) plant. Important preconditions for transformation are in vitro regeneration and transformation ability of

E. Jacobsen

2007-01-01

10

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Through 2003 there have been more than 38 trillion GM [genetically modified] plants grown in the U.S." , and "GM plants are the most deeply studied and understood (genetically, physiological, and ecologically) plants ever grown anywhere. These two statements, presented by the author, set the stage...

11

GENETIC MANIPULATION FOR ENHANCING CALCIUM CONTENT IN POTATO TUBER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased calcium (Ca) in potatoes may increase the production rate by enhancing tuber quality and storability. Additionally, increased Ca levels in important agricultural crops may help ameliorate the incidence of osteoporosis. However, the capacity to alter Ca levels in potato tubers through genet...

12

Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in puerto rico.  

PubMed

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

13

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

14

RAPD and pedigree-based genetic diversity estimates in cultivated diploid potato hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, RAPD and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationships in a group of 45 diploid hybrid potato clones used in the breeding and genetics program of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Potato Research Centre in Fredericton, New Brunswick, and used for the potato after-cooking darkness program at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. These hybrids were

Genlou Sun; Gefu Wang-Pruski; Michael Mayich; Hielke De Jong

2003-01-01

15

Robust and Highly Informative Microsatellite-Based Genetic Identity Kit for Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fingerprinting of 742 potato landraces with 51 simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellite) markers resulted in improving a previously constructed potato genetic identity (PGI) kit. In addition, we mapped 27 new SSR markers on at least one of three potato genetic linkage maps. All SSR marker loc...

16

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS: THE STAKES  

E-print Network

Following their eruption and success in the outer-Atlantic, genetically modified plants (GMP) have undeniably missed their appointment with the European society. Beginning purely as a biotechnological test,

G. Riba; Y. Chupeau

2001-01-01

17

Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating the Potato Genome with Genetic and Physical Maps  

PubMed Central

The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker?based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal “pseudomolecules”. PMID:24062527

Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D’Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S.; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A.; Hamilton, John P.; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J.; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E.; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E.; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M. E.; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J.

2013-01-01

18

Analysis of genetic and pathogenic variation among Alternaria solani in a potato production region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year survey was conducted in a potato production region to investigate the genetic variability within naturally infecting populations of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight in potato, and between species A. solani and A. dauci. Genetic diversity among 151 isolates was assessed using s...

19

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

20

Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

21

Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

22

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

23

Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

2014-09-15

24

Biological response of rat fed diets with high tuber content of conventionally bred and transgenic potato resistant to necrotic strain of potato virus (PVY N) Part I. Chemical composition of tubers and nutritional value of diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments on rats, nutritional properties of a diet with high content (40%) of potato tubers obtained from conventional or genetically-modified potato were determined. The potato cultivar Irga was transformed with viral genome sequences in order to improve its resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN). Four lines of genetically-modified potato were compared with non-transgenic somaclone from

Z. Zdunczyk; S. Frejnagel; J. Fornal; M. Flis; M. C. Palacios; B. Flis; W. Zagorski-Ostoja

2005-01-01

25

Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Health, Socioeconomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about genetically modified (GM) food seeds are serious and well-founded, the problems which these seeds raise are usually not unique to GM seeds alone. GM organisms are only one example of problematic new varieties or breeds. Large soybean and other monocultural plantations have serious environmental effects which GM seeds exacerbate. Although GM seeds may benefit large scale commercial

Frank J. Leavitt

26

Genetic analysis of root-knot nematode resistance in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of potato varieties with resistance towards the potato cyst nematode, allowed a dramatic decrease of the use of nematicides. Subsequently the population of the free living nematodes and the root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.) has increased. Among the root-knot nematodes, three Meloidogyne species are important in the potato cultivation in The Netherlands: M. hapla , M. chitwoodi and

J. Draaistra

2006-01-01

27

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

28

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods

Marieke Saher; Marjaana Lindeman; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2006-01-01

29

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

30

Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.  

PubMed

Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. PMID:21281424

Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

2011-10-01

31

Genetically Modified Animals and Pharmacological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the\\u000a domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of\\u000a the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in\\u000a generating affordable models of human disease although

Dominic J. Wells

32

Genetic diversity of thiamine and folate in primitive cultivated and wild potato (Solanum) species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofortification of staple crops like potato via breeding is an attractive strategy to reduce human micronutrient deficiencies. A prerequisite is metabolic phenotyping of genetically diverse material which can be used as parents in breeding programs. Thus, the natural genetic diversity of thiamine a...

33

Genetic stability in potato germplasm for resistance to root galling caused by the powdery scab pathogen spongospora subterranea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spongospora subteranea, the causal agent of potato powdery scab is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Little is known about the genetic basis of resistance to this disease. The present study tested the hypothesis that potato genotypes with stable genetic resistance to "Spongospora root galli...

34

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

35

Genetically Modified Organisms and Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modification techniques have transformed the scope of biotechnology. Describes the new technology and its potential uses in the food industry. Safety is an important consideration and there are European Community and British legislative safeguards for human and environmental safety. Proposed EC legislation on novel foods, as drafted, contains equivalent provisions. There are wider questions about use of genetic modification

Stewart Marshall

1994-01-01

36

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

37

Targeting Genetically Modified Macrophages to the Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages are key players in the development of the majority of renal diseases and are therefore ideal cellular vectors for site specifically targeting gene therapy to inflamed glomeruli. Macrophages can be genetically modified using viral vectors ex vivo then re-introduced into the body where they can home to the diseased site. This review summarises current experience in efficiently targeting modified

H. M. Wilson; D. C. Kluth

2003-01-01

38

Genetically modified mouse models in cancer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified animals represent a resource of immense potential for cancer research. Classically, genetic modifications\\u000a in mice were obtained through selected breeding experiments or treatments with powerful carcinogens capable of inducing random\\u000a mutagenesis. A new era began in the early 1980s when genetic modifications by inserting foreign DNA genes into the cells of\\u000a an animal allowed for the development of

Javier Santos; Pablo Fernández-Navarro; María Villa-Morales; Laura González-Sánchez; José Fernández-Piqueras

2008-01-01

39

Genetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

40

Introduction to Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

41

Epigenetics: modifying the genetic blueprint.  

PubMed

The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint. While it is now possible to draw direct connections between specific DNA sequences and specific physical features and to predict disease risk, the effects of certain genes can be masked by a process called "epigenetics." Here, I summarize our current understanding of epigenetics and it affects gene expression, with impacts on health and aging. PMID:25438366

Eissenberg, Joel C

2014-01-01

42

Genetic transformation of sweet potato by particle bombardment.  

PubMed

Transient and stable expression of foreign genes has been achieved in sweet potato using the particle bombardment system of gene delivery. Callus and root isolates of two genotypes (Jewel and TIS-70357) with positive signs of transformation have been recovered. Tungsten microcarriers coated with plasmid DNA (pBI 221 containing the gusA gene) were accelerated at high velocity using a biolistic device into sweet potato target tissues. Histochemical examination of bombarded leaf and petiole explants revealed that most had cells expressing the gusA gene. When explants were cultured, calli and roots developed in most bombarded tissues. Similar results but with a lower frequency of transformation were observed when the plasmid pBI 121 (with gusA and antibiotic resistance npt II genes) was employed and bombarded explants cultured on an antibiotic selection medium. Subcultured roots and calli were positive for gusA expression when tested even after one year of in vitro culture, and thus the expression of the foreign gene is fairly stable. The particle bombardment approach of gene delivery appears to have a potential for generating transgenic sweet potatoes with useful agronomic traits. PMID:24213484

Prakash, C S; Varadarajan, U

1992-03-01

43

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods  

E-print Network

to Wild Relatives,'' Report to Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (U.K.), 2005, availableSCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods and the Attack on Nature Stuart A. Newman to improve foods and other crop plants by introducing exogenous genes (experi- mental transgenesis, a type

Newman, Stuart A.

44

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

45

Disease-resistant genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infectious disease adversely affects livestock production and animal welfare, and has impacts upon both human health and public perception of livestock production. The authors argue that the combination of new methodology that enables the efficient production of genetically-modified (GM) animals with exciting new tools to alter gene activity makes the applications of transgenic animals for the benefit of animal

C. B. A. Whitelaw; H. M. Sang

2005-01-01

46

Should genetically modified organisms be patentable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some of the philosophical issues involved in patenting genetically modified organisms. In particular, what we think has been highly problematic has been the tendency to use terms such as intervention, identification, creation, authorship and artifact interchangeably as criteria for invention. We examine attempts by various people to formulate a philosophically precise set of criteria for

Justine Lacey; Julian Lamont

47

ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

48

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensification of agriculture has provided cheaper more plentiful food, but has also caused declines in farm- land wildlife. The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may exacerbate this, or offer new ways of mitigating anthropogenic impacts. The potential conse- quences of the introduction of GM crops have been stud- ied for over a decade, since commercialization. Although the specific

Rosemary S Hails

2009-01-01

49

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

50

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

51

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

52

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

53

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Some Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity using Mahalanobis's D - technique was studied for tuber yield and its components 2 viz., Plant Height (PH), Number of Leaves\\/plant (NLPP), Fresh Weight\\/plant (FWP), Number of Tubers\\/plant (NLPP), Number of Eyes\\/tuber (NEPT), Average Tuber Weight of Plant (ATWP) and Tuber weight\\/plant (TWt.\\/P). The 30 potato genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The maximum diversity was contributed by

A. Haydar; M. B. Ahmed; M. M. Hannan; M. A. Razvy; M. A. Mandal; M. Salahin; R. Karim; M. Hossain

54

GMEnzy: A Genetically Modified Enzybiotic Database  

PubMed Central

GMEs are genetically modified enzybiotics created through molecular engineering approaches to deal with the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance prevalence. We present a fully manually curated database, GMEnzy, which focuses on GMEs and their design strategies, production and purification methods, and biological activity data. GMEnzy collects and integrates all available GMEs and their related information into one web based database. Currently GMEnzy holds 186 GMEs from published literature. The GMEnzy interface is easy to use, and allows users to rapidly retrieve data according to desired search criteria. GMEnzy’s construction will increase the efficiency and convenience of improving these bioactive proteins for specific requirements, and will expand the arsenal available for researches to control drug-resistant pathogens. This database will prove valuable for researchers interested in genetically modified enzybiotics studies. GMEnzy is freely available on the Web at http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/gmenzy/. PMID:25084271

Lu, Hairong; Li, Guodong; Huang, Qingshan

2014-01-01

55

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

56

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

57

The citric acid-modified, enzyme-resistant dextrin from potato starch as a potential prebiotic.  

PubMed

In the present study, enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and citric (0.1% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 3 h (CA-dextrin), was tested as a source of carbon for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria isolated from feces of three healthy 70-year old volunteers. The dynamics of growth of bacterial monocultures in broth containing citric acid (CA)-modified dextrin were estimated. It was also investigated whether lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria in the presence of resistant dextrin would be able to dominate the intestinal isolates. Prebiotic fermentation of resistant dextrin was analyzed using prebiotic index (PI). In co-cultures of intestinal and probiotic bacteria, the environment was found to be dominated by the probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which is a beneficial effect. PMID:24432315

Sli?ewska, Katarzyna

2013-01-01

58

Genetic analysis of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum L. Phureja Group using RAPDs and nuclear SSRs.  

PubMed

The Solanum tuberosum L. Phureja Group consists of potato landraces widely grown in the Andes from western Venezuela to central Bolivia, and forms an important breeding stock due to their excellent culinary properties and other traits for developing modern varieties. They have been distinguished by short-day adaptation, diploid ploidy (2n = 2x = 24), and lack of tuber dormancy. This nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR or microsatellite) study complements a prior random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) study to explore the use of these markers to form a core collection of cultivar groups of potatoes. Like this prior RAPD study, we analyzed 128 accessions of the Phureja Group using nuclear microsatellites (nSSR). Twenty-six of the 128 accessions were invariant for 22 nSSR markers assayed. The nSSR data uncovered 25 unexpected triploid and tetraploid accessions. Chromosome counts of the 102 accessions confirmed these nSSR results and highlighted seven more triploids or tetraploids. Thus, these nSSR markers (except 1) are good indicators of ploidy for diploid potatoes in 92% of the cases. The nSSR and RAPD results: (1) were highly discordant for the remaining 70 accessions that were diploid and variable in nSSR, (2) show the utility of nSSRs to effectively uncover many ploidy variants in cultivated potato, (3) support the use of a cultivar-group (rather than a species) classification of cultivated potato, (4) fail to support a relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance, (5) question the use of any single type of molecular marker to construct core collections. PMID:16972060

Ghislain, M; Andrade, D; Rodríguez, F; Hijmans, R J; Spooner, D M

2006-11-01

59

Plastidial Starch Phosphorylase in Sweet Potato Roots Is Proteolytically Modified by Protein-Protein Interaction with the 20S Proteasome  

PubMed Central

Post-translational regulation plays an important role in cellular metabolism. Earlier studies showed that the activity of plastidial starch phosphorylase (Pho1) may be regulated by proteolytic modification. During the purification of Pho1 from sweet potato roots, we observed an unknown high molecular weight complex (HX) showing Pho1 activity. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and reverse immunoprecipitation analyses showed that HX is composed of Pho1 and the 20S proteasome. Incubating sweet potato roots at 45°C triggers a stepwise degradation of Pho1; however, the degradation process can be partially inhibited by specific proteasome inhibitor MG132. The proteolytically modified Pho1 displays a lower binding affinity toward glucose 1-phosphate and a reduced starch-synthesizing activity. This study suggests that the 20S proteasome interacts with Pho1 and is involved in the regulation of the catalytic activity of Pho1 in sweet potato roots under heat stress conditions. PMID:22506077

Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Han-Min; Chou, I-Min; Chen, An-Na; Chen, Chia-Pei; Young, Guang-Huar; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chung; Juang, Rong-Huay

2012-01-01

60

The voyage of an invasive species across continents: genetic diversity of North American and European Colorado potato beetle populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradox of successful invading species is that they are likely to be genetically depau- perate compared to their source population. This study on Colorado potato beetles is one of the few studies of the genetic consequences of continent-scale invasion in an insect pest. Understanding gene flow, population structure and the potential for rapid evolution in native and invasive populations

ALESSANDRO GRAPPUTO; SANNA BOMAN; LEENA LINDSTRÖM; ANNE LYYTINEN; JOHANNA MAPPES

2005-01-01

61

NewLeaf Plus® Russet Burbank potatoes: replicase-mediated resistance to potato leafroll virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato leafroll poleovirus and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) are major pests of potato in the USA. The US Department of Agriculture estimates that over 50% of annual insecticide use on potato is applied to control the Colorado potato beetle and aphids that transmit potato leafroll virus (PLRV). To address this issue, Russet Burbank potatoes have been genetically

E. C. Lawson; J. D. Weiss; P. E. Thomas; W. K. Kaniewski

2001-01-01

62

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS  

E-print Network

may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, London, UK. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Environmental impact of genetically modified crops/edited by Natalie Ferry and Angharad M.R. Gatehouse. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84593-409-5 (alk. paper) 1. Transgenic plants--Environmental aspects. 2. Food--Safety measures. 3. Agricultural biotechnology. I. Ferry, Natalie. II. Gatehouse, A. M. R. III. Title.

Natalie Ferry; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Typeset Spi

63

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

64

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

65

Emulsification and adsorption properties of hydrophobically modified potato and barley starch.  

PubMed

In this paper, we studied the adsorption at emulsion droplets of potato starch, which was hydrophobically modified with octenyl succinate anhydride (OSA), a surface active macromolecule containing ultrahigh molar mass components. The results show that the substance works as an efficient emulsifier and that it can in some cases generate high surface loads (10 mg/m2). The results can be explained as an interplay between kinetic factors during the formation of the emulsion and the physical-chemical properties of the hydrophobically modified starch, such as the degree of substitution, molar mass, and radius. In turbulent flow fields, such as in a high-pressure homogenizer, the mass transport to the interface favors the adsorption of larger molecules as they are transported more rapidly to the interface. The larger molecules are also likely to have a higher substituent density and adsorption energy than smaller ones. This in turn is likely to give high surface loads and strengthen the effect of kinetic adsorption factors, as the large molecules will be overrepresented at the surface. PMID:17243695

Nilsson, Lars; Bergenståhl, Björn

2007-02-21

66

Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products

Steve L. Taylor; Susan L. Hefle

2001-01-01

67

Protein and fat modify the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato-based meal.  

PubMed

Potatoes, especially mashed potatoes, are known to result in high glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, in most meals, potatoes are accompanied by other foods. The objective of the present study was to investigate how glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato meal changed when a high-fat food (rapeseed oil), a high-protein food (chicken breast) and/or salad were added to the meal. Healthy subjects (n 11) ingested the test meals once and the reference food (glucose solution) twice in a random order at 1-week intervals. Capillary blood samples were then drawn for 2 h, and glucose and insulin were analysed. The 2 h glycaemic responses to six mashed potato-containing meals varied more than twofold. The glycaemic index (GI) of pure mashed potato was 108, whereas combined with chicken breast, rapeseed oil and salad, it was only 54. The latter GI also differed considerably from its predicted value of 103, which was based on the individual GI of the components of the meal. The insulinaemic indices of the mashed potato-based meals varied between 94 and 148. Chicken breast in the meal increased the insulinaemic response, and rapeseed oil diminished it. However, the insulinaemic response to mashed potato with chicken breast and rapeseed oil was lower than that to mashed potato alone. In conclusion, the protein, fat and salad contents of a meal exert considerable influence on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to mashed potatoes. Furthermore, the estimation of the GI of a mixed meal by calculation is imprecise. PMID:21338539

Hätönen, Katja A; Virtamo, Jarmo; Eriksson, Johan G; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Valsta, Liisa M

2011-07-01

68

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

69

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

70

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

71

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

72

Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens

S. L Taylor

1997-01-01

73

Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation. PMID:17956000

Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

2007-01-01

74

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

75

Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

76

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

77

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

78

Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0.905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts. PMID:24440815

Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

2014-04-01

79

Spectroscopy detection of green and red fluorescent proteins in genetically modified plants using a fiber optics system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fiber optic spectroscopy is developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in vivo. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fiber optic spectroscopy. Fluorescence at the appropriate emission wavelengths could be detected up to 64X dilution for EGFP and 40X dilution for DsRED. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in vivo, transgenic potato hairy roots expressing EGFP and DsRED were regenerated. This was achieved by cloning the EGFP and DsRED genes into the plant binary vector, pTMV35S, to create the recombinant vectors pGLOWGreen and pGLOWRed. These latter binary vectors were introduced into Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4T. Infection of potato cells with transformed agrobacteria was used to insert the fluorescent protein genes into the potato genome. Genetically modified potato cells were then regenerated into hairy roots. A panel of transformed hairy roots expressing varying levels of fluorescent proteins was selected by fluorescence microscopy. We are now assessing the capability of spectroscopic detection system for in vivo quantification of green and red fluorescence levels in transformed roots.

Liew, Oi Wah; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; Chew, Yiwen; Yu, Shangjuan; Yeo, Gare H.

2001-05-01

80

Global Genetics and Invasion History of the Potato Powdery Scab Pathogen, Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea  

PubMed Central

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss) causes two diseases on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lesions on tubers and galls on roots, which are economically important worldwide. Knowledge of global genetic diversity and population structure of pathogens is essential for disease management including resistance breeding. A combination of microsatellite and DNA sequence data was used to investigate the structure and invasion history of Sss. South American populations (four countries, 132 samples) were consistently more diverse than those from all other regions (15 countries, 566 samples), in agreement with the hypothesis that Sss originated in South America where potato was domesticated. A substantial genetic differenciation was found between root and tuber-derived samples from South America. Estimates of past and recent gene flow suggested that Sss was probably introduced from South America into Europe. Subsequently, Europe is likely to have been the recent source of migrants of the pathogen, acting as a “bridgehead” for further global dissemination. Quarantine measures must continue to be focussed on maintaining low global genetic diversity and avoiding exchange of genetic material between the native and introduced regions. Nevertheless, the current low global genetic diversity of Sss allows potato breeders to select for resistance, which is likely to be durable. PMID:23840791

Gau, Rebecca D.; Merz, Ueli; Falloon, Richard E.; Brunner, Patrick C.

2013-01-01

81

[Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].  

PubMed

The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

2012-03-01

82

Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

2014-01-01

83

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

84

Mycorrhizal and Rhizobial Colonization of Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybeans?  

PubMed Central

We grew plants of nine soybean varieties, six of which were genetically modified to express transgenic cp4-epsps, in the presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal colonization and nodule abundance and mass differed among soybean varieties; however, in no case was variation significantly associated with the genetic modification. PMID:17483262

Powell, Jeff R.; Gulden, Robert H.; Hart, Miranda M.; Campbell, Rachel G.; Levy-Booth, David J.; Dunfield, Kari E.; Pauls, K. Peter; Swanton, Clarence J.; Trevors, Jack T.; Klironomos, John N.

2007-01-01

85

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

86

Genetic Analysis of Isozyme Loci in Tetraploid Potatoes ( SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)  

PubMed Central

The genetic control of eight isozyme loci revealed by starch gel electrophoresis was studied through the analysis of three progenies derived from four tetraploid cultivars of Solanum tuberosum (groups Andigena and Tuberosum). Duplicate gene expression was found in seven (Got-A, Got-B, Pgd-C, Pgi-B, Pgm-A, Pgm-B and Pox-C) isozyme loci. In another isozyme gene (Adh-A), the parental genotypes were not adequate to distinguish between a monogenic or a digenic model of genetic control. Tetrasomic inheritance was demonstrated in four (Got-A, Got-B, Pgd-C and Pgi-B) isozyme loci. In the remaining duplicate genes, the parental genotypes precluded discrimination between disomic or tetrasomic models. Tetrasomic segregations of the chromosomal type were generally found; however, the isozyme phenotypes shown by three descendants from selfing cv. Katahdin indicate the occurrence of chromatid segregations, although aneuploidy cannot be ruled out. Either autoploidy or amphidiploidy with lack of chromosome differentiation between the two diploid ancestors can account for the existence of tetrasomic inheritance in the common potato. PMID:17246238

Martinez-Zapater, J. M.; Oliver, Jose L.

1984-01-01

87

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

88

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or\\u000a by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported\\u000a the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne,\\u000a 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For

Jaroslava Ovesná; Katerina Demnerová; Vladimíra Pouchová

2008-01-01

89

A Survey of Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming. In addition to the usual computational functions found in CGP, SMCGP includes functions that can modify the evolved program at run time. This means that programs can be iterated to produce an infinite sequence of phenotypes from a single evolved genotype. Here, we discuss the results of using SMCGP on a variety of different problems, and see that SMCGP is able to solve tasks that require scalability and plasticity. We demonstrate how SMCGP is able to produce results that would be impossible for conventional, static Genetic Programming techniques.

Harding, Simon; Banzhaf, Wolfgang; Miller, Julian F.

90

Bioconversion of resveratrol using resting cells of non-genetically modified Alternaria sp.  

PubMed

Bioconversion of resveratrol is mainly achieved using plant cells and genetically modified microorganisms. We proposed a reaction system for resveratrol production using resting cells of a non-genetically modified strain, Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing endophytic fungus isolated from the grape. Effects of phenylalanine concentration, inoculum size, resting time, bioconversion medium, cell age, and pH on resveratrol production in the bioconversion process were investigated and their levels were optimized. The resulting optimal bioconversion medium was 0.2 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 0.1 g/L MgSO4 , 0.2 g/L CaSO4 , and 4.66 mM phenylalanine. Resting cells obtained from cultures of liquid potato-glucose medium after 4 days proved to be at the most suitable cell age for the bioconversion process with high resveratrol production and nonobvious cell growth. Highest resveratrol production (1.376 µg/L) was observed under the obtained optimal conditions of inoculum size, 12.16% (wet cell weight in 100 mL medium), and resting time, 21.3 H. The study provides a new way to produce resveratrol and establishes an essential reaction system for further study of the biosynthesis pathway of resveratrol in microorganisms, especially fungi. PMID:23586428

Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin

2013-01-01

91

Oscillatory Rheological Properties of Fresh and Frozen\\/Thawed Mashed Potatoes as Modified by Different Cryoprotectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different hydrocolloids (amidated low-methoxyl [ALM] and high-methoxyl [HM] pectins, kappa- and iota-carrageenans [?-C and ?-C], and xanthan gum [XG]) and two dairy proteins (whey protein [WP] and sodium caseinate [SC]) were added at five different\\u000a concentrations to fresh (F) and frozen\\/thawed (F\\/T) mashed potatoes to investigate ways of improving the effects of freezing\\u000a and thawing. It was found that

María Dolores Alvarez; Cristina Fernández; Wenceslao Canet

2010-01-01

92

Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.  

PubMed

The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among qualitative descriptors and among potatoes coming from the two differently fertilized soils. PMID:25016108

Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

2014-09-15

93

Welfare Issues of Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Genetically engineered animals have opened,new frontiers in the study of physiology and disease processes. Mutant animals offer more,accurate disease models,and increased precision for pathogenesis and treatment studies. Their use offers hope for improved,therapy to patients with conditions that currently have poor or ineffective treatments. These advantages have fostered an increase in studies using mice in recent years, a development

Melvin B. Dennis

1989-01-01

94

Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

2014-11-01

95

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

96

Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

1989-06-01

97

MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. PMID:21500243

García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-01-01

98

Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opali?ski, Ireneusz

2014-10-01

99

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).  

PubMed

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants. PMID:25416251

Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

2015-01-01

100

Genetic Modifiers of Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a complex, multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental determinants. Experimental investigation of the effects of these determinants on the development and progression of atherosclerosis has been greatly facilitated by the use of targeted mouse models of the disease, particularly those resulting from the absence of functional genes for apolipoprotein E or the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). This review focuses on the influence on atherosclerosis of combining apoE or LDLR deficiencies with factors affecting atherogenesis, including (1) inflammatory processes, (2) glucose metabolism, (3) blood pressure, and (4) coagulation and fibrinolysis. We also discuss the general problem of using the mouse to test the effects on atherogenesis of human polymorphic variations and future ways of enhancing the usefulness of these mouse models. PMID:11073835

Knowles, Joshua W.; Maeda, Nobuyo

2009-01-01

101

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

102

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

103

Renal Tubular Cells Cultured from Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of renal tubular cells from genetically modified animals opens the opportunity of biochemical, cell biology and physiological studies under strictly controlled conditions. Either primary cultures or cell lines can be used. Through two examples of primary cultures of proximal tubular cells obtained from knock-out mice, important information about the function of proteins were obtained. Mice lacking vimentin, an

Gérard Friedlander; Isabelle Runembert; François Vrtovsnik; Fabiola Terzi

1999-01-01

104

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

105

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

106

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

107

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

108

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

109

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

110

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

111

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

112

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

113

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

114

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

115

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

116

Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.  

PubMed

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2010-12-01

117

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

118

Methodological scheme for designing the monitoring of genetically modified crops at the regional scale.  

PubMed

According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g. unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods. These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used to develop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks. PMID:16311819

Graef, F; Züghart, W; Hommel, B; Heinrich, U; Stachow, U; Werner, A

2005-12-01

119

Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X Wing-Sham Lee1†, Shih-Feng Fu1†, Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz2, John P Carr1... capacity for alternative respiration, 0.5 mM SA was adequate to induce resistance to TMV infection even though it did not induce resistance to TMV in non-transgenic N. benthamiana leaves (Figure 4B). This was also seen in three other transgenic lines...

Lee, Wing-Sham; Fu, Shih-Feng; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie; Carr, John P

2011-02-28

120

On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity  

PubMed Central

New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

2013-01-01

121

From QTL to candidate gene: Genetical genomics of simple and complex traits in potato using a pooling strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Utilization of the natural genetic variation in traditional breeding programs remains a major challenge in crop plants. The identification of candidate genes underlying, or associated with, phenotypic trait QTLs is desired for effective marker assisted breeding. With the advent of high throughput -omics technologies, screening of entire populations for association of gene expression with targeted traits is becoming feasible but remains costly. Here we present the identification of novel candidate genes for different potato tuber quality traits by employing a pooling approach reducing the number of hybridizations needed. Extreme genotypes for a quantitative trait are collected and the RNA from contrasting bulks is then profiled with the aim of finding differentially expressed genes. Results We have successfully implemented the pooling strategy for potato quality traits and identified candidate genes associated with potato tuber flesh color and tuber cooking type. Elevated expression level of a dominant allele of the ?-carotene hydroxylase (bch) gene was associated with yellow flesh color through mapping of the gene under a major QTL for flesh color on chromosome 3. For a second trait, a candidate gene with homology to a tyrosine-lysine rich protein (TLRP) was identified based on allele specificity of the probe on the microarray. TLRP was mapped on chromosome 9 in close proximity to a QTL for potato cooking type strengthening its significance as a candidate gene. Furthermore, we have performed a profiling experiment targeting a polygenic trait, by pooling individual genotypes based both on phenotypic and marker data, allowing the identification of candidate genes associated with the two different linkage groups. Conclusions A pooling approach for RNA-profiling with the aim of identifying novel candidate genes associated with tuber quality traits was successfully implemented. The identified candidate genes for tuber flesh color (bch) and cooking type (tlrp) can provide useful markers for breeding schemes in the future. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed. PMID:20210995

2010-01-01

122

A strain-type clustering of potato virus Y based on the genetic distance between isolates calculated by RFLP analysis of the amplified coat protein gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Potato virus Y (PVY) isolates have been classified into genetic strains by a host-independent criterion using a molecular typing method. The method used extracts from infected tissue, and included immunocapture-RT-PCR-RFLP analysis using 5 different restriction endonucleases (Dde I,Eco RV,Hinf I,Rsa I andTaq I). Genetic distances between the different PVY “restrictotypes” were calculated and used to define the PVY genetic

B. Blanco-Urgoiti; F Sfinchez; J. Dopazo; F. Ponz

1996-01-01

123

GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated Annealing employs and instead we used a global technique based on grammatical evolution.

Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

2006-05-01

124

Genetic variation modifies risk for neurodegeneration based on biomarker status  

PubMed Central

Background: While a great deal of work has gone into understanding the relationship between Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, brain atrophy, and disease progression, less work has attempted to investigate how genetic variation modifies these relationships. The goal of this study was two-fold. First, we sought to identify high-risk vs. low-risk individuals based on their CSF tau and A? load and characterize these individuals with regard to brain atrophy in an AD-relevant region of interest. Next, we sought to identify genetic variants that modified the relationship between biomarker classification and neurodegeneration. Methods: Participants were categorized based on established cut-points for biomarker positivity. Mixed model regression was used to quantify longitudinal change in the left inferior lateral ventricle. Interaction analyses between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and biomarker group status were performed using a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the Bonferroni procedure. Results: One intergenic SNP (rs4866650) and one SNP within the SPTLC1 gene (rs7849530) modified the association between amyloid positivity and neurodegeneration. A transcript variant of WDR11-AS1 gene (rs12261764) modified the association between tau positivity and neurodegeneration. These effects were consistent across the two sub-datasets and explained approximately 3% of variance in ventricular dilation. One additional SNP (rs6887649) modified the association between amyloid positivity and baseline ventricular volume, but was not observed consistently across the sub-datasets. Conclusions: Genetic variation modifies the association between AD biomarkers and neurodegeneration. Genes that regulate the molecular response in the brain to oxidative stress may be particularly relevant to neural vulnerability to the damaging effects of amyloid-?. PMID:25140149

Hohman, Timothy J.; Koran, Mary Ellen I.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

2014-01-01

125

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

126

SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potato starch was irradiated with a 60Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation.

Cie?la, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bo?ena; Królak, Edward

2015-01-01

127

Construction and analytical application of a biosensor based on stearic acid-graphite powder modified with sweet potato tissue in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biosensor based on stearic acid-graphite powder modified with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) tissue as peroxidase source was constructed and applied in organic solvents. Several parameters were studied to evaluate\\u000a the performance of this biosensor such as stearic acid-graphite powder and tissue composition, type and concentration of supporting\\u000a electrolyte, organic solvents, water\\/organic solvent ratio (% v\\/v) and hydrogen

O. Fatibello-Filho; I. Cruz Vieira

2000-01-01

128

Biosensor based on paraffin\\/graphite modified with sweet potato tissue for the determination of hydroquinone in cosmetic cream in organic phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic-phase biosensor based on paraffin\\/graphite modified with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) tissue as the source of peroxidase was developed and used for determining hydroquinone in cosmetic creams. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of hydroquinone to p-quinone which electrochemical reduction back to hydroquinone was obtained at a peak potential of ?0.22 V.

Iolanda Cruz Vieira; Orlando Fatibello-Filho

2000-01-01

129

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.  

PubMed

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency. PMID:15494222

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2004-10-15

130

Genetic interactions and modifier genes in Hirschsprung's disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital disorder that occurs in 1:5000 live births. It is characterised by an absence of enteric neurons along a variable region of the gastrointestinal tract. Hirschsprung’s disease is classified as a multigenic disorder, because the same phenotype is associated with mutations in multiple distinct genes. Furthermore, the genetics of Hirschsprung’s disease are highly complex and not strictly Mendelian. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung’s disease also suggests the involvement of modifier genes. Here, we summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying Hirschsprung’s disease based on human and animal studies, focusing on the principal causative genes, their interactions, and the role of modifier genes. PMID:22174542

Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Richard B

2011-01-01

131

Dynamics of list-server discussion on genetically modified foods.  

PubMed

Computer-mediated discussion lists, or list-servers, are popular tools in settings ranging from professional to personal to educational. A discussion list on genetically modified food (GMF) was created in September 2000 as part of the Forum on Genetically Modified Food developed by Science Controversies: Online Partnerships in Education (SCOPE), an educational project that uses computer resources to aid research and learning around unresolved scientific questions. The discussion list "GMF-Science" was actively supported from January 2001 to May 2002. The GMF-Science list welcomed anyone interested in discussing the controversies surrounding GMF. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the discussions and how the GMF-Science list may contribute to learning. Activity on the GMF-Science discussion list reflected some but not all the controversies that were appearing in more traditional publication formats, broached other topics not well represented in the published literature, and tended to leave undiscussed the more technical research developments. PMID:15323060

Triunfol, Marcia L; Hines, Pamela J

2004-04-01

132

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

133

96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize (Bt corn) and  

E-print Network

to produce their own pesticides or insecticides. The engineering of genetically modified food is a rel96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize the short-term effects of genetically modified (GM) maize, specifically MON810 and MON863, on laboratory

Thaxton, Christopher S.

134

Regulating Genetically-Modified Seeds in Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the implications of biosafety regulation on national seed policy. Biosafety regulation—the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology, in particular, the release of genetically-modified organisms—has been extensively discussed at various national and international fora. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks, and, at the international

Patricia L. Traynor; John Komen

2002-01-01

135

Genetically modified crop plants: science versus society? — A perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants offer the possibility of solving local virus-related production agricultural\\u000a problems for local communities in both developed and undeveloped countries. However, major concerns are held regarding the\\u000a safety, health (personal and environmental) and ethics of growing GM crop plants. Such non-technical factors and regulatory\\u000a processes have slowed and\\/or prevented the field testing and commercialisation of many

Robin MacDiarmid

2007-01-01

136

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

137

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.?A) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

2015-02-01

138

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

139

Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR.  

PubMed

Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by (13)C and (31)P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced by enzyme-assisted catalytic branching with branching enzyme (BE) or combined BE and ?-amylase (BB) catalyzed exo-hydrolysis. Carbons of the glycosidic ?-1,6 linkages required high hydration rates before adopting uniform chemical shifts indicating solid-state disorder and poor water accessibility. Comparative analysis of wheat and waxy maize starches demonstrated that starches were similar upon gelatinization independent of botanical origin and that the torsion angles of the glycosidic linkages were averages of the crystalline A and B type structures. In starch suspension phosphorous in immobile regions was only observed in NA starch. Moreover phosphorous was observed in a minor pH-insensitive form and as major phosphate in hydrated GEL and BE starches. PMID:23911477

Larsen, Flemming H; Kasprzak, Miros?aw M; Lærke, Helle N; Knudsen, Knud Erik B; Pedersen, Sven; Jørgensen, Anne S; Blennow, Andreas

2013-09-12

140

Functional Analysis of Cystathionine ?-Synthase in Genetically Engineered Potato Plants1  

PubMed Central

In plants, metabolic pathways leading to methionine (Met) and threonine diverge at the level of their common substrate, O-phosphohomoserine (OPHS). To investigate the regulation of this branch point, we engineered transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants affected in cystathionine ?-synthase (CgS), the enzyme utilizing OPHS for the Met pathway. Plants overexpressing potato CgS exhibited either: (a) high transgene RNA levels and 2.7-fold elevated CgS activities but unchanged soluble Met levels, or (b) decreased transcript amounts and enzyme activities (down to 7% of wild-type levels). In leaf tissues, these cosuppression lines revealed a significant reduction of soluble Met and an accumulation of OPHS. Plants expressing CgS antisense constructs exhibited reductions in enzyme activity to as low as 19% of wild type. The metabolite contents of these lines were similar to those of the CgS cosuppression lines. Surprisingly, neither increased nor decreased CgS activity led to visible phenotypic alterations or significant changes in protein-bound Met levels in transgenic potato plants, indicating that metabolic flux to Met synthesis was not greatly affected. Furthermore, in vitro feeding experiments revealed that potato CgS is not subject to feedback regulation by Met, as reported for Arabidopsis. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that potato CgS catalyzes a near-equilibrium reaction and, more importantly, does not display features of a pathway-regulating enzyme. These results are inconsistent with the current hypothesis that CgS exerts major Met metabolic flux control in higher plants. PMID:12692344

Kreft, Oliver; Hoefgen, Rainer; Hesse, Holger

2003-01-01

141

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction/membrane hybridization assay for detection of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

To improve detection efficiency and result accuracy, four screening primer pairs, four identifying primer pairs, one common primer pair and corresponding probes were designed for the development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction/membrane hybridization assay (MPCR-MHA) for detection of the foreign genes insert in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). After detecting condition and parameter were optimized and determined, MPCR reactions were developed for amplifying several target genes simultaneously in one tube. Primers were labeled with biotin at the 5'-end; biotinylated MPCR products were detected by hybridization to the oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a membrane with subsequent colorimetric detection to confirm hybridization. The testing of screening primers can judge whether the sample contains GMOs, and that of identifying primers can further judge what kinds of trait genes are contained in the sample. We detected nine soybean samples, six maize samples, seven potato samples and two rice samples by the MPCR-MHA method; at the same time we also detected them with single PCR-MHA method. The results between two methods have good consistency. PMID:14580794

Su, Wenijn; Song, Siyang; Long, Minnan; Liu, Guangming

2003-11-01

142

Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.  

PubMed

A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context. PMID:24971889

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

2014-07-23

143

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

144

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

2014-01-07

145

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

146

Hypothetical Link between Infertility and Genetically Modified Food.  

PubMed

It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk associated with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs provides the basis for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been clarified whether the harmful effects is directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or from the transgenesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies have tested the safety of GMFs. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could exist potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

Gao, Mingxia; Li, B; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

2014-10-24

147

Genetic diversity of Sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between Sweet potato leaf curl virus and Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, two sweetpotato begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus (SPLCGV) were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweetpotato begomoviruses have been identified in other parts of the world....

148

Flow cytometric analysis of polysomaty and in vitro genetic instability in potato.  

PubMed

The analysis of nuclear DNA contents in various tissues of potato genotypes showed that flow cytometry is a rapid method to characterize large populations of cells for polysomaty, that is, the occurrence of cells with normal DNA levels together with cells containing endoreduplicated nuclei. The proportion of endoreduplicated nuclei varied in different tissues and genotypes of potato. The analysis of callus and cell cultures showed that the temporal changes in nuclear DNA contents during in vitro growth can be followed and the degree of polyploidization quantified. It is concluded that flow cytometry is a highly suitable method to detect ploidy changes in differentiated plant tissues and calli which are often not amenable for chromosome number determination. PMID:24248142

Ramulu, K S; Dijkhuis, P

1986-06-01

149

Genetic characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot disease of potato in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectobacterium wasabiae has a narrow host range, having previously only been associated with Japanese horseradish. However, recent characterisation\\u000a of Pectobacterium causing soft rotting in New Zealand has identified putative P. wasabiae isolates pathogenic to potato. In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of acnA and mdh DNA sequences and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) were used to confirm the identity of

Andrew R. Pitman; Sally A. Harrow; Sandra B. Visnovsky

2010-01-01

150

Potato germplasm development for warm climates: genetic enhancement of tolerance to heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex potato hybrids were derived through unilateral sexual polyploidization between Solanum tuberosum cv. Atlantic and\\u000a 11 diploid hybrids that produced 2n pollen through co-orientation of second division spindles. The hybrids represented the\\u000a following genomic compositions: TAPB, TAPC, and TAPM where T = S. tuberosum, A = S. andigena, P = S. phureja, B = S. berthaultii,\\u000a C = S. chacoense,

Richard E. Veilleux; Margarita M. Paz; David Levy

1997-01-01

151

Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

2014-05-01

152

Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

2014-01-01

153

Strain background effects and genetic modifiers of hearing in mice  

PubMed Central

Genetic modifiers can be detected in mice by looking for strain background differences in inheritance or phenotype of a mutation. They can be mapped by analyses of appropriate linkage crosses and congenic lines, and modifier genes of large effect can be identified by positional-candidate gene testing. Inbred strains of mice vary widely in onset and severity of age-related hearing loss (AHL), an important consideration when assessing hearing in mutant mice. At least 8 mapped loci and a mitochondrial variant (mt-Tr) are known to contribute to AHL in mouse strains; one locus (ahl) has been identified as a variant of the cadherin 23 gene (Cdh23753A/G). This variant also was shown to modify hearing loss associated with the Atp2b2dfw-2J and Mass1frings mutations. The hearing modifier (Moth1) of tubby (Tubtub) mutant mice was shown to be a strain variant of the Mtap1a gene. Human hearing modifiers include DFNM1, which suppresses recessive deafness DFNB26, and a nuclear gene that modulates the severity of hearing loss associated with a mitochondrial mutation. Recently, a variant of the human ATP2B2 gene was shown to exacerbate hearing loss in individuals homozygous for a CDH23 mutation, similar to the Atp2b2dfw-2J–Cdh23753A/G interaction affecting hearing in mice. Because modifier genes and digenic inheritance are not always distinguishable, we also include in this review several examples of digenic inheritance of hearing loss that have been reported in both mice and humans. PMID:16579977

Johnson, Kenneth R.; Zheng, Qing Yin; Noben-Trauth, Konrad

2010-01-01

154

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

155

An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory was used together with established technology foresight techniques in an interdisciplinary and empirical framework. The approach taken in this study established a dialogue between stakeholders and provided a framework for discussions about the future direction of GM crops. PMID:11102658

Borch, K; Rasmussen, B

2000-12-01

156

Safety Assessment and Detection Methods of Genetically Modified Organisms.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection were discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

Jiao, Guanglian; Xu, R; Zheng, Z

2014-10-24

157

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

158

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

159

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

160

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

161

Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

2013-06-15

162

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

163

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

164

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

165

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

166

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

PubMed

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

167

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

168

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

169

Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food. PMID:16298508

Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

2005-12-01

170

The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

Smyth, Stuart J

2014-07-01

171

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges  

PubMed Central

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

172

POTATO LATE BLIGHT MANAGEMENT IN THE TOLUCA VALLEY: FIELD VALIDATION OF SIMCAST MODIFIED FOR CULTIVARS WITH HIGH FIELD RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management of potato late blight in the highland tropics is very costly and remains difficult. Reducing the impact of late blight through the use of resistant cultivars in combination with a fungicide forecasting system could lower the number of costly fungicide applications. Previously, we evaluate...

173

Resistant starch formation in temperature treated potato starches varying in amylose\\/amylopectin ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genetically modified potato starches derived from the same mother line (64%, 1% and 23% amylose, respectively) were used to study the bioavailability after various heat treatments. The conditions for the treatments were of minor importance for resistant starch (RS) formation and hydrolysis results, as compared to the proportion of amylose. A high amylose content gave lower hydrolysis index (HI)

A. Margareta Leeman; Malin E. Karlsson; Ann-Charlotte Eliasson; Inger M. E. Björck

2006-01-01

174

Risk assessment for volunteer and seedling GM potatoes in the northernmost European growing areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) could represent a risk to conventional production if volunteer plants develop from tubers or true seeds that survive until the following growing season. We studied such risks under northernmost European conditions and monitored the effects of cultivar, tuber size and tuber depth in the soil on winter survival at MTT

Leo Mustonen; Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Katri Pahkala

2009-01-01

175

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

176

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

177

Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann

2012-01-01

178

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized  

E-print Network

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized Clarke cells can rescue axotomized neurons, we transplanted fibroblasts and immortalized neural stem cells in adult rats by T8 hemisection. Rats received transplants of fibroblasts or NSCs genetically modified

Fischer, Itzhak

179

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons  

E-print Network

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Transplants of fibroblasts genetically modified to ex- press BDNF (Fb/BDNF) have been shown to promote­ five weeks later the injury site was exposed and rats received transplants of unmodified fibroblasts

Fischer, Itzhak

180

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet) in a long- term toxicology study of 22.7 weeks (the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from weaning animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

181

Assessing the risks of releasing genetically modified virus insecticides: progress to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their speed of kill. Whilst these viruses show considerable promise for improving crop protection, any risks that might be attached to their wide-scale release need to be assessed. The potential hazards of releasing genetically modified baculoviruses are (i) negative effects on susceptible non-target species, and (ii) movement of the introduced gene. One

Jenny S Cory

2000-01-01

182

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize  

E-print Network

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize for the assessment of coexistence between genetically modified and conventional maize. The assessment is based. SMAC stands for SIGMEA MAize Coexistence, denoting that this software was developed in SIGMEA

Bohanec, Marko

183

Predicting the effects of genetically modified organisms - more questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankenstein foods or a more sophisticated and scientific approach to feeding the world? Genetically modified (GM) crops and foods have become one of the main issues of the late 1990s, but are the critics scaremongering or the industry being complacent? The possible effects of releasing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment include those directly associated with the GMO itself,

Sue Mayer

184

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

185

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

186

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

187

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

188

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

189

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

190

A novel approach to locate Phytophthora infestans resistance genes on the potato genetic map.  

PubMed

Mapping resistance genes is usually accomplished by phenotyping a segregating population for the resistance trait and genotyping it using a large number of markers. Most resistance genes are of the NBS-LRR type, of which an increasing number is sequenced. These genes and their analogs (RGAs) are often organized in clusters. Clusters tend to be rather homogenous, viz. containing genes that show high sequence similarity with each other. From many of these clusters the map position is known. In this study we present and test a novel method to quickly identify to which cluster a new resistance gene belongs and to produce markers that can be used for introgression breeding. We used NBS profiling to identify markers in bulked DNA samples prepared from resistant and susceptible genotypes of small segregating populations. Markers co-segregating with resistance can be tested on individual plants and directly used for breeding. To identify the resistance gene cluster a gene belongs to, the fragments were sequenced and the sequences analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Putative map positions arising from this analysis were validated using markers mapped in the segregating population. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated with a number of populations derived from wild Solanum species segregating for P. infestans resistance. Newly identified P. infestans resistance genes originating from S. verrucosum, S. schenckii, and S. capsicibaccatum could be mapped to potato chromosomes 6, 4, and 11, respectively. PMID:19902171

Jacobs, Mirjam M J; Vosman, Ben; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Visser, Richard G F; Henken, Betty; van den Berg, Ronald G

2010-02-01

191

Origin and genetic diversity of Western European populations of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) inferred from mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Native to South America, the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is one of the principal pests of Andean potato crops and is also an important global pest following its introduction to Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and Oceania. Building on earlier work showing a clear south to north phylogeographic pattern in Peruvian populations, we have been able to identify the origin of Western European populations with high accuracy. They are all derived from a single restricted area in the extreme south of Peru, located between the north shore of the Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Only four cytochrome b haplotypes are found in Western Europe, one of them being also found in some populations of this area of southern Peru. The allelic richness at seven microsatellite loci observed in the Western European populations, although only one-third of that observed in this part of southern Peru, is comparable to the allelic richness observed in the northern region of Peru. This result could be explained by the fact that most of the genetic variability observed at the scale of a field or even of a region is already observed at the scale of a single plant within a field. Thus, even introduction via a single infected potato plant could result in the relatively high genetic variability observed in Western Europe. This finding has important consequences for the control of this pest and the development of quarantine measures. PMID:18410291

Plantard, O; Picard, D; Valette, S; Scurrah, M; Grenier, E; Mugniéry, D

2008-05-01

192

Genetic Modifiers of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Response to Lifestyle Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose Numerous prospective studies indicate that improved cardiorespiratory fitness reduces type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and delays disease progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants modify fitness response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) randomized clinical trial, aimed to detect whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2D compared to a standard of care. Methods Polymorphisms in established fitness genes and in all loci assayed on the Illumina CARe iSelect chip were examined as predictors of change in metabolic equivalent (MET) level, estimated using a treadmill test, in response to a one-year intervention in 3,899 participants. Results We identified a significant signal in previously reported fitness-related gene RUNX1 that was associated with one-year METs response in ILI (0.19±0.04 MET less improvement per minor allele copy; P=1.9×10?5) and genotype-intervention interaction (P=4.8×10?3). In the chip-wide analysis, FKBP7 rs17225700 showed a significant association with ILI response among subjects not receiving beta-blocker medications (0.47±0.09 METs less improvement; P=5.3×10?7), and genotype-treatment interaction (P=5.3×10?5). GRAIL pathway-based analysis identified connections between associated genes, including those influencing vascular tone, muscle contraction, cardiac energy substrate dynamics, and muscle protein synthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to identify genetic variants associated with fitness responses to a randomized lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. RUNX1 and FKBP7, involved in erythropoesis and muscle protein synthesis, respectively, are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness in response to exercise. PMID:23899896

Peter, Inga; Papandonatos, George D.; Belalcazar, L. Maria; Yang, Yao; Erar, Bahar; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Lipkin, Edward W.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Huggins, Gordon S.

2013-01-01

193

Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging. PMID:25049619

Muhlisin, S. M. Kang; Choi, W. H.; Lee, K. T.; Cheong, S. H.; Lee, S. K.

2012-01-01

194

Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

195

Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT)-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-\\/- rat and

Judith Homberg; Isaäc J Nijman; Sylvia Kuijpers; Edwin Cuppen

2010-01-01

196

A modified genetic algorithm for precise determination the geometrical orbital elements of binary stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a modified genetic algorithm called adapted genetic algorithm with adjusting population size (AGA-POP) for precise determination the orbital elements of binary stars. The proposed approach is a simple, robust way that can be considered to be a new member in the class of self organizing genetic algorithms. The proposed AGA-POP is applied on the star ? Bootis

Abdel-Fattah Attia; Eman Mahmoud; H. I. Shahin; A. M. Osman

2009-01-01

197

NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

2013-01-01

198

Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

2013-01-01

199

Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

200

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

201

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

202

Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15 g.kg-1 DM) and of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan (2.6 and 1.7 g.kg-1 DM, respectively) were observed. In the biological experiment carried out on rats the tested maize lines were the only dietary sources of nitrogen, thus, the experimental diets contained 9% CP in dietary dry matter. In the feeding experiment no significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed between groups receiving conventional or transgenic maize (1.51 and 1.41, respectively). Also almost equal results were obtained in the balance experiments. Both maize lines revealed a high nitrogen digestibility (84.9 and 84.5%, respectively) and the net protein utilization amounted to 63.5 and 63.2%, respectively. From these results can be concluded that regarding nutrient composition and utilisation, genetically modified (RR) maize is equivalent to isogenic maize. PMID:12391907

Chrenková, Mária; Sommer, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana; Nitrayová, Sona; Prostredná, Miroslava

2002-06-01

203

Enhanced heterotetrameric assembly of potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase using reverse genetics.  

PubMed

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key allosteric enzyme in plant starch biosynthesis. Plant AGPase is a heterotetrameric enzyme that consists of large (LS) and small subunits (SS), which are encoded by two different genes. Computational and experimental studies have revealed that the heterotetrameric assembly of AGPase is thermodynamically weak. Modeling studies followed by the mutagenesis of the LS of the potato AGPase identified a heterotetramer-deficient mutant, LS(R88A). To enhance heterotetrameric assembly, LS(R88A) cDNA was subjected to error-prone PCR, and second-site revertants were identified according to their ability to restore glycogen accumulation, as assessed with iodine staining. Selected mutations were introduced into the wild-type (WT) LS and co-expressed with the WT SS in Escherichia coli glgC(-). The biochemical characterization of revertants revealed that LS(I90V)SS(WT), LS(Y378C)SS(WT) and LS(D410G)SS(WT) mutants displayed enhanced heterotetrameric assembly with the WT SS. Among these mutants, LS(Y378C)SS(WT) AGPase displayed increased heat stability compared with the WT enzyme. Kinetic characterization of the mutants indicated that the LS(I90V)SS(WT) and LS(Y378C)SS(WT) AGPases have comparable allosteric and kinetic properties. However, the LS(D410G)SS(WT) mutant exhibited altered allosteric properties of being less responsive and more sensitive to 3-phosphoglyceric acid activation and inorganic phosphate inhibition. This study not only enhances our understanding of the interaction between the SS and the LS of AGPase but also enables protein engineering to obtain enhanced assembled heat-stable variants of AGPase, which can be used for the improvement of plant yields. PMID:24891561

Seferoglu, A Bengisu; Koper, Kaan; Can, F Betul; Cevahir, Gul; Kavakli, I Halil

2014-08-01

204

Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies. PMID:24789648

Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

2014-01-01

205

Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed Central

Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

2003-01-01

206

Normal Operating Range of Bacterial Communities in Soil Used for Potato Cropping  

PubMed Central

In this study, the impacts of six potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars with different tuber starch allocations (including one genetically modified [GM] line) on the bacterial communities in field soil were investigated across two growth seasons interspersed with 1 year of barley cultivation, using quantitative PCR, clone library, and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. It was hypothesized that the modifications in the tuber starch contents of these plants, yielding changed root growth rates and exudation patterns, might have elicited altered bacterial communities in the soil. The data showed that bacterial abundances in the bulk soil varied over about 2 orders of magnitude across the 3 years. As expected, across all cultivars, positive potato rhizosphere effects on bacterial abundances were noted in the two potato years. The bulk soil bacterial community structures revealed progressive shifts across time, and moving-window analysis revealed a 60% change over the total experiment. Consistent with previous findings, the community structures in the potato rhizosphere compartments were mainly affected by the growth stage of the plants and, to a lesser extent, by plant cultivar type. The data from the soil under the non-GM potato lines were then taken to define the normal operating range (NOR) of the microbiota under potatoes. Interestingly, the bacterial communities under the GM potato line remained within this NOR. In regard to the bacterial community compositions, particular bacterial species in the soil appeared to be specific to (i) the plant species under investigation (barley versus potato) or, with respect to potatoes, (ii) the plant growth stage. Members of the genera Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Rhodanobacter, and Dokdonella were consistently found only at the flowering potato plants in both seasons, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sporosarcina were observed only in the soil planted to barley. PMID:23220956

?nceo?lu, Özgül; van Overbeek, Leo Simon; Falcão Salles, Joana

2013-01-01

207

Potato with growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

208

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

209

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

210

Development of a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for on-site monitoring of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been mainly developed for mass production of agricultural plants; however, there are concerns that transgenic crops might cause side effects on ecosystems and human beings. Therefore, to quantitatively trace the genetically modified products, we constructed a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for the detection of recombinant marker proteins expressed in GMOs, i.e., 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), neomycin phosphotransferase

Hye-Jee Jang; Il-Hoon Cho; Hee-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Jeon; Se-Young Hwang; Se-Hwan Paek

2011-01-01

211

Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Crops: Differentiated Risk Assessment and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risks and benefits of genetically modified crops have varying degrees of certainty. The U.S. regulatory\\u000a system evaluates a suite of hazards for the crops primarily by minimizing type I error. However, genetically modified crops\\u000a vary widely in their potential for environmental harm. We develop a differentiated risk assessment process using three models\\u000a that shift from primary emphasis on

David E. Ervinand; Rick Welsh

212

Psychological concepts, public relations, and scientific responses to genetically modified organisms (GMOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms (e.g., plants, animals, and microorganisms) whose genetic information (i.e., DNA) is modified. Commercialization of GMOs has become an issue for an intense debate between parts of Europe and America, as well as within some developing countries. The main issues involve long-term health and environmental risks of using GMOs, safety assessment for their

Natapom Supanutsetkul; Linnda Caporael

2000-01-01

213

Potato: A Comparative Study of the Effect of Cultivars and Cultivation Conditions and Genetic Modification on the PhysicoChemical Properties of Potato Tubers in Conjunction with Multivariate Analysis Towards Authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly nutritious, mild flavored, easy to blend food that has many possibilities for “building in” desired nutrients. Varietal and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size, and nutritional content of potatoes. Different populations opt for varying sensory properties in relation to their diets. Potatoes are a low energy food in comparison

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Olga Vaitsi; Athanassios Mavromatis

2008-01-01

214

The Spiroplasma Motility Inhibition Test, a New Method for Determining Intraspecific Variation among Colorado Potato Beetle Spiroplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a major holarctic pest of solanaceous crops. Presumably, this insect spread from Solanurn species in central America to the Mexican plateau, and this was followed by multiple invasions of North America and Europe. Attempts are being made to control this beetle by using a genetically modified spiroplasma that occurs naturally in its gut.

KEVIN J. HACKETT; J. J. LIPA; G. E. GASPARICH; D. E. LYNN; M. KONAI; M. CAMP

1997-01-01

215

Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as

João Lúcio Azevedo; Welington Luiz Araujo

2003-01-01

216

Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking

A. Springer; Konstadinos Mattas; G. Papastefanou; Asterios Tsioumanis

2002-01-01

217

Mutant and genetically modified mice as models for studying the relationship between aging and carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest is emerging in using mouse models to assess the genetics of aging and age-related diseases, including cancer. However, only limited information is available regarding the relationship between aging and spontaneous tumor development in genetically modified mice. Analysis of various transgenic and knockout rodent models with either a shortened or an extended life span, provides a unique opportunity to

Vladimir N Anisimov

2001-01-01

218

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat Rubrospinal Axons and  

E-print Network

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat atrophy and death. We studied whether transplants of fibroblasts genetically engineered to produce brain hemisection cavity that completely interrupted one RST. One and two months after lesion and transplantation

Fischer, Itzhak

219

Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outcome of risk

Eric M. Hallerman; Anne R. Kapuscinski

1995-01-01

220

PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND ORGANIC FOODS AND PROCESSES: NORTH DAKOTA COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of genetically modified (GM) and organic food among North Dakota college students were elicited and compared. Participants responded to one of two survey instruments containing identical wording except for reference to genetic modification or organic, after reading a primer defining the term used in their instrument. Participants' indicated their level of agreement with statements in the construct areas of

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

2005-01-01

221

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues

Amar Chiter; J. Michael Forbes; G. Eric Blair

2000-01-01

222

Three vitrification-based cryopreservation procedures cause different cryo-injuries to potato shoot tips while all maintain genetic integrity in regenerants.  

PubMed

We previously reported successful cryopreservation of shoot tips of potato 'Zihuabai' by three vitrification-based protocols. In the present study, cryo-injury to shoot tips and genetic stability in regenerants recovered from cryopreserved shoot tips by the three vitrification-based protocols were further investigated. The results showed that sucrose preculture caused no obviously different injuries, while dehydration with plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) was the step causing major damage to cells of shoot tips, regardless of the cryogenic procedures. Compared with droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification caused the most severe injury to cells of the shoot tips, thus resulting in much longer time duration for shoot recovery and much lower shoot regrowth rate. Cells in apical dome and the youngest leaf primordia were able to survive and subsequently some of them regrew into shoots following all three vitrification-based cryopreservation procedures. Analyses using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in shoots regrown from all three vitrification-based protocols did not find any polymorphic bands. The results reported here suggest that vitrification-based cryo-procedures can be considered promising methods for long-term preservation of potato genetic resources. PMID:24858678

Wang, Biao; Li, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Ren-Rui; Ma, Yan-Li; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Keller, E R Joachim; Wang, Qiao-Chun

2014-08-20

223

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

224

ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

225

Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy. PMID:24474888

Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

2013-01-01

226

763. Multimodality Imaging of Genetically Modified Lymphocytes In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: the lack of specific trafficking of genetically engineered T cells to tumor sites is one of the major limitations in adoptive immunotherapy. Multimodality imaging represents a powerful tool for repetitive non-invasive assessment of migration, activation and survival of immune effectors in living subjects in pre-clinical models and in patients. Methods: to establish a cancer model for adoptive immunotherapy we

Konstantin Dobrenkov; Malgorzata Dabrowska; Larissa Shenker; Elena Vider; Gertrude Gunset; Michel Sadelain; Vladimir Ponomarev

2006-01-01

227

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect—or may affect—the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability requirement and, hence, liability under the tort of negligence. The article also examines how concern expressed by

Lara Khoury; Stuart Smyth

2007-01-01

228

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

2007-01-01

229

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

230

Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

231

Genetically modified multiuser detection for code division multiple access systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is considered. By combining the theory of multiuser detection (MUD) and evolutionary computation, a hybrid genetic engine is proposed, suitable for the detection of CDMA signals in the presence of MAI and ISI. The proposed hybrid detector structure can be extended

S. Abedi; R. Tafazolli

2002-01-01

232

Suppression of Avian Influenza Transmission in Genetically Modified Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of chickens with avian influenza virus poses a global threat to both poultry production and human health that is not adequately controlled by vaccination or by biosecurity measures. A novel alternative strategy is to develop chickens that are genetically resistant to infection. We generated transgenic chickens expressing a short-hairpin RNA designed to function as a decoy that inhibits and

Jon Lyall; Richard M. Irvine; Adrian Sherman; Trevelyan J. McKinley; Alejandro Núñez; Auriol Purdie; Linzy Outtrim; Ian H. Brown; Genevieve Rolleston-Smith; Helen Sang; Laurence Tiley

2011-01-01

233

Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

2013-01-01

234

Detection of DNA of genetically modified maize by a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor based sensor (SiNW-FET) has been proved to be the most sensitive and powerful device for bio-detection applications. In this paper, SiNWs were first fabricated by using our recently developed deposition and etching under angle technique (DEA), then used to build up the complete SiNW device based biosensor. The fabricated SiNW biosensor was used to detect DNA of genetically modified maize. As the DNA of the genetically modified maize has particular DNA sequences of 35S promoter, we therefore designed 21 mer DNA oligonucleotides, which are used as a receptor to capture the transferred DNA of maize. In our work, the SiNW biosensor could detect DNA of genetically modified maize with concentrations down to about 200?pM.

Binh Pham, Van; Pham, Xuan Thanh Tung; Thuy Duong Dang, Ngoc; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Duy Tran, Phu; Chien Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Van Quoc; Chien Dang, Mau; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Hien Tong, Duy

2011-06-01

235

Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic\\u000a engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines\\u000a and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors,\\u000a biotechnology has the potential to make significant

John P. Morrissey; Ultan F. Walsh; Anne O'Donnell; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; Fergal O'Gara

2002-01-01

236

Sweet Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Sweet Potato Salad Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 sweet potato 2 baking potatoes 2. Wash potatoes and set on cutting board. Cut potatoes in half lengthwise, and lay on cutting board. Cut in half again and cut into bite size chunks. 3. Layer potatoes evenly on pan and spray with cooking spray

Liskiewicz, Maciej

237

Insecticidal activity of avidin combined with genetically engineered and traditional host plant resistance against Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.  

PubMed

Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a destructive pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L.), in North America. It is renowned for adapting to insecticides. With the arsenal of effective insecticides decreasing, it is important to consider alternative forms of control. Biotin is an essential coenzyme for insect growth and development. Avidin is a protein found in chicken egg that sequesters biotin and has shown insecticidal properties against a range of insect. We assessed the effectiveness of avidin against the Colorado potato beetle neonates in a no-choice detached leaf bioassay at 0, 17, 34, 51, 102, and 204 microg avidin/ml over 12 d. The LC50 was 136 microg avidin/ml (108-188 95% CL). The combined effects of avidin (136 microg avidin/ml) with Bt-Cry3A or leptines were evaluated with neonates and third instars over 12 and 6 d, respectively. Three potato lines were used: susceptible line, a line engineered to express Cry3A from Bacillus thuringiensis, and a line expressing the natural resistance factor leptines. The addition of avidin at the LC50 concentration significantly reduced consumption by neonates, but it did not affect consumption by third instars feeding on the susceptible line and the leptine line. Survival of neonates feeding on the susceptible line with avidin was significantly reduced compared with the susceptible line. Survival of third instars on the Bt-Cry3A with avidin was significantly reduced after 3 d compared with survival on the Bt-Cry3A, suggesting the addition of avidin may increase susceptibility to Bt-Cry3A. PMID:16686156

Cooper, Susannah G; Douches, David S; Grafius, Edward J

2006-04-01

238

Presence of unintended Agrobacterium tumefaciens cloning vector sequences in genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium transformation was used in the production of genetically modified plants from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). After inoculation stop with the antibiotic timentin, a subsequent one-week treatment eliminated the vector bacterium from the oilseed rape plate explant cultures. From the tobacco, however, we recorded vector-derived signals one week after potting the regenerants in the greenhouse and still 10 weeks later. Genetically modified plants produced through Agrobacterium-transformation therefore cannot be guaranteed to be completely free of unintended vector sequences after antibiotic treatment. PMID:16614922

Björklöf, Katarina; Färdig, Michael; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

2006-03-01

239

Implications of natural propagule flow for containment of genetically modified forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagule flow in populations of virtually all organisms has importance for both the genetic cohesion of the species and for\\u000a its interaction with natural selection. It’s relevance` for the deployment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is that\\u000a propagules can be expected to move, under a wide range of circumstances, and will carry transgenic elements with them. Any\\u000a consideration of the

Peter E. Smouse; Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio; Santiago C. González-Martínez

2007-01-01

240

A PCR-microarray method for the screening of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to screen and to identify genetically modified organisms (GMO) is presented in this paper. It is based on the\\u000a detection of multiple genetic elements common to GMO by their amplification via PCR followed by direct hybridisation of the\\u000a amplicons on microarray. The pattern of the elements is then compared to a database of the composition of EU-approved

Sandrine Hamels; Thomas Glouden; Karine Gillard; Marco Mazzara; Frédéric Debode; Nicoletta Foti; Myriam Sneyers; Teresa Esteve Nuez; Maria Pla; Gilbert Berben; William Moens; Yves Bertheau; Colette Audéon; Guy Van den Eede; José Remacle

2009-01-01

241

Pre-invasion history and demography shape the genetic variation in the insecticide resistance-related acetylcholinesterase 2 gene in the invasive Colorado potato beetle  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive pest species offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of genetic architecture, demography and selection on patterns of genetic variability. Invasive Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) populations have experienced a rapid range expansion and intense selection by insecticides. By comparing native and invasive beetle populations, we studied the origins of organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2) gene, and the role of selection and demography on its genetic variability. Results Analysis of three Mexican, two US and five European populations yielded a total of 49 haplotypes. Contrary to the expectations all genetic variability was associated with a point mutation linked to insecticide resistance (S291G), this mutation was found in 100% of Mexican, 95% of US and 71% of European beetle sequences analysed. Only two susceptible haplotypes, genetically very differentiated, were found, one in US and one in Europe. The genetic variability at the AChE2 gene was compared with two other genes not directly affected by insecticide selection, diapause protein 1 and juvenile hormone esterase. All three genes showed reduction in genetic variability indicative of a population bottleneck associated with the invasion. Conclusions Stochastic effects during invasion explain most of the observed patterns of genetic variability at the three genes investigated. The high frequency of the S291G mutation in the AChE2 gene among native populations suggests this mutation is the ancestral state and thus, either a pre-adaptation of the beetle for OP resistance or the AChE2 is not the major gene conferring OP resistance. The long historical association with host plant alkaloids together with recombination may have contributed to the high genetic variation at this locus. The genetic diversity in the AChE2 locus of the European beetles, in turn, strongly reflects founder effects followed by rapid invasion. Our results suggest that despite the long history of insecticide use in this species, demographic events together with pre-invasion history have been strongly influential in shaping the genetic diversity of the AChE2 gene in the invasive beetle populations. PMID:23331855

2013-01-01

242

POTENTIAL INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SORGHUM LINES GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOR REDUCED LIGNIN CONTENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential increased resistance to Fusarium species in sorghum lines genetically modified for reduced lignin content. Deanna L. Funnell and Jeffery F. Pedersen, Grain, Forage and Bioenergy Research, USDA-ARS; Departments of Plant Pathology (DLF) and Agronomy (JFP), University of Nebraska. Lincoln, 6...

243

Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A study focusing on genetically modified (GM) foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from 31 different provinces. The study not only revealed important results about the perceptions of

Ali Demirci

2008-01-01

244

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

245

The program for phenotyping of genetically modified animals at AstraZeneca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mice offer a wide range of possibilities in preclinical drug discovery, e.g. for use in target identification, target validation and disease model generation. However, genomic modification and alteration in gene expression may cause unpredicted phenotypic alterations in the organism other than the intended ones. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of establishing the phenotype

Anna-Lena Berg; Mohammad Bohlooly-Y

2006-01-01

246

Gaps, Inexperience, Inconsistencies, and Overlaps: Crisis in the Regulation of Genetically Modified Plants and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified products pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that is passive rather than proactive about risks, has difficulty adapting to biotechnology advances, and is highly fractured and inefficient-transgenic plants and animals are governed by at least twelve different statutes and five different agencies or services. The

Gregory N Mandel

2004-01-01

247

Transplantation of genetically modified cells contributes to repair and recovery from spinal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of transplantation of fibroblasts genetically modified to produce brain derived neurotrophin factor (Fb\\/BDNF) on rescue of axotomized neurons, axonal growth and recovery of function was tested in a lateral funiculus lesion model in adult rats. Operated control animals included those in which the lesion was filled with gelfoam implant (Hx) and those in which the cavity was filled

Marion Murray; D Kim; Y Liu; C Tobias; A Tessler; I Fischer

2002-01-01

248

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Chemical Composition and Nutritional Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the composition and the nutritional value of parental and transgenic maize seeds fed to pigs. The parental maize line was genetically modified to incorporate a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressing a toxin against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Both (parental and transgenic) maize lines were analyzed for crude nutrients,

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk; G. Flachowsky

2002-01-01

249

Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco

2005-01-01

250

The Adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agricultural biotechnology becomes increasingly commercialised, numerous constraints limit adoption by developing-country producers. These include technology access, impacts on farmers' yields and profits, privatisation of research and intellectual property, biosafety regulatory frameworks, and trade-related market restrictions. This essay analyses development of the genetically modified papaya and its commercialisation in Hawaii as a response to a virulent plant disease, papaya ringspot

C. Gonsalves; D. R. Lee; D. Gonsalves

2007-01-01

251

Assessing Genetically Modified Crops to Minimize the Risk of Increased Food Allergy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the

Richard E. Goodman; Susan L. Hefle; Steven L. Taylor; Ronald van Ree

2005-01-01

252

Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA  

PubMed Central

After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009–2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S.; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.

2015-01-01

253

Consumer Choice of Genetically Modified Products: the Effect of Media Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study into the impact of negative and positive media content on the introduction of a new milk that has been genetically modified to eliminate cholesterol. A sample of 1008 consumers were presented with choice scenarios in which there were four purchase choices (existing, new, organic, no purchase) and randomly assigned to one of three media conditions:

Kate Owen; Jordan Louviere

254

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

255

Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

Ekborg, Margareta

2008-01-01

256

Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

257

TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED  

EPA Science Inventory

Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

258

Reversible biomechano-responsive surface based on green fluorescent protein genetically modified with unnatural amino acids.  

PubMed

GFP has been genetically modified at two specific positions of its molecular architecture. These modifications allow its covalent attachment onto PEG brushes grafted on functionalized silicone surfaces. The stretching of this material leads to a reversible decrease of the fluorescence intensity due to stretch-induced forces applying on GFP molecules. PMID:25407087

Longo, Johan; Yao, Chunyan; Rios, César; Chau, Nguyet Trang Thanh; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Lavalle, Philippe; Schiller, Stefan M; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc

2015-01-01

259

Critical Success Factors for Firms in the Genetically Modified Foods Industry: A Managerial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of consensus that has emerged among various stakeholders as to whether or not the production and commercialisation of genetically modified foods (GMFs) should be encouraged is quite apparent and well documented in the literature. Research also suggests that where firms have opted to produce and commercialise these foods, often very disparate factors have accounted for their success. An

Clare DSouza; Ali Quazi; Robert Rugimbana; P. W. Senarath Yapa; Marthin Nanere

2007-01-01

260

Affective Influences on Risk Perceptions of, and Attitudes Toward, Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about risk perceptions and public understanding of genetically modified (GM) food, yet little if any of the academic writings on this topic take into account the role of feelings or affect in these processes. Here, the available literature on the topic of GM food is explored in order to highlight findings consistent with the notion that

Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

261

Virus-host co-evolution under a modified nuclear genetic code  

PubMed Central

Among eukaryotes with modified nuclear genetic codes, viruses are unknown. However, here we provide evidence of an RNA virus that infects a fungal host (Scheffersomyces segobiensis) with a derived nuclear genetic code where CUG codes for serine. The genomic architecture and phylogeny are consistent with infection by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Totivirus. We provide evidence of past or present infection with totiviruses in five species of yeasts with modified genetic codes. All but one of the CUG codons in the viral genome have been eliminated, suggesting that avoidance of the modified codon was important to viral adaptation. Our mass spectroscopy analysis indicates that a congener of the host species has co-opted and expresses a capsid gene from totiviruses as a cellular protein. Viral avoidance of the host’s modified codon and host co-option of a protein from totiviruses suggest that RNA viruses co-evolved with yeasts that underwent a major evolutionary transition from the standard genetic code. PMID:23638388

Ballinger, Matthew J.; Bowman, Shaun M.; Bruenn, Jeremy A.

2013-01-01

262

Toxicity Studies of Genetically Modified Plants: A Review of the Published Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals

José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

263

Application of triplex PCR for identification of genetically modified organism in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex method for detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) in various foods has been developed based on PCR-identification\\u000a of cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) 35S-promoter. It allows avoiding false positive signals due to contamination of plant raw\\u000a material with CMV.

E. S. Bulygina; M. V. Sukhacheva; B. K. Bumazhkin; B. B. Kuznetsov

2010-01-01

264

Membrane based detection of genetically modified organisms in some representatives food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, DNA-based techniques became very common for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. For rapid and easy detection of GMOs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening methods, which amplify common transgenic elements, are applied in routine analysis. Incorporation of PCR and membrane method introduced in this study offer an alternative detection of GMOs. In this study, a

Yoke-Kqueen Cheah; Radu Son; Wong Vui Ling Michael Clemente

2006-01-01

265

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN FOOD - POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has implemented a set of strict procedures for the approval to utilise genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food or food ingredients. In addition, the European Union assures that the European consumer's rights for information are fully guaranteeed. Analytical methods are necessary in order to show compliance with labelling requirements that have been issued in order to be

VAN DEN EEDE; ANKLAM E

266

KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

267

ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

268

Sharpened cochlear tuning in a mouse with a genetically modified tectorial membrane  

E-print Network

Sharpened cochlear tuning in a mouse with a genetically modified tectorial membrane Ian J Russell membrane contains radially organized collagen fibrils that are imbedded in an unusual striated-sheet matrix the cochlea. The cochlea is the mammalian hearing organ, a sensory organ that detects sound stimuli

Allen, Jont

269

The use of non-hypothetical experimental markets for measuring the acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings from a study measuring consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods are presented. The empirical data were collected in an experimental market, an approach used extensively in experimental economics for measuring the monetary value of goods. The approach has several advantages over standard approaches used in sensory and marketing research (e.g., surveys and focus groups) because of its

Sara R. Jaeger; Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2004-01-01

270

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

271

Trust in sources of information about genetically modified food risks in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of trust have been identified as an important element in the risk communication process. This research is concerned with establishing the degree of trust the general public has in various possible sources of information about the health effects associated with consuming genetically modified food. Participants were asked directly about the degree to which they would trust information about the

Stephen Hunt; Lynn J. Frewer

2001-01-01

272

The consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified foods in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the factors that have influences upon benefit and risk perceptions of applying gene technology to food production, perceptions that may in turn determine the consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified (GM) foods in Taiwan. Results of structural equation modeling analysis give evidence that general attitude toward and trust in institutes and scientists performing gene manipulation have positive

Mei-Fang Chen; Hsiao-Lan Li

2007-01-01

273

Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how consumers could potentially react to the introduction of genetically modified food. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data, however, to date limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implications for policy. This paper contributes to the literature by

José M. Gil; W. Bruce Traill

2008-01-01

274

Trust in governance and the acceptance of genetically modified food in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assumes that trust is a major issue in the interaction between government, citizens and societal organizations. The central question in this paper relates to the specific determinants of public trust. A survey study is reported (n = 1019) which focuses on the role of trust in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Our expectation was that three

Jan Gutteling; Lucien Hanssen; Veer van der Neil; Erwin Seydel

2006-01-01

275

Consumer acceptability of genetically modified foods with special reference to farmed salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM) farmed salmon as a focus for the research. The results identified a small group of “triers” - willing to try any GM food product, and a small group of “refusers” - rejecting the technology and derivative

Sharron Kuznesof; Christopher Ritson

1996-01-01

276

Attitudes about Genetically Modified Foods among Korean and American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, South Korea mandated labeling of foods con- taining genetically modified (GM) ingredients. The issue of labeling in the United States remains largely contentious due to uncertainty regarding consumer response to GM food content information. It is possible that information provided through labeling and recent negative press in Korea may have reduced acceptance of GM foods among Korean consumers.

Michael S. Finke; Heaseon Kim

277

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

278

International sources of environmental policy change in China: the case of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's agricultural biotechnology policy has undergone a profound transformation over the last decade, from a strongly promotional to a more precautionary approach. From the 1980s onwards, China invested heavily in biotechnology development and in the early 1990s emerged as the leading biotech country in the developing world. In the late 1990s, however, it halted the authorization of new genetically modified

Robert Falkner

2006-01-01

279

A Continuum of Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national telephone survey was conducted in the United States in April 2002 to study the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes toward GM foods were examined through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), analyzing the interrelationships among many categorical variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes.

Pierre Ganiere; Wen S. Chern; David E. Hahn

2006-01-01

280

Potential market segments for genetically modified food: Results from cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial success of genetically modified (GM) food may be improved with appropriately targeted marketing. To that end, data from a survey of supermarket shoppers in New Zealand were analysed with a cluster analysis. A six-cluster solution found three clusters with positive intentions to purchase GM apples and three clusters with negative intentions. Positive intentions appeared to result from either

William Kaye-Blake; Anna OConnell; Charles Lamb

2007-01-01

281

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

282

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher

Theodoros H. Varzakas; G. Chryssochoidis; D. Argyropoulos

2007-01-01

283

Comparison of Consumer Responses to Genetically Modified Foods in Asia, North America, and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward genetically modified (GM) food products are complex and differ across cultures. This study uses consumer survey data to compare consumer attitudes towards GM food across Canada, China, Japan, Norway, and the United States. The comparisons are based on the significance of covariates included in country-wise estimations of willingness to pay for GM foods. The Canadian respondents were

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Thomas I. Wahl

284

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

285

Awareness and support of release of genetically modified "sterile" mosquitoes, key west, Florida, USA.  

PubMed

After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009-2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

Ernst, Kacey C; Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H

2015-02-01

286

Genetically Modified Crop Innovations and Product Differentiation: Trade and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology

Andrei Sobolevsky; GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan

2002-01-01

287

The Development and Validation of the GMOAS, an Instrument Measuring Secondary School Students' Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a rapidly evolving area of scientific innovation and an issue receiving global attention. Attempts to devise usable instruments that assess people's attitudes towards this innovation have been rare and non-systematic. The aim of this paper is to present the development and validation of the genetically modified organisms attitudes scale (GMOAS), an instrument measuring secondary school

Christothea Herodotou; Eleni A. Kyza; Iolie Nicolaidou; Andreas Hadjichambis; Dimitris Kafouris; Freda Terzian

2012-01-01

288

The Development and Validation of the GMOAS, an Instrument Measuring Secondary School Students' Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a rapidly evolving area of scientific innovation and an issue receiving global attention. Attempts to devise usable instruments that assess people's attitudes towards this innovation have been rare and non-systematic. The aim of this paper is to present the development and validation of the genetically modified organisms attitudes scale (GMOAS), an instrument measuring secondary school

Christothea Herodotou; Eleni A. Kyza; Iolie Nicolaidou; Andreas Hadjichambis; Dimitris Kafouris; Freda Terzian

2011-01-01

289

Information Based Regulation and International Trade in Genetically Modified Agricultural Products: An Evaluation of The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Essay considers the regulation of international trade in genetically modified agricultural products. Specifically, it addresses both products released into the environment as seeds and products intended for consumption as food. The first part of the Essay describes the significance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture, especially agriculture in the United States. This discussion summarizes the risks and

Michael P. Healy

2002-01-01

290

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

291

Modified genetic algorithm to model crystal structures. I. Benzene, naphthalene and anthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new computational scheme to model crystal structures of organic compounds employing a modified genetic algorithm. The method uses real-valued Cartesian coordinates and Euler angles between molecules in a crystal block as variables identifying the genetic parameters, i.e., genes. The model does not make any assumption on the crystallographic group at which the compound belongs nor to the number of molecules in the unit cell. The method has been implemented in the computer package MGAC (Modified Genetic Algorithm for Crystal and Cluster structures) that allows for optimizations using any arbitrary selection function. The examples presented here for the crystalline structures of benzene, naphthalene and anthracene, using an empirical potential energy function as the selection function, show excellent agreement with the experimental ones. While these examples use the "rigid molecule approximation," the method is quite general and can be extended to take into account any number of intramolecular degrees of freedom.

Bazterra, Victor E.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.

2002-04-01

292

Regulatory options for genetically modified crops in India.  

PubMed

The introduction of semi-dwarfing, high-yielding and nutrients-responsive crop varieties in the 1960s and 1970s alleviated the suffering of low crop yield, food shortages and epidemics of famine in India and other parts of the Asian continent. Two semi-dwarfing genes, Rht in wheat and Sd-1 in rice heralded the green revolution for which Dr. Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. In contrast, the revolutionary new genetics of crop improvement shamble over formidable obstacles of regulatory delays, political interferences and public misconceptions. India benefited immensely from the green revolution and is now grappling to deal with the nuances of GM crops. The development of GM mustard discontinued prematurely in 2001 and insect-resistant Bt cotton varieties were successfully approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 in an evolving nature of regulatory system. However, the moratorium on Bt brinjal by MOEF in 2010 meant a considerable detour from an objective, science-based, rigorous institutional process of regulatory approval to a more subjective, nonscience-driven, political decision-making process. This study examines what ails the regulatory system of GM crops in India and the steps that led to the regulatory logjam. Responding to the growing challenges and impediments of existing biosafety regulation, it suggests options that are critical for GM crops to take roots for a multiplier harvest. PMID:24460889

Choudhary, Bhagirath; Gheysen, Godelieve; Buysse, Jeroen; van der Meer, Piet; Burssens, Sylvia

2014-02-01

293

Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original modification and that might impact primarily on health. The document first deals with the potential for unintended effects caused by the processes of transgene insertion (DNA rearrangements) and makes comparisons with genetic recombination events and DNA rearrangements in traditional breeding. The document then focuses on the potential value of evolving "profiling" or "omics" technologies as non-targeted, unbiased approaches, to detect unintended effects. These technologies include metabolomics (parallel analysis of a range of primary and secondary metabolites), proteomics (analysis of polypeptide complement) and transcriptomics (parallel analysis of gene expression). The technologies are described, together with their current limitations. Importantly, the significance of unintended effects on consumer health are discussed and conclusions and recommendations presented on the various approaches outlined. PMID:15123383

Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I; Constable, A; Davies, H V; Engel, K H; Gatehouse, A M R; Kärenlampi, S; Kok, E J; Leguay, J-J; Lehesranta, S; Noteborn, H P J M; Pedersen, J; Smith, M

2004-07-01

294

Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy.  

PubMed

Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This debate, which addresses both safety and ethical aspects, has raised questions about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the biodiversity of traditional landraces and on the environment. Here, we review some of the key points of maize genetic history as well as the methods used to stably transform this cereal. We describe the genetically engineered Bt-maizes available for field cultivation and we investigate the controversial reports on their impacts on non-target insects such as the monarch butterfly and on the flow of transgenes into Mexican maize landraces. PMID:12595137

Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Massonneau, Agnès; Dumas, Christian

2002-11-01

295

Genetic Diversity and Ecological Evaluation of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Isolated from the Leaves and Roots of Potato Plants  

PubMed Central

A total of 828 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads (FPs) were obtained from the leaves (305 isolates) and roots (523 isolates) of potato plants grown in different geographical locations in Japan, and 16S rRNA gene sequences of 776 isolates were successfully determined by direct PCR sequencing. Clustering analysis (?99% identity) identified 13 and 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for leaf- and root-associated FPs, respectively, and 29 OTUs were identified in the phytosphere of potato plants. Among them, 7 and 9 OTUs showed a significantly biased distribution to the leaves and roots, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 3 dominant OTUs for leaf-associated FPs were grouped in a cluster of leaf-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas viridiflava. In contrast, 4 OTUs were located in a cluster of saprophytic pseudomonads. Among them, 3 OTUs showed high similarity to Pseudomonas koreensis and Pseudomonas vancouverensis, both of which have been reported to be beneficial for biological control or plant growth promotion. These data provide key information for efficient surveying and utilization of beneficial FPs in agricultural practices. PMID:22791043

Someya, Nobutaka; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Ikeda, Seishi

2012-01-01

296

Genetic diversity and ecological evaluation of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the leaves and roots of potato plants.  

PubMed

A total of 828 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads (FPs) were obtained from the leaves (305 isolates) and roots (523 isolates) of potato plants grown in different geographical locations in Japan, and 16S rRNA gene sequences of 776 isolates were successfully determined by direct PCR sequencing. Clustering analysis (?99% identity) identified 13 and 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for leaf- and root-associated FPs, respectively, and 29 OTUs were identified in the phytosphere of potato plants. Among them, 7 and 9 OTUs showed a significantly biased distribution to the leaves and roots, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 3 dominant OTUs for leaf-associated FPs were grouped in a cluster of leaf-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas viridiflava. In contrast, 4 OTUs were located in a cluster of saprophytic pseudomonads. Among them, 3 OTUs showed high similarity to Pseudomonas koreensis and Pseudomonas vancouverensis, both of which have been reported to be beneficial for biological control or plant growth promotion. These data provide key information for efficient surveying and utilization of beneficial FPs in agricultural practices. PMID:22791043

Someya, Nobutaka; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Ikeda, Seishi

2012-01-01

297

Potato Float  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a potato wedge be made to hover in the center of a glass of liquid? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate density using potato wedges and water and sugar water solutions. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable national science standards for grades K-12. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. The activity's content is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

298

GENETIC MODIFIERS OF LIVER DISEASE IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS  

PubMed Central

Context A subset (~3–5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease (CFLD) with portal hypertension. Objective To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (SERPINA1, ACE, GSTP1, MBL2, and TGFB1) are associated with severe liver disease in CF patients. Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-stage design was used in this case–control study. CFLD subjects were enrolled from 63 U.S., 32 Canadian, and 18 CF centers outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) as the coordinating site. In the initial study, we studied 124 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/1999–12/2004) and 843 CF controls (patients without CFLD) by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously implicated as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/2005–2/2007) and 1088 CF controls. Main Outcome Measures We compared differences in distribution of genotypes in CF patients with severe liver disease versus CF patients without CFLD. Results The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 (also known as ?1-antiprotease and ?1-antitrypsin) Z allele (P value=3.3×10?6; odds ratio (OR) 4.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31–9.61), and with transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGFB1) codon 10 CC genotype (P=2.8×10?3; OR 1.53, CI 1.16–2.03). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.4×10?3; OR 3.42, CI 1.54–7.59), but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.5×10?8; OR 5.04, CI 2.88–8.83). Conclusion The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater odds (OR ~5) to develop severe liver disease with portal hypertension. PMID:19738092

Bartlett, Jaclyn R.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Ling, Simon C.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Bell, Scott C.; Bourke, Billy; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Colombo, John L.; Debray, Dominique; Fernandez, Adriana; Lacaille, Florence; Macek, Milan; Rowland, Marion; Salvatore, Francesco; Taylor, Christopher J.; Wainwright, Claire; Wilschanski, Michael; Zemková, Dana; Hannah, William B.; Phillips, M. James; Corey, Mary; Zielenski, Julian; Dorfman, Ruslan; Wang, Yunfei; Zou, Fei; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Knowles, Michael R.

2013-01-01

299

Do organic consumers oppose genetically modified food stronger than others? Results of a consumer research in Germany Sind Öko-Käufer stärker gegen gentechnisch veränderte Lebensmittel einge- stellt als andere Konsumenten? Ergebnisse einer Konsumentenbefragung in Deutschland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi- cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety

A. Wirthgen

300

Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients  

E-print Network

Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients: 4 medium potatoes 2 cups frozen mixed vegetables 8 ounces. Pierce each potato several times with a fork. Microwave on high until tender, about 3-4 minutes per potato. When done, take potatoes out of microwave oven, place in bowl and cover in towel to keep warm. 2

Liskiewicz, Maciej

301

Genetic modifiers of the phenotypic level of deoxyribonucleic acid-conferred novobiocin resistance in Haemophilus.  

PubMed

Leidy, Grace (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), Iris Jaffee, and Hattie E. Alexander. Genetic modifiers of the phenotypic level of deoxyribonucleic acid-conferred novobiocin resistance in Haemophilus. J. Bacteriol. 92:1464-1468. 1966.-An apparent increase in novobiocin resistance in Haemophilus aegyptius after a second exposure to a particular H. influenzae transforming deoxyribonucleic acid was shown to be the result not of multi-step transformation but of the action of a gene functioning as an enhancement modifier. The modifier is very closely linked to a streptomycin resistance gene (which is linked to a novobiocin resistance marker); it affects the natural degree of resistance to both novobiocin and kanamycin to a measurable degree. Evidence of a repressor of the enhancement modifier is reported. PMID:5296977

Leidy, G; Jaffee, I; Alexander, H E

1966-11-01

302

Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.  

PubMed

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

303

Potato Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use potatoes to light an LED clock (or light bulb) as they learn how a battery works in a simple circuit and how chemical energy changes to electrical energy. As they learn more about electrical energy, they better understand the concepts of voltage, current and resistance.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

304

DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: Implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ?100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. PMID:25529662

Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

2015-05-01

305

Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrprd6 identified by quantitative trait locus analysis  

PubMed Central

The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrprd6 mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrprd6 mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrprd6/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrprd6 retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrprd6-associated photoreceptor loss. PMID:24200520

Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R.; Philip, Vivek M.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K.; Krebs, Mark P.; Nishina, Patsy M.

2014-01-01

306

Genetic modifiers of chromatin acetylation antagonize the reprogramming of epi-polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Natural populations are known to differ not only in DNA but also in their chromatin-associated epigenetic marks. When such inter-individual epigenomic differences (or "epi-polymorphisms") are observed, their stability is usually not known: they may or may not be reprogrammed over time or upon environmental changes. In addition, their origin may be purely epigenetic, or they may result from regulatory variation encoded in the DNA. Studying epi-polymorphisms requires, therefore, an assessment of their nature and stability. Here we estimate the stability of yeast epi-polymorphisms of chromatin acetylation, and we provide a genome-by-epigenome map of their genetic control. A transient epi-drug treatment was able to reprogram acetylation variation at more than one thousand nucleosomes, whereas a similar amount of variation persisted, distinguishing "labile" from "persistent" epi-polymorphisms. Hundreds of genetic loci underlied acetylation variation at 2,418 nucleosomes either locally (in cis) or distantly (in trans), and this genetic control overlapped only partially with the genetic control of gene expression. Trans-acting regulators were not necessarily associated with genes coding for chromatin modifying enzymes. Strikingly, "labile" and "persistent" epi-polymorphisms were associated with poor and strong genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results estimate the amount of natural epigenomic variation that can be lost after transient environmental exposures, and they reveal the complex genetic architecture of the DNA-encoded determinism of chromatin epi-polymorphisms. Our observations provide a basis for the development of population epigenetics. PMID:23028365

Abraham, Anne-Laure; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Bottin, Hélène; Steinmetz, Lars M; Yvert, Gaël

2012-09-01

307

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

308

Applications of Genetically Modified Tools to Safety Assessment in Drug Development  

PubMed Central

The process of new drug development consists of several stages; after identifying potential candidate compounds, preclinical studies using animal models link the laboratory and human clinical trials. Among many steps in preclinical studies, toxicology and safety assessments contribute to identify potential adverse events and provide rationale for setting the initial doses in clinical trials. Gene modulation is one of the important tools of modern biology, and is commonly employed to examine the function of genes of interest. Advances in new drug development have been achieved by exploding information on target selection and validation using genetically modified animal models as well as those of cells. In this review, a recent trend of genetically modified methods is discussed with reference to safety assessments, and the exemplary applications of gene-modulating tools to the tests in new drug development were summarized. PMID:24278499

Kay, Hee Yeon; Wu, Hongmin; Lee, Seo In

2010-01-01

309

Phenotype variations in Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy: possible involvement of genetic modifiers?  

PubMed

Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy, also known as Lafora disease (LD), is the most severe and fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy with its typical onset during the late childhood or early adolescence. LD is characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures and progressive decline in intellectual function. LD can be caused by defects in any of the two known genes and the clinical features of these two genetic groups are almost identical. The past one decade has witnessed considerable success in identifying the LD genes, their mutations, the cellular functions of gene products and on molecular basis of LD. Here, we briefly review the current literature on the phenotype variations, on possible presence of genetic modifiers, and candidate modifiers as targets for therapeutic interventions in LD. PMID:22456482

Singh, Shweta; Ganesh, Subramaniam

2012-05-01

310

Genetic Variability and Evolutionary Implications of RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes in RNA1 of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates Infecting Sweetpotato and Related Wild Species  

PubMed Central

Background The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3), a putative hydrophobic protein (p7) and a 22-kDa protein (p22) from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae) in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA) strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae) and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b) encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3) able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. Conclusions/Significance SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in sweetpotato. A second virus encoding an RNase3-like RNA silencing suppressor was detected. Overall, results provided many novel and important insights into evolutionary biology of SPCSV. PMID:24278443

Tugume, Arthur K.; Amayo, Robert; Weinheimer, Isabel; Mukasa, Settumba B.; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

2013-01-01

311

Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified corn has been ap- proved as an animal feed in several countries, but infor- mation about the fate of genetically modified DNA and protein in vivo is insufficient. Genetically modified corn Bt11 is developed by inserting a recombinant DNA se- quence encoding insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Ba- cillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. We examined the presence of corn intrinsic

E. H. Chowdhury; H. Kuribara; A. Hino; P. Sultana; O. Mikami; N. Shimada; K. S. Guruge; M. Saito; Y. Nakajima

2008-01-01

312

Risk indication of genetically modified organisms (GMO): Modelling environmental exposure and dispersal across different scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indication is the most relevant way to approximate the implications of cause–effect networks which go beyond spatio-temporal extents of direct experimental accessibility. Risk analysis and risk management of genetically modified plants are an application field where indication of potential effects on the landscape and regional scale is required. Long-term implications of commercial use can be assessed only to a

Broder Breckling; Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Michael Glemnitz; Angelika Wurbs; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Wilhelm Windhorst

2011-01-01

313

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Fattening Performance and Slaughtering Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grower finisher performance trial with forty-eight pigs was designed to compare the growth performance of pigs fed diets containing either genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize (NX6262) or its parental maize (Prelude) line. During the experiment, the pigs were fed with a grower and a finisher diet both containing 70% maize investigated in a previously study which showed that they contained

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk

2002-01-01

314

An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous wound-healing disorders are a major health problem that requires the development of innovative treatments. Whithin this context, the search for reliable human wound-healing models that allow us to address both mechanistic and therapeutic matters is warranted. In this study, we have developed a novel invivo wound-healing model in a genetically modified human context. Our model is based on the

María José Escámez; Marta García; Fernando Larcher; Alvaro Meana; Evangelina Muñoz; Jose Luis Jorcano; Marcela Del Río

2004-01-01

315

Detection and identification of multiple genetically modified events using DNA insert fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current screening and event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection and identification of genetically\\u000a modified organisms (GMOs) in samples of unknown composition or for the detection of non-regulated GMOs have limitations, and\\u000a alternative approaches are required. A transgenic DNA fingerprinting methodology using restriction enzyme digestion, adaptor\\u000a ligation, and nested PCR was developed where individual GMOs are distinguished by

Philippe Raymond; Louis Gendron; Moustafa Khalf; Sylvianne Paul; Kim L. Dibley; Somanath Bhat; Vicki R. D. Xie; Lina Partis; Marie-Eve Moreau; Cheryl Dollard; Marie-José Coté; Serge Laberge; Kerry R. Emslie

2010-01-01

316

Regionalisation of flora elements in field boundaries sensitive to hybridisation with genetically modified oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  \\u000a Background, aim, and scope Gene flow via pollen dispersal to neighbouring non-genetically modified (GM) and organic fields or to biotopes containing\\u000a the same crop species and\\/or their wild relatives are among the most debated potential environmental risks of GM crops. These\\u000a crosses permit ingression of GM traits and may produce viable progeny. Current GM crop monitoring plans and concepts

A. Wurbs; M. Glemnitz; F. Graef; B. Funke; S. Ehlert

2010-01-01

317

Microbead-assisted PDA sensor for the detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive approach for the detection of marker protein, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, from genetically\\u000a modified crops was developed based on the colorimetric transition of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles in combination with silica\\u000a microbeads. PDAs have attracted a great deal of interests as a transducing material due to their special features that allow\\u000a colorimetric response to sensory signals, as well as

Min-Cheol Lim; Yeo-Jae Shin; Tae-Joon Jeon; Hae-Yeong Kim; Young-Rok Kim

2011-01-01

318

Unraveling Genetic Modifiers in the Gria4 Mouse Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy (AE) is a common type of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), particularly in children. AE and GGE are complex genetic diseases with few causal variants identified to date. Gria4 deficient mice provide a model of AE, one for which the common laboratory inbred strain C3H/HeJ (HeJ) harbors a natural IAP retrotransposon insertion in Gria4 that reduces its expression 8-fold. Between C3H and non-seizing strains such as C57BL/6, genetic modifiers alter disease severity. Even C3H substrains have surprising variation in the duration and incidence of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the characteristic electroencephalographic feature of absence seizures. Here we discovered extensive IAP retrotransposition in the C3H substrain, and identified a HeJ-private IAP in the Pcnxl2 gene, which encodes a putative multi-transmembrane protein of unknown function, resulting in decreased expression. By creating new Pcnxl2 frameshift alleles using TALEN mutagenesis, we show that Pcnxl2 deficiency is responsible for mitigating the seizure phenotype – making Pcnxl2 the first known modifier gene for absence seizures in any species. This finding gave us a handle on genetic complexity between strains, directing us to use another C3H substrain to map additional modifiers including validation of a Chr 15 locus that profoundly affects the severity of SWD episodes. Together these new findings expand our knowledge of how natural variation modulates seizures, and highlights the feasibility of characterizing and validating modifiers in mouse strains and substrains in the post-genome sequence era. PMID:25010494

Frankel, Wayne N.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; McGarr, Tracy C.; Beyer, Barbara J.; Letts, Verity A.

2014-01-01

319

“Technically Unavoidable” in Terms of Genetically Modified Organisms – an Approach for Food Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  In case of findings of authorized genetically modified (gm) plant ingredients below the 0.9 per cent threshold, exceptions\\u000a from labelling requirements according to regulation (EC) No. 1829\\/2003 can only be made, “provided that this presence is adventitious\\u000a or technically unavoidable”. The authors describe factors that should be considered regarding contaminations by gm plant ingredients\\u000a as technically unavoidable or not. A

H.-U. Waiblinger; N. Graf; D. Mäde; K. Woll; U. Busch; B. Holland; H. Pilsl; G. Naeumann; R. Reiting; B. Ehrentreich; M. Schulze; B. Tschirdewahn; C. Brünen-Nieweler; G. Hempel; M. Weidner; A. R. Winterstein

2007-01-01

320

Genetically Modified Organisms in the Food Supply: Public Opinion vs. Consumer Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the differences in European public opinion and consumer behavior with regard to the use of genetically modified organisms in the food supply. We report the results of an economic experiment in which we elicited willingness-to-pay information for products that contained GMO-free at various thresholds. We also present the data from a survey of public opinion

C. Noussair; S. Robin; B. Ruffieux

2001-01-01

321

Safety and risk assessment of the genetically modified Lactococci on rats intestinal bacterial flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Lactococcus lactis NZ9000\\/pNZPNK and intestinal microflora was evaluated as a method to assess safety of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). L. lactis NZ9000\\/pNZPNK is one kind of GMM and able to produce the intracellular subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) under induction with nisin. The host strain L. lactis NZ9000 was a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganism. Six groups of

Kai-Chien Lee; Chin-Feng Liu; Tzu-Hsing Lin; Tzu-Ming Pan

2010-01-01

322

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pre-treated corn meal were

Sergej Jerman; Aleš Podgornik; Katarina Cankar; Neža ?adež; Mihaela Skrt; Jana Žel; Peter Raspor

2005-01-01

323

Consumer beliefs and attitude towards genetically modified food: Basis for segmentation and implications for communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a consumer survey comprising 400 face-to-face interviews with Flemish consumers (Belgium), which was conducted in the summer of 2000, reveal four consumer segments based on beliefs and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) food, namely: the Halfhearted, the Green Opponents, the Balancers, and the Enthusiasts. While 23.5% of the respondents have positive attitudes (the Enthusiasts) towards GM food, 15.5%

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

324

Awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy genetically modified foods in Urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern about the extent to which consumers will accept genetically modified (GM) foods if they are commercialized in China. The evidence from the existing literature is mixed and sometimes confusing. The objective of this study is to conduct a large in-depth face-to-face in-house survey that examines the consumers' awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy GM foods in

Jikun Huang; Huanguang Qiu; Junfei Bai; Carl Pray

2006-01-01

325

Consumer’s Resistance to Genetically Modified Foods: The Role of Information in an Uncertain Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) foods have been engulfed in considerable controversy, and the early optimism has been dampened. Information issues—labeling and asymmetric information—are central to the GM-food debate. Furthermore, it is important to understand the reaction in developed countries to GM-foods because they set the tone of the world market in grains, oilseeds, and animal products. New results are reported from

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

326

Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Food: Relevance of Gene Transfer Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer's willingness to consume different types of a nutritionally enhanced food product (i.e., breakfast cereal with calcium, omega fatty acids, or anti-oxidants) derived from grains genetically modified using two types of technologies: plant-to-plant gene transfer technology and animal-to plant gene transfer technology. Findings indicate a majority of the respondents are willing or somewhat willing to consume the

Benjamin M. Onyango; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.

2004-01-01

327

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant Retrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural stem cells have been shown to participate in the repair of experimental CNS disorders. To examine their potential in spinal cord repair, we used retroviral vectors to genetically modify a clone of neural stem cells, C17, to overproduce neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The cells were infected with a retrovirus construct containing the NT-3.IRES.lacZ\\/neo sequence and cloned by limiting dilution and selection

Y. Liu; B. T. Himes; J. Solowska; J. Moul; S. Y. Chow; K. I. Park; A. Tessler; M. Murray; E. Y. Snyder; I. Fischer

1999-01-01

328

75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10, 2009. The rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document corrects two Code of Federal Regulation...

2010-01-11

329

Genetically modified mouse models for the study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (1) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (2) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; to (3) cirrhosis. The animal models to study NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are extremely useful, as there are still many events to be elucidated in the pathology of NASH. The study of the established animal models has provided many clues in the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis, but these remain incompletely understood. The different mouse models can be classified in two large groups. The first one includes genetically modified (transgenic or knockout) mice that spontaneously develop liver disease, and the second one includes mice that acquire the disease after dietary or pharmacological manipulation. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, genetically modified animal models may be a key for the treatment of NAFLD. Ideal animal models for NASH should closely resemble the pathological characteristics observed in humans. To date, no single animal model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but they can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that the researchers choose the appropriate animal model. This review discusses various genetically modified animal models developed and used in research on NAFLD. PMID:22468076

Nagarajan, Perumal; Mahesh Kumar, M Jerald; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Majundar, Subeer S; Juyal, Ramesh C

2012-01-01

330

Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme, Transporter and Nuclear Receptor Genetically Modified Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Determining the in vivo significance of a specific enzyme, transporter or xenobiotic receptor in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics may be hampered by gene multiplicity and complexity, levels of expression and interaction between various components involved. The development of knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mouse models opens the door to the improved understanding of gene function in a whole body system. There is also growing interest in the development of humanized mice to overcome species difference in drug metabolism and disposition. This review, therefore, aims to summarize and discuss some successful examples of drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear receptor genetically modified mouse models. These genetically modified mouse models have proven as invaluable models for understanding in vivo function of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and xenobiotic receptors in drug metabolism and transport, as well as predicting potential drug-drug interaction and toxicity in humans. Nevertheless, concerns remain about interpretation of data obtained from such genetically modified mouse models in which the expression of related genes is altered significantly. PMID:20854191

Jiang, Xi-Ling; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yu, Ai-Ming

2011-01-01

331

Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement.  

PubMed

Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time. PMID:23924159

Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J

2013-10-01

332

Sweet Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae, Dicotyledons) produces storage roots rich in carbohydrates and ?-carotene, a precursor of vitamin\\u000a A, and its leaves are rich in proteins. The roots also contain vitamins C, B complex, and E as well as potassium, calcium,\\u000a and iron. Purple-fleshed ones contain antioxidants such as anthocyanins. In world crop statistics, the sweet potato is ranked\\u000a seventh,

Vincent Lebot

333

Quantifying Genetic Variance for Horizontal Resistance to Late Blight in Potato Breeding Population B3C1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the genetic variation for horizontal resistance to late blight in the most advanced sources of horizontal resistance to late blight—population B group three cycle one (B3C1)—has been carried out at CIP by assessing the amount of genetic variance for resistance and tuber yield. A random sample of resistant clones from B3C1 were used to obtain progenies according to mating

J. A. Landeo; M. Gastelo; G. Beltran; L. Diaz

2000-01-01

334

Metabolic compensation of steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in transgenic potato tubers: using reverse genetics to confirm the in vivo enzyme function of a steroidal alkaloid galactosyltransferase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are secondary metabolites of Solanaceous plants. Two predominant glycoalkaloids, a-chaconine and a-solanine are produced in Potatoes. An antisense transgene was constructed to down-regulate glycoalkaloid biosynthesis using a potato cDNA encoding a solanidine glucosy...

335

Analysis of genetic relationships between potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) populations in the United States, Mexico and Guatemala using ITS2 and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), is an important factor in Zebra Complex (ZC), a disease that causes economic losses on potato crops. Although the exact cause of ZC is not yet known, it may be related to the toxicity of psyllid saliva, pathogens transmitted by this insect, or a com...

336

Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

2013-01-01

337

METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCIENCE QUESTIONS: -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants? -How can it be measured? -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities? RESEARCH: The objectives ...

338

Applications and limitations of genetically modified mouse models in drug discovery and development.  

PubMed

Genetically modified mouse models in which a specific gene is removed or replaced have proven to be powerful tools for identification/validation of target gene and scientific understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced toxicity through mechanistic studies. In spite of the advantage, there are significant limitations of genetically modified mouse models. Modification of a given gene does not always result in the anticipated phenotype. In some instances, phenotypes of targeted mouse mutants were not those predicted from the presumed function of the given genes, while other null mutants revealed no apparent defects. Furthermore, the phenotypic outcome can be influenced by many environmental and genetic factors. Therefore, interpretation of the significance of the findings from studies using genetically modified mouse models is not always as straightforward as one would expect, especially when desire is to extrapolate the findings to humans. Interestingly, many humanized mouse models have been generated for evaluating the function and regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Our fascination with humanized animals dates back to ancients. For example, the Great Sphinx of Giza, a large half-human and half-lion statue, is believed to have been built by Egyptians about 4500 years ago. Although the creation of humanized animals that carry a particular human CYP gene provides useful tools for scientific understanding of the function and regulation of the CYP enzyme, these humanized mouse models are not so useful in prediction of human pharmacokinetics in a quantitative sense. Accordingly, it is important to keep in mind that an animal engineered to express a human gene and its protein is still an animal. PMID:18537578

Lin, Jiunn H

2008-06-01

339

Development of two screening duplex PCR assays for genetically modified organism quantification using multiplex real-time PCR master mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organism (GMO) food and feed derived products are obligatory\\u000a in the European Union. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are commonly detected via PCR tests. These tests typically involve\\u000a several steps: (1) screening (2) construct specific (3) event specific and (4) reference gene. Screening tests are based on\\u000a sequences frequently used for GM

Julien Pansiot; Maher Chaouachi; Laetitia Cavellini; Marcel Romaniuk; Mira Ayadi; Yves Bertheau; Valérie Laval

2011-01-01

340

GMOs and Global Justice: Applying Global Justice Theory to the Case of Genetically Modified Crops and Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of using genetically modified (GM) crops and food in the developing world often claim that it is unjust not to\\u000a use GMOs (genetically modified organisms) to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. In reply, the critics\\u000a of GMOs claim that while GMOs may be useful as a technological means to increase yields and crop quality, stable and efficient

Kristian Høyer Toft

341

Curried Potatoes Ingredients  

E-print Network

Curried Potatoes Ingredients: 4 potatoes 1 tablespoon margarine 1 small onion 3/4 cup low sodium chicken broth 1/2 tablespoon curry powder 1/2 tablespoon lemon juice Directions 1. Wash potatoes and cut the same size. 2. Put potato cubes in saucepan and cover with cool water. Put on stove and turn on high

Liskiewicz, Maciej

342

Herb Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Herb Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 pound potatoes 1/2 cup radishes 3 tablespoons plain yogurt, non/4 teaspoon dried thyme 1/4 teaspoon onion powder 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder Directions 1. Scrub potatoes, reduce heat and simmer 20 minutes or until potatoes are done. Drain. Add to medium bowl. 4. Wash radishes

Liskiewicz, Maciej

343

Potato Corn Chowder Ingredients  

E-print Network

Potato Corn Chowder Ingredients: 2 potatoes, peeled and diced 15 ounces sweet corn, drained 2 potatoes, cut into bite size pieces. Place in microwave safe bowl with lid. Add 1/4 cup of water and cover to remove sodium. 4. While potatoes are cooking, melt margarine in saucepan over medium heat and add flour

Liskiewicz, Maciej

344

Mashed Potatoes Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mashed Potatoes Ingredients: 2 pounds potatoes 1 cup skim milk 3 tablespoons margarine 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground pepper Directions 1. Peel the potatoes, and cut them into chunks. 2. Put the potatoes in a medium saucepan with enough cool water to cover them. 3. Cover. Bring to a boil and cook

Liskiewicz, Maciej

345

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

346

Association of cystic fibrosis genetic modifiers with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether genetic modifiers of CF lung disease also predispose to CBAVD in association with CFTR mutations. We tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms of TGFB1 (transforming growth factor) (rs 1982073, rs 1800471) and EDNRA (endothelin receptor type A) (rs 5335, rs 1801708) are associated with the CBAVD phenotype. Design Genotyping of subjects with clinical CBAVD. Setting Outpatient and hospital based clinical evaluation. Patients DNA samples from 80 CBAVD subjects and 51 healthy male controls from various regions of Europe. One of the largest genetic studies of this disease to date. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Genotype analysis. Results For SNP rs 5335, we found increased frequency of the CC genotype among CBAVD subjects. The difference was significant among Turkish patients vs. controls (45.2% vs. 19.4%, p<0.05), and between all cases vs. controls (36% vs. 15.7%, p<0.05). No associations between CBAVD penetrance and polymorphisms rs1982073, rs1800471 or rs1801708 were observed. Conclusions Our findings indicate that EDNRA polymorphism rs 5335 may be associated with CBAVD penetrance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate genetic modifiers relevant to CBAVD. PMID:20100616

Havasi, Viktoria; Rowe, Steven M.; Kolettis, Peter N.; Dayangac, Didem; ?ahin, Ahmet; Grangeia, Ana; Carvalho, Filipa; Barros, Alberto; Sousa, Mario; Bassas, Lluis; Casals, Teresa; Sorscher, Eric J.

2013-01-01

347

Use of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating neurodegenerative disorders has received growing attention recently because these cells are readily available, easily expanded in culture, and when transplanted, survive for relatively long periods of time. Given that such transplants have been shown to be safe in a variety of applications, in addition to recent findings that MSCs have useful immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, the use of these cells as vehicles for delivering or producing beneficial proteins for therapeutic purposes has been the focus of several labs. In our lab, the use of genetic modified MSCs to release neurotrophic factors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is of particular interest. Specifically, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been recognized as therapeutic trophic factors for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases, respectively. The aim of this literature review is to provide insights into: (1) the inherent properties of MSCs as a platform for neurotrophic factor delivery; (2) the molecular tools available for genetic manipulation of MSCs; (3) the rationale for utilizing various neurotrophic factors for particular neurodegenerative diseases; and (4) the clinical challenges of utilizing genetically modified MSCs. PMID:24463293

Wyse, Robert D.; Dunbar, Gary L.; Rossignol, Julien

2014-01-01

348

PRTFDC1 is a genetic modifier of HPRT-deficiency in the mouse.  

PubMed

Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a severe X-linked neurological disorder caused by a deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). In contrast, HPRT-deficiency in the mouse does not result in the profound phenotypes such as self-injurious behavior observed in humans, and the genetic basis for this phenotypic disparity between HPRT-deficient humans and mice is unknown. To test the hypothesis that HPRT deficiency is modified by the presence/absence of phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (PRTFDC1), a paralog of HPRT that is a functional gene in humans but an inactivated pseudogene in mice, we created transgenic mice that express human PRTFDC1 in wild-type and HPRT-deficient backgrounds. Male mice expressing PRTFDC1 on either genetic background were viable and fertile. However, the presence of PRTFDC1 in the HPRT-deficient, but not wild-type mice, increased aggression as well as sensitivity to a specific amphetamine-induced stereotypy, both of which are reminiscent of the increased aggressive and self-injurious behavior exhibited by patients with LND. These results demonstrate that PRTFDC1 is a genetic modifier of HPRT-deficiency in the mouse and could therefore have important implications for unraveling the molecular etiology of LND. PMID:21818316

Keebaugh, Alaine C; Mitchell, Heather A; Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Freeman, Kimberly G; Edwards, Gaylen L; Weinshenker, David; Thomas, James W

2011-01-01

349

The Calcium Solution: Developing Potato Cultivars With Enhanced Tuber Storage and Internal Quality by Genetic Improvement of Tuber Calcium Accumulation Ability Enetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

350

A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps  

PubMed Central

The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb) as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the N-terminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M). The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

Krajewska, Agnieszka; Radecki, Jerzy; Radecka, Hanna

2008-01-01

351

Agro-environmental effects due to altered cultivation practices with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape and implications for monitoring. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape or canola (Brassica napus L.) is at the forefront of being introduced into European agriculture. Concerns have been raised about how genetically modified\\u000a oilseed rape cultivation and the modified cropping practices might impair the agro-environment. The present review compiles\\u000a and categorises evidenced and potential agro-environmental effects of cultivating genetically modified oilseed rape and assesses\\u000a the

F. Graef

2009-01-01

352

Effect of different sanitizers on microbial and sensory quality of fresh-cut potato strips stored under modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemicals containing SH-groups as sulfites and chlorine-based agents are commonly employed in the fresh-cut process of vegetables such as potatoes to prevent browning and to sanitize produce. However, there is a concern over the application of these compounds in fresh-cut commodities as they might affect human and environmental safety and this has created the need to investigate alternatives. In the

David Beltrán; María V. Selma; Juan A. Tudela; María I. Gil

2005-01-01

353

PGC-1alpha downstream transcription factors NRF-1 and TFAM are genetic modifiers of Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin HTT (HD) gene. The primary genetic determinant of the age at onset (AO) is the length of the HTT CAG repeat; however, the remaining genetic contribution to the AO of HD has largely not been elucidated. Recent studies showed that impaired functioning of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1a (PGC-1alpha) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and appears to play an important role in HD pathogenesis. Further genetic evidence for involvement of PGC-1alpha in HD pathogenesis was generated by the findings that sequence variations in the PPARGC1A gene encoding PGC-1alpha exert modifying effects on the AO in HD. In this study, we hypothesised that polymorphisms in PGC-1alpha downstream targets might also contribute to the variation in the AO. Results In over 400 German HD patients, polymorphisms in the nuclear respiratory factor 1 gene, NRF-1, and the mitochondrial transcription factor A, encoded by TFAM showed nominally significant association with AO of HD. When combining these results with the previously described modifiers rs7665116 in PPARGC1A and C7028T in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1, mt haplogroup H) in a multivariable model, a substantial proportion of the variation in AO can be explained by the joint effect of significant modifiers and their interactions, respectively. Conclusions These results underscore that impairment of mitochondrial function plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HD and that upstream transcriptional activators of PGC-1alpha may be useful targets in the treatment of HD. PMID:21595933

2011-01-01

354

Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition from feeding rations that contained different sources of genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multiparous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk at the beginning of the experiments. Treatments in Experiment 1 were: Bollgard cotton containing the cry1Ac gene, Bollgard II cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes, Roundup Ready cotton containing the cp4 epsps gene, and a control nongenetically modified but genetically similar cottonseed. In Experiment 2, two commercial sources, a parental control line, and the transgenic cotton containing both cry1Ac and cp4 epsps genes were used as treatments. All cows received the same total mixed ration but with different whole cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide 2.50 kg per cow daily (dry matter [DM] basis) or about 10% of the total diet DM. The ingredient composition of the total mixed ration was 32% alfalfa hay, 28% corn silage, 22% corn grain, 17% soybean meal, and 2% minerals and vitamins. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from a subset of milk samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot hybridization for small fragments of the cry1Ac transgene and an endogenous cotton gene, acp1. No sample was positive for transgenic or plant DNA fragments at the limits of detection for the assays following detailed data evaluation criteria. The DMI, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score did not differ among treatments. Cottonseed from genetically modified varieties used in these studies yielded similar performance in lactating dairy cows when compared to non-transgenic control and reference cottonseed. PMID:15453492

Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F

2004-06-01

355

A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.  

PubMed

Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars. PMID:23668783

Mumm, Rita H

2013-09-01

356

The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.  

PubMed

As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

2011-07-01

357

[The investigation of presence of genetically modified protein in processed foodstuffs by ELISA test].  

PubMed

The test based on immunoassay--TRAIT-RUR Toasted Soy Meal Kit was used for detection GMO-soy protein in the processed (heat treated) foodstuffs: bread, macaroni, sausages, ready-to-serve products and soya products (tofu, steaks). The threshold level is about 0,6% protein. The positive results were obtained for 27 from 106 investigated products. Only 5 foodstuffs were declared as containing GMO-soy in composition. The presence of genetically modified ingredients in foodstuffs must be controlled. The proper information should be labelled for the consumer. PMID:19097577

Urbanek-Kar?owska, Bogumi?a; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Jedra, Ma?gorzata

2004-01-01

358

Recent Patents on Biosafety Strategies of Selectable Marker Genes in Genetically Modified Crops.  

PubMed

Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been planted world wide since 1990, but the potential insecurity of selectable marker genes raises the questions about GMC safety. Therefore, several researches have been conducted on marker gene safety issues and several patents have been issued on this subject recently. There are two main approaches to achieve this goal: seeking the biosafety selectable marker and eliminating these insecure marker genes after transformation. Results show that these two systems are quite effective. Recent patents on the two ways are discussed in this review. PMID:25342150

Jiang, Yiming; Hu, Xiaoning; Huang, Haiying

2014-10-23

359

Genome-wide screen for modifiers of Na + /K + ATPase alleles identifies critical genetic loci.  

PubMed

BackgroundMutations affecting the Na + / K + ATPase (a.k.a. the sodium-potassium pump) genes cause conditional locomotor phenotypes in flies and three distinct complex neurological diseases in humans. More than 50 mutations have been identified affecting the human ATP1A2 and ATP1A3 genes that are known to cause rapid-onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, and variants of familial hemiplegic migraine with neurological complications including seizures and various mood disorders. In flies, mutations affecting the ATPalpha gene have dramatic phenotypes including altered longevity, neural dysfunction, neurodegeneration, myodegeneration, and striking locomotor impairment. Locomotor defects can manifest as conditional bang-sensitive (BS) or temperature-sensitive (TS) paralysis: phenotypes well-suited for genetic screening.ResultsWe performed a genome-wide deficiency screen using three distinct missense alleles of ATPalpha and conditional locomotor function assays to identify novel modifier loci. A secondary screen confirmed allele-specificity of the interactions and many of the interactions were mapped to single genes and subsequently validated. We successfully identified 64 modifier loci and used classical mutations and RNAi to confirm 50 single gene interactions. The genes identified include those with known function, several with unknown function or that were otherwise uncharacterized, and many loci with no described association with locomotor or Na+/ K+ ATPase function.ConclusionsWe used an unbiased genome-wide screen to find regions of the genome containing elements important for genetic modulation of ATPalpha dysfunction. We have identified many critical regions and narrowed several of these to single genes. These data demonstrate there are many loci capable of modifying ATPalpha dysfunction, which may provide the basis for modifying migraine, locomotor and seizure dysfunction in animals. PMID:25476251

Talsma, Aaron D; Chaves, John F; LaMonaca, Alexandra; Wieczorek, Emily D; Palladino, Michael J

2014-12-01

360

Detection of airborne genetically modified maize pollen by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised numerous concerns in the European Union and other parts of the world about their environmental and economic impact. Especially outcrossing of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was from the beginning a critical issue as airborne pollen has been considered an important way of GMO dispersal. Here, we investigate the use of airborne pollen sampling combined with microscopic analysis and molecular PCR analysis as an approach to monitor GM maize cultivations in a specific area. Field trial experiments in the European Union and South America demonstrated the applicability of the approach under different climate conditions, in rural and semi-urban environment, even at very low levels of airborne pollen. The study documents in detail the sampling of GM pollen, sample DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis. Our results suggest that this 'GM pollen monitoring by bioaerosol sampling and PCR screening' approach might represent an useful aid in the surveillance of GM-free areas, centres of origin and natural reserves. PMID:22805239

Folloni, Silvia; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Rajcevic, Bojan; Guimarães, Nilson C C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Valicente, Fernando H; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

2012-09-01

361

Continuous systemic secretion of a lysosomal enzyme by genetically modified mouse skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Lysosomal enzymes secreted or externally supplied into the extracellular medium can be internalized by cells and targeted to lysosomes after binding to specific membrane receptors. This process allows for the replacement of the missing enzyme activity in deficient cells. Using a retroviral vector, we have introduced the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA into primary mouse skin fibroblasts. The genetically modified cells were then engrafted into neo-organs that had been previously implanted into the peritoneal cavity of syngeneic recipient mice. The hypervascularized structures, made of collagen and basic fibroblast growth factor-coated synthetic fibers embedded into extracellular matrix gel, allowed in vivo survival of engrafted fibroblasts that expressed the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA for at least 3 months. The human enzyme was detected in the liver, lung, and spleen of experimental animals, but became undetectable after removal of the neo-organ. This observation indicated that the human enzyme was secreted into the serum and then captured by distant organs. The use of genetically modified fibroblasts implanted into neo-organs may, therefore, represent a convenient approach to enzyme replacement therapy in lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:8356601

Moullier, P; Maréchal, V; Danos, O; Heard, J M

1993-08-01

362

Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.  

PubMed

Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds. PMID:24915369

Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

2015-01-01

363

A practicable detection system for genetically modified rice by SERS-barcoded nanosensors.  

PubMed

Since the global cultivation of genetically modified crops constantly expands, it remains a high demand to establish different ways to sort food and feed that consist or contain genetically modified organisms. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is a flexible tool for biological analysis due to its excellent properties for detecting wide varieties of target biomolecules including nucleic acids. In the present study, a SERS-barcoded nanosensor was developed to detect Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene-transformed rice expressing insecticidal proteins. The barcoded sensor was designed by encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with silica and conjugation of oligonucleotide strands for targeting DNA strands. The transition between the cry1A(b) and cry1A(c) fusion gene sequence was used to construct a specific SERS-based detection method with a detection limit of 0.1 pg/mL. In order to build the determination models to screen transgene, a series mixture of Bt rice and normal rice were prepared for SERS assay, and the limit of detection was 0.1% (w/w) transgenic Bt rice relative to normal rice. The sensitivity and accuracy of the SERS-based assay was comparable with real-time PCR. The SERS-barcoded analytical method would provide precise detection of transgenic rice varieties but also informative supplement to avoid false positive outcomes. PMID:22342698

Chen, Kun; Han, Heyou; Luo, Zhihui; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiuping

2012-04-15

364

Effect of Genetically Modified Poplars on Soil Microbial Communities during the Phytoremediation of Waste Mine Tailings?†  

PubMed Central

The application of transgenic plants to clean up environmental pollution caused by the wastes of heavy metal mining is a promising method for removing metal pollutants from soils. However, the effect of using genetically modified organisms for phytoremediation is a poorly researched topic in terms of microbial community structures, despite the important role of microorganisms in the health of soil. In this study, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities found in the rhizosphere of genetically modified (GM) versus wild-type (WT) poplar was conducted on trees at different growth stages (i.e., the rhizospheres of 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3-year-old poplars) that were cultivated on contaminated soils together with nonplanted control soil. Based on the results of DNA pyrosequencing, poplar type and growth stages were associated with directional changes in the structure of the microbial community. The rate of change was faster in GM poplars than in WT poplars, but the microbial communities were identical in the 3-year-old poplars. This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat. PMID:21890678

Hur, Moonsuk; Kim, Yongho; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Young Im; Yi, Hana

2011-01-01

365

POST-MORATORIUM EU REGULATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS: TRADE CONCERNS  

E-print Network

Research Network (CATPRN) which is funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The views in paper are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the funding agencies. Trade in genetically modified (GM) products remains a major issue in agricultural trade policy. In particular, the European Union has sought to deny market access to GM-products. In the wake of a WTO case brought by Canada and the US, among others, against an import ban imposed on genetically modified agricultural products by the European Union (EU) – which the EU lost – the import ban was dropped and the EU put in place a new regulatory regime for GM-products. The EU suggests that the post-moratorium regulatory regime is compliant with its WTO obligations. As of June 2011, the operation of this new import regime has not been formally assessed. The first GM-crops are just now working their way through the post-moratorium regulatory system and an assessment of the operation of the regime is timely. The results of this assessment suggest that the EU’s approval system is only partially based in science and thus is not in conformity with its SPS obligations under the WTO. Hence, the new EU regulatory regime could be challenged through a WTO Disputes panel

Crina Viju; May T. Yeung; W. A. Kerr

2011-01-01

366

What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks  

PubMed Central

The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

2012-01-01

367

Development of an innovative immunoassay for CP4EPSPS and Cry1AB genetically modified protein detection and quantification.  

PubMed

An innovative immunoassay, called enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) Reverse, based on a new conformation of the solid phase, was developed. The solid support was expressly designed to be immersed directly in liquid samples to detect the presence of protein targets. Its application is proposed in those cases where a large number of samples have to be screened simultaneously or when the simultaneous detection of different proteins is required. As a first application, a quantitative immunoassay for Cry1AB protein in genetically modified maize was optimized. The method was tested using genetically modified organism concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were determined as 0.0056 and 0.0168 (expressed as the percentage of genetically modified organisms content), respectively. A qualitative multiplex assay to assess the presence of two genetically modified proteins simultaneously was also established for the case of the Cry1AB and the CP4EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in genetically modified maize and soy, respectively. PMID:16901856

Ermolli, M; Prospero, A; Balla, B; Querci, M; Mazzeo, A; Van Den Eede, G

2006-09-01

368

Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.  

PubMed

Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. PMID:22333321

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

2012-01-01

369

Subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nicotine reward, dependence, and withdrawal: Evidence from genetically modified mice  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can regulate the activity of many neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system and are considered important modulators of cognition and emotion. nAChRs also are the primary site of action in the brain for nicotine, the major addictive component of tobacco smoke. nAChRs consist of five membrane-spanning subunits (? and ? isoforms) that can associate in various combinations to form functional nAChR ion channels. Because of a dearth of nAChR subtype-selective ligands, the precise subunit composition of the nAChRs that regulate the rewarding effects of nicotine and the development of nicotine dependence are unknown. However, the advent of mice with genetic nAChR subunit modifications has provided a useful experimental approach to assess the contribution of individual subunits in vivo. Here we review data generated from nAChR subunit knockout and genetically modified mice supporting a role for discrete nAChR subunits in nicotine reinforcement and dependence processes. Importantly, the rates of tobacco dependence are far higher in patients suffering from comorbid psychiatric illnesses compared with the general population, which may at least partly reflect disease-associated alterations in nAChR signaling. An understanding of the role of nAChRs in psychiatric disorders associated with high rates of tobacco addiction, therefore, may reveal novel insights into mechanisms of nicotine dependence. Thus, we also briefly review data generated from genetically modified mice to support a role for discrete nAChR subunits in anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. PMID:18690103

Fowler, Christie D.; Arends, Michael A.; Kenny, Paul J.

2009-01-01

370

Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.  

PubMed

Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights. PMID:22892687

Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

2012-01-01

371

Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

2013-01-01

372

Selective enhancement of autotrophic acetate production with genetically modified Acetobacterium woodii.  

PubMed

Great interest has emerged in the recent past towards the potential of autotrophic acetogenic bacteria for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. This group of microorganisms possesses an ancient pathway for the fixation of carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen, making them highly attractive for the utilization of gas mixtures as a cheap and abundant carbon and energy source. As more and more genome sequence data of acetogens becomes available, the genetic tools are being developed concomitantly. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the genetic modification of the well-characterized acetogen Acetobacterium woodii. This microorganism selectively produces acetate under autotrophic conditions, but seems to be limited at high acetate concentrations. To increase the carbon flow through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and therefore increase the efficiency of CO2 fixation, genes of enzyme groups of this pathway were selectively overexpressed (the four THF-dependent enzymes for the processing of formate as well as phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase to enhance an ATP-generation step). Acetate production with genetically modified strains was increased in a batch process under pH-controlled reaction conditions in a stirred-tank reactor with continuous sparging of H2 and CO2. Final acetate concentrations of more than 50gL(-1) acetate were thus measured with the recombinant strains at low cell concentrations of 1.5-2gL(-1) dry cell mass in less than four days under autotrophic conditions. PMID:24637370

Straub, Melanie; Demler, Martin; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Dürre, Peter

2014-05-20

373

Role of genetic modifiers in an orthologous rat model of ARPKD  

PubMed Central

Human data and animal models of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) suggest that genetic factors modulate the onset and severity of the disease. We report here for the first time that ARPKD susceptibility is attenuated by introgressing the mutated Pkhd1 disease allele from the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat onto the FHH (Fawn-Hooded Hypertensive) genetic background. Compared with PCK, the FHH.Pkhd1 strain had significantly decreased renal cyst formation that coincided with a threefold reduction in mean kidney weights. Further analysis revealed that the FHH. Pkhd1 is protected from increased blood pressure as well as elevated plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. On the other hand, liver weight and biliary cystogenesis revealed no differences between PCK and FHH.Pkdh1, indicating that genes within the FHH genetic background prevent the development of renal, but not hepatic, manifestations of ARPKD. Microarray expression analysis of kidneys from 30-day-old PCK rats revealed increased expression of genes previously identified in PKD renal expression profiles, such as inflammatory response, extracellular matrix synthesis, and cell proliferation genes among others, whereas the FHH.Pkhd1 did not show activation of these common markers of disease. This newly developed strain can serve as a tool to map modifier genes for renal disease in ARPKD and provides further insight into disease variability and pathophysiology. PMID:22669842

O'Meara, Caitlin C.; Hoffman, Matthew; Sweeney, William E.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Xiao, Bing; Jacob, Howard J.; Avner, Ellis D.

2012-01-01

374

Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.  

PubMed Central

The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. Dissemination of these genes is aided by a variety of genetic elements including integrons, transposons, and broad-host-range plasmids. As knowledge of the molecular structure of these enzymes increases, progress can be made in our understanding of how resistance to new aminoglycosides emerges. Images PMID:8385262

Shaw, K J; Rather, P N; Hare, R S; Miller, G H

1993-01-01

375

The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants  

PubMed Central

Background Since their first commercialization, the diversity of taxa and the genetic composition of transgene sequences in genetically modified plants (GMOs) are constantly increasing. To date, the detection of GMOs and derived products is commonly performed by PCR-based methods targeting specific DNA sequences introduced into the host genome. Information available regarding the GMOs’ molecular characterization is dispersed and not appropriately organized. For this reason, GMO testing is very challenging and requires more complex screening strategies and decision making schemes, demanding in return the use of efficient bioinformatics tools relying on reliable information. Description The GMOseek matrix was built as a comprehensive, online open-access tabulated database which provides a reliable, comprehensive and user-friendly overview of 328 GMO events and 247 different genetic elements (status: 18/07/2013). The GMOseek matrix is aiming to facilitate GMO detection from plant origin at different phases of the analysis. It assists in selecting the targets for a screening analysis, interpreting the screening results, checking the occurrence of a screening element in a group of selected GMOs, identifying gaps in the available pool of GMO detection methods, and designing a decision tree. The GMOseek matrix is an independent database with effective functionalities in a format facilitating transferability to other platforms. Data were collected from all available sources and experimentally tested where detection methods and certified reference materials (CRMs) were available. Conclusions The GMOseek matrix is currently a unique and very valuable tool with reliable information on GMOs from plant origin and their present genetic elements that enables further development of appropriate strategies for GMO detection. It is flexible enough to be further updated with new information and integrated in different applications and platforms. PMID:23965170

2013-01-01

376

Stimulation of bacterial DNA transformation by cattle saliva: implications for using genetically modified plants in animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the likelihood of DNA transfer from genetically modified plants (GMP) to bacteria, a rescue plasmid system\\u000a for Streptococcus gordonii was modified. It was applied to monitor the DNA transformation into oral and intestinal bacteria in cattle. Transformation\\u000a and recombination frequency of S. gordonii was dependent on the length of the transformed DNA. Beside horse serum, cow saliva also rendered

Ekaterina Shedova; Christiane Albrecht; Vladimir V. Zverlov; Wolfgang H. Schwarz

2009-01-01

377

POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

378

Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).  

PubMed

The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola. PMID:24193044

Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

2013-12-20

379

Sensitive dependencies and separation distances for genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.  

PubMed Central

The amount of land available for the coexistent growing of both organic and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops depends on the separation distance between the two types of crop. The form of the decline in the proportion of land available for growing one of these crop types due to increasing separation distance is linear on a suitable scale, but with a slope and intercept that are sensitively dependent on the proportion of the other crop already present. Spatially explicit simulations from realistic scenarios indicate that a major increase in separation distances, currently under review by the UK government, may have serious implications for the future coexistence of organic and GMHT crops in the UK. PMID:12061962

Perry, Joe N

2002-01-01

380

Biosynthetic preparation of selectively deuterated phosphatidylcholine in genetically modified Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes and one of the most commonly used phospholipids for reconstitution of membrane proteins into carrier systems such as lipid vesicles, micelles and nanodiscs. Selectively deuterated versions of this lipid have many applications, especially in structural studies using techniques such as NMR, neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering. Here we present a comprehensive study of selective deuteration of phosphatidylcholine through biosynthesis in a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli. By carefully tuning the deuteration level in E. coli growth media and varying the deuteration of supplemented carbon sources, we show that it is possible to achieve a controlled deuteration for three distinct parts of the PC lipid molecule, namely the (a) lipid head group, (b) glycerol backbone and (c) fatty acyl tail. This biosynthetic approach paves the way for the synthesis of specifically deuterated, physiologically relevant phospholipid species which remain difficult to obtain through standard chemical synthesis. PMID:25301578

Maric, Selma; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Schiller, Jürgen; Marek, Magdalena; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V Trevor; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Arleth, Lise; Pomorski, Thomas Günther

2015-01-01

381

Induction of tolerance to self-antigens using genetically modified bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

The challenge of finding a lasting cure for autoimmune disease(s) has not been met. Although the use of systemic anti-inflammatory agents still dominates the treatment of these diseases, there is a push towards developing novel and more specific strategies. In addressing autoimmunity, there is the intrinsic need to understand the mechanisms that lead to the development and maintenance of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Experimental evidence has shown that directed antigen expression in the thymus can induce immunological tolerance to that antigen. This forms the cornerstone of one strategy directed towards the cure of autoimmunity. In this strategy, individuals with autoimmune disease are transplanted with bone marrow stem cells that have been genetically modified and in this way allow expression of the self-antigen in the thymus. PMID:15268669

Alderuccio, Frank; Toh, Ban-Hock

2004-07-01

382

A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit.  

PubMed Central

The proposed introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops, with claims of improved weed control, has prompted fears about possible environmental impacts of their widespread adoption, particularly on arable weeds, insects and associated farmland birds. In response to this, we have developed a novel weed-management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered by the broad-spectrum partner herbicides. Here, we show the results from two series of field experiments which, taken together, demonstrate that, by using this system, crops can be managed for enhanced weed and insect biomass without compromising yield, thus potentially offering food and shelter to farmland birds and other wildlife. These results could be applicable widely to other row crops, and indicate that creative use of GMHT technology could be a powerful tool for developing more sustainable farming systems in the future. PMID:12639311

Dewar, Alan M; May, Mike J; Woiwod, Ian P; Haylock, Lisa A; Champion, Gillian T; Garner, Beulah H; Sands, Richard J N; Qi, Aiming; Pidgeon, John D

2003-01-01

383

Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.  

PubMed

High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security. PMID:22985799

Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

2013-01-25

384

Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research. PMID:23899040

van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

2013-09-01

385

A Modified Decision Tree Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm for Mobile User Classification Problem  

PubMed Central

In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity. PMID:24688389

Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

2014-01-01

386

Recommendations from a meeting on health implications of genetically modified organism (GMO).  

PubMed

The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs. PMID:25667561

Amofah, George

2014-06-01

387

A modified decision tree algorithm based on genetic algorithm for mobile user classification problem.  

PubMed

In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity. PMID:24688389

Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

2014-01-01

388

Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?  

PubMed Central

There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

Metcalfe, Dean D

2003-01-01

389

DTREEv2, a computer-based support system for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems that can facilitate the risk assessment process. In this paper we describe DTREEv2, a computer-based decision support system for the identification of hazards related to the introduction of GM-crops into the environment. DTREEv2 structures hazard identification and evaluation by means of an Event-Tree type of analysis. The system produces an output flagging identified hazards and potential risks. It is intended to be used for the preparation and evaluation of biosafety dossiers and, as such, its usefulness extends to researchers, risk assessors and regulators in government and industry. PMID:24308933

Pertry, Ine; Nothegger, Clemens; Sweet, Jeremy; Kuiper, Harry; Davies, Howard; Iserentant, Dirk; Hull, Roger; Mezzetti, Bruno; Messens, Kathy; De Loose, Marc; de Oliveira, Dulce; Burssens, Sylvia; Gheysen, Godelieve; Tzotzos, George

2014-03-25

390

Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?  

PubMed

The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One of these differences relates to the so-called 'stacked GM events', that is, GMOs, plants so far, where new traits are combined by conventional crossing of different GM plants. This paper advocates rethinking the current food/feed safety assessment of stacked GM events in Europe based on an analysis of different aspects that currently form the rationale for the safety assessment of stacked GM events. PMID:24418332

Kok, Esther J; Pedersen, Jan; Onori, Roberta; Sowa, Slawomir; Schauzu, Marianna; De Schrijver, Adinda; Teeri, Teemu H

2014-02-01

391

Parental Smoking Modifies the Relation between Genetic Variation in Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF) and Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and lymphotoxin-? (LTA, also called TNF-?) have been associated with asthma and atopy in some studies. Parental smoking is a consistent risk factor for childhood asthma. Secondhand smoke and ozone both stimulate TNF production. Objectives Our goal was to investigate whether genetic variation in TNF and LTA is associated with asthma and atopy and whether the association is modified by parental smoking in a Mexican population with high ozone exposure. Methods We genotyped six tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF and LTA, including functional variants, in 596 nuclear families consisting of asthmatics 4–17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests. Results The A allele of the TNF-308 SNP was associated with increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–2.28], especially among children of non-smoking parents (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.19–3.55; p for interaction = 0.09). Similarly, the A allele of the TNF-238 SNP was associated with increased asthma risk among children of nonsmoking parents (RR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.14–4.30; p for interaction = 0.01). LTA SNPs were not associated with asthma. Haplotype analyses reflected the single SNP findings in magnitude and direction. TNF and LTA SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variation in TNF may contribute to childhood asthma and that associations may be modified by parental smoking. PMID:17450233

Wu, Hao; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Anderson, Daniel M.; Dunn, Erin W.; Steiner, Lori L.; del Carmen Lara-Sanchez, Irma; London, Stephanie J.

2007-01-01

392

Vaccination with genetically modified Shiga-like toxin IIe prevents edema disease in swine.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga-like toxin II variant (SLT-IIe, formerly called SLT-IIv) cause edema disease in weaned pigs. Vaccination of pigs with a genetically modified form of Shiga-like toxin IIe, SLT-IIe(E167Q), has been previously shown to be nontoxic and to induce antibodies to SLT-IIe (V.M. Gordon. S.C. Whipp, H.W. Moon, A.D. O'Brien, and J.E. Samuel, Infect, Immun. 60:485-502, 1992). Fifty micrograms of SLT-IIe(E167Q) toxin was used to vaccinate suckling pigs at 1 and 2 weeks of age. Both vaccinated and nonvaccinated pigs were orally inoculated with an SLT-IIe-producing strain of E. coli after weaning (3 to 4 weeks of age). Pigs fed a low-protein diet that were not vaccinated with SLT-IIe(E167Q) developed subclinical edema disease, histologically evident as vascular necrosis. Pigs fed a high-protein diet that were not vaccinated with SLT-IIe(E167Q) developed clinical edema disease manifested as vascular necrosis, reduced weight gain, ataxia, palpebral edema, lateral recumbency, and death. Pigs vaccinated with SLT-IIe(E167Q) had a reduction in the incidence of subclinical edema disease and never developed clinical edema disease. These data demonstrate that vaccination with a genetically modified form of SLT-IIe prevents edema disease and are consistent with the notion that diet influences susceptibility to edema disease. PMID:8557374

Bosworth, B T; Samuel, J E; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D; Gordon, V M; Whipp, S C

1996-01-01

393

Ultrasensitive detection of genetically modified plants by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel method for the direct detection of GMP without amplified by the general method of PCR is firstly presented and proved by experiments. In our method, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, cleaving nucleic acid by restriction endonuclease and two nucleic acid probe hybridization techniques are combined to distinguish the caulifiower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and determine whether samples contain genetically modified components. The detection principle is as follows: firstly two restriction endonucleases FOKI and BsrDlare used to cleave the genomic DNA and the 169bp fragments of CaMV 35S promoter are retrieved; secondly, two nucleic acid probes labeled by Rhodamine Green and y5 dyes respectively hybridize with cleaved 169bp fragments of CaMV 35S promoter; thirdly, the hybridization products simultaneously with two dye-labeled probes are detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and GMP is distinguished. As the detection and analysis by FCS can be performed at the level of single molecule, there is no need for any type of amplification. Genetically modified tobaccos are measured by this method. The results indicate this method can detect CaMV 35S promoter of GMP exactly and the sensitivity can be down to 3.47X10 -10M. Because no any type of amplification is involved, this method can avoid the non-specffic amplification and false-positive problems of PCR, Due to its high-sensitivity, simplicity, reliability and little need for sample amounts, this method promises to be a highly effective detection method for GMP.

Li, Junfeng; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng; Liu, Jinfeng

2006-09-01

394

Neurotransplantation of stem cells genetically modified to express human dopamine transporter reduces alcohol consumption  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regulated neurotransmitter actions in the mammalian central nervous system determine brain function and control peripheral organs and behavior. Although drug-seeking behaviors, including alcohol consumption, depend on central neurotransmission, modification of neurotransmitter actions in specific brain nuclei remains challenging. Herein, we report a novel approach for neurotransmission modification in vivo by transplantation of stem cells engineered to take up the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) efficiently through the action of the human dopamine transporter (hDAT). As a functional test in mice, we used voluntary alcohol consumption, which is known to release DA in nucleus accumbens (NAC), an event hypothesized to help maintain drug-seeking behavior. We reasoned that reducing extracellular DA levels, by engrafting into NAC DA-sequestering stem cells expressing hDAT, would alter alcohol intake. Methods We have generated a neural stem cell line stably expressing the hDAT. Uptake kinetics of DA were determined to select a clone for transplantation. These genetically modified stem cells (or cells transfected with a construct lacking the hDAT sequence) were transplanted bilaterally into the NAC of wild-type mice trained to consume 10% alcohol in a two-bottle free-choice test for alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake was then ascertained for 1 week after transplantation, and brain sections through the NAC were examined for surviving grafted cells. Results Modified stem cells expressed hDAT and uptaken DA selectively via hDAT. Mice accustomed to drinking 10% ethanol by free choice reduced their alcohol consumption after being transplanted with hDAT-expressing stem cells. By contrast, control stem cells lacked that effect. Histologic examination revealed surviving stem cells in the NAC of all engrafted brains. Conclusions Our findings represent proof of principle suggesting that genetically engineered stem cells can be useful for exploring the role of neurotransmitters (or other signaling molecules) in alcohol consumption and potentially in other aspects of brain function. PMID:21122109

2010-01-01

395

A Genetically Modified Protein-Based Hydrogel for 3D Culture of AD293 Cells  

PubMed Central

Hydrogels have strong application prospects for drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell therapy because of their excellent biocompatibility and abundant availability as scaffolds for drugs and cells. In this study, we created hybrid hydrogels based on a genetically modified tax interactive protein-1 (TIP1) by introducing two or four cysteine residues in the primary structure of TIP1. The introduced cysteine residues were crosslinked with a four-armed poly (ethylene glycol) having their arm ends capped with maleimide residues (4-armed-PEG-Mal) to form hydrogels. In one form of the genetically modification, we incorporated a peptide sequence ‘GRGDSP’ to introduce bioactivity to the protein, and the resultant hydrogel could provide an excellent environment for a three dimensional cell culture of AD293 cells. The AD293 cells continued to divide and displayed a polyhedron or spindle-shape during the 3-day culture period. Besides, AD293 cells could be easily separated from the cell-gel constructs for future large-scale culture after being cultured for 3 days and treating hydrogel with trypsinase. This work significantly expands the toolbox of recombinant proteins for hydrogel formation, and we believe that our hydrogel will be of considerable interest to those working in cell therapy and controlled drug delivery. PMID:25233088

Du, Xiao; Wang, Jingyu; Diao, Wentao; Wang, Ling; Long, Jiafu; Zhou, Hao

2014-01-01

396

Genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represent a common molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. EGFR mutations predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thus represent a dependency in NSCLCs harboring these alterations, but the genetic basis of EGFR dependence is not fully understood. Here, we applied an unbiased, ORF-based screen to identify genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. This approach identified 18 kinase and kinase-related genes whose overexpression can substitute for EGFR in EGFR-dependent PC9 cells, and these genes include seven of nine Src family kinase genes, FGFR1, FGFR2, ITK, NTRK1, NTRK2, MOS, MST1R, and RAF1. A subset of these genes can complement loss of EGFR activity across multiple EGFR-dependent models. Unbiased gene-expression profiling of cells overexpressing EGFR bypass genes, together with targeted validation studies, reveals EGFR-independent activation of the MEK-ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways. Combined inhibition of PI3K-mTOR and MEK restores EGFR dependence in cells expressing each of the 18 EGFR bypass genes. Together, these data uncover a broad spectrum of kinases capable of overcoming dependence on EGFR and underscore their convergence on the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK signaling axes in sustaining EGFR-independent survival. PMID:25512530

Sharifnia, Tanaz; Rusu, Victor; Piccioni, Federica; Bagul, Mukta; Imielinski, Marcin; Cherniack, Andrew D; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Wong, Bang; Wilson, Frederick H; Garraway, Levi A; Altshuler, David; Golub, Todd R; Root, David E; Subramanian, Aravind; Meyerson, Matthew

2014-12-30

397

Allergenicity assessment of genetically-modified tobacco expressing salt tolerance cbl gene.  

PubMed

It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there was no significant sequence homology with known allergens. Also, no difference between the protein digestibility profiles of GM and WT tobacco was found. Rapid digestion of CBL protein (Mol Wt 35 kDa) by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated reduced chances of this protein to induce allergenicity. In addition, BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of WT and GM tobacco protein showed comparable levels of clinical score, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine level, similar effect on different organs as well as IgE binding proteins. These findings indicate that insertion of cbl gene in tobacco did not cause any additional allergic risk to consumer and the GM and native tobacco proteins behave similarly in both in vitro and in vivo situations even after genetic modification. PMID:25106468

Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Tuteja, Narendra; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

2014-09-01

398

Genetic mapping of a mouse modifier gene that can prevent ALS onset.  

PubMed

Mutations in the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene on human chromosome 21q22.1 cause 10-20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. The expression of the ALS phenotype in mice carrying the murine G86R SOD1 mutation is highly dependent upon the mouse genetic background. This is similar to the phenotypic variation observed in ALS patients containing identical SOD1 mutations. In the FVB/N background, mice expressing mG86R SOD1 develop an ALS phenotype at approximately 100 days. However, when these mice were bred into a mixed background of C57Bl6/129Sv, the onset of the ALS phenotype was delayed (143 days to >2 years). Using 129 polymorphic autosomal markers in a whole genome scan, we have identified a major genetic modifier locus with a maximum lod score of 5.07 on mouse chromosome 13 between D13mit36 and D13mit76. This 5- to 8-cM interval contains the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-associated gene Smn (survival motor neuron) and seven copies of Naip (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein), suggesting a potential link between SMA and ALS. PMID:11112346

Kunst, C B; Messer, L; Gordon, J; Haines, J; Patterson, D

2000-12-01

399

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food.  

PubMed

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues to a size where it would be unlikely to be stably transferred to bacterial gut microflora. The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SS) genes are of similar size (approximately 1.4 kb) to transgenes present in GM plants. DNA analysis and PCR amplification of Rubisco SS genes showed that fresh maize and maize silage contained high molecular weight DNA and intact Rubisco SS genes. Relatively high temperatures and pressurised steam were necessary to degrade fully genomic DNA and Rubisco SS genes in maize and wheat grains, the source of most animal feedstuffs. Furthermore, chemical expulsion and extrusion of oilseeds resulted in residues with completely degraded genomic DNA. These results imply that stringent conditions are needed in the processing of GM plant tissues for feedstuffs to eliminate the possibility of transmission of transgenes. PMID:10996317

Chiter, A; Forbes, J M; Blair, G E

2000-09-15

400

Genetically modified hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for HIV-1-infected patients: can we achieve a cure?  

PubMed

The cure of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patient following allogeneic transplantation from a CCR5-null donor and potential cure of two patients transplanted with CCR5 wild-type hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have provided renewed optimism that a potential alternative to conventional antiretroviral therapy (ART) is forthcoming. While allogeneic grafts have thus far suggested complete eradication of viral reservoirs, it has yet to be observed following autologous HSC transplantation. Development of curative autologous transplantation strategies would significantly increase the number of treatable patients, eliminating the need for matched donors and reducing the risks of adverse events. Recent studies suggest gene therapy may provide a mechanism for developing curative therapies. Expression of cellular/artificial restriction factors or disruption of CCR5 has been shown to limit viral replication and provide protection of genetically modified cells. However, significant obstacles remain with regards to the depletion of established viral reservoirs in an autologous transplantation setting devoid of the "allo-effect". Here, we discuss results from early-stage clinical trials and recent findings in animal models of gene modified HSC transplantation. Finally, we propose innovative combination therapies that may aid in the reduction and/or elimination of viral reservoirs in HIV-1-infected patients and promote the artificial development of a natural controller phenotype. PMID:24220323

Younan, Patrick; Kowalski, John; Kiem, Hans-Peter

2014-02-01

401

Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. PMID:24662477

Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

2014-07-01

402

Genetic Polymorphisms of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Modify the Neurobehavioral Effects of Mercury in Children  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8–12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene–Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure. PMID:24593143

Woods, James S.; Heyer, Nicholas J.; Russo, Joan E.; Martin, Michael D.; Pillai, Pradeep B.; Bammler, Theodor K.; Farin, Federico M.

2014-01-01

403

Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8-12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene-Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure. PMID:24593143

Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Pillai, Pradeep B; Bammler, Theodor K; Farin, Federico M

2014-01-01

404

Development of repressible sterility to prevent the establishment of feral populations of exotic and genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposals to farm non-native and genetically modified species are often highly contentious because there is no reliable method of ensuring that they do not escape, reproduce and become environmental problems. Suggested approaches to prevent breeding outside hatcheries are unable to guarantee sterility in both sexes or cannot easily be applied to animals. We developed and tested on two contentious groups

Ronald Thresher; Peter Grewe; Jawahar G. Patil; Steven Whyard; Christopher M. Templeton; Atra Chaimongol; Christopher M. Hardy; Lynette A. Hinds; Rex Dunham

2009-01-01

405

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future.The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The

Karen Aulrich; H. Böhme; R. Daenicke; Ingrid Halle; G. Flachowsky

2001-01-01

406

Review of animal models designed to predict the potential allergenicity of novel proteins in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety assessment of genetically modified crops involves the evaluation of the potential allergenicity of novel proteins by using several in silico and in vitro endpoints. In this publication, the variables and questions associated with the development of in vivo models are examined and several unpublished results are presented. Both rodent and non-rodent (dog and pig) models have been investigated

G. S. Ladics; L. M. J. Knippels; A. H. Penninks; G. A. Bannon; R. E. Goodman; C. Herouet-Guicheney

2010-01-01

407

Comparison of non-viral methods to genetically modify and enrich populations of primary human corneal endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare different techniques of transfection of primary human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) by non- viral methods and to enrich genetically modified cells to a highly pure population. Methods: HCECs were cultured following previously published methods. Dissection of the Descemet membrane (DM) was performed by tearing off strips from corneal buttons with forceps or by hydrodissection. Confirmation of HCECs

Christoph Engler; Clare Kelliher; Karl J. Wahlin; Caroline L. Speck; Albert S. Jun

2009-01-01

408

A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective

Morten Poulsen; Stine Kroghsbo; Malene Schrøder; Andrea Wilcks; Helene Jacobsen; Andreas Miller; Thomas Frenzel; Jürgen Danier; Michael Rychlik; Qingyao Shu; Kaveh Emami; Duraialagraja Sudhakar; Angharad Gatehouse; Karl-Heinz Engel; Ib Knudsen

2007-01-01

409

Analytical methods for detection and determination of genetically modified organisms in agricultural crops and plant-derived food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous analytical methods, both qualitative and quantitative, have been developed to determine reliably the presence and\\/or the amount of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agricultural commodities, in raw agricultural materials and in processed and refined ingredients. In addition to the \\

Elke Anklam; Ferruccio Gadani; Petra Heinze; Hans Pijnenburg; Guy Van Den Eede

2002-01-01

410

Why does Monsanto introduce genetically modified seeds in every country differently? An inquiry into the worldwide commercialization of Bt Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monsanto, a leading firm in agrobiotechnology has commercialized its genetically modified varieties in many countries of the world, including developing countries. This paper tries to identify the different commercialization strategies pursued by Monsanto. Then it proposes a simple sequential model of technology transfer between an upstream agbiotech firm and a downstream seed firm. The agbiotech chooses between a license, a

SAMIRA CHAKLATTI; UMR GAEL INRA; SHYAMA V. RAMANI; Bd de Brandebourg

411

Brain transplantation of genetically modified bone marrow stromal cells corrects CNS pathology and cognitive function in MPS VII mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current therapies for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), enzyme replacement therapy and bone marrow transplantation are effective for visceral organ pathology of LSD, but their effectiveness for brain involvement in LSDs is still a subject of controversy. As an alternative approach, we transplanted genetically modified bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells to lateral ventricle of newborn mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) mice. MPS

K Sakurai; S Iizuka; J-S Shen; X-L Meng; T Mori; A Umezawa; T Ohashi; Y Eto

2004-01-01

412

Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labels in a Market with Diverse Information: Evidence from Experimental Auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continuing controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods, some groups advocate mandatory labeling of these products, while other groups oppose labeling. An important issue is how GM labels affect consumers' willingness to pay for these food products in the market. Using a statistically based economics experiment with adult consumers as subjects, we examine how willingness to pay changes for

Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Matthew C. Rousu; Abebayehu Tegene

2003-01-01

413

Who Does the Public Trust? The Case of Genetically Modified Food in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust is important for the perception of many types of risk, including those relating to genetically modified (GM) food. Who the public trusts in any given circumstance, however, is not well understood. In this study of public trust regarding GM food, an exploratory factor analysis with Promax rotation reveals public classification of three common institutional types—evaluators, watchdogs, and merchants. The

John T. Lang; William K. Hallman

2005-01-01

414

Gene Cuisine or Frankenfood? The Theory of Reasoned Action as an Audience Segmentation Strategy for Messages About Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) foods are currently a controversial topic about which the lay public in the United States knows little. Formative research has demonstrated that the lay public is uncertain and concerned about GM foods. This study (N = 858) extends focus group research by using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to examine attitudes and subjective norms related to GM foods

Kami J. Silk; Judith Weiner; Roxanne L. Parrott

2005-01-01

415

Genetically modified food labeling: The impacts of message and messenger on consumer perceptions of labels and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze responses to a survey designed to elicit consumer reaction to various approaches to labeling genetically modified (GM) foods. Consumers were shown sample labels that differed with respect to claims concerning the presence and potential effects of GM ingredients and the agency that certified these claims. A sample of 1898 US consumers rated 3681 labels with regard to the

Brian Roe; Mario F. Teisl

2007-01-01

416

EFFECTS AND VALUE OF VERIFIABLE INFORMATION IN A CONTROVERSIAL MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM LAB AUCTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food products containing genetically modified (GM) ingredients have entered the market over the past decade. The biotech industry and environmental groups have disseminated conflicting private information about GM foods. This paper develops a unique methodology for valuing independent third-party information in such a setting and applies this method to consumers’ willingness to pay for food products that might be GM.

MATTHEW ROUSU; WALLACE E. HUFFMAN; JASON F. SHOGREN; ABEBAYEHU TEGENE

2007-01-01

417

OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE: IMPACTS ON CONSUMER DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the growing body of literature on consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods, there are significant differences on the impact of knowledge on acceptance of GM foods. One potential explanation is the manner in which knowledge is measured. The goal of this study is to differentiate and examine the impact of both subjective and objective knowledge related to acceptance

Lisa House; Jayson L. Lusk; Sara Jaeger; W. Bruce Traill; Melissa Moore; Carlotta Valli; Bert Morrow; Wallace M. S. Yee

2004-01-01

418

Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Foods in Emerging Markets: The Impact of Labeling in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, Taiwan enacted a law for genetically modified food (GM foods) labeling. Beginning January 1st 2003, food containing more than 5% of GM ingredients must be labeled. Taiwan imports most of its soybeans from the United States. In order to assess the effects of the new policy, a telephone survey was conducted in 2002. A total of 257 interviews

Pierre Ganiere; Wen S. Chern; David E. Hahn; Fu-Sung Chiang

2004-01-01

419

Public Opinion, Risk Perceptions, and Genetically Modified Food Regulatory PolicyReassessing the Calculus of Dissent among European Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying assumption of multinational corporations and US government campaigns to inform citizens worldwide of the advantages of genetically modified (GM) foods has been straightforward: if citizens better understand GM science and benefits, they will become less wary of GM foods. To test the assumptions of proponents regarding science-based information campaigns, we use heteroskedastic probit analysis to analyze responses to

Robert F. Durant; Jerome S. Legge

2005-01-01

420

Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived risk of genetically modified food: an overview of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the risk of genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on risk

Melissa L. Finucane; Joan L. Holup

2005-01-01

421

Comparative Advantage in Demand: Experimental Evidence of Preferences for Genetically Modified Food in the United States and European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States (US) exports more than US$6& billion in agricultural commodities to the European Union(EU) each year, but one issue carries the potential to diminish this trade: use of biotechnology in food production. The EU has adopted more stringent policies towards biotechnology than the US. Understanding differences in European and American policies towards genetically modified (GM) foods requires a

Jayson L. Lusk; W. Bruce Traill; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow

2006-01-01

422

The Flow of Scientific Knowledge from Lab to the Lay Public: The Case of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of how scientific knowledge about genetically modified (GM) food flows to the American public, focusing on language and message genres in the scientific litera- ture, newspapers, and popular magazines. A comprehensive search of these literatures from 1992 to 2002 revealed a publishing pattern of scientific communication that contrasted with that found in the lay

CLAIRE MCINERNEY; NORA BIRD; MARY NUCCI

2004-01-01

423

Genomic Resources and Tools for Gene Function Analysis in Potato  

PubMed Central

Potato, a highly heterozygous tetraploid, is undergoing an exciting phase of genomics resource development. The potato research community has established extensive genomic resources, such as large expressed sequence tag (EST) data collections, microarrays and other expression profiling platforms, and large-insert genomic libraries. Moreover, potato will now benefit from a global potato physical mapping effort, which is serving as the underlying resource for a full potato genome sequencing project, now well underway. These tools and resources are having a major impact on potato breeding and genetics. The genome sequence will provide an invaluable comparative genomics resource for cross-referencing to the other Solanaceae, notably tomato, whose sequence is also being determined. Most importantly perhaps, a potato genome sequence will pave the way for the functional analysis of the large numbers of potato genes that await discovery. Potato, being easily transformable, is highly amenable to the investigation of gene function by biotechnological approaches. Recent advances in the development of Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) and related methods will facilitate rapid progress in the analysis of gene function in this important crop. PMID:19107214

Bryan, Glenn J.; Hein, Ingo

2008-01-01

424

Effect on soil chemistry of genetically modified (GM) vs. non-GM maize.  

PubMed

The effects of genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Fa2 protein (Bt) and phosphinothricin or glyphosate herbicide tolerance on soil chemistry (organic matter, N, P, K and pH), compared with non-GM controls, were assessed in field and pot experiments. In the field experiment, NH(4)(+) was significantly higher in soil under the crop modified for herbicide tolerance compared to the control (mean values of 11 and 9.6 mg N/kg respectively) while P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 6.9 and 6.4 dg P/kg, respectively). No significant differences were found as a result of growing Bt/herbicide tolerant maize. In the pot experiment, using soils from three sites (Gongzhuling, Dehui and Huadian), significant effects of using Bt maize instead of conventional maize were found for all three soils. In the Gongzhuling soil, P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 4.8 and 4.0 dg P/kg, respectively). For the Dehui soil, the pH was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values for {H(+)} of 1.1 and 2.4 ?M for the control and the GM crop respectively). In the Huadian soil, organic matter and total N were both higher in soil under the GM crop than under the control. For organic matter, the mean values were 3.0 and 2.9% for the GM crop and the control, respectively, while for total nitrogen the mean values were 2.02 and 1.96% for the GM crop and the control respectively. Our results indicate that growing GM crops instead of conventional crops may alter soil chemistry, but not greatly, and that effects will vary with both the specific genetic modification and the soil. PMID:21844670

Liu, Na; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Kang, Lingsheng; Gao, Hongjun; Clarke, Nicholas J; Clarke, Jihong Liu

2010-01-01

425

New trends in bioanalytical tools for the detection of genetically modified organisms: an update.  

PubMed

Despite the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the production of GM crops is increasing, especially in developing countries. Thanks to new technologies involving genetic engineering and unprecedented access to genomic resources, the next decade will certainly see exponential growth in GMO production. Indeed, EU regulations based on the precautionary principle require any food containing more than 0.9% GM content to be labeled as such. The implementation of these regulations necessitates sampling protocols, the availability of certified reference materials and analytical methodologies that allow the accurate determination of the content of GMOs. In order to qualify for the validation process, a method should fulfil some criteria, defined as "acceptance criteria" by the European Network of GMO Laboratories (ENGL). Several methods have recently been developed for GMO detection and quantitation, mostly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. PCR (including its different formats, e.g., double competitive PCR and real-time PCR) remains the technique of choice, thanks to its ability to detect even small amounts of transgenes in raw materials and processed foods. Other approaches relying on DNA detection are based on quartz crystal microbalance piezoelectric biosensors, dry reagent dipstick-type sensors and surface plasmon resonance sensors. The application of visible/near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy or mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics techniques has also been envisaged as a powerful GMO detection tool. Furthermore, in order to cope with the multiplicity of GMOs released onto the market, the new challenge is the development of routine detection systems for the simultaneous detection of numerous GMOs, including unknown GMOs. PMID:18537027

Michelini, Elisa; Simoni, Patrizia; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Roda, Aldo

2008-10-01

426

Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical methods for GMO screening and quantification is of great interest. Exponential amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains a central step in molecular methods of GMO detection and quantification. In order to meet the challenge posed by the continuously increasing number of GMOs, various multiplex assays have been developed for the simultaneous amplification and/or detection of several GMOs. Classical agarose gel electrophoresis is being replaced by capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems, including CE chips, for the rapid and automatable separation of amplified fragments. Microtiter well-based hybridization assays allow high-throughput analysis of many samples in a single plate. Microarrays have been introduced in GMO screening as a technique for the simultaneous multianalyte detection of amplified sequences. Various types of biosensors, including surface plasmon resonance sensors, quartz crystal microbalance piezoelectric sensors, thin-film optical sensors, dry-reagent dipstick-type sensors and electrochemical sensors were introduced in GMO screening because they offer simplicity and lower cost. GMO quantification is performed by real-time PCR (rt-QPCR) and competitive PCR. New endogenous reference genes have been validated. rt-QPCR is the most widely used approach. Multiplexing is another trend in this field. Strategies for high-throughput multiplex competitive quantitative PCR have been reported. PMID:18239909

Elenis, Dimitrios S; Kalogianni, Despina P; Glynou, Kyriaki; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

2008-10-01

427

The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.  

PubMed

Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and ?-amylase StAmy23, ?-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both ?-amylase and ?-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers. PMID:24985879

Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

2014-09-01

428

Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications. PMID:22558443

Felcher, Kimberly J.; Coombs, Joseph J.; Massa, Alicia N.; Hansey, Candice N.; Hamilton, John P.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin; Douches, David S.

2012-01-01

429

78 FR 35743 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0001; FV13-948-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General...interim rule modifies the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order)....

2013-06-14

430

78 FR 70191 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0001; FV13-948-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General...rule that modified the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order)....

2013-11-25

431

78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0043; FV12-948-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling...This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order)....

2013-01-02

432

78 FR 23829 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0043; FV12-948-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling...rule that modified the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2. The interim...

2013-04-23

433

Application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 from Monsanto 1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Following a request from Monsanto within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829\\/2003 on genetically modified food and feed, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the authorisation of the insect-resistant, glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810 (Unique Identifier MON88Ø17-3 x MON- ØØ81Ø-6). In delivering its scientific opinion, the

Hans Christer; Salvatore Arpaia; Detlef Bartsch; Josep Casacuberta; Howard Davies

2009-01-01

434

Genetically Modified Flax Expressing NAP-SsGT1 Transgene: Examination of Anti-Inflammatory Action  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-? did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

2014-01-01

435

Detection of six genetically modified maize lines using optical thin-film biosensor chips.  

PubMed

As more and more genetically modified organisms (GMO) are commercialized, efficient and inexpensive assays are required for their quick detection. An event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific sequences of integration junctions is useful because of its high specificity. This study developed a system for detecting six GM maize lines (Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, NK603, and T25) using optical silicon thin-film biosensor chips. Aldehyde-labeled probes were arrayed and covalently attached to a hydrazine-derivatized chip surface. Biotinylated PCR amplicons were then hybridized with the probes. After washing and brief incubation with an anti-biotin IgG horseradish peroxidase conjugate and a precipitable horseradish peroxidase substrate, biotinylated PCR amplicons perfectly matched with the probes can be visualized by the color change on the chip surface (gold to blue/purple). This assay is extremely robust, exhibits high sensitivity and specificity, and is flexible from low through moderate to high throughput. PMID:20614904

Bai, Sulan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shucheng; Chen, Haodong; Terzaghi, William; Zhang, Xin; Chi, Xiurong; Tian, Jin; Luo, Hongxia; Huang, Wensheng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yaochuan

2010-08-11

436

Synergistic interactions between the genetically modified bacterial polysaccharide P2 and carob or konjac mannan.  

PubMed

Rheological studies have confirmed that the bacterial polysaccharide P2, a genetically modified variant of the Acetobacter xylinum polysaccharide acetan, undergoes synergistic gelation with either of the plant polysaccharides carob or konjac mannan. X-ray fibre diffraction data shows that P2 can form a 5-fold helical structure of pitch 4.7nm and an axial rise per disaccharide repeat of 0.92nm. Optical rotation data demonstrate that P2 undergoes a coil-helix transition in solution and that deacylation enhances the stability of the helical structure in solution. Studies made on mixtures prepared at different temperatures and ionic strengths suggest that denaturation of the P2 helix favours interaction and gelation. Deacetylation of P2 enhances gelation. X-ray diffraction data for oriented fibres prepared from deacetylated P2-konjac mannan mixed films reveal a 6-fold helical structure of pitch 5.54nm with an axial rise per disaccharide repeat also of 0.92nm. This mixed helix provides direct evidence for binding between the two polysaccharides. P2 contains two sites of acetylation: one on the backbone and one on the sidechain. The former site of acetylation inhibits helix formation for P2. It is suggested that this site of acetylation also inhibits formation of the mixed helix, explaining the enhanced gelation of mixtures on deacetylation. PMID:15337451

Ridout, Michael; Cairns, Paul; Brownsey, Geoffrey; Morris, Victor

2004-09-13

437

19-element sensorless adaptive optical system based on modified hill-climbing and genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional adaptive optical system (AOS) often measures the wavefront slope or curvature straightly by a wavefront sensor. However, another alternative approach allows the design of an AOS without an independent wavefront sensor. This technique detect the image quality affected by phase aberration in laser wavefront rather than measuring the phase aberration itself, and then the image quality is taken as a sharpness metric. When wavefront phase aberration is corrected, the sharpness metric reaches its maximum value. In this paper, a wavefront sensorless adaptive optical system (AOS) has been set up. This system mainly consists of a 19-element piezoelectricity deformable mirror (DM), a high voltage amplifier, a set of 650nm laser, a CCD camera and an industrial computer. The CCD camera is used to measure the light intensity within an aperture of the focus plane, and then this intensity is regarded as the sharpness metric to optimize. A Modified Hill Climbing Algorithm (MHC) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) are used to control the DM to correct the phase aberrations in this system. Experimental results show that both of these two algorithms can be used successfully in this indirect wavefront measurement AOS. However, the GA can obtain better performance than the MHC. After phase aberrations are corrected, the ?factor are reduced from 5.5 to 1.5 and 1.9, from 30 to 1.2 and 1.4 respectively.

Yang, Ping; Yang, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Shijie; Ao, Mingwu; Xu, Bin; Jiang, Wenham

2007-12-01

438

A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

2014-01-01

439

Roles of Macrophages in Measles Virus Infection of Genetically Modified Mice  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the mechanisms of virus dissemination in acute measles is cursory, but cells of the monocyte/macrophage (MM) lineage appear to be early targets. We characterized the dissemination of the Edmonston B vaccine strain of measles virus (MV-Ed) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of two mouse strains expressing the human MV-Ed receptor CD46 with human-like tissue specificity and efficiency. In one strain the alpha/beta interferon receptor is defective, allowing for efficient MV-Ed systemic spread. In both mouse strains the PBMC most efficiently infected were F4/80-positive MMs, regardless of the inoculation route used. Circulating B lymphocytes and CD4-positive T lymphocytes were infected at lower levels, but no infected CD8-positive T lymphocytes were detected. To elucidate the roles of MMs in infection, we depleted these cells by clodronate liposome treatment in vivo. MV-Ed infection of splenic MM-depleted mice caused strong activation and infection of splenic dendritic cells (DC), followed by enhanced virus replication in the spleen. Similarly, depletion of lung macrophages resulted in strong activation and infection of lung DC. Thus, in MV infections of genetically modified mice, blood monocytes and tissue macrophages provide functions beneficial for both the virus and the host: they support virus replication early after infection, but they also contribute to protecting other immune cells from infection. Human MM may have similar roles in acute measles. PMID:11238860

Roscic-Mrkic, Branka; Schwendener, Reto A.; Odermatt, Bernhard; Zuniga, Armando; Pavlovic, Jovan; Billeter, Martin A.; Cattaneo, Roberto

2001-01-01

440

A metapopulation model for the introgression from genetically modified plants into their wild relatives  

PubMed Central

Most models on introgression from genetically modified (GM) plants have focused on small spatial scales, modelling gene flow from a field containing GM plants into a single adjacent population of a wild relative. Here, we present a model to study the effect of introgression from multiple plantations into the whole metapopulation of the wild relative. The most important result of the model is that even very low levels of introgression and selection can lead to a high probability that the transgene goes to fixation in the metapopulation. Furthermore, the overall frequency of the transgene in the metapopulation, after a certain number of generations of introgression, depends on the population dynamics. If there is a high rate of migration or a high rate of population turnover, the overall transgene frequency is much higher than with lower rates. However, under an island model of population structure, this increased frequency has only a very small effect on the probability of fixation of the transgene. Considering these results, studies on the potential ecological risks of introgression from GM plants should look not only at the rate of introgression and selection acting on the transgene, but also at the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative. PMID:25567858

Meirmans, Patrick G; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

2009-01-01

441

Hybridization between genetically modified Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout reveals novel ecological interactions  

PubMed Central

Interspecific hybridization is a route for transgenes from genetically modified (GM) animals to invade wild populations, yet the ecological effects and potential risks that may emerge from such hybridization are unknown. Through experimental crosses, we demonstrate transmission of a growth hormone transgene via hybridization between a candidate for commercial aquaculture production, GM Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and closely related wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). Transgenic hybrids were viable and grew more rapidly than transgenic salmon and other non-transgenic crosses in hatchery-like conditions. In stream mesocosms designed to more closely emulate natural conditions, transgenic hybrids appeared to express competitive dominance and suppressed the growth of transgenic and non-transgenic (wild-type) salmon by 82 and 54 per cent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of environmental impacts of hybridization between a GM animal and a closely related species. These results provide empirical evidence of the first steps towards introgression of foreign transgenes into the genomes of new species and contribute to the growing evidence that transgenic animals have complex and context-specific interactions with wild populations. We suggest that interspecific hybridization be explicitly considered when assessing the environmental consequences should transgenic animals escape to nature. PMID:23720549

Oke, Krista B.; Westley, Peter A. H.; Moreau, Darek T. R.; Fleming, Ian A.

2013-01-01

442

A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn  

PubMed Central

Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

2013-01-01

443

A simplified and accurate detection of the genetically modified wheat MON71800 with one calibrator plasmid.  

PubMed

With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, unauthorized GMO releases into the food market have increased dramatically, and many countries have developed detection tools for them. This study described the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of unauthorized the GM wheat MON71800 with a reference plasmid (pGEM-M71800). The wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acc) gene was used as the endogenous gene. The plasmid pGEM-M71800, which contains both the acc gene and the event-specific target MON71800, was constructed as a positive control for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The limit of detection in the qualitative PCR assay was approximately 10 copies. In the quantitative PCR assay, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation repeatability values ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 and from 0.23% to 1.12%, respectively. This study supplies a powerful and very simple but accurate detection strategy for unauthorized GM wheat MON71800 that utilizes a single calibrator plasmid. PMID:25624198

Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Sunghoon; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

2015-06-01

444

DNA Barcoding Simplifies Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Biodiverse Regions  

E-print Network

Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was

Chinyere V. Nzeduru; Ra Ronca; Mike J. Wilkinson

445

Proteomic analysis of endosomes from genetically modified p14/MP1 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The p14/MP1 scaffold complex binds MEK1 and ERK1/2 on late endosomes, thus regulating the strength, duration and intracellular location of MAPK signaling. By organelle proteomics we have compared the protein composition of endosomes purified from genetically modified p14?/?, p14+/? and p14(rev) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The latter ones were reconstituted retrovirally from p14?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts by reexpression of pEGFP-p14 at equimolar ratios with its physiological binding partner MP1, as shown here by absolute quantification of MP1 and p14 proteins on endosomes by quantitative MS using the Equimolarity through Equalizer Peptide strategy. A combination of subcellular fractionation, 2-D DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS revealed 31 proteins differentially regulated in p14?/? organelles, which were rescued by reexpression of pEGFP-p14 in p14?/? endosomes. Regulated proteins are known to be involved in actin remodeling, endosomal signal transduction and trafficking. Identified proteins and their in silico interaction networks suggested that endosomal signaling might regulate such major cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. PMID:21080497

Stasyk, Taras; Holzmann, Johann; Stumberger, Sonja; Ebner, Hannes L; Hess, Michael W; Bonn, Guenther K; Mechtler, Karl; Huber, Lukas A

2010-11-01

446

High-resolution raster scan optoacoustic mesoscopy of genetically modified drosophila pupae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoacoutic mesoscopy aims to bridge the gap between optoacoustic microscopy and optoacoustic tomography. We have developed a setup for optoacoustic mesoscopy where we use a high frequency, high numerical aperture spherically focused ultrasound transducer, with a wide bandwidth of 25-125 MHz. The excitation is performed using a diode laser capable of >500 ?J/pulse, 1.8ns pulse width, 1.4 kHz pulse repetition rate, at 515 nm. The system is capable to penetrate more than 5 mm with a resolution of 7 ?m axially and 30 ?m transversally. Using high-speed stages and scanning the transducer in a quasi-continuous mode, a field of view of 2×2 mm2 is scanned in less than 2 minutes. The system is suitable for imaging biological samples that have a diameter of 1-5 mm; zebrafish, drosophila melanogaster, and thin biological samples such as the mouse ear and mouse extremities. We have used our mesoscopic setup to generate 3- dimensional images of genetically modified drosophila fly, and drosophila pupae expressing GFP from the wings, high resolution images were generated in both cases, in the fly we can see the wings, the legs, the eyes, and the shape of the body. In the pupae the outline of the pupae, the spiracles at both ends and a strong signal corresponding to the location of the future wings are observed.

Omar, Murad; Gateau, Jérôme; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2014-03-01

447

A built-in strategy to mitigate transgene spreading from genetically modified corn.  

PubMed

Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

2013-01-01

448

Mass spectrometric detection of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya and maize.  

PubMed

The potential of protein fractionation hyphenated to mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and characterize the transgenic protein present in Roundup Ready soya and maize has been investigated. Genetically modified (GM) soya and maize contain the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens CP4, which confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The GM soya and maize proteomes were fractionated by gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) prior to MS. This facilitated detection of a tryptic peptide map of CP4 EPSPS by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (nanoESI-QTOF) MS. Subsequently, sequence information from the CP4 EPSPS tryptic peptides was obtained by nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS. The identification was accomplished in 0.9% GM soya seeds, which is the current EU threshold for food-labeling requirements. PMID:17200978

Ocaña, Mireia Fernández; Fraser, Paul D; Patel, Raj K P; Halket, John M; Bramley, Peter M

2007-01-01

449

Tolerization of a type I allergic immune response through transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Allergy represents a hypersensitivity disease that affects >25% of the population in industrialized countries. The underlying type I allergic immune reaction occurs in predisposed atopic individuals in response to otherwise harmless Ags (i.e., allergens) and is characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE, an allergen-specific T cell response, and the release of biologically active mediators such as histamine from mast cells and basophils. Regimens permanently tolerizing an allergic immune response still need to be developed. We therefore retrovirally transduced murine hematopoietic stem cells to express the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 on their cell membrane. Transplantation of these genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells led to durable multilineage molecular chimerism and permanent immunological tolerance toward the introduced allergen at the B cell, T cell, and effector cell levels. Notably, Phl p 5-specific serum IgE and IgG remained undetectable, and T cell nonresponsiveness persisted throughout follow-up (40 wk). Besides, mediator release was specifically absent in in vitro and in vivo assays. B cell, T cell, and effector cell responses to an unrelated control allergen (Bet v 1) were unperturbed, demonstrating specificity of this tolerance protocol. We thus describe a novel cell-based strategy for the prevention of allergy. PMID:18523282

Baranyi, Ulrike; Linhart, Birgit; Pilat, Nina; Gattringer, Martina; Bagley, Jessamyn; Muehlbacher, Ferdinand; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

2008-06-15

450

Bone-marrow-derived macrophages genetically modified to produce IL-10 reduce injury in experimental glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Macrophages are intimately involved in the development of immune-mediated inflammation, including glomerulonephritis. We have transduced primary cultures of macrophages to express IL-10 and tested the ability of these cells to control rat nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN), a model of human glomerulonephritis. Ad-IL-10-transduced bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) produced large amounts of IL-10 in culture, and their TNF-alpha production was decreased in response to interferon-gamma and LPS. Transduced macrophages were injected into the renal artery of rats, 6 h after the induction of NTN, where they localized efficiently to inflamed rat glomeruli. Delivery of IL-10-expressing macrophages to nephritic rats produced a marked reduction in albuminuria compared with unmodified NTN or injection of Ad-null-transduced BMDM. IL-10 treatment decreased the number of glomerular ED1- and ED3-positive cells, MHC class II expression, and the number of fibrinoid lesions. Interestingly, anti-inflammatory changes in the Ad-IL-10-injected kidney were mirrored by changes in the contralateral kidney. These results highlight that Ad-IL-10-transduced macrophages infiltrate inflamed glomeruli and reduce the severity of glomerular inflammation, emphasizing the value of local delivery of genetically modified macrophages in the manipulation of inflammatory disease. PMID:12498767

Wilson, Heather M; Stewart, Keith N; Brown, Paul A J; Anegon, Ignacio; Chettibi, Salah; Rees, Andrew J; Kluth, David C

2002-12-01

451

Innovation and Trade with Endogenous Market Failure: The Case of Genetically Modified Products  

E-print Network

A partial-equilibrium, two-country model is developed to analyze implications from the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. In the model, innovators hold proprietary rights, farmers are (competitive) adopters, some consumers deem GM food to be inferior in quality to traditional food, and the mere introduction of GM crops affects the costs of non-GM food (because of costly identity preservation). Among the results derived, it is shown that, although GM innovations have the potential to improve efficiency, some groups can be made worse off. Indeed, it is even possible that the costs induced by GM innovations outweigh the efficiency gains. Revised: September 2003 Forthcoming, American Journal of Agricultural EconomicsBiotechnology is emerging as one of the fundamental forces likely to shape agriculture in the twenty-first century. Scientific and technological breakthroughs in life sciences are making possible an increasing array of new products that have great potential commercial value and considerable scope for adoption. Among early biotechnology innovations for agriculture, transgenic crops have enjoyed a spectacular diffusion in a very short time.

Harvey E. Lapan; Giancarlo Moschini

2004-01-01

452

Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

2005-04-01

453

Genetically Modified ?-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice  

PubMed Central

Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (?AI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. ?AI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic ?AI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking ?AI led to an anti-?AI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that ?AI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

2013-01-01

454

Chemically forced dormancy termination mimics natural dormancy progression in potato tuber meristems by reducing ABA content and modifying expression of genes involved in regulating ABA synthesis and metabolism.  

PubMed

The length of potato tuber dormancy depends on both the genotype and the environmental conditions during growth and storage. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to play a critical role in tuber dormancy control but the mechanisms regulating ABA content during dormancy, as well as the sites of ABA synthesis, and catabolism are unknown. Recently, a temporal correlation between changes in ABA content and certain ABA biosynthetic and catabolic genes has been reported in stored field tubers during physiological dormancy progression. However, the protracted length of natural dormancy progression complicated interpretation of these data. To address this issue, in this study the synthetic dormancy-terminating agent bromoethane (BE) was used to induce rapid and highly synchronous sprouting of dormant tubers. The endogenous ABA content of tuber meristems increased 2-fold 24 h after BE treatment and then declined dramatically. By 7 d post-treatment, meristem ABA content had declined by >80%. Exogenous [(3)H]ABA was readily metabolized by isolated meristems to phaseic and dihydrophaseic acids. BE treatment resulted in an almost 2-fold increase in the rate of ABA metabolism. A differential expression of both the StNCED and StCYP707A gene family members in meristems of BE-treated tubers is consistent with a regulatory role for StNCED2 and the StCYP707A1 and StCYP707A2 genes. The present results show that the changes in ABA content observed during tuber dormancy progression are the result of a dynamic equilibrium of ABA biosynthesis and degradation that increasingly favours catabolism as dormancy progresses. PMID:16831846

Destefano-Beltrán, Luis; Knauber, Donna; Huckle, Linda; Suttle, Jeffrey

2006-01-01

455

Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel,

Ib Knudsen; Morten Poulsen

2007-01-01

456

A novel, sensitive method to evaluate potato germplasm for bacterial wilt resistance using a luminescent Ralstonia solanacearum reporter strain.  

PubMed

Several breeding programs are under way to introduce resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in solanaceous crops. The lack of screening methods allowing easy measurement of pathogen colonization and the inability to detect latent (i.e., symptomless) infections are major limitations when evaluating resistance to this disease in plant germplasm. We describe a new method to study the interaction between R. solanacearum and potato germplasm that overcomes these restrictions. The R. solanacearum UY031 was genetically modified to constitutively generate light from a synthetic luxCDABE operon stably inserted in its chromosome. Colonization of this reporter strain on different potato accessions was followed using life imaging. Bacterial detection in planta by this nondisruptive system correlated with the development of wilting symptoms. In addition, we demonstrated that quantitative detection of the recombinant strain using a luminometer can identify latent infections on symptomless potato plants. We have developed a novel, unsophisticated, and accurate method for high-throughput evaluation of pathogen colonization in plant populations. We applied this method to compare the behavior of potato accessions with contrasting resistance to R. solanacearum. This new system will be especially useful to detect latency in symptomless parental lines before their inclusion in long-term breeding programs for disease resistance. PMID:24283938

Cruz, Andrea Paola Zuluaga; Ferreira, Virginia; Pianzzola, María Julia; Siri, María Inés; Coll, Núria S; Valls, Marc

2014-03-01

457

The Sweet Potato Borer.  

E-print Network

of other species of the sweet potato family, we are led to believe that the sweet potato is an ac- quired food plant. Experiments made in this department, show that in the absence of sureet potatoes the insect can lire on the common species of Ipomoea... develop successfully in the large suczulent roots of Ipomoea cr rncrning glory vines. PREVENTIVE AND REMEDIAL MEASURES. Owing to its well protected habits the sweet potato weevil is one of the most difficult insects to combat. It is impossible...

Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

1907-01-01

458

A model freed from endogenous reference gene for quantification of genetically modified DNA by real-time PCR. 1. Quantification of DNA from genetically modified organisms in haplo-species materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first part of a serial study investigating a quantification model freed from endogenous reference gene for\\u000a genetically modified (GM) content by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The serial study involves two parts: (1) quantitative\\u000a determination of GM DNA in haplo-species plant samples; (2) quantitative determination of GM DNA in multi-species plant samples.\\u000a The paper describes a

Pingjian Deng; Dongyan Yang; Yongcun Yang; Xiaoke Yang; Liangrang Guo; Xiangyang Zhou; Xueling Wang

2008-01-01

459

Development and interlaboratory validation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for screening analysis of genetically modified soybeans.  

PubMed

A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative screening method was developed for three genetically modified soybeans: RRS, A2704-12, and MON89788. The 35S promoter (P35S) of cauliflower mosaic virus is introduced into RRS and A2704-12 but not MON89788. We then designed a screening method comprised of the combination of the quantification of P35S and the event-specific quantification of MON89788. The conversion factor (Cf) required to convert the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO) from a copy number ratio to a weight ratio was determined experimentally. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDR), respectively. The determined RSDR values for the method were less than 25% for both targets. We consider that the developed method would be suitable for the simple detection and approximate quantification of GMO. PMID:23302646

Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

2013-01-01

460

Genetically modified food in perspective: an inquiry-based curriculum to help middle school students make sense of tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand how students learn about science controversy, this study examines students' reasoning about tradeoffs in the context of a technology-enhanced curriculum about genetically modified food. The curriculum was designed and refined based on the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework to help students sort and integrate their initial ideas and those presented in the curriculum. Pre-test and post-test scores from 190 students show that students made significant (p < 0.0001) gains in their understanding of the genetically modified food controversy. Analyses of students' final papers, in which they took and defended a position on what type of agricultural practice should be used in their geographical region, showed that students were able to provide evidence both for and against their positions, but were less explicit about how they weighed these tradeoffs. These results provide important insights into students' thinking and have implications for curricular design.

Seethaler, Sherry; Linn, Marcia

461

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.  

PubMed

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic material that should try to protect from patenting and commercialisation. Finally, we should be aware of the requirements of movement of GMOs within borders, i.e. GMOs grown or used in other countries but which are not intended to cross into Greece, since Greece is very close to countries that are non-EU. This is where the development of a new, integrated, trustworthy and transparent food quality control system will help to satisfy the societal demands for safe and quality products. On the other hand, Greece should not be isolated from any recent scientific technological development and should assess the possible advantages for some cultivation using a case by case approach. Finally, the safety assessment of GM foods and feed has been discussed according to the risk assessment methodology applied by EFSA. PMID:17275157

Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

2007-04-01

462

Assuring the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods: the importance of an holistic, integrative approach.  

PubMed

Genes change continuously by natural mutation and recombination enabling man to select and breed crops having the most desirable traits such as yield or flavour. Genetic modification (GM) is a recent development which allows specific genes to be identified, isolated, copied and inserted into other plants with a high level of specificity. The food safety considerations for GM crops are basically the same as those arising from conventionally bred crops, very few of which have been subject to any testing yet are generally regarded as being safe to eat. In contrast a rigorous safety testing paradigm has been developed for GM crops, which utilises a systematic, stepwise and holistic approach. The resultant science based process, focuses on a classical evaluation of the toxic potential of the introduced novel trait and the wholesomeness of the transformed crop. In addition, detailed consideration is given to the history and safe use of the parent crop as well as that of the gene donor. The overall safety evaluation is conducted under the concept known as substantial equivalence which is enshrined in all international crop biotechnology guidelines. This provides the framework for a comparative approach to identify the similarities and differences between the GM product and its comparator which has a known history of safe use. By building a detailed profile on each step in the transformation process, from parent to new crop, and by thoroughly evaluating the significance from a safety perspective, of any differences that may be detected, a very comprehensive matrix of information is constructed which enables the conclusion as to whether the GM crop, derived food or feed is as safe as its traditional counterpart. Using this approach in the evaluation of more than 50 GM crops which have been approved worldwide, the conclusion has been that foods and feeds derived from genetically modified crops are as safe and nutritious as those derived from traditional crops. The lack of any adverse effects resulting from the production and consumption of GM crops grown on more than 300 million cumulative acres over the last 5 years supports these safety conclusions. PMID:12126808

Cockburn, Andrew

2002-09-11

463

Development of a qualitative, multiplex real-time PCR kit for screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and therefore the diversity of possible target\\u000a sequences for molecular detection techniques are constantly increasing. As a result, GMO laboratories and the food production\\u000a industry currently are forced to apply many different methods to reliably test raw material and complex processed food products.\\u000a Screening methods have become more and more relevant

Hans-Henno Dörries; Ivonne Remus; Astrid Grönewald; Cordt Grönewald; Kornelia Berghof-Jäger

2010-01-01

464

Development of sampling approaches for the determination of the presence of genetically modified organisms at the field level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to comply with the European Union regulatory threshold for the adventitious presence of genetically modified organisms\\u000a (GMOs) in food and feed, it is important to trace GMOs from the field. Appropriate sampling methods are needed to accurately\\u000a predict the presence of GMOs at the field level. A 2-year field experiment with two maize varieties differing in kernel colour

Jelka Šuštar-Vozli?; Katja Rostohar; Andrej Blejec; Petra Kozjak; Zoran ?ergan; Vladimir Megli?

2010-01-01

465

Genetically modified food in perspective: an inquiry-based curriculum to help middle school students make sense of tradeoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how students learn about science controversy, this study examines students' reasoning about tradeoffs in the context of a technology-enhanced curriculum about genetically modified food. The curriculum was designed and refined based on the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework to help students sort and integrate their initial ideas and those presented in the curriculum. Pre-test and post-test scores from 190

Sherry Seethaler; Marcia Linn

2004-01-01

466

Detection and identification of transgenic elements by fluorescent-PCR-based capillary gel electrophoresis in genetically modified cotton and soybean.  

PubMed

A detection method for genetically modified foods is an essential regulatory requirement for many countries. The present study is aimed at developing a qualitative method for detection of genetically modified organisms by combining PCR methodology with capillary gel electrophoresis (PCR-CGE) in a sequencing platform to detect Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-cotton (MON 531) and Roundup Ready (RR) soybean (GTS 40-3-2). A sensitive duplex PCR-CGE method was developed in which target DNA sequences (35S and Nos) were separated both by size and color to detect 0.01% Cry1Ac DNA (w/w) in Bt-cotton. A multiplex PCR-CGE method was developed to simultaneously detect four targets such as Sad1, Cry1Ac, 35S, and Nos in Bt-cotton. Four novel PCR primers were designed to customize amplicon size for multiplexing for better visualization of multiple peaks. The LOD for CrylAc DNA specific PCR was 0.01% for Bt-cotton. The LOD for multiplex PCR assay was 0.05% for Bt-cotton. A singleplex PCR-CGE method was developed to detect Lec, 35S and Nos in a trace sample of RR soybean grain powder (0.1%, w/w). This study demonstrates a PCR-CGE-based method for the qualitative detection of 35S, Nos and Cry1Ac targets associated with genetically modified products. PMID:24672872

Basak, Sanjay; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Sesikeran, Boindala; Ghosh, Sudip

2014-01-01

467

Construction of a reference plasmid molecule containing eight targets for the detection of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

A standard plasmid containing eight targets was developed for quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) soybeans and cotton. These eight targets were joined in tandem to form the pTLE8 plasmid with a length of 3,680 bp. This plasmid contains part of the endogenous soybean Lec1 gene, the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, the PAT gene of the soybean line A2704-12, the event-specific 5'-junction region of Roundup-Ready Soya (RRS, 35SG), the Cry1A(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the endogenous cotton Sad1 gene, and a part of RRS EPSPS gene. The PCR efficiencies with pTLE8 as a calibrator ranged from 99.4% to 100.2% for the standard curves of the RRS EPSPS gene and the taxon-specific Lec1 gene (R(2)?0.996). The limits of detection and quantification were nine and 15 copies, respectively. The standard deviation (SD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) values of repeatability were from 0.09 to 0.52 and from 0.28% to 2.11%, and those for reproducibility were from 0.12 to 1.15 and 0.42% to 3.85%, respectively. The average conversion factor (Cf) for the CRMs RRS quantification was 0.91. The RSD of the mean values for known samples ranged from 3.09% to 18.53%, and the biases were from 0.5% to 40%. These results show that our method using the pTLE8 plasmid as a reference material (RM) is reliable and feasible in the identification of GM soybeans, thus paving the way for the establishment of identification management systems for various products containing GMO components. PMID:21336925

Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Yang, Yalin; Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

2011-04-01

468

What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?  

SciTech Connect

It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of