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1

Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are

R. PRIBYLOVA; I. PAVLIK; M. BARTOS

2006-01-01

2

Microbial and nematode communities associated with potatoes genetically modified to express the antimicrobial peptide magainin and unmodified potato cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial peptide magainin II has activity against a range of micro-organisms. Tubers harvested from potatoes genetically modified (GM) to express a synthetic magainin gene show improved resistance to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. The microbial and nematode communities associated with three magainin-expressing potato lines, their near-isogenic, unmodified parental cultivar (Iwa) and an unrelated cultivar (Karaka) were investigated on field-grown

Maureen O’Callaghan; Emily M. Gerard; Nigel L. Bell; Nick W. Waipara; Lee T. Aalders; David B. Baird; Anthony J. Conner

2008-01-01

3

Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However,\\u000a zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding\\u000a or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk\\u000a of age-related macular degeneration.

Achim Bub; Jutta Möseneder; Gerhard Wenzel; Gerhard Rechkemmer; Karlis Briviba

2008-01-01

4

Behaviour of genetically modified amylose free potato clones as progenitors in a breeding program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three amylose-free genetically modified potato clones were used both as male and female parents in a breeding program with\\u000a non-GMO potato clones. Segregation data on the expression of the inserted antisense gene construct in tubers of progeny plants\\u000a were in agreement with previous molecular analysis of the transgenic clones. The inheritance of the inserted genes was according\\u000a to Mendelian segregation.

P. Heeres; E. Jacobsen; R. G. F. Visser

1997-01-01

5

Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.  

PubMed

Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products. PMID:12537422

Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

2003-01-29

6

Structural characteristics and plant-beneficial effects of bacteria colonizing the shoots of field grown conventional and genetically modified T4-lysozyme producing potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial protein T4 lysozyme may offer effective control strategies for bacterial pathogens causing severe potato diseases. Apart from this beneficial effect, it is very important to investigate such engineered potatoes carefully for potential adverse effects on potato-associated bacteria which frequently exhibit plant beneficial functions such as plant growth promotion and antagonism towards pathogens invading the plant.

Frank Rasche; Ester Marco-Noales; Henk Velvis; Leo S. van Overbeek; María M. López; Jan D. van Elsas; Angela Sessitsch

2006-01-01

7

A PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified potatoes by the gene ac 2 from Amaranthus caudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms have become a part of our everyday life. New modifications arise every year. The most of papers is focused on publication of detection protocols for genetically modified corn, soyabean, rape, or cotton. Minor modification, such as in potatoes attracts little attention. This work is based on developing an easy and cheap PCR method for the detection of

Radka Pribylova; Ivo Pavlik; Zdenka Rozsypalova; Milan Bartos

2006-01-01

8

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in

Frederick J. Perlak; Terry B. Stone; Yvonne M. Muskopf; Lisa J. Petersen; Gregory B. Parker; Sylvia A. McPherson; Jeff Wyman; Stephen Love; Gary Reed; Duane Biever; David A. Fischhoff

1993-01-01

9

Effects of genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato plants on the abundance of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the potential effects of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) on plant beneficial bacteria and fungi as well as on phytopathogens in the rhizosphere were investigated in a greenhouse\\u000a experiment and a field trial. For comparison, the non-transgenic parental cultivar of the GM line and a second non-transgenic\\u000a cultivar were included in the

Silvia Gschwendtner; Michael Reichmann; Martin Müller; Viviane Radl; Jean Charles Munch; Michael Schloter

2010-01-01

10

Quality and safety evaluation of genetically modified potatoes spunta with Cry V gene: compositional analysis, determination of some toxins, antinutrients compounds and feeding study in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition, nutritional and toxicology safety of GM potato Spunta lines compared to that of conventional potato Spunta. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 14 components, total solid, protein, lipid, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, starch, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. Some toxins and anti-nutrients compounds were determined. Feeding study of GM potatoes line (G2 and G3) in rats were done for 30 days. Four groups of albino rats were used for studying the effect and the safety assessment of GM potatoes Spunta G2 and G3. Group (I) was fed on control basal diet, group (II) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried nongenetically modified potato Spunta, group (III) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta, and group (IV) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta GMO G3. There were no significant differences between GM potatoes G2, G3, and Spunta control potato line in the proximate chemical composition. The levels of glycoalkaloids in transgenic potato tubers and nontransgenic were determined and there were also no significant differences between the GM potatoes and conventional potato line, the levels were in agreement with a safety level recommended by FAO/WHO (200 mg/ kg) for acute toxicity. Protease inhibitor activity and total phenol were estimated and no significant differences between the GM potatoes line and conventional potato Spunta line were found. During the period tested, rats in each group (I, II, III, IV) grew well without marked differences in appearance. No statistical difference were found in food intake, daily body weight gain and feed efficiency. But there is a slightly significant difference in finally body weight between the control group and experimental groups. No significant difference were found in serum biochemical value between each groups, and also between relative organs weight (liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testes). From these results, it can be concluded that the GM potatoes Spunta line (G2 and G3) with Cry V gene are confirmed to have nearly the composition and biochemical characteristics as non-GM potato Spunta. PMID:15053345

El Sanhoty, Rafaat; El-Rahman, Ahamed Ali Abd; Bögl, Klaus Werner

2004-02-01

11

Evaluation of the sensitization rates and identification of IgE-binding components in wild and genetically modified potatoes in patients with allergic disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The potato is one of the most common types of genetically modified (GM) food. However, there are no published data evaluating the impact of genetic manipulations on the allergenicity of GM potatoes. To compare the allergenicity of GM potatoes with that of wild-type potatoes using in vivo and in vitro methods in adult allergy patients sensitized to potatoes. Methods A total of 1886 patients with various allergic diseases and 38 healthy controls participated in the study. Skin-prick testing and IgE-ELISA were carried out with extracts prepared from wild-type and GM potatoes. An ELISA inhibition test was used to confirm the binding specificity. IgE-binding components in extracts from the two types of potato were identified by SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting. The effects of digestive enzymes and heat on the allergenicity of the extracts was evaluated by preincubating the potatoes with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in the absence or presence of heat. Results Positive responses (ratio of the wheal size induced by the allergen to that induced by histamine (A/H) ? 2+) to wild-type or GM potato extracts, as demonstrated by the skin-prick test, were observed in 108 patients (5.7%). Serum-specific IgE was detected in 0–88% of subjects who tested positively. ELISA inhibition tests indicated significant inhibition when extract from each type of potato was added. IgE-immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of 14 IgE-binding components within the wild-type potato and 9 within the GM potato. Furthermore, a common 45-kDa binding component that yielded similar IgE-binding patterns was noted in more than 80% of the reactions using sera from patients sensitized to wild-type or GM potato. Exposure to simulated gastric fluid and heat treatment similarly inhibited IgE binding by extracts from wild-type and GM potatoes, whereas minimal changes were obtained following exposure of the extracts to simulated intestinal fluid. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that genetic manipulation of potatoes does not increase their allergenic risk. The sensitization rate of adult allergy patients to both types of extract was 5.7%, and a common major allergen (45 kDa) was identified.

Lee, Soo-Keol; Ye, Young-Min; Yoon, Sung-Ho; Lee, Bou-Oung; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Hae-Sim

2006-01-01

12

Starch, protein, glycoalkaloids, and l -ascorbic acid content in tubers of genetically modified potato cv. Irga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in contents of protein, starch, ash, l-ascorbic acid, and glycoalkaloids in tubers of 15 clones of cultivar Irga transformed with viral genome sequences in order\\u000a to improve their resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) were investigated. The influence of modification type and year of cultivation on the contents of all chemical compounds\\u000a examined for particular

Jadwiga Sadowska; Jaros?aw Budny; Józef Fornal

2008-01-01

13

Effects of genetically modified starch metabolism in potato plants on photosynthate fluxes into the rhizosphere and on microbial degraders of root exudates.  

PubMed

A high percentage of photosynthetically assimilated carbon is released into soil via root exudates, which are acknowledged as the most important factor for the development of microbial rhizosphere communities. As quality and quantity of root exudates are dependent on plant genotype, the genetic engineering of plants might also influence carbon partitioning within the plant and thus microbial rhizosphere community structure. In this study, the carbon allocation patterns within the plant-rhizosphere system of a genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) were linked to microbial degraders of root exudates under greenhouse conditions, using (13)C-CO(2) pulse-chase labelling in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, GM plants were compared with the parental cultivar as well as a second potato cultivar obtained by classical breeding. Rhizosphere samples were obtained during young leaf developmental and flowering stages. (13)C allocation in aboveground plant biomass, water-extractable organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and PLFA as well as the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied significantly between the natural potato cultivars. However, no differences between the GM line and its parental cultivar were observed. Besides the considerable impact of plant cultivar, the plant developmental stage affected carbon partitioning via the plant into the rhizosphere and, subsequently, microbial communities involved in the transformation of root exudates. PMID:21348886

Gschwendtner, Silvia; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Reichmann, Michael; Müller, Martin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

2011-03-17

14

Modified test for potato sloughing assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct methods for potato sloughing assessment mostly consist in CPM (cooked potato mass) tests in which potato cubes are cooked, sieved and the mass of the remaining cooked potato tissue on the sieve is recorded. The characteristic time CT100 determined from the CPM cooking curve indicates the potato resistance to sloughing. The CPEM (cooked potato effective mass) method was proposed

Anna Hejlová; Ji?í Blahovec; Josef Vacek

2006-01-01

15

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified potaoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow consumer acceptance has inhibited the market for genetically modified (GM) potato products. Logistic growth functions\\u000a were used to model market development patterns for three comparable products — diet sodas, frozen potatoes and microwave ovens.\\u000a Predictions of GMpotato acceptance were based on averages for the comparable products. The model predicts that consumer acceptance\\u000a will be in the introduction stage of

Joseph F. Guenthner

2002-01-01

16

Characteristics of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of modified potato and sweet potato flours have been determined by incorporating acetyl groups (acetylation) and by treating with glucoamylase (enzymatic modification). Fractionation studies on Sepharose CL-2B showed that the content of high molecular weight fraction decreased, with a proportionate increase in the lower molecular weight carbohydrate fraction, whereas FT-IR indicated changes in crystallinity of the modified starches.

A. Ramesh Yadav; S. Mahadevamma; R. N. Tharanathan; R. S. Ramteke

2007-01-01

17

Genetic comparisons of gibberellin mutants in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberellin deficient mutants in potato have been published as ga1 (from S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum and andigena), pito (from the tuberosum cultivar Pito), and ga2 (from the phureja haploid inducing clone “phu-1.22”). We conducted crossing experiments to investigate genetic similarities. When the...

18

Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a During the past 20 years, since potato\\u000a became transformable, potato transgenic research mainly focused on fundamental aspects of plant molecular physiology or molecular\\u000a genetics using the potato as a model system. But there are also striking achievements with regard to commercially relevant\\u000a and useful traits. This chapter highlights some examples of how genetic engineering has been used to address the

Jens Lübeck

19

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

20

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2012-12-04

21

COMBINING ABILITY AND GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN POTATO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haydar, A., Alam, M. K., Khokan, E. H., Ara, T., and Khalequzzaman, K. M. 2009. Combining ability and genetic variability studies in potato. J.Soil.Nature. 3 (2):01-03. Seventeen potato genotypes comprising seven parents and their ten crosses were evaluated during to November 2005 to March 2006 to study their combining ability and genetic variability. Mean squares due to GCA and SCA

A. HAYDAR; M. K. ALAM; E. H. KHOKAN; T. ARA; K. M. KHALEQUZZAMAN

22

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

23

Why genetically modified crops?  

PubMed

This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term. PMID:21464072

Jones, Jonathan D G

2011-05-13

24

Potato Steroidal Glycoalkaloids: Biosynthesis and Genetic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are important components of plant resistance against pests and pathogens but can\\u000a be toxic to humans at high levels. SGAs derive their toxicity from anticholinesterase activity affecting the central nervous\\u000a system and the disruptive effects on cell membrane integrity affecting the digestive system and other organs. Accordingly,\\u000a current safety regulations limit their content in the

Idit Ginzberg; James G. Tokuhisa; Richard E. Veilleux

2009-01-01

25

Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 have an elevated but incomplete risk of developing ovarian cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study (GWAS) for ovarian cancer in ...

F. J. Couch

2012-01-01

26

Genetically modified animals: ethical issues.  

PubMed

The method of ethical analysis is reviewed and applied to questions relating to the unintended consequences, ownership, and metaphysical significance of genetically modified animals. The question of how genetics and recombinant DNA discoveries have an impact on human understanding of the moral community and the limits of acceptable action are emphasized. The potential for genetically modified animals presents a challenge to implicit norms for defining these boundaries. Four philosophical responses to this challenge are reviewed: fundamentalism, conventionalism, dualism, and naturalism. The naturalist response is most consistent with contemporary biology, but it also entails that animals have limited moral significance. PMID:11653153

Thompson, Paul B

1993-01-01

27

A genetic map of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) integrating molecular markers, including transposons, and classical markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic map of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) integrating molecular markers with morphological and isozyme markers was constructed using a backcross population of 67 diploid potato plants. A general method for map construction is described that differs from previous methods employed in potato and other outbreeding plants. First, separate maps for the female and male parents were constructed. The female

J. M. E. Jacobs; H. J. Van Eek; P. F. P. Arens; B. Verkerk-Bakker; B. te Lintel Hekkert; H. J. M. Bastiaanssen; A. El-Kharbotly; A. Pereira; E. Jacobsen; W. J. Stiekema

1995-01-01

28

Effect of antiviral genetical modification on softening of potato tubers during cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the influence of genetical modification on potato tubers should include also an estimation of their technological usability. Potato tubers of 15 clones of cultivar Irga transformed with viral genome sequences in order to improve their resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) were examined. The effect of cooking on tissue texture, expressed by fracture

Jadwiga Sadowska; Josef Vacek; Józef Fornal; W?odzimierz Zagórski-Ostoja

2005-01-01

29

A genetic approach to the species problem in wild potato.  

PubMed

Wild potatoes are native to the Americas, where they present very wide geographical and ecological distribution. Most are diploid, obligate out-crossers due to a multiallelic gametophytic self-incompatibility (S) locus that prevents self-fertilisation and crossing between individuals carrying identical S-alleles. They have two alternative modes of reproduction: sexual (by seeds) and asexual (by stolons and tubers), which provide, respectively, for genetic flexibility in changing environments and high fitness of adapted genotypes under stable conditions. Since the early twentieth century, their taxonomic classification has been mostly based on morphological phenotypes (Taxonomic Species Concept). More recently, attempts have been made to establish phylogenetic relationships, applying molecular tools in samples of populations (accessions) with a previously assigned specific category. However, neither the reproductive biology and breeding relations among spontaneous populations nor the morphological and genetic variability expected in obligate allogamous populations are considered when the taxonomic species concept is applied. In nature, wild potato populations are isolated through external and internal hybridisation barriers; the latter, which are genetically determined, can be either pre-zygotic (pollen-pistil incompatibility) or post-zygotic (abortion of embryo, endosperm or both tissues, sterility, and hybrid weakness and breakdown in segregating generations). The internal barriers, however, can be incomplete, providing opportunities for hybridisation and introgression within and between populations and ploidy levels in areas of overlap. The widespread occurrence of spontaneous hybrids in nature was recognised in the mid-twentieth century. Using genetic approaches, results have been obtained that provide strong support to the assertion that populations are at different stages of genetic divergence and are not at the end of the evolutionary process, as presupposed by the Taxonomic Species Concept. Furthermore, since wild potatoes have uniparental and biparental overlapping generations, the Biological Species Concept - developed for sexually reproducing biparental organisms - cannot be applied to them. In this paper, morphological, genetic, molecular and taxonomic studies in wild potato are reviewed, considering the genetic consequences of their reproductive biology, in an attempt to shed light on the species problem, because of its relevance in germplasm conservation and breeding. PMID:22372767

Camadro, E L; Erazzú, L E; Maune, J F; Bedogni, M C

2012-02-28

30

MICROSATELLITE BASED GENETIC MAP OF SWEET POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetic map would be an aid to identification of new traits and in understanding fundamental processes in the sweetpotato related to essential functions in the crop and economic qualities like food quality. This map could also be useful in the understanding of the genes involved in multiple pest ...

31

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this

Olivia Boyce

1999-01-01

32

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2009-08-31

33

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

34

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

35

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

36

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

37

Biological response of rat fed diets with high tuber content of conventionally bred and transgenic potato resistant to necrotic strain of potato virus (PVY N). Part II. Caecal metabolism, serum enzymes and indices of non-specific defence of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effect of genetic modification on nutritional properties of potatoes was determined in a rat experiment. The potato cultivar Irga was transformed with viral genome sequences in order to improve its resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN). Four clones of genetically-modified potato were compared with the conventional variety Irga and non-transgenic somaclone from cv. Irga.

Z. Zdunczyk; J. Juskiewicz; J. Fornal; B. Mazur-Gonkowska; A. Koncicki; B. Flis; E. Zimnoch-Guzowska; W. Zagorski-Ostoja

2005-01-01

38

The effect of consumer risk perceptions on the propensity to purchase genetically modified foods in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates consumer purchase propensity for genetically modified (GM) food products in Romania, shedding light on consumer preferences in developing Eastern European nations. Results based on a bivariate probit model of purchase propensity for GM sunflower oil and table potatoes show that consumers in Romania are generally opposed to GM food consumption, similar to consumers in Western Europe, but

Kynda R. Curtis; Klaus Moeltner

2007-01-01

39

Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Health, Socioeconomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about genetically modified (GM) food seeds are serious and well-founded, the problems which these seeds raise are usually not unique to GM seeds alone. GM organisms are only one example of problematic new varieties or breeds. Large soybean and other monocultural plantations have serious environmental effects which GM seeds exacerbate. Although GM seeds may benefit large scale commercial

Frank J. Leavitt

40

Biological response of rat fed diets with high tuber content of conventionally bred and transgenic potato resistant to necrotic strain of potato virus (PVY N) Part I. Chemical composition of tubers and nutritional value of diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments on rats, nutritional properties of a diet with high content (40%) of potato tubers obtained from conventional or genetically-modified potato were determined. The potato cultivar Irga was transformed with viral genome sequences in order to improve its resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN). Four lines of genetically-modified potato were compared with non-transgenic somaclone from

Z. Zdunczyk; S. Frejnagel; J. Fornal; M. Flis; M. C. Palacios; B. Flis; W. Zagorski-Ostoja

2005-01-01

41

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

42

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)|

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

43

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

44

Societal aspects of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and

L. J. Frewer; J. Lassen; B. Kettlitz; J. Scholderer; V. Beekman; K. G. Berdal

2004-01-01

45

Genetic Analysis of Isozyme Variants in Diploid and Tetraploid Potatoes  

PubMed Central

Genetic segregations for six enzyme-coding genes were studied in diploid and tetraploid progenies obtained from various Solanum species. The loci identified are Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-5, Mdh-1, Pgi-1 and Sdh-1. Prx-2 and Prx-3 were found to be linked; alleles at these loci segregated concomitantly in most of the diploid progenies. The putative homologous loci in tomato, Prx-2 and Prx-3, have also been reported to be linked, suggesting that this linkage block has been conserved since the divergence of Solanum and Lycopersicon. Several interspecific crosses between the species S. phureja and S. tuberosum, S. phureja and S. chacoense, and S. tuberosum and S. chacoense, yielded segregations for Prx-2 that deviated from expected Mendelian ratios. In these progenies unexpected phenotypes were commonly found, most likely due to posttranscriptional modification. Products of some of the alleles of Mdh-1 probably suffered posttranscriptional modifications, although most of their segregations fitted expected Mendelian ratios. The most extreme case of posttranscriptional modification was found in phenotypes involving allele Mdh-14. Instead of the expected heterodimers in the heterozygous individuals, a slowly migrating band close to the origin was observed in these phenotypes. Some of the accessions of the diploid species S. sparsipilum were found to have a unique zymogram for a second MDH zone of electrophoretic activity, MDH-2. We propose in this paper a common nomenclature for potato isozymes based on the nomenclature used for Capsicum and Lycopersicon.

Quiros, Carlos F.; McHale, Neil

1985-01-01

46

Characteristics of oxidative stress in potato plants with modified carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sugars on the development of hypothermia-induced oxidative stress were studied in leaves of two potato genotypes\\u000a (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Désirée): with normal carbohydrate metabolism and a genotype with increased sugar content modified by insertion of\\u000a yeast-derived invertase gene. It was found that generation of proceeds more actively in transformed plants than in control\\u000a plants. On the contrary

M. S. Sin’kevich; A. N. Deryabin; T. I. Trunova

2009-01-01

47

Genetically modified crops deserve greater ecotoxicological scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians are keen to remind us that history tends to rhyme, even if it does not repeat itself. In a historical context, the story of today’s genetically modified (GM) crops resembles that of the synthetic organic insecticides beginning circa the second half of the last century. In practice, GM crops include crop cultivars that have been modified by incorporating one

Nicolas Desneux; Julio S. Bernal

2010-01-01

48

Targeting Genetically Modified Macrophages to the Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages are key players in the development of the majority of renal diseases and are therefore ideal cellular vectors for site specifically targeting gene therapy to inflamed glomeruli. Macrophages can be genetically modified using viral vectors ex vivo then re-introduced into the body where they can home to the diseased site. This review summarises current experience in efficiently targeting modified

H. M. Wilson; D. C. Kluth

2003-01-01

49

CONSUMER VALUATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS AND THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION BIAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bid prices were elicited for standard-label cookies, muffins, and potato chips and those identified as not including genetically modified (GM) ingredients using an experimental auction. Including a statement that the product did not include GM ingredients increased bids over those offered for standard-label products. Providing negative-biased information about the impact of GM crops on the environment increased the risk participants

Tamara Vanwechel; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; Eric C. Schuck; David K. Lambert

2003-01-01

50

Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Foods Under Differing Information Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bid prices were elicited for standard-label cookies, muffins, and potato chips and those guaranteed to be free of genetically modified (GM) ingredients using an nth price Vickery experimental auction. A non-GM guarantee increased bids over those offered for standard-label products using paired-samples t-tests. However, product labeling did not significantly effect bid price estimated using standard ordinary least squares. Overall, providing

Cheryl Wachenheim; David Lambert; Tamara Van Wechel

2007-01-01

51

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of

Rinji Akada

2002-01-01

52

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

53

Genetically modified mouse models in cancer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified animals represent a resource of immense potential for cancer research. Classically, genetic modifications\\u000a in mice were obtained through selected breeding experiments or treatments with powerful carcinogens capable of inducing random\\u000a mutagenesis. A new era began in the early 1980s when genetic modifications by inserting foreign DNA genes into the cells of\\u000a an animal allowed for the development of

Javier Santos; Pablo Fernández-Navarro; María Villa-Morales; Laura González-Sánchez; José Fernández-Piqueras

2008-01-01

54

[Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].  

PubMed

Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene. PMID:21180840

Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

2011-01-01

55

The potato genetic resources held in trust by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Potatoes account for about half of the world's annual output of all roots and tubers, and since the early 1960s, the increase\\u000a in area planted in developing countries has been higher than for any other major food crop. Annual world production currently\\u000a totals 274 million tons on 18 million hectares, with China and India accounting for 22 percent of this

Zósimo Huamán; Peter Schmiediche

1999-01-01

56

[Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].  

PubMed

Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

Tchórz, Micha?; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jaros?aw

2012-01-01

57

Breeding with Genetically Modified Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Plant breeding aims at the genetic improvement of cultivated plants. Depending on the reproduction system of a plant the breeding\\u000a process can last up to 15 years for crops and much longer for tree species. The breeding method is determined by the reproductive\\u000a system of a plant and on the presence of hybrid yield (heterosis). Since the 1970s biotechnology is

Christian Jung

58

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene

Farid E. Ahmed

2002-01-01

59

Genetic variance estimates in a heterogenous potato population propagated from true seed (TPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variances were estimated for 11 traits in a potato breeding population propagated from true seed (TPS). Means were\\u000a high and no genetic variability was found for seed germination and transplant survival. Additive variance and heritability\\u000a were high for TPS production which was positively correlated with tuber yield. No additive variance was found for uniformity\\u000a of tuber size, but heritability

P. G. Thompson; H. A. Mendoza

1984-01-01

60

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of genetic engineering for the construction of GM yeast is reviewed and possible requirements for their application are discussed. 'Self-cloning' yeast will be the most likely candidate for the first commercial application of GM microorganisms in food and beverage industries. PMID:16233347

Akada, Rinji

2002-01-01

61

Genetically Modified Crops: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supporters of genetic engineering point to the potential of genetically modified (GM) crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. But some concerned groups argue that the risks of GM crops may outweigh their benefits. These groups urge avoiding GM crops, or at least subjecting them to more rigorous government scrutiny. Without taking sides, this module shows how to use the issues surrounding GM crops as a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science and genetics and how science and technology interact and influence each other in our society.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

62

Genetically modified myths and realities.  

PubMed

Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

Parrott, Wayne

2010-05-31

63

Genetically modified plants and the precautionary principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European regulation of genetically modified plants is a particular example of technological risk management that has become an essential part of the management of change. The role of regulators in this management process, when there are demands for regulatory action concerning unquantified (and sometimes unquantifiable) technological risks – with regulation under conditions of uncertainty – is explored. Where the

Michael D. Rogers

2004-01-01

64

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

65

Genetically modified foods: the effect of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2005-01-01

66

Chinese gatekeeper perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of food distribution gatekeepers in China regarding likely acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by Chinese consumers. It also aims to consider policy implications for food exporting countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory approach using in-depth interviews was adopted. Key informants of a sample of 20 companies in five main

John G. Knight; Hongzhi Gao

2009-01-01

67

The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive

Matin Qaim

2009-01-01

68

Genetically Modified Foods: Threat or Opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gene technology has the potential to offer many improvements in the quality and quantity of the world's food supply provided that genuine concerns regarding safety, en- vironmental impact, information and ethics are satisfactorily addressed. In this article, some of the benefits as well as concerns about genetically modified foods are discussed using examples such as tomatoes, soybeans, corn and

Sibel Roller

69

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

70

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable

Keith T. Atherton

2002-01-01

71

Unpacking atitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and worry best accounted for the data. Negative - but not

Yaël de Liver; Joop van der Pligt; Daniël Wigboldus

2005-01-01

72

Measuring preferences for genetically modified food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the results of three experimental studies we have conducted to investigate consumers' willingness to pay for food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. We observe that about 65% of our sample is willing to purchase products containing GMOs if they are sufficiently inexpensive.

Charles Noussair; Stephane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2007-01-01

73

Should genetically modified organisms be patentable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some of the philosophical issues involved in patenting genetically modified organisms. In particular, what we think has been highly problematic has been the tendency to use terms such as intervention, identification, creation, authorship and artifact interchangeably as criteria for invention. We examine attempts by various people to formulate a philosophically precise set of criteria for

Justine Lacey; Julian Lamont

74

Genetically modified mouse models for pharmacogenomic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now evident that differences in the DNA sequence of genes involved with drug action can lead to interindividual differences in effectiveness and adverse reactions to therapeutic drugs. Pharmacogenomics raises the possibility that drug discovery and patient management could move from a 'one drug fits all' approach to one in which therapy is tailored to patients' genomes. Genetically modified

Stephen B. Liggett

2004-01-01

75

The patenting of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property protection, including patents, is a critical factor underpinning investment and progress in the development of genetically modified foods. The GATT agreement made suggestions for the harmonization of patent laws and also made provisions for the avoidance of discrimination based on place of invention. However, plant and animal ‘varieties’ are currently not patentable. Much of the debate concerns what

Hilary Newiss

1998-01-01

76

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

77

What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle

Keith G. Davies

2001-01-01

78

Trade Conflict Over Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the USA, seconded by Argentina and Canada, initiated litigation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union's regulatory policy for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The three plaintiffs claimed that the EU's GMO policy was creating illegal trade restrictions. Specifically, they argued (i) that the EU had implemented a de facto moratorium on approval of new biotech

Thomas Bernauer; Philipp Aerni; Kevin Gallagher

79

Release of genetically modified organisms: precautionary legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the debates surrounding the drafting and passage through the UK Parliament of the Environmental Protection Bill, Part VI, regarding the potential hazards arising from release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Both the previous voluntary and the current statutory systems have been precautionary (or proactive) in their approach to risk regulation.The EPA establishes a framework for guiding decisions

Les Levidow; Joyce Tait

1992-01-01

80

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

81

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

82

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

83

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

84

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

85

GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOYBEANS AND FOOD ALLERGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in genetically modified (GM) crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, incl...

86

A Second Generation of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was a cross-cultural investigation of views regarding Genetically Modified Organisms, specifically food crops, to determine if there were significant differences in the views of French and American respondents. In addition, we sought to introduce the issue of possible consumer benefits of second generation GMOs into the research by examining differences in acceptance of value-enhanced GMOs

Klervi N. Le Marre; Carl L. Witte; Timothy J. Burkink; Marko Grünhagen; Gary J. Wells

2007-01-01

87

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

PubMed

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293

Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

2006-03-20

88

Genetic modifiers of tauopathy in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

In Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, the microtubule-associated protein Tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated and aggregated into neurofibrillary tangles. Mutations in the tau gene cause familial frontotemporal dementia. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for Tau-induced neurodegeneration, we conducted a genetic modifier screen in a Drosophila model of tauopathy. Kinases and phosphatases comprised the major class of modifiers recovered, and several candidate Tau kinases were similarly shown to enhance Tau toxicity in vivo. Despite some clinical and pathological similarities among neurodegenerative disorders, a direct comparison of modifiers between different Drosophila disease models revealed that the genetic pathways controlling Tau and polyglutamine toxicity are largely distinct. Our results demonstrate that kinases and phosphatases control Tau-induced neurodegeneration and have important implications for the development of therapies in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

Shulman, Joshua M; Feany, Mel B

2003-01-01

89

[Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries. PMID:12046253

Drobník, J

2002-03-01

90

An Evaluation of Genetically Modified Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module examines the production of genetically modified organisms as an environmental issue. Potential environmental impacts of genetically modified crops are emphasized, although human health concerns are also addressed. Our current state of knowledge and the viewpoints held by the various stakeholders are described in video and print resources. Students evaluate these viewpoints and formulate their own opinions based on an analysis of the issue. The module includes a detailed outline of a video production, student handouts, a key to the activity, a glossary and citations for print, video and web-based resources. The activity was developed for use in introductory courses in environmental science, general biology and natural resources and is designed to be completed in a single three-hour laboratory session.

Cudmore, Wynn

2008-01-01

91

Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?  

PubMed

So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

Weil, Jacques-Henry

92

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

93

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

94

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Some Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity using Mahalanobis's D - technique was studied for tuber yield and its components 2 viz., Plant Height (PH), Number of Leaves\\/plant (NLPP), Fresh Weight\\/plant (FWP), Number of Tubers\\/plant (NLPP), Number of Eyes\\/tuber (NEPT), Average Tuber Weight of Plant (ATWP) and Tuber weight\\/plant (TWt.\\/P). The 30 potato genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The maximum diversity was contributed by

A. Haydar; M. B. Ahmed; M. M. Hannan; M. A. Razvy; M. A. Mandal; M. Salahin; R. Karim; M. Hossain

95

Chromosome number doubling of 2x potato lines with diverse genetic background through tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Twelve 2x potato clones of diverse genetic origin were tested for doubling of their chromosome number by placing stem and\\u000a petiole segments in the regeneration medium (Hermsen et al., 1981). Eleven of the 12 clones yielded doubled plants (2n=4x=48).\\u000a The percentages of regenerated tetraploid plants varied from 0 to 77% among the genotypes tested. The high rates of successful\\u000a doubling

A. Sonnino; M. Iwanaga; A. henostroza

1988-01-01

96

Studies on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of sweet potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, genetic transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivar Xu55-2 was conducted utilizing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 that contains the binary vector pBIN19\\/SBD2 with SBD2 (starch binding domain 2) gene and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) gene. The presence of the SBD2 gene in the genomic DNA of transgenic plants was verified by PCR

Yu-Jun Xing; Qin Ji; Qing Yang; Yu-Ming Luo; Qiang Li; Xin Wang

2008-01-01

97

Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods

Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

2007-01-01

98

Genetically Modified Products in Lithuania: Situational Analysis and Consumers’ Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to

Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene

2012-01-01

99

Genetic diversity in european and Argentinian cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) detected by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs).  

PubMed

In this study, the use of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) to assess genetic diversity between cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) is reported. ISSR technology rapidly reveals high polymorphic fingerprints and thus determines the genetic diversity among potato cultivars. Nine primers were selected according to the number of amplified markers and the level of polymorphism detected. Three primers (GAG(CAA)5, CTG(AG)8, and (AG)8) were used to cluster the 28 potato accessions and 77 polymorphic markers were sufficient to identify all of the accessions. Among the 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs tested, the most abundant were CAA and AG. Argentinian- and European-grown potatoes were easily distinguished, with a higher level of genetic diversity among potatoes from Argentina. An ISSR study using a limited number of cultivars and very few primers clearly differentiated between all cultivars, thus ISSR was revealed to be a good tool for the genetic identification of potato and for future germplasm-management programs. PMID:12033616

Bornet, B; Goraguer, F; Joly, G; Branchard, M

2002-06-01

100

The voyage of an invasive species across continents: genetic diversity of North American and European Colorado potato beetle populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradox of successful invading species is that they are likely to be genetically depau- perate compared to their source population. This study on Colorado potato beetles is one of the few studies of the genetic consequences of continent-scale invasion in an insect pest. Understanding gene flow, population structure and the potential for rapid evolution in native and invasive populations

ALESSANDRO GRAPPUTO; SANNA BOMAN; LEENA LINDSTRÖM; ANNE LYYTINEN; JOHANNA MAPPES

2005-01-01

101

NewLeaf Plus® Russet Burbank potatoes: replicase-mediated resistance to potato leafroll virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato leafroll poleovirus and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) are major pests of potato in the USA. The US Department of Agriculture estimates that over 50% of annual insecticide use on potato is applied to control the Colorado potato beetle and aphids that transmit potato leafroll virus (PLRV). To address this issue, Russet Burbank potatoes have been genetically

E. C. Lawson; J. D. Weiss; P. E. Thomas; W. K. Kaniewski

2001-01-01

102

Potential Adverse Health Effects of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins.

Anita Bakshi

2003-01-01

103

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

104

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

105

Genetic transformation in two potato cultivars with T-DNA from disarmed Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivatives of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv.'s ‘Maris Bard’ and ‘Desiree’) transformed with disarmed T-DNA from genetically engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains were isolated. The transformed plants were recovered from shoot-forming tumours induced by infection of wounds with mixedcultures of shoot-inducing A. tumefaciens strains T37 and either Agrobacterium strain LBA1834(pRAL1834), (Hille et al. 1983) or LBA4404(pBIN6; pRAL4404), (Bevan 1984). Two small-scale feasibility

G. Ooms; M. M. Burrell; A. Karp; M. Bevan; J. Hille

1987-01-01

106

Genetic transformation of potato with nptII-gus marker genes enhances foliage consumption by Colorado potato beetle larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effect of transgenic plants containing commonly used marker genes, such as aph(3')II (nptII encoding neomycinphosphotransferase) and uidA (gus encoding ß-glucuronidase) on insect feeding behaviour. We report here, for the first time, that transgenic potato plants containing only nptII and gus marker genes enhance foliage consumption by the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata S.). Transformation

Anne Lecardonnel; Geneviève Prévost; Antony Beaujean; Rajbir S. Sangwan; Brigitte S. Sangwan-Norreel

1999-01-01

107

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods & Teaching Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes instructional materials developed to address two major needs in biology education--how to form scientific opinions and providing a link between students and literature. Presents two essays, rats and potatoes and butterflies and corn, introduces students to article searching, reading peer-reviewed scientific studies, writing, critical…

Flores, Vanessa S.; Tobin, Allan J.

2003-01-01

108

Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products

Steve L. Taylor; Susan L. Hefle

2001-01-01

109

Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

2013-04-06

110

Structural characteristics and glucose response in mice of potato starch modified by hydrothermal treatments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The structural properties and digestibility of slowly digestible The structural properties and digestibility of slowly digestible hydrothermally treated potato starch (SDS) were investigated. The potato starch with 20, 30 or 40% moisture content was heated at 100 °C for 30 min, and then kept at 30 °...

111

Multiresponsive macroporous semi-IPN composite hydrogels based on native or anionically modified potato starch.  

PubMed

Macroporous semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) composite hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BAAm) in the presence of potato starch (PS) or an anionic polyelectrolyte derived from PS (PA), below the freezing point of the reaction solution (-18 °C). The composite cryogels have been further modified by the partial hydrolysis of the amide groups in poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) matrix, under alkaline conditions. The influence of the entrapped polymer on the properties of the composite gels, both before and after the hydrolysis, has been evaluated by the swelling kinetics, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and external stimuli responsiveness. The potential of the anionic composite cryogels as intelligent hydrogels has been evaluated by the investigation of the deswelling/reswelling kinetics as a function of solvent nature, ionic strength, and environment pH. Cryogels with fast responsivity at variation of the external stimuli, which withstood repeated deswelling/reswelling cycles, have been obtained at a low cross-linker ratio (one mole BAAm for 80 moles of AAm) and a monomer concentration around 3 wt%. PMID:23218261

Dragan, Ecaterina Stela; Apopei, Diana Felicia

2012-08-30

112

Barriers to application of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the acceptability of food products containing genetically modified microorganisms it is necessary to provide in an early stage to the consumers that the product is safe and that the product provide a clear benefit to the consumer. To comply with the first requirement a systematic approach to analyze the probability that genetically modified lactic acid bacteria will transform

C. T. Verrips; D. J. C. Berg

1996-01-01

113

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time.

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2004-01-01

114

Genetically Modified Organisms and Biodiversity: Assessing the Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are those into whose genome a foreign well-characterized DNA from a different source (plant, animal or microorganism) has been stably inserted. Transgenic plants are a recognized ex- ample. Scientists genetically modify plants to: increase post-harvest life, resist biotic and abiotic stresses, improve plant nutrient qualities and use them as biofactories in pharmaceutical and vaccine production. For

Camilo Ayra Pardo

2003-01-01

115

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

116

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

117

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

118

PCR detection of genetically modified soya and maize in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genetically modified foodstuffs is becoming both a food sales and legal necessity. This study reports a rapid DNA extraction\\/PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified soya (GMS) and maize (GMM) in mixed samples of transgenic and unmodified soybeans and maize kernels, and a variety of processed samples including soya flour, soya protein isolates, extruded defatted soya,

Carolyn D. Hurst; Angus Knight; Ian J. Bruce

1999-01-01

119

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

120

Spatial and temporal genetic variability in French populations of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

The peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), has a complex reproductive mode in which some lineages reproduce by continuous parthenogenesis, whereas others reproduce sexually once a year. The climate is thought to act directly on the reproductive mode, because sexual eggs are the only form that can resist frost in cold regions. Sexual reproduction necessitates an obligatory host alternation that may result in long-distance dispersal. Here, we examined the genetic variability at seven microsatellite loci of populations of M. persicae in France, where both reproductive modes occur. We provide clear genetic evidence that the breeding system affects genotypic variability, as cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are far more variable than their obligately parthenogenetic counterparts. A temporal decrease in genetic variability and a temporal genetic differentiation effect suggest the existence of selective factors that play an important role in shaping the genetic structure of M. persicae populations. Lastly, differences in the population structure between reproductive modes suggest that the migration associated with the change of host during sexual reproduction lowers the level of population differentiation. PMID:12886281

Guillemaud, T; Mieuzet, L; Simon, J-C

2003-08-01

121

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

122

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

123

Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include

Bruce A. Hamilton; Benjamin D. Yu

2012-01-01

124

High-Resolution Metabolic Phenotyping of Genetically and Environmentally Diverse Potato Tuber Systems. Identification of Phenocopies  

PubMed Central

We conducted a comprehensive metabolic phenotyping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Desiree) tuber tissue that had been modified either by transgenesis or exposure to different environmental conditions using a recently developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling protocol. Applying this technique, we were able to identify and quantify the major constituent metabolites of the potato tuber within a single chromatographic run. The plant systems that we selected to profile were tuber discs incubated in varying concentrations of fructose, sucrose, and mannitol and transgenic plants impaired in their starch biosynthesis. The resultant profiles were then compared, first at the level of individual metabolites and then using the statistical tools hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. These tools allowed us to assign clusters to the individual plant systems and to determine relative distances between these clusters; furthermore, analyzing the loadings of these analyses enabled identification of the most important metabolites in the definition of these clusters. The metabolic profiles of the sugar-fed discs were dramatically different from the wild-type steady-state values. When these profiles were compared with one another and also with those we assessed in previous studies, however, we were able to evaluate potential phenocopies. These comparisons highlight the importance of such an approach in the functional and qualitative assessment of diverse systems to gain insights into important mediators of metabolism.

Roessner, Ute; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2001-01-01

125

Quantification of cuticular permeability in genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more studies on genetically modified plants are identifying parts of the genetic code with putative involvement in creating the cuticular barrier. Unfortu- nately, many of these studies suffer from the inade- quacy of the chosen methods to quantify, in a reasonably unambiguous way, if and how the efficacy of the cuticular barrier is affected by the genetic change.

Gerhard Kerstiens; Lukas Schreiber; Klaus J. Lendzian

2006-01-01

126

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

127

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

128

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

For thousands of years, humans have taken advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation within species to selectively breed organisms with desirable traits. Many of the characteristics of domestic animals and agricultural crops have been developed through selective breeding. What is revolutionary about genetic engineering is that it involves the transfer of genetic material between organisms that would never be able

Javed Akhter; Mohammed Qutub; Norman Burnham

2001-01-01

129

Inheritance and genetic mapping of tuber eye depth in cultivated diploid potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber eye depth of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important trait for the processing quality and appearance of potatoes. In the present study, we used a cultivated diploid potato family (12601) of 107 plants to dissect the mode of inheritance and to map the gene(s) controlling the trait. The family segregated for both eye depth (deep vs shallow)

Xiu-Qing Li; Hielke De Jong; Darlene M. De Jong; Walter S. De Jong

2005-01-01

130

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

131

Creation of a Metabolic Sink for Tryptophan Alters the Phenylpropanoid Pathway and the Susceptibility of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of artificial metabolic sinks in plants by genetic engineering of key branch points may have serious conse- quences for the metabolic pathways being modified. The introduction into potato of a gene encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) isolated from Catharanthus roseus drastically altered the balance of key substrate and product pools involved in the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Transgenic potato

Kening Yao; Vincenzo De Luca; Normand Brisson

132

Global Genetics and Invasion History of the Potato Powdery Scab Pathogen, Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea  

PubMed Central

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss) causes two diseases on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lesions on tubers and galls on roots, which are economically important worldwide. Knowledge of global genetic diversity and population structure of pathogens is essential for disease management including resistance breeding. A combination of microsatellite and DNA sequence data was used to investigate the structure and invasion history of Sss. South American populations (four countries, 132 samples) were consistently more diverse than those from all other regions (15 countries, 566 samples), in agreement with the hypothesis that Sss originated in South America where potato was domesticated. A substantial genetic differenciation was found between root and tuber-derived samples from South America. Estimates of past and recent gene flow suggested that Sss was probably introduced from South America into Europe. Subsequently, Europe is likely to have been the recent source of migrants of the pathogen, acting as a “bridgehead” for further global dissemination. Quarantine measures must continue to be focussed on maintaining low global genetic diversity and avoiding exchange of genetic material between the native and introduced regions. Nevertheless, the current low global genetic diversity of Sss allows potato breeders to select for resistance, which is likely to be durable.

Gau, Rebecca D.; Merz, Ueli; Falloon, Richard E.; Brunner, Patrick C.

2013-01-01

133

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses.

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

134

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can\\

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

135

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

136

Genetically Modified Plants: Whats the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they

Burr

2006-01-01

137

Acceptability of genetically modified maize by young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how label information may affect the acceptability by young consumers of a food produced by genetic engineering methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A popular snack derived from maize (corn chip) was presented with five different labels (“organic corn”, “conventional corn”, “product that contains genetically modified (GM) corn”, “product that contains GM corn

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Vassilis Spiliotis; George Sakellaris

2008-01-01

138

Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase producer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields, while the next generation of GM food research is focusing on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers. ?Golden rice? has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of poor people

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jacskon; Chantal Pohl Nielsen

2004-01-01

139

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

140

Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ‘golden rice’, which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

2005-01-01

141

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

142

FIELD DECOMPOSITION OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CORN RESIDUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The decomposition of residue from three genetically-modified (GM) corn varieties expressing one or more Bt endotoxins was compared to that from a variety with the unmodified base genetics. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DK...

143

Environmental safety issues for genetically modified animals.  

PubMed

Organisms modified by the techniques of modern biotechnology may differ significantly from normal organisms or organisms modified by other methods. Before transgenic organisms are introduced into the environment, the potential environmental effects should be assessed. In general, modification of ecologically important traits in undomesticated species presents the greatest environmental risk. Transgenic livestock probably pose low risk to the environment. Transgenic fish and live virus-based vaccines pose greater risks and present challenging questions for environmental risk assessment. PMID:8505270

Bruggemann, E P

1993-01-01

144

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or\\u000a by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported\\u000a the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne,\\u000a 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For

Jaroslava Ovesná; Katerina Demnerová; Vladimíra Pouchová

2008-01-01

145

[Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].  

PubMed

The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants. PMID:20449554

Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

2010-06-01

146

Agrobacterial rol genes modify thermodynamic and structural properties of starch in microtubers of transgenic potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type (WT) plants of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and their transgenic forms carrying agrobacterial genes rolB or rolC under the control of B33 class I patatin promoter were cultured in vitro on MS medium with 2% sucrose in a controlled-climate chamber at 16-h illumination\\u000a and 22°C. These plants were used as a source of single-node stem cuttings, which were cultured

N. P. Aksenova; L. A. Wasserman; L. I. Sergeeva; T. N. Konstantinova; S. A. Golyanovskaya; A. V. Krivandin; I. G. Plashchina; W. Blaszczak; J. Fornal; G. A. Romanov

2010-01-01

147

Oscillatory Rheological Properties of Fresh and Frozen\\/Thawed Mashed Potatoes as Modified by Different Cryoprotectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different hydrocolloids (amidated low-methoxyl [ALM] and high-methoxyl [HM] pectins, kappa- and iota-carrageenans [?-C and ?-C], and xanthan gum [XG]) and two dairy proteins (whey protein [WP] and sodium caseinate [SC]) were added at five different\\u000a concentrations to fresh (F) and frozen\\/thawed (F\\/T) mashed potatoes to investigate ways of improving the effects of freezing\\u000a and thawing. It was found that

María Dolores Alvarez; Cristina Fernández; Wenceslao Canet

2010-01-01

148

Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green

C. Neal Stewart

2002-01-01

149

Biopharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Modern biotechnology has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the production of new therapeutic agents using botanical sources. With nearly 500 biotechnology products approved or in develop- ment globally, and with production capacity lim- ited, the need for efficient means of therapeutic protein production is apparent. Through genetic engineering, plants can now be used to produce pharmacologically active

D. A. Goldstein; J. A. THOMAS

2004-01-01

150

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light

C. Neal Stewart Jr.

2002-01-01

151

Genetically modified immunocompetent cells in HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), gene therapy (GT) can remain a promising approach for suppressing HIV infection, especially if complemented with other forms of pharmacological and immunological intervention. A large number of vectors and targets have been studied. Here we discuss the potential of genetically treated, antigen-specific immunocompetent cells for adoptive autologous immunotherapy of HIV

G Palù; GLi Pira; F Gennari; D Fenoglio; C Parolin; F Manca

2001-01-01

152

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer'?s decision to purchase GM

Abdullahi O. Abdulkadri; Simone Pinnock; Paula F. Tennant

2004-01-01

153

Bioconversion of resveratrol using resting cells of non-genetically modified Alternaria sp.  

PubMed

Bioconversion of resveratrol is mainly achieved using plant cells and genetically modified microorganisms. We proposed a reaction system for resveratrol production using resting cells of a non-genetically modified strain, Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing endophytic fungus isolated from the grape. Effects of phenylalanine concentration, inoculum size, resting time, bioconversion medium, cell age, and pH on resveratrol production in the bioconversion process were investigated and their levels were optimized. The resulting optimal bioconversion medium was 0.2 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 0.1 g/L MgSO4 , 0.2 g/L CaSO4 , and 4.66 mM phenylalanine. Resting cells obtained from cultures of liquid potato-glucose medium after 4 days proved to be at the most suitable cell age for the bioconversion process with high resveratrol production and nonobvious cell growth. Highest resveratrol production (1.376 µg/L) was observed under the obtained optimal conditions of inoculum size, 12.16% (wet cell weight in 100 mL medium), and resting time, 21.3 H. The study provides a new way to produce resveratrol and establishes an essential reaction system for further study of the biosynthesis pathway of resveratrol in microorganisms, especially fungi. PMID:23586428

Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin

2013-01-11

154

Genotyping and population genetic analysis of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, bacterium associated with potato zebra chip disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLso) is associated with Zebra Chip disorder of potatoes. In this study, a panel of eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed and used to characterize CLso isolates obtained from ZC-affected potato plants grown in the United States and Mexico. M...

155

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, pigs have been used to develop some of the most important large animal models for biomedical research. Advances in pig genome research, genetic modification (GM) of primary pig cells and pig cloning by nuclear transfer, have facilitated the generation of GM pigs for xenotransplantation and various human diseases. This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Broadly used genetic engineering tools for porcine cells are also discussed. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated for xenotransplantation and human disease processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, bone diseases, cancers and epidermal skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this review provides an overview of the progress in GM pig research over the last two decades and perspectives for future development. PMID:22453682

Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt

2012-03-28

156

Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry of rhizodeposits - a new approach to identify potential effects of genetically modified plants on soil organisms.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were (1) to investigate the qualitative composition of rhizodeposits leached from soils cropped with non-transgenic and genetically modified (GM) potatoes, and disclose if there were GM-specific modifications in potato rhizodeposition, and (2) to compare these results with conventional bulk parameters of microbial activity in soil. We have raised potatoes from a non-transgenic line (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) and three GM lines, which expressed a gene for the resistance to kanamycin (DLH 9000) and a gene for T4 lysozyme (DL10 and DL12). A sandy soil placed in 340 cm3-"CombiSart" containers was used, from which the rhizodeposit was leached after a six-week growth period. The freeze-dried leachates were analyzed by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The Py-FI mass spectra gave detailed molecular-chemical information about the composition of leachates, indicating that the potato growth generally altered the composition of the soil solution. Moreover, a principal component analysis of the mass spectra showed differences between the leachates from the non-transgenic parent line and the GM potatoes as well as among the latter group. However, these differences in molecular composition could not be assigned to the release of T4-lysozyme into soil. Dehydrogenase activity and substrate-induced soil respiration as more common bulk parameters of soil microbial activity failed to disclose any significant effects of the various potatoes grown. The limitations of the described rhizodeposit leaching and analysis for risk assessment of GM potato cropping under field conditions are discussed critically. However, it could be concluded that the Py-FI mass spectrometric "fingerprint" can be developed as a fast, comprehensive, highly sensitive and reproducible analytical approach to discern any effects GM-crops may exert on soil ecological parameters. PMID:16978573

Melnitchouck, Alexei; Leinweber, Peter; Broer, Inge; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe

2006-09-19

157

Introduction: Strategies for developing genetically modified mice.  

PubMed

Advancements in transgenic technologies have made the mouse one of the most useful animal models for biomedical research. Several technological breakthroughs have allowed the generation transgenic and knockout mouse models some 25 years ago. Subsequently, the technology has undergone many improvements, advancing our ability to control the expression of the genes and determine the cell types where the genetic modification should take place. Hence, the mouse is unique in offering the possibility to understand genotype-phenotype relationships that are relevant for unraveling the biological role of these genes in the human. This chapter provides an introductory overview. PMID:21080271

Hofker, Marten H

2011-01-01

158

Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

1989-06-01

159

MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. PMID:21500243

García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2010-12-23

160

Analysis of genetically modified plant gene expression using GUS fluorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorimetric assay method for the analysis of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression in genetically modified\\u000a plants is described. Optimization of this method for woody plants and a statistical approach suitable for comparisons of gene\\u000a expression in different transformants or tissues of the same plant is described. Example data from elm (Ulmus procera) SR4 regenerant plants, shown to be genetically

Kevan M. A. Gartland; Angela T. McHugh; Stanislav Vitha; Karel Benes; Richard J. Irvine; Jill S. Gartland

2000-01-01

161

Genetically modified crops and agricultural landscapes: spatial patterns of contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial question facing the global agri-food system is whether genetically modified (GM) crops can co-exist with traditional crops. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the presence of GM crops and changes in the probability of genetic transfer between crops on an agricultural landscape can result in non-GM crop contamination. To investigate this issue, we develop and

Ken Belcher; James Nolan; Peter W. B. Phillips

2005-01-01

162

Transgenic coffee fruits from Coffea arabica genetically modified by bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic modification of Coffea arabica fruits is an important tool for the investigation of physiological characteristics and functional validation of genes related\\u000a to coffee bean quality traits. In this work, plants of C. arabica cultivar Catuaí Vermelho were successfully genetically modified by bombardment of embryogenic calli. Calli were obtained\\u000a from 90% of the leaf explants cultivated in a callogenesis-inducing

Erika V. S. Albuquerque; Welcimar G. Cunha; Aulus E. A. D. Barbosa; Poliene M. Costa; João B. Teixeira; Giovanni R. Vianna; Glaucia B. Cabral; Diana Fernandez; Maria F. Grossi-de-Sa

2009-01-01

163

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

164

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels of the filters. Being different from the normal genetic algorithm, the algorithm proposed reduces the problem space of the birefringent filter design to achieve faster speed and better performance. The design of 4-, 8-, and 14-section birefringent filters with an improved sidelobe suppression ratio is realized. A 4-section birefringent filter designed with the algorithm is experimentally realized. PMID:16761031

Wen, Mengtao; Yao, Jianping

2006-06-10

165

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

166

Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.  

PubMed

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2010-11-03

167

From pesticides to genetically modified plants: history, economics and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (3) has nonetheless many external effects which strongly reduce its social benefits, (4) early calculations on net benefits

J. C. Zadoks; H. Waibel

2000-01-01

168

Proposals for nutritional assessments of feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) increased from 1.7 to 81 million. ha from 1996 to 2004 (James, 2004). Scientists and farmers, but also consumers, are asking for a nutritional assessment, including safety aspects, of feeds from those plants. Substantial equivalence was created as a framework for the compositional assessment of feeds from GMP of the so-called first generation

G. Flachowsky; H. Böhme

169

Transgenic, transplastomic and other genetically modified plants: a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid 1990s, genetically modified (GM) crops have been grown commercially in Canada on a scale that has increased steadily over the years. An intense debate ensued, as elsewhere, and many fears were expressed regarding not only the technology itself but some of the main GM crops being grown. It would seem appropriate at this time to examine how

2002-01-01

170

Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers, in general, have negative attitudes towards the use of gene technology in food production. The objective of this study was to examine whether taste and health benefits influence the acceptability of genetically modified (gm) products when they are presented as real product alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as

Liisa Lähteenmäki; Klaus Grunert; Øydis Ueland; Annika Åström; Anne Arvola; Tino Bech-Larsen

2002-01-01

171

Acceptance of genetically modified food in India: perspectives of gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer and public policy resistance to genetically modified (GM) foods in rich countries has caused governments in many poor countries to withhold official permission for planting GM food crops for fear of damaging export markets for conventional crops. A total of 15 countries are already producing GM food crops. If China and India, the world's two most populous

John Knight; Amit Paradkar

2008-01-01

172

Evaluating Genetically Modified Food Labels: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Genetically modified (GM) organisms are commonplace,in modern agricultural practice. However, consumer polls and surveys have indicated a lack of acceptance of GM ingredients in food and a desire to see such products identifiedthrough the use of labels. In this study, three focus groups, comprised of consumers in two northwest Arkansas counties, evaluated and

Courtney Meyers; Jeff Miller

173

Competition with Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Modified Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical differentiation model is analyzed to study the placing on the market of genetically modified (GM) products in a context where labeling of such products is mandatory, as it is in the European Union. The model has two stages: firms first choose their technology (either GM or conventional) and then compete. We assume the GM product to have lower

Linda A. Toolsema

2008-01-01

174

The status and prospects for genetically modified crops in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid expansion in the global area planted with genetically modified (GM) crops, there has been resistance to this technology in Europe: this article considers why. Molecular technologies used to produce GM crops are reviewed and crops currently and soon to become available listed. It is argued that the prospects for GM crops depend on: (1) consumer acceptance —

Jeremy R. Franks

1999-01-01

175

Are genetically modified (GM) crops a commercial risk for Africa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What risks might Africa face if it decided to plant genetically modified (GM) agricultural crops? A rough calculation based on current export profiles for one sampling of eastern and southern African countries suggests that the commercial export risks incurred outside of Africa would be quite small. Most of Africa's exports of goods that might be considered GM currently go to

Robert Paarlberg

2006-01-01

176

ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) WHEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties is proceeding; however, several critical issues remain the focus of contention. This project summarizes the current state of knowledge on some of these critical issues for commercialization of GM wheats. Background on the evolution of GM Wheats is presented. Then, agronomic adoption and competitiveness of GM crops; research on GM traits in wheat;

William W. Wilson; Edward L. Janzen; Bruce L. Dahl; Cheryl J. Wachenheim

2003-01-01

177

Genetically modified plants with improved properties for phytoremediation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified plants should be considered as a potential tool for decontamination of environmental pollutants. Transgenic plant technology showed many obvious advantages over conventional plant breeding approaches for crop improvement. Recent discoveries allowed the engineering of new transgenic plants generating desirable products, such as enzymes, polymers and vaccines. Among new approaches, the use of transgenic plants specifically tailored for the

T. Macek; K. Francova; M. Sura; M. Mackova

178

Who Should Certify the Safety of Genetically Modified Foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of addressing consumer concerns regarding the use of genetically modified foods are evaluated using conjoint analysis � the use of a familiar brand and government certification. In one survey, consumers were asked to rate hypothetical products based on brand, price, and production technology attributes. In a second survey, consumers rated hypothetical products that included government certification, price, and

Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

2005-01-01

179

Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

2009-01-01

180

An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory

Kristian Borch; Birgitte Rasmussen

2000-01-01

181

The case for genetically modified crops with a poverty focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently seven National Academies of Science produced a report on transgenic plants and world agriculture. The report provides scientific perspectives to the ongoing public debate about the potential role for transgenic technology in world agriculture. In this article, we develop the themes of the report and emphasize the potential for future genetically modified (GM) crops with a poverty focus, emphasizing

Howard J. Atkinson; Jayne Green; Sue Cowgill; Aurora Levesley

2001-01-01

182

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

183

Response Dimensions Towards Genetically Modified Foods: A Consumer Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing public awareness of genetically modified (GM) foods and their availability on retail store shelves has resulted in profound cleavages of opinions amongst various interest groups regarding the possible risks they pose to consumers and their ethical implications. This paper proposes that response patterns of consumers may depend upon their moral and ethical orientations. This paper suggests that clearer groupings

Ali Quazi; Gamini Herath

2002-01-01

184

Consumer demands for organic and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning consumer demands for genetically modified and organic food remain topical. It is unclear how consumers perceive issues associated with food production such as food safety, environmental impacts or animal welfare. It is also unclear how consumers might value potential changes in those issues in regional and metropolitan centres. This paper reports on research using the choice modelling technique

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2003-01-01

185

Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Food: Empirical Evidence From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the advent of genetically modified (GM) foods changed the agricultural scenario in developed countries, existing research confirms that consumer perception about the consumption of the same is often distorted. GM foods entered the Indian market amid widespread controversies and criticisms. There exists a host of studies that tried to establish the factors that shape favorable consumer perception toward GM

Santanu Mandal; Rik Paul

2012-01-01

186

Changing Consumer Perceptions About Genetically Modified Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of college students about genetically modified (GM) food products and the role of agriculture and biotechnology in the environment were elicited. Perceptions were influenced bias in selection of information provided about environmental impacts of growing GM crop varieties. Information increased self-perceived level of knowledge among students and had unintended effects on perceptions of other crop production practices. Perceived risk

Cheryl J. Wachenheim

2006-01-01

187

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

188

Identifying farmer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food are well documented but there has been much less focus on farmer attitudes to GM technology in agriculture. This paper reports findings from a study investigating farmers’ attitudes to GM crops in Scotland. Results from a Q methodology study reveal three discourses, one apparently pro-GM and demonstrating an expectation of benefits, the second

Clare Hall

2006-01-01

189

Genetically modified crops and country image of food exporting countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Many countries have held back from planting genetically modified (GM) food crops due to perceived negative reaction in export and domestic markets. Three lines of research have tested the reality of this fear. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth interviews were conducted in European countries with key companies and organisations in the European food sector. Supermarket intercepts were used to ascertain

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

190

Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context,

Anne Constable

2002-01-01

191

Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products

Zhang-Liang Chen; Hongya Gu; Yi Li; Yilan Su; Ping Wu; Zhicheng Jiang; Xiaotian Ming; Jinhua Tian; Naisui Pan; Li-Jia Qu

2003-01-01

192

Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research using genetically modified mice has revealed significant sex differences in cardiac phenotypes. In the majority of strains, females display a lower mortality, less severe hypertrophy, better preserved function and mitigated cardiac pathology compared with male counterparts. Thus, gender is an independent determinant for the development of cardiac phenotype in murine models. While there is strong evidence for estrogen

Xiao-Jun Du

2004-01-01

193

Containment of regulated genetically modified cotton in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) insect and herbicide resistant cottons are now the mainstay of the cotton industry based in the eastern States of Australia. However, during the early years of breeding and seed increase, there was some uncertainty among regulators about containment measures needed to prevent the movement of regulated GM traits into adjacent fields of conventional cotton and possibly into

Danny Llewellyn; Chris Tyson; Greg Constable; Brian Duggan; Stephen Beale; Phil Steel

2007-01-01

194

Genetically modified organisms and risks of their introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this review is to assess food risks of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. The author analyzes the properties of the several classes of target proteins used in the transgenic constructions and discusses the problems that arise due to the pleiotropic action of transgenic proteins, the horizontal transfer of the transgenic constructions, primarily in bacteria,

A. M. Kulikov

2005-01-01

195

Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for genetically modified organisms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity biosensor based on DNA hybridisation is described. This biosensor has been applied to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor chip of an SPR device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the complementary sequence (target) was monitored. The probe sequences were

Elisa Mariotti; Maria Minunni; Marco Mascini

2002-01-01

196

Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

197

Genetically Modified Organisms in Peasant Farming: Social Impact and Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's first objective is to discuss the potential social impact of the diffusion of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into peasant sectors of less developed countries. While unwanted environmental impacts of the new technology can be partially assessed in controlled, experimental settings, assessment of social impacts requires experience and observation in particular farming systems. Owing to the absence of direct

STEPHEN B. BRUSH

2001-01-01

198

Enacting Closure in the Environmental Control of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of environmental law is to turn complex realities into coherent regulatory phenomena. The task requires ordering and boundary making. Motivated by this fact, this article studies the various types of closure through which releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are made manageable in the European Union. We analyse the legal framework for controlling environmental releases of

Helena Valve; Jussi Kauppila

2008-01-01

199

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

200

Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European Community (EC) legal measures that govern the contained use, deliberate release, and labeling of GMOs. To illustrate Member

MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN; A. BRYAN ENDRES

2000-01-01

201

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45%

Cheah Yoke-Kqueen; Son Radu

2006-01-01

202

Detection approaches for genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the various detection strategies for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. It begins with a brief discussion of the issues related to the technology especially the risks and public concerns. An introduction to the biological aspects of the major GMOs then follows. The bulk of the review is concerned with the different approaches toward detection: (a)

Anil K. Deisingh; Neela Badrie

2005-01-01

203

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

204

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

205

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

206

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

207

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

208

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

209

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

210

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

211

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

212

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

213

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

214

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

215

Challenges for methods to detect genetically modified DNA in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative detection methods for genetically modified (GM) DNA sequences in foods have evolved fast during the past years. The sensitivity of these systems is extremely high, even for processed foodstuffs. However, in future, quantitative results about the fraction of GM material in a composite food will be needed and the fast increasing number of GM foods on the market demands

Georg A Schreiber

1999-01-01

216

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

217

On consumers’ willingness to purchase nutritionally enhanced genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses consumers' willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food products with two different types of benefits: an input (i.e., reduced pesticides) and an output trait benefit (i.e., nutritionally enhanced). Data were collected using a telephone survey of an Italian households sample. Discrete choice approach is used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Four separate probit models

Maurizio Canavari; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr

2009-01-01

218

Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Food With Consumer Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread consumer resistance towards genetically modified (GM) food, particularly as reported in news media, has led to slow adoption of this technology outside of North America. Much of the consumer resistance appears to stem from public perceptions that GM crops benefit large multinational corporations, food producers, and typically have no apparent consumer benefits. In order to test whether clearly defined

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

219

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

220

Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

Renee B Kim

2009-01-01

221

Production of artemisinin by genetically-modified microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisinin, an endoperoxidized sesquiterpene originally extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a potent malaria-killing agent. Due to the urgent demand and short supply of this new antimalarial drug, engineering enhanced production of artemisinin by genetically-modified or transgenic microbes is currently being explored. Cloning and expression of the artemisinin biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have

Qingping Zeng; Frank Qiu; Ling Yuan

2008-01-01

222

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Genetically and Chemically Modified Bacteriorhodopsins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the preparation of bacteriorhodopsin for mass spectrometry is described, consisting of precipitation of the sample, removal of lipids by washing the sample, and dissolving it in an acidic mixture of organic solvents. Examples demonstrate the method's suitability for the analysis of genetically and chemically modified bacteriorhodopsins. The observed molecular masses are within 0.01% in accordance with

P. Hufnagel; U. Schweiger; C. Eckerskorn; D. Oesterhelt

1996-01-01

223

GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84?885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14?896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a “least squares” type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated Annealing employs and instead we used a global technique based on grammatical evolution.

Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

2006-05-01

224

Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.  

PubMed

Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components. PMID:17080241

Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

2006-11-02

225

An Efficient Vector System to Modify Cells Genetically  

PubMed Central

The transfer of foreign genes into mammalian cells has been essential for understanding the functions of genes and mechanisms of genetic diseases, for the production of coding proteins and for gene therapy applications. Currently, the identification and selection of cells that have received transferred genetic material can be accomplished by methods, including drug selection, reporter enzyme detection and GFP imaging. These methods may confer antibiotic resistance, or be disruptive, or require special equipment. In this study, we labeled genetically modified cells with a cell surface biotinylation tag by co-transfecting cells with BirA, a biotin ligase. The modified cells can be quickly isolated for downstream applications using a simple streptavidin bead method. This system can also be used to screen cells expressing two sets of genes from separate vectors.

Han, Huamin; Liu, Qingjun; He, Wen; Ong, Kristy; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Bin

2011-01-01

226

Genetic modifiers of liver injury in hereditary liver disease.  

PubMed

The genetic background of patients with liver diseases modulates hepatic injury, with some individuals being predisposed to better defenses and regenerative capacity. In this review, we focus our description of this phenomenon on inherited disorders affecting the liver, with a particular emphasis on Wilson disease (WD), genetic hemochromatosis, and ?-1 anti-trypsin disease (A1-AT). Wide variations in the clinical phenotype of WD may in part be related to the mutations of the ATP7B genotype, though modifier genes and environmental factors also likely play an important role. There is also a significant variability in the expression of iron overload in patients with genetic hemochromatosis that are homozygous for the C282Y mutation. Homozygosity for the A1-ATZ mutation is generally required for the development of liver disease in A1-AT although there is increasing evidence for modifier effects from a heterozygous genotype in other liver diseases. PMID:21538285

Ala, Aftab; Schilsky, Michael

2011-05-02

227

Methodological scheme for designing the monitoring of genetically modified crops at the regional scale.  

PubMed

According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g. unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods. These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used to develop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks. PMID:16311819

Graef, F; Züghart, W; Hommel, B; Heinrich, U; Stachow, U; Werner, A

2005-12-01

228

Use of Genetically Modified Viruses and Genetically Engineered Virus-vector Vaccines: Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number

Vivian S. W. Chan

2006-01-01

229

Utilisation of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding is set in the context of the evolution of the crop and the\\u000a need to widen its genetic base by introgression and base broadening. The introduction of the potato to Europe and its subsequent\\u000a worldwide spread is described. An introduction is given to the world's major potato genebanks, and the

John E. Bradshaw; Gavin Ramsay

2005-01-01

230

Genetic interactions and modifier genes in Hirschsprung's disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital disorder that occurs in 1:5000 live births. It is characterised by an absence of enteric neurons along a variable region of the gastrointestinal tract. Hirschsprung’s disease is classified as a multigenic disorder, because the same phenotype is associated with mutations in multiple distinct genes. Furthermore, the genetics of Hirschsprung’s disease are highly complex and not strictly Mendelian. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung’s disease also suggests the involvement of modifier genes. Here, we summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying Hirschsprung’s disease based on human and animal studies, focusing on the principal causative genes, their interactions, and the role of modifier genes.

Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Richard B

2011-01-01

231

Genetic Positioning of Centromeres Using Half-Tetrad Analysis in a 4x-2x Cross Population of Potato  

PubMed Central

From biological and genetic standpoints, centromeres play an important role in the delivery of the chromosome complement to the daughter cells at cell division. The positions of the centromeres of potato were determined by half-tetrad analysis in a 4x–2x population where the male parent produced 2n pollen by first-division restitution (FDR). The genetic linkage groups and locations of 95 male parent-derived amplified fragment length polymorphism markers could be determined by comparing their position on a 2x–2x highly saturated linkage map of potato. Ten centromere positions were identified by 100% heterozygosity transmitted from the 2n heterozygous gametes of the paternal parent into the tetraploid offspring. The position of these centromeric marker loci was in accordance with those predicted by the saturated 2x–2x map using the level of marker clustering as a criterion. Two remaining centromere positions could be determined by extrapolation. The frequent observation of transmission of 100% heterozygosity proves that the meiotic restitution mechanism is exclusively based on FDR. Additional investigations on the position of recombination events of three chromosomes with sufficient numbers of markers showed that only one crossover occurred per chromosome arm, proving strong interference of recombination between centromere and telomere.

Park, Tae-Ho; Kim, Jong-Bo; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; van Eck, Herman J.; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G. F.

2007-01-01

232

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

233

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

234

Autecology of a genetically modified fluorescent pseudomonad on sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival, dispersal and impact of a genetically modified microorganism (GMM) in the phyllosphere of glasshouse grown sugar beet was investigated. The GMM, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25EeZY6KX (lacZY and kanr-xylE) derived from a bacterium originally isolated from field grown sugar beet, was introduced as a seed inoculum. It survived in the phyllosphere throughout the 531-day study on plants growing in field

Ian P. Thompson; Richard J. Ellis; Mark J. Bailey

1995-01-01

235

Explaining International Differences in Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have adopted labeling policies for genetically modified (GM) food, and the regulations vary considerably across countries. We evaluate the importance of political-economic factors implicit in the choice of GM food labeling regulations. Using an analytical model, we show that production and trade-related interests play a prominent role in labeling decision-making. This conclusion is validated by an empirical analysis

Guillaume P. Gruère; Colin A. Carter; Y. Hossein Farzin

2009-01-01

236

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

237

Genetically Modified Crops and Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genetically-modified (GM) crops presently are central components of pest management strategies for several important crops\\u000a worldwide. GM crops include insect-resistant varieties (expressing transgenes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or from plant species other than the GM crop, though only the former varieties are commercially available), and herbicide-tolerant\\u000a varieties (which tolerate post-emergent applications of particular herbicides). This chapter examines potential and

Julio S. Bernal

238

Detection of Genetically Modified Plants in Seeds, Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different techniques and analytical strategies are applied for detecting and quantifying the presence of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plants in food and feed products or in seeds. DNA-based detection is performed by qualitative PCR or by quantitative\\u000a real-time PCR, whereas for protein-based detection immunoassays such as lateral flow devices and ELISA are applied. The testing\\u000a strategy for GMO detection is constituted

Lutz Grohmann

239

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks can be characterised by several parameters. A risk is commonly defined to be the product of the extent of damage and\\u000a the probability of its occurrence. But there are several other characteristics to be taken into account: degree of certainty\\u000a in determining extent and probability, persistency, ubiquity, irreversibility, delay effect and mobilisation potential. As\\u000a potential risks of genetically modified

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

240

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  In Europe, the EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically\\u000a modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to:\\u000a (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved\\u000a ERA

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Jörg Römbke; Stephan Jänsch; Hanka Teichmann; Beatrix Tappeser

2011-01-01

241

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical\\u000a trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which\\u000a may arise due to the clinical use of

B. Anliker; S. Longhurst; C. J. Buchholz

2010-01-01

242

Efficiency of Modified Genetic Algorithms on Two-Dimensional System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic algorithms (GA) have been successfully applied to optimization problems in a variety of areas. In this paper, some modifications to GA are designed to study their performance and efficiency on a typical 2D system, 2D Ising spin glass. In particular, two kinds of modified GAs are compared for their searching ability (performance) and efficiency (convergence), by presenting a direct and visual criterion. Finally, some constructive comments and prospects on GA are presented.

Fan, Lewen; Fang, Haiping; Lin, Zhifang

243

Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops – European and American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified (GM) crops occupy a unique place in the evolution of risk governance approaches to dealing with modern,\\u000a path-breaking technologies. They were the first such technology to be regulated on a precautionary basis, in a generic sense,\\u000a from the earliest stages of a technology development process that began in the 1980s and is still evolving.\\u000a \\u000a Today, distinctively different risk

Joyce Tait

244

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

245

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

246

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

247

Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Food Products in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a large U.S. export market, there has been growing public opposition against genetically modified (GM) foods. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method, findings show the discount needed for Japanese Seikyou consumers to purchase GM food products is positively affected (i.e., a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM food, higher levels

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2003-01-01

248

CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation

Kristine M. Grimsrud; Jill J. McCluskey; Maria L. Loureiro; Thomas I. Wahl

2002-01-01

249

Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable\\u000a public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological\\u000a risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important\\u000a in regulating

Wenke Liu

2010-01-01

250

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

251

Successful prediction of genetic richness at wild potato collection sites in southeastern Arizona  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much time, money, and effort is needed to collect even a fraction of the potential geographic range of wild potato species, so there is efficiency to gain if one could predict and prioritize spots particularly rich in unique alleles for collecting. A previous experiment that used AFLP markers to com...

252

Evaluation of Nicotiana tabacum Genotypes Possessing Nicotiana africana-derived Genetic Tolerance to Potato Virus Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alleles infl uencing resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) would be valuable for develop- ing resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivars. The fi rst objective of this research was to evaluate materials possessing an intro- gressed genomic region (Nafr) from N. africana Merx. & Buttler for their resistance against an array of nine PVY isolates. Seven near-iso- genic genotypes

R. S. Lewis

253

The life cycle of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): from crop physiology to genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the results of an analysis of the major developmental events taking place during the life cycle of the potato, based on records from 250 genotypes, from the highly diverse CxE population. The aim was to generate a massive amount of data to build a framework of crop physiological relationships, and use the data to begin with the

B. C. Celis-Gamboa

2002-01-01

254

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

255

Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some insights have been gained from previous studies on the acceptability of genetically modified (GM) foods, not many attempts have been made to understand consumer acceptability of genetically modified tomatoes. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of factors such as consumer knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on the acceptability of genetically modified tomatoes. The analysis draws

James O. Bukenya; Natasha R. Wright

2007-01-01

256

R6 and R7 alleles of potato conferring race-specific resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary identified genetic loci clustering with the R3 locus on chromosome XI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In potato, 11 resistance alleles (R1–R11) are known which confer race-specific resistance to the fungus Phytophthora infestans. R1 has been mapped previously to potato chromosome V and R3 to chromosome XI. Here we report on the localization of the R6 and R7 alleles on the genetic map of potato. Differential resistant strains of tetraploid Solanum tuberosum, clones MaR6 and MaR7,

A. El-Kharbotly; C. Palomino-Sánchez; F. Salamini; E. Jacobsen; C. Gebhardt

1996-01-01

257

[Detection of the genetically modified organisms in genetically modified soybean and maize by polymerase chain reaction method].  

PubMed

A method for the detection of the (genetically modified organism GMOs) in genetically modified soybean (Round-up Ready soybean, RR soybean) and maize(Bt-176 maize) is described. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is discussed with the genetically modified soybean and maize whose contents are known. The detection limit can be 0.1%, that is to say, we can detect the GMO in the food whose content is only 0.1%, the detection method is just a screening method. The procedure includes: (1) extraction of genomic DNA of maize and soybean, (2) amplification of the inserted genes, CaMV35S promoter and the NOS terminator inserted by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, (3) amplification of the specific genes of maize and soybean in order to determine that the samples are maize and soybean, (4) characterization and confirmation of the PCR products by restriction enzyme analysis and the electrophoresis on agarose gel. The RR soybean contains CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator, and the Bt-176 maize contains only CaMV35S promoter. Due to the high content of the starch in maize, the effect of the electrophororesis is not so good as of the soybean's. PMID:12545757

Mao, Deqian; Mu, Weipeng; Yang, Xiaoguang

2002-06-01

258

[Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].  

PubMed

This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

Spendeler, Liliane

259

Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.  

PubMed

A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods. PMID:16621089

Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2006-04-18

260

Potato Bouquet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of such potato products as doughnuts, mashed potatoes, etc. -- 'instant products' -- is insufficient to meet public needs. The products meet consumer requirements with respect to quality, except mashed potatoes. Increased output and establi...

K. Baikin

1969-01-01

261

Genetic differences in water-use efficiency, stomatal conductance and carbon isotope fractionation in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars were grown in pots and containers under a rain shelter to examine differences in stomatal conductance, water-use\\u000a efficiency, and carbon isotope fractionation. Conductance was measured on abaxial leaf surfaces with a steady state diffusion\\u000a porometer. Carbon isotopic analyses were made with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Water-use efficiency (WUE) was obtained\\u000a by dividing total dry

J. Vos; J. Groenwold

1989-01-01

262

Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells for improved islet transplantation.  

PubMed

The use of adult stem cells for therapeutic purposes has met with great success in recent years. Among several types of adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) and other sources have gained popularity for basic research and clinical applications because of their therapeutic potential in treating a variety of diseases. Because of their tissue regeneration potential and immune modulation effect, MSCs were recently used as cell-based therapy to promote revascularization, increase pancreatic ?-cell proliferation, and avoid allograft rejection in islet transplantation. Taking advantage of the recent progress in gene therapy, genetically modified MSCs can further enhance and expand the therapeutic benefit of primary MSCs while retaining their stem-cell-like properties. This review aims to gain a thorough understanding of the current obstacles to successful islet transplantation and discusses the potential role of primary MSCs before or after genetic modification in islet transplantation. PMID:21707070

Wu, Hao; Ye, Zhaoyang; Mahato, Ram I

2011-07-07

263

Therapeutic potential of genetically modified adult stem cells for osteopenia  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells have therapeutic potential because of their intrinsic capacity for self-renewal, especially for bone regeneration. The present study demonstrates the utility of ex vivo modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to enhance bone density in an immunocompetent mouse model of osteopenia. MSC were transduced ex vivo with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV) expressing BMP-2 under the transcriptional control of collagen type-1? promoter. To enrich bone homing in vivo, the cells were further modified to transiently express the mouse ?-4 integrin. The modified MSC were systemically administered to ovariectomized, female C57BL/6 mice. Effects of the therapy were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, 3D micro-CT, histology, and immunohistochemistry for up to six months. Results indicated that mice transplanted with MSC expressing BMP-2 showed significant increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content(p<0.001) with relatively better proliferative capabilities of bone marrow stromal cells and higher osteocompetent pool of cells compared to control animals. Micro-CT analysis of femora and other bone histomorphometric analyses indicated more trabecular bone following MSC-BMP-2 therapy. Results obtained by transplanting genetically modified MSC from GFP transgenic mouse suggested that production of BMP2 from transplanted MSC also influenced the mobilization of endogenous progenitors for new bone formation.

Kumar, Sanjay; Nagy, Tim R.; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2010-01-01

264

Detection system of stacked genetically modified maize using multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to identify and distinguish 3 kinds of stacked genetically\\u000a modified (GM) maize (MON810× MON863, NK603×MON863, and NK603×MON810× MON863). Four primer pairs, SSIIb JHF\\/JHR, C3b 5?\\/TAP1–3?,\\u000a HS01\\/cry-CR01, and HS01\\/CTP164-3? yielded 101, 129, 194, and 314 bp amplicons, respectively, Using the genomic DNA of the\\u000a 3 stacked GM maize as templates, 3 or

Su-Youn Kim; Jae-Hwan Kim; Hyungjae Lee; Hae-Yeong Kim

2010-01-01

265

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

266

Coral red fluorescence protein as genetic modified baculovirus tracer.  

PubMed

Genetic modified baculovirus (GMBV) are among the most promising alternatives to chemical insecticides. One of the deterrents to the GMBV development is the lack of simple and cost-effective methods for monitoring their efficacy and ecology in fields. Here, we demonstrate the DsRed gene from coral can serve as a convenient GMBV tracer. Insect larvae, including Trichoplusia ni, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura, infected the GMBV containing the DsRed gene can emit red fluorescence under sun light without any prosthetic apparatus. PMID:15979186

Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Kao, Suey-Sheng; Tzen, Jason T C; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

2005-09-29

267

Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.  

PubMed

Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czy?ewska, Krystyna

2013-09-20

268

Design of matching transformers for UHF band power splitters using modified genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a matching transmission line for a 1:4 power splitter in the UHF band is designed using modified genetic algorithms (GA). Some viewpoints regarding an improvement of the continuous genetic algorithm as well as the conventional genetic algorithm, namely the discrete genetic algorithm, is presented. Several different techniques are presented for improving the discrete\\/continuous genetic algorithm.

A. Varahram; J. Rashed-Mohassel; K. Mafinezhad

2003-01-01

269

Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and

W. K Novak; A. G Haslberger

2000-01-01

270

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

271

Reforming the WTO to Defuse Potential Trade Conflicts in Genetically Modified Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguably genetic modification is one of the most important technological change seen to date. Its effects on both human health and the environment are both profound and controversial. In particular consumers, mainly in the EU, have concerns regarding the long term effects of consuming genetically modified foods on their health. They are also concerned regarding the effect that genetically modified

Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr Shelburne; Jill E. Hobbs

2001-01-01

272

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

273

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

274

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

275

Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures.  

PubMed

Biodiversity research shows that diverse plant communities are more stable and productive than monocultures. Similarly, populations in which genotypes with different pathogen resistance are mixed may have lower pathogen levels and thus higher productivity than genetically uniform populations. We used genetically modified (GM) wheat as a model system to test this prediction, because it allowed us to use genotypes that differed only in the trait pathogen resistance but were otherwise identical. We grew three such genotypes or lines in monocultures or two-line mixtures. Phenotypic measurements were taken at the level of individual plants and of entire plots (population level). We found that resistance to mildew increased with both GM richness (0, 1, or 2 Pm3 transgenes with different resistance specificities per plot) and GM concentration (0%, 50%, or 100% of all plants in a plot with a Pm3 transgene). Plots with two transgenes had 34.6% less mildew infection and as a consequence 7.3% higher seed yield than plots with one transgene. We conclude that combining genetic modification with mixed cropping techniques could be a promising approach to increase sustainability and productivity in agricultural systems, as the fitness cost of stacking transgenes within individuals may thus be avoided. PMID:23092018

Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Flynn, Dan F B; Schmid, Bernhard

2012-09-01

276

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

277

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

278

Global market effects of alternative European responses to genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Market Effects of Alternative European Responses to Genetically Modified Organisms. — Current debates about genetically\\u000a modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture reveal substantial differences in the perception of the associated risks and benefits.\\u000a Genetically modified crop varieties allegedly provide farmers with agronomic benefits, but environmental, health and ethical\\u000a concerns are also being raised. This paper discusses the ways in which

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson

2001-01-01

279

Ascomycete communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat are not affected by introductions of genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r.  

PubMed

A long-term field experiment (1999-2002) was conducted to monitor effects on the indigenous microflora of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and two transgenic derivatives constitutively producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) or 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). The strains were introduced as seed coating on wheat into the same field plots each year. Rhizosphere populations of ascomycetes were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). To evaluate the significance of changes caused by the genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs), they were compared with effects caused by a crop rotation from wheat to potato. In the first year, only the combination of both GMMs caused a significant shift in the ascomycete community. After the repeated introductions this effect was no longer evident. However, cropping potato significantly affected the ascomycete community. This effect persisted into the next year when wheat was grown. Clone libraries were constructed from samples taken in 1999 and 2000, and sequence analysis indicated ascomycetes of common genera to be present. Most species occurred in low frequencies, distributed almost evenly in all treatments. However, in 1999 Microdochium occurred in relatively high frequencies, whereas in the following year no Microdochium species were detected. On the other hand, Fusarium-like organisms were low in 1999, and increased in 2000. Both the DGGE and the sequence analysis revealed that repeated introduction of P. putida WCS358r had no major effects on the ascomycete community in the wheat rhizosphere, but demonstrated a persistent difference between the rhizospheres of potato and wheat. PMID:16232292

Viebahn, Mareike; Doornbos, Rogier; Wernars, Karel; van Loon, Leendert C; Smit, Eric; Bakker, Peter A H M

2005-11-01

280

Genetically modified mosquito: the Malaysian public engagement experience.  

PubMed

On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control. PMID:23125042

Subramaniam, T S Saraswathy; Lee, Han Lim; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-11-01

281

A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

2011-02-05

282

Comparative assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation among regenerants of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) derived from long-term nodal tissue-culture and cell selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three long-term nodal tissued cultured Russet Burbank potato clones and nine thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines, derived\\u000a from the nodal lines, were assessed for genetic and epigenetic (in the form of DNA methylation) differences by AFLP and MSAP.\\u000a The treated regenerant lines were originally selected for superior resistance to common scab disease and acceptable tuber\\u000a yield in pot and field trials.

Alison L. Dann; Calum R. Wilson

2011-01-01

283

Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...

284

Genetic determinants of Potato virus Y required to overcome or trigger hypersensitive resistance to PVY strain group O controlled by the gene Ny in potato.  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) (genus Potyvirus) is the most economically damaging and widely distributed virus in potato. Spread of PVY in the field is controlled by growing resistant cultivars. The dominant potato gene Ny(tbr) for hypersensitive resistance (HR) controls ordinary PVY strains (PVY(O)) but is overcome by PVY(N) strains. Studies with infectious PVY chimeras and mutants indicated that the viral determinants necessary and sufficient to overcome Ny(tbr) reside within the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) (residues 227 to 327). Specifically, eight residues and the modeled three-dimensional conformation of this HC-Pro region distinguish PVY(N) from PVY(O) strains. According to the model, the conserved IGN and CCCT motifs implicated in potyvirus replication and movement, respectively, are situated in a coiled structure and an ?-helix, respectively, within this region in PVY(O); however, their locations are reversed in PVY(N). Two residues (R269 and K270) are crucial for the predicted PVY(O)-specific HC-Pro conformation. Two viral chimeras triggered Ny(tbr) and induced veinal necrosis in tobacco, which is novel for PVY. One chimera belonged to strain group PVY(E). Our results suggest a structure-function relationship in recognition of PVY(O) HC-Pro by Ny(tbr), reveal HC-Pro amino acid signatures specific to PVY(O) and PVY(N), and facilitate identification of PVY strains overcoming Ny(tbr). PMID:23113714

Tian, Yan-Ping; Valkonen, Jari P T

2013-03-01

285

Incidence, Distribution, and Genetic Variations of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp.' Associated with Zebra Chip of Potato in North America.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLs) and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ (CLp) were confirmed in potato plants affected with zebra chip/zebra complex (ZC) disease throughout Texas potato production areas in 2005-2008, in seed tubers produced from Wyoming in 2007, and in...

286

Insecticidal Activity of Avidin Combined with Genetically Engineered and Traditional Host Plant Resistance Against Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a destructive pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L.), in North America. It is renowned for adapting to insecticides. With the arsenal of effective insecticides decreasing, it is important to consider alternative forms of control. Biotin is an essential coenzyme for insect growth and development. Avidin is a protein found in chicken egg that sequesters

Susannah G. Cooper; David S. Douches; Edward J. Grafius

2006-01-01

287

Evaluating the Allergic Risk of Genetically Modified Soybean  

PubMed Central

Genetically modified (GM) soybean (carrying the EPSPS transgene) is the most common GM food in Korea. In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic adults who had been sensitized to soybeans. We enrolled 1,716 adult allergy patients and 40 healthy, non-atopic controls. Skin prick tests and IgE enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed using wild-type and GM soybean extracts, along with other common inhaled allergens. The specificities of serum IgE antibodies from allergic patients and the identities of the IgE-reactive components of the soybean extracts were compared using ELISA inhibition testing, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and IgE immunoblotting. To evaluate the effects of digestive enzymes and heat treatment, the soybean extracts were heated or pre- incubated with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The IgE sensitization rates to wild-type and GM soybeans were identical (3.8% of allergic adults), and circulating IgE antibodies specific for the two extracts were comparable. The results of the ELISA inhibition test, SDS-PAGE, and IgE immunoblotting showed a similar composition of IgE-binding components within the wild-type and GM extracts, which was confirmed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, IgE immunoblotting, and amino acid sequencing. None of the subjects had a positive response to purified EPSPS protein in the skin prick test, ELISA, or IgE immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that the IgE sensitization rate to GM soybean extracts is identical to that of wild-type soybean extracts in adult allergy patients. In addition, based on both in vivo and in vitro methods, the allergenicity of wild type and GM soybean extracts was identical.

Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

2006-01-01

288

Possible Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects in the Plant Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: During the last years, there has been increasing focus on the environmental effects of genetically modified plants, not only hybridization and gene flow, but also effects on insects. A general overview of possible effects of genetically modified plants on insects ,is presented. Insects from different levels of the plant food web ,are included: herbivores (pests and non-pests), pollinators, predators\\/parasitoids

Eline B. Hågvar; Solveig Aasen

289

Introducing Genetically Modified Plants: Now or Later - An Option Value Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using market data, we have estimated the quasi option value of delaying to grow genetically modified corn and soybeans in Europe. We find that the current quasi option value of growing genetically modified soybeans and corn in Europe is high. This makes it likely that for the time being the information value of waiting exceeds the market gains of growing

Eirik Romstad; Live Brimi; Urda Ljorerud

2005-01-01

290

Evaluating the Behavioural Impact of the Australian and New Zealand Genetically Modified Food Labelling Provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a choice experiment that encompassed the labelling options outlined in the Australian and New Zealand government's recently finalized mandatory labelling system for genetically modified foods (GMF's) and foods that contain genetically modified ingredients. The labelling scheme is to be implemented across both countries from December 2001 onwards. Results suggest difficulties ahead for manufacturers and

Terry Macpherson; Zane Kearns; Duncan Hedderley; Simon Sharland

2001-01-01

291

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

292

Multielemental analysis of genetically modified food using ANAA and PIXE techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of two techniques, ANAA and PIXE, used in the analyses of some availa- ble commercial food containing regular and genetically modified ingredients, as well as soybens cultivated with regular and genetically modified seeds (GMS). The aim of this work is determine their elemental composition to perform a comparative analysis. The elemental composition results of both

Ilca Marli; Moitinho Amaral; Cibele Bugno Zamboni Medeiros; Jos ´ e; Agostinho Goncalves de Medeiros; Marcia de Almeida Rizzutto

2005-01-01

293

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

294

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

295

The factualization of uncertainty: Risk, politics, and genetically modified crops – a case of rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandatory risk assessment is intended to reassure concerned citizens and introduce reason into the heated European controversies on genetically modified crops and food. The authors, examining a case of risk assessment of genetically modified oilseed rape, claim that the new European legislation on risk assessment does nothing of the sort and is not likely to present an escape from the

Gitte Meyer; Anna Paldam Folker; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen; Martin Krayer von Krauss; Peter Sandøe; Geir Tveit

2005-01-01

296

An Analysis of McLean County, Illinois Farmers' Perceptions of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLean County, Illinois farmers were surveyed in order to explore and analyze their perceptions of genetically modified crops and their genetically modified cropping decisions. Questionnaires were mailed to 400 randomly selected farmers, and 156 were returned. The 134 respondents who reported that they planned to plant crops in 2003 were asked to provide information about gender, age, education, and number

Nagesh Chimmiri; Kerry W. Tudor; Aslihan D. Spaulding

2005-01-01

297

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

298

A critique of ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops as reported by the Nuffield Bioethics Committee are summarised. A critique of their findings is presented. It is argued that the apparent benefits are outweighed by the ecological, social and economic costs, and that the yields of some genetically modified crops are poorer when compared to conventional species. Furthermore, the current

Ian Moffatt

2000-01-01

299

A Multiplex PCR?Based Assay for the Detection of Genetically Modified Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of nucleotide sequences specific for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in raw and processed food is based on different technological strategies, such as the extraction of DNA and the amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allow to obtain qualitative and quantitative information. We developed a multiplex PCR?based DNA assay for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified

Enrico Dainese; Clotilde Angelucci; Paola De Santis; Mauro Maccarrone; Ivo Cozzani

2004-01-01

300

Evaluating the fate of genetically modified microorganisms in the environment: Are they inherently less fit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified microorganisms hold great promise for environmental applications. Nonetheless, some may have unintended adverse effects. Of particular concern for risk assessment is the simple fact that microorganisms are self-replicating entities, so that it may be impossible to control an adverse effect simply by discontinuing further releases of the organism. It has been suggested, however, that genetically modified microorganisms will

R. E. Lenski

1993-01-01

301

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

302

Assessing the risks of releasing genetically modified virus insecticides: progress to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their speed of kill. Whilst these viruses show considerable promise for improving crop protection, any risks that might be attached to their wide-scale release need to be assessed. The potential hazards of releasing genetically modified baculoviruses are (i) negative effects on susceptible non-target species, and (ii) movement of the introduced gene. One

Jenny S Cory

2000-01-01

303

Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the

Yuyuan Li; Da Xing; Chunsun Zhang

2009-01-01

304

Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: a history of the genetically modified organisms debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and

Ryuma Shineha; Kazuto Kato

2009-01-01

305

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system

M. Miraglia; K. G. Berdal; C. Brera; P. Corbisier; A. Holst-Jensen; E. J. Kok; H. J. P. Marvin; H. Schimmel; J. Rentsch; J. P. P. F. van Rie; J. Zagon

2004-01-01

306

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

307

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

308

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

309

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

310

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

311

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

312

Acceptance of genetically modified foods: The relation between technology and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. De Vries; Gerard van Breukelen; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2008-01-01

313

Quasi-option values for enhanced information regarding genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning the long-term environmental and health risks associated with the production of genetically modified foods remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers values for a precautionary approach to the release of genetically modified crops compares to the opportunity costs of forgoing economic growth associated with the use of these technologies. In this paper, an application of

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2004-01-01

314

Introduction of polyphosphate as a novel phosphate pool in the chloroplast of transgenic potato plants modifies carbohydrate partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Désirée) were transformed with the polyphosphate kinase gene from Escherichia coli fused to the leader sequence of the ferredoxin oxidoreductase gene (FNR) from Spinacea oleracea under the control of the leaf specific St-LS1 promoter to introduce a novel phosphate pool in the chloroplasts of green tissues. Transgenic plants (cpPPK) in tissue culture developed necrotic

Tijmen van Voorthuysen; Babette Regierer; Franziska Springer; Cor Dijkema; Dick Vreugdenhil; Jens Kossmann

2000-01-01

315

Risk assessment for volunteer and seedling GM potatoes in the northernmost European growing areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) could represent a risk to conventional production if volunteer plants develop from tubers or true seeds that survive until the following growing season. We studied such risks under northernmost European conditions and monitored the effects of cultivar, tuber size and tuber depth in the soil on winter survival at MTT

Leo Mustonen; Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Katri Pahkala

2009-01-01

316

Method of detecting genetically modified chicken containing human erythropoietin gene.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) chickens carrying the human erythropoietin (hEpo) gene have been developed to produce recombinant hEpo protein in eggs. However, such animals have not been approved as food sources in Japan. We developed a method for detecting the hEpo gene in chicken meat using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The hEpo gene was clearly detected in genomic DNA extracted from magnum and heart of a chimeric chicken containing the hEpo gene. A plasmid containing the hEpo gene was used as a standard reference molecule as well. The results clearly showed that our method was capable of detecting the hEpo gene contained in the plasmid in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from a raw chicken meat sample. We successfully used this method to test six samples of raw chicken meat and six samples of chicken meat in processed foods. This method will be useful for monitoring chicken meat that might have originated from GM chickens carrying the hEpo gene to assure food safety. PMID:23995657

Nakajima, Osamu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

2013-01-01

317

Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited. PMID:21247941

von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

2011-01-19

318

Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.  

PubMed

Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives. PMID:22430852

Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

2012-01-01

319

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

320

Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the environmental consequences of genetically modified rice. Within the next few years, many types of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) will be ready for commercialization, including varieties with higher yields, greater tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, resistance to herbicides, improved nutritional quality, and novel pharmaceutical proteins. Although rice is primarily self-pollinating, its transgenes are expected to disperse to nearby weedy and wild relatives through pollen-mediated gene flow. Sexually compatible Oryza species often co-occur with the crop, especially in tropical countries, but little is known about how quickly fitness-enhancing transgenes will accumulate in these populations and whether this process will have any unwanted environmental consequences. For example, weedy rice could become much more difficult to manage if it acquires herbicide resistance, produces more seeds, or occurs in a wider range of habitats because of the spread of certain transgenes. Rice-growing countries urgently need publicly available ecological assessments of the risks and benefits of transgenic rice before new varieties are released.

BAO-RONG LU and ALLISON A. SNOW (;)

2005-08-01

321

Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT)-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-\\/- rat and

Judith Homberg; Isaäc J Nijman; Sylvia Kuijpers; Edwin Cuppen

2010-01-01

322

Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed Central

Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

2003-01-01

323

Genetic modifiers of MeCP2 function in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The levels of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT) as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins) and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction) abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax), the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself. PMID:18773074

Cukier, Holly N; Perez, Alma M; Collins, Ann L; Zhou, Zhaolan; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Botas, Juan

2008-09-05

324

Transgene x Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.

Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-01-01

325

Indifference of potato anther culture to colchicine and genetic similarity among anther-derived monoploid regenerants determined by RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of colchicine on androgenesis of diploid potato (Solanum phureja Juz. & Buk.) and ploidy of anther-derived plants\\u000a were examined in three experiments. In the first, no significant difference was found for mean embryos per anther of an interspecific\\u000a potato clone after application of five colchicine treatments (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg l-1) for 24 h to freshly

Sirasak Teparkum; Richard E. Veilleux

1998-01-01

326

Potato with growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

327

5'Nuclease PCR for quantitative event-specific detection of the genetically modified Mon810 MaisGard maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified maize is grown extensively in the world today. MaisGard (Monsanto, Yieldgard in the USA) is a genetically modified maize harbouring the Mon810 transformation event. European Community legislation requires that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) be approved before they are placed on the market. Labelling is required when more than 1% of any ingredient of a food originates from a

Askild Holck; Marc Vaïtilingom; Luc Didierjean; Knut Rudi

2002-01-01

328

Diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and root interior of field-grown genetically modified Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant roots significantly affect microbial diversity in soil, but little is known on how genetically modified plants influence soil microbial communities. We conducted a 2-year field study to assess the effects of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified canola (oilseed rape, Brassica sp.) on microbial biodiversity in the rhizosphere. During the 1998 and 1999 field seasons, four genetically modified and four conventional canola

Kari E Dunfield; James J Germida

2001-01-01

329

Improvement of aroma in transgenic potato as a consequence of impairing tuber browning.  

PubMed

Sensory analysis studies are critical in the development of quality enhanced crops, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. It has recently been established that odor preferences are shared between humans and mice, suggesting that odor exploration behavior in mice may be used to predict the effect of odors in humans. We have previously found that mice fed diets supplemented with engineered nonbrowning potatoes (-PPO) consumed more potato than mice fed diets supplemented with wild-type potatoes (WT). This prompted us to explore a possible role of potato odor in mice preference for nonbrowning potatoes. Taking advantage of two well established neuroscience paradigms, the "open field test" and the "nose-poking preference test", we performed experiments where mice exploration behavior was monitored in preference assays on the basis of olfaction alone. No obvious preference was observed towards -PPO or WT lines when fresh potato samples were tested. However, when oxidized samples were tested, mice consistently investigated -PPO potatoes more times and for longer periods than WT potatoes. Congruently, humans discriminated WT from -PPO samples with a considerably better performance when oxidized samples were tested than when fresh samples were tested in blind olfactory experiments. Notably, even though participants ranked all samples with an intermediate level of pleasantness, there was a general consensus that the -PPO samples had a more intense odor and also evoked the sense-impression of a familiar vegetable more often than the WT samples. Taken together, these findings suggest that our previous observations might be influenced, at least in part, by differential odors that are accentuated among the lines once oxidative deterioration takes place. Additionally, our results suggest that nonbrowning potatoes, in addition to their extended shelf life, maintain their odor quality for longer periods of time than WT potatoes. To our knowledge this is the first report on the use of an animal model applied to the sensory analysis of a transgenic crop. PMID:21103333

Llorente, Briardo; Rodríguez, Vanina; Alonso, Guillermo D; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F

2010-11-17

330

Normal operating range of bacterial communities in soil used for potato cropping.  

PubMed

In this study, the impacts of six potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars with different tuber starch allocations (including one genetically modified [GM] line) on the bacterial communities in field soil were investigated across two growth seasons interspersed with 1 year of barley cultivation, using quantitative PCR, clone library, and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. It was hypothesized that the modifications in the tuber starch contents of these plants, yielding changed root growth rates and exudation patterns, might have elicited altered bacterial communities in the soil. The data showed that bacterial abundances in the bulk soil varied over about 2 orders of magnitude across the 3 years. As expected, across all cultivars, positive potato rhizosphere effects on bacterial abundances were noted in the two potato years. The bulk soil bacterial community structures revealed progressive shifts across time, and moving-window analysis revealed a 60% change over the total experiment. Consistent with previous findings, the community structures in the potato rhizosphere compartments were mainly affected by the growth stage of the plants and, to a lesser extent, by plant cultivar type. The data from the soil under the non-GM potato lines were then taken to define the normal operating range (NOR) of the microbiota under potatoes. Interestingly, the bacterial communities under the GM potato line remained within this NOR. In regard to the bacterial community compositions, particular bacterial species in the soil appeared to be specific to (i) the plant species under investigation (barley versus potato) or, with respect to potatoes, (ii) the plant growth stage. Members of the genera Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Rhodanobacter, and Dokdonella were consistently found only at the flowering potato plants in both seasons, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sporosarcina were observed only in the soil planted to barley. PMID:23220956

Inceoglu, Özgül; van Overbeek, Leo Simon; Falcão Salles, Joana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-12-07

331

Construction of a 10,000-Marker Ultradense Genetic Recombination Map of Potato: Providing a Framework for Accelerated Gene Isolation and a Genomewide Physical Map  

PubMed Central

An ultradense genetic linkage map with >10,000 AFLP loci was constructed from a heterozygous diploid potato population. To our knowledge, this is the densest meiotic recombination map ever constructed. A fast marker-ordering algorithm was used, based on the minimization of the total number of recombination events within a given marker order in combination with genotyping error-detection software. This resulted in “skeleton bin maps,” which can be viewed as the most parsimonious marker order. The unit of distance is not expressed in centimorgans but in “bins.” A bin is a position on the genetic map with a unique segregation pattern that is separated from adjacent bins by a single recombination event. Putative centromeres were identified by a strong clustering of markers, probably due to cold spots for recombination. Conversely, recombination hot spots resulted in large intervals of up to 15 cM without markers. The current level of marker saturation suggests that marker density is proportional to physical distance and independent of recombination frequency. Most chromatids (92%) recombined once or never, suggesting strong chiasma interference. Absolute chiasma interference within a chromosome arm could not be demonstrated. Two examples of contig construction and map-based cloning have demonstrated that the marker spacing was in accordance with the expected physical distance: approximately one marker per BAC length. Currently, the markers are used for genetic anchoring of a physical map of potato to deliver a sequence-ready minimal tiling path of BAC contigs of specific chromosomal regions for the potato genome sequencing consortium (http://www.potatogenome.net).

van Os, Hans; Andrzejewski, Sandra; Bakker, Erin; Barrena, Imanol; Bryan, Glenn J.; Caromel, Bernard; Ghareeb, Bilal; Isidore, Edwige; de Jong, Walter; van Koert, Paul; Lefebvre, Veronique; Milbourne, Dan; Ritter, Enrique; van der Voort, Jeroen N. A. M. Rouppe; Rousselle-Bourgeois, Francoise; van Vliet, Joke; Waugh, Robbie; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bakker, Jaap; van Eck, Herman J.

2006-01-01

332

Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.  

PubMed

Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed. PMID:21424096

Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

2011-01-01

333

In vivo characterization of skeletal phenotype of genetically modified mice.  

PubMed

Genetically modified mouse models provide an important tool for understanding of the roles of specific gene in skeletal growth, development, and aging. Appropriate study design is essential for characterization of skeletal phenotype of these mice. It is important to characterize the bone status of the different phases of skeletal development including the early rapid growth, attainment of peak bone mass, and age-related bone loss phases. In C57BL/6 strain mice, cancellous and cortical bone mass rapidly increases with age before 3 months of age, and reaches the peak cancellous bone mass at approximately 6-8 months of age, while cortical bone mass continuously increases until 12 months of age. Thereafter, age-related decrease in bone mass occurs. According to these observations, at least three different age groups need to be evaluated for bone status to cover the different phases of the life span: 1-3 months of age for rapid growth, 6-9 months for peak bone mass, and >12 months for aged phases. Furthermore, bone resorption and formation activities on all bone surfaces (periosteal, endocortical, intracortical, and cancellous) need to be evaluated. In this article, we briefly summarize our findings in the estrogen receptor-beta knockout (BERKO) and the P2X7 receptor (an ATP-gated ion channel) knockout mice. In BERKO female mice, bone status at 6, 13, and 21 months of ages was evaluated as compared with the wild-type littermate controls. We found that estrogen receptor-beta plays an inhibitory role in periosteal bone formation and longitudinal and radial growth during the growth period, whereas it plays a role in stimulation of bone resorption, bone turnover, and bone loss on cancellous and endocortical bone surfaces during the aging process. We also found that ER-beta knockout improves the survival rate between 6 and 21 months of age. In P2X7R knockout mice, bone status at 2, 5, 9, and 15 months of age was evaluated for both sexes as compared with their wild-type littermate controls. We found that P2X7R plays a role in stimulating periosteal and cancellous bone formation and inhibiting cancellous bone resorption during the growth period. PMID:15984421

Ke, Hua Zhu

2005-01-01

334

An Experiment on the Effects of Message Factors with Advertising for Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of genetically modified foods (GMF) in the marketplace has sparked a lively debate on the legal requirements for labelling of these products, especially in Australasia. Several studies confirm the initial negative connotations associated with these \\

Michelle Renton; David Fortin; Kevin Voges

335

Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Drosophila Brakeless: A Novel Modifier of Merlin Phenotypes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scribbler is a dominant second site modifier of the Drosophila Merlin tumor suppressor gene. This year we have described a signal transduction circuit among scribbler, Merlin and Cyclin E. Using genetic epistasis, we show that Merlin functions upstream of...

D. LaJeunesse

2004-01-01

336

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

337

Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluating the potential threats posed by advances in biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and synthetic biology remains a contentious issue. To better understand this issue, this study narrowed the scope of consideration in sev...

E. Tunia J. Ramsbotham J. Warner J. J. Valdes

2011-01-01

338

Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States,\\u000a accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking,\\u000a boiling, roasting, frying, steaming, and microwaving, allowing for a diversity of uses. Most people find potatoes to be an\\u000a agreeable food and

Shelley H. Jansky

2010-01-01

339

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

340

CONTROVERSY OVER GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS: THE GOVERNING LAWS AND REGULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modiüed Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modiüed. There are other con- cerns from some of the scientiüc world and some government ofücials and organizations suchasthe Food& Agricultural Organization(FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to

Kendy L. Keatley

2000-01-01

341

Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as

João Lúcio Azevedo; Welington Luiz Araujo

2003-01-01

342

Ethanol production by genetically modified strains of Saccharomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two polyploid yeast strains and two genetically manipulated yeast strains were subjected to anaerobic fermentations in whole corn mash and defined media. Carbohydrate utilization and ethanol production rates were investigated. Whilst the polyploid strains exhibited superior performance in the whole corn mash, the genetically manipulated strains were so in defined media with glucose as the substrate. The overall fermentation performance

C. J. Panchal; A. Harbison; I. Russell; G. G. Stewart

1982-01-01

343

Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking

A. Springer; Konstadinos Mattas; G. Papastefanou; Asterios Tsioumanis

2002-01-01

344

Detection of exogenous genes in genetically modified plants with multiplex polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect exogenous genes in genetically modified plants, we have designed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) system\\u000a that includes 7 primer pairs. With this method, the promoter, terminator, selection gene, reporter gene, and function gene\\u000a can be detected simultaneously. The concentrations of each primer were optimized according to AT\\/TA%. Several genes in plasmid\\u000a PBI121, genetically modified tobacco, and imported

Zhen Tao; Xing-Feng Cai; Sheng-Li Yang; Yi Gong

2001-01-01

345

Hazard identification and risk assessment procedure for genetically modified plants in the field—GMHAZID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safe application of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) requires a risk assessment prior to their proposed use. Based\\u000a on methods from the chemical industry, we developed a hazard identification procedure for the risk assessment of field tests\\u000a with genetically modified plants. This risk assessment method, GMHAZID, is carried out in the form of guided brainstorm sessions.\\u000a GMHAZID was tested with

Raija A. Koivisto; Kirsi M. Törmäkangas; Veli S. Kauppinen

2002-01-01

346

Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides,guidance,on how,to assess the safety of foods derived from,genetically modified,crops (GM crops); it sum- marises conclusions,and recommendations,of Working,Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed,approach,to safety assessment,starts

A. Ko Nig; A. Cockburn; R. w. r. Crevel; E. Debruyne; R. Grafstroem; U. Hammerling; I. Kimber; I. Knudsen; H. a. Kuiper; A. a. c. m. Peijnenburg; A. h. Penninks; M. Poulsen; M. Schauzu; J. m. Wal

347

A Case Study for Assessment of Microbial Community Dynamics in Genetically Modified Bt Cotton Crop Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted\\u000a to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin\\u000a (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used

Manisha Kapur; Ranjana Bhatia; Gunjan Pandey; Janmejay Pandey; Debarati Paul; Rakesh K. Jain

2010-01-01

348

Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Crops: Differentiated Risk Assessment and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risks and benefits of genetically modified crops have varying degrees of certainty. The U.S. regulatory\\u000a system evaluates a suite of hazards for the crops primarily by minimizing type I error. However, genetically modified crops\\u000a vary widely in their potential for environmental harm. We develop a differentiated risk assessment process using three models\\u000a that shift from primary emphasis on

David E. Ervinand; Rick Welsh

349

Dispersal and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape around Japanese harbors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The possibility of gene transfer from genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR) to its cultivated or wild relatives is of concern\\u000a since its commercial cultivation, because of its potential weediness and impact on the environment. Introgression of modified\\u000a genes can affect conservation of agricultural crops, because there are many cultivars and wild Brassicaceae that may cross\\u000a with genetically

Masaharu Kawata; Kikuko Murakami; Toyohisa Ishikawa

2009-01-01

350

Organic and Genetically Modified Soybean Diets: Consequences in Growth and in Hematological Indicators of Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets\\u000a to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n?=?10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically\\u000a modified soy group (GG), and a control group

Julio Beltrame Daleprane; Tatiana Silveira Feijó; Gilson Teles Boaventura

2009-01-01

351

Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both

G. Moulin

352

Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods.

Bahri Karli; Abdulbaki Bilgic; Bulent Miran

2008-01-01

353

Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the

A. Koniga; A. Cockburnb; R. W. R. Crevelc; E. Debruyned; R. Grafstroeme; U. Hammerling; I. Knudsenh; I. Knudsen; H. A. Kuiper; A. A. C. M. Peijnenburg; A. H. Penninks; M. Poulsen; M. Schauzu; J. M. Wal

2004-01-01

354

Planning Environmental Risk Assessment for Genetically Modified Crops: Problem Formulation for Stress-Tolerant Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientifically sound environmental risk assess- ment is required for crops derived from modern bio- technology (also referred to as genetically modified (GM)) priortounrestrictedreleaseinto theenvironment. The scientific principles underlying the environmental risk assessments completed for herbicide-tolerant and insect-protected GM crops commercialized to date are now being applied to crops currently under develop- ment that are modified for improved tolerance to

Thomas E. Nickson

2008-01-01

355

Safe and sustainable systems for food-grade fermentations by genetically modified lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a great increase in innovative improvements of lactic acid bacteria used in industrial food fermentations. In order to allow the genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to reach the market place, their novel genetic combinations should be selected, stably maintained, and expressed using food-grade systems that are safe, stable, and sustainable. This paper aims to review

Willem M. de Vos

1999-01-01

356

Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Products: An Evaluation of Developed Approaches and Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modifications of food products are gaining more and more interest, since they represent an effective and promising way to improve a wide range of food characteristics, including production, nutritive value, and shelf life. On the other hand, concern has been raised about the safety aspects of food derived through genetically modified products. Since 1990 continuously evolving guidelines and recommendations

M. Miraglia; R. Onori; C. Brera; E. Cava

1998-01-01

357

Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outcome of risk

Eric M. Hallerman; Anne R. Kapuscinski

1995-01-01

358

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use and enjoy their lands, giving rise to an

Neil Craik; Keith Culver; Norman Siebrasse

2007-01-01

359

The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or

Dorit Schuller; Margarida Casal

2005-01-01

360

Risk and Regulation: U.S. Regulatory Policy on Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, successive White House Administrations have shaped federal policy on genetically modified food and agriculture to (1) be product-based, (2) presume low risk from genetic modification, and (3) review GM products under existing federal standards. For two decades, the FDA, USDA, and EPA have erected a regulatory framework for GM products based on these three principles. This Article

Emily Marden

2003-01-01

361

EU–US Trade Disputes about Risk Regulation: The Case of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of crops increasingly employs genetically modified organisms worldwide. The nature and the probability of side and latent effects of the mass use of genetic engineering are, at present, unforeseeable. A trade-off between risks and benefits is therefore hard to define. The precautionary principle is a globally known though not undisputed approach to handling such uncertainties. Its application is

Arno Scherzberg

2006-01-01

362

Erratum: Invasion of transgenes from salmon or other genetically modified organisms into natural populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been widespread concern about the ecological and genetic effects of genetically modified organisms. In salmon and other fishes, transgenic growth hormone genes have been shown to have large ef- fects on size and various traits related to fitness. In this paper, I have shown by using a deterministic model that if such a transgene has

Philip W. Hedrick

2001-01-01

363

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues

Amar Chiter; J. Michael Forbes; G. Eric Blair

2000-01-01

364

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

2007-01-01

365

Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how consumers feel about GM banana biosafety risks and the

E. M. Kikulwe; J. H. H. Wesseler; J. Falck-Zepeda

2010-01-01

366

PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND ORGANIC FOODS AND PROCESSES: NORTH DAKOTA COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of genetically modified (GM) and organic food among North Dakota college students were elicited and compared. Participants responded to one of two survey instruments containing identical wording except for reference to genetic modification or organic, after reading a primer defining the term used in their instrument. Participants' indicated their level of agreement with statements in the construct areas of

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

2005-01-01

367

The Spiroplasma Motility Inhibition Test, a New Method for Determining Intraspecific Variation among Colorado Potato Beetle Spiroplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a major holarctic pest of solanaceous crops. Presumably, this insect spread from Solanurn species in central America to the Mexican plateau, and this was followed by multiple invasions of North America and Europe. Attempts are being made to control this beetle by using a genetically modified spiroplasma that occurs naturally in its gut.

KEVIN J. HACKETT; J. J. LIPA; G. E. GASPARICH; D. E. LYNN; M. KONAI; M. CAMP

1997-01-01

368

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

369

Genetic differentiation between eastern populations and recent introductions of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) into western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera, Psyllidae), annually causes significant losses in potato and tomato crops in eastern Mexico and the central United States, infestations in western North America have been historically rare. However, substantial populations appeared in 2001 in western North America and caused losses in tomato production exceeding 80%; losses in 2004 reached 50%. To determine if

Deguang Liu; John T. Trumble; Richard Stouthamer

2006-01-01

370

Use of seedling progeny tests for genetical studies as part of a potato ( Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum ) breeding programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diallel set of crosses, including selfs and some reciprocal crosses, was made between 15 parents chosen for their male fertility from those included in a tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) breeding programme at the Scottish Crop Research Institute. Seedling progeny tests were used to evaluate the progenies for non-race-specific resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in both foliage

J. E. Bradshaw; H. E. Stewart; R. L. Wastie; M. F. B. Dale; M. S. Phillips

1995-01-01

371

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

2007-01-01

372

Genetically modified multiuser detection for code division multiple access systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is considered. By combining the theory of multiuser detection (MUD) and evolutionary computation, a hybrid genetic engine is proposed, suitable for the detection of CDMA signals in the presence of MAI and ISI. The proposed hybrid detector structure can be extended

S. Abedi; R. Tafazolli

2002-01-01

373

Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

374

Suppression of Avian Influenza Transmission in Genetically Modified Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of chickens with avian influenza virus poses a global threat to both poultry production and human health that is not adequately controlled by vaccination or by biosecurity measures. A novel alternative strategy is to develop chickens that are genetically resistant to infection. We generated transgenic chickens expressing a short-hairpin RNA designed to function as a decoy that inhibits and

Jon Lyall; Richard M. Irvine; Adrian Sherman; Trevelyan J. McKinley; Alejandro Núñez; Auriol Purdie; Linzy Outtrim; Ian H. Brown; Genevieve Rolleston-Smith; Helen Sang; Laurence Tiley

2011-01-01

375

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect—or may affect—the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability requirement and, hence, liability under the tort of negligence. The article also examines how concern expressed by

Lara Khoury; Stuart Smyth

2007-01-01

376

Genetic Rearrangements Can Modify Chromatin Features at Epialleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogous to genetically distinct alleles, epialleles represent heritable states of different gene expression from sequence-identical genes. Alleles and epialleles both contribute to phenotypic heterogeneity. While alleles originate from mutation and recombination, the source of epialleles is less well understood. We analyze active and inactive epialleles that were found at a transgenic insert with a selectable marker gene in Arabidopsis. Both

Andrea M. Foerster; Huy Q. Dinh; Laura Sedman; Bonnie Wohlrab; Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid

2011-01-01

377

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

378

Reconfiguration of distribution systems by a modified genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a genetic algorithm based reconfiguration method is proposed to minimize the real power losses of distribution systems. The main innovation of this research work is that new types of crossover and mutation operators are proposed, such that the best possible results are obtained, with an acceptable computational effort. The crossover and mutation operators were developed so as

Marcos A. N. Guimaraes; Carlos A. Castro; Ruben Romero

2007-01-01

379

ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

380

Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts  

SciTech Connect

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1991-12-06

381

Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic\\u000a engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines\\u000a and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors,\\u000a biotechnology has the potential to make significant

John P. Morrissey; Ultan F. Walsh; Anne O'Donnell; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; Fergal O'Gara

2002-01-01

382

Genetically Modified Food: GM Crops: Time to Choose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this Nature Web focus explains, "just four countries account for 99% of the world's commercially grown transgenic crops," and other countries "have been stalling over whether to embrace transgenic agriculture, but won't be able to put off the decision for much longer." Readers can get an in-depth look at this issue with free features from Nature, including recent news articles, an interactive map of the world, and a link to Nature Reviews Genetics_ (also free of charge).

383

Influence of cooking and microwave heating on microstructure and mechanical properties of transgenic potatoes.  

PubMed

The transgenic potato clones of cultivar Irga with improved resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY(N)) were subjected to heat treatment in order to determine their technological quality. The technological quality was determined on the basis of differences between mechanical properties of unmodified potato and transgenic clones during cooking and microwave heating. The compression test was applied in order to evaluate the mechanical resistance of raw, cooked and microwave-treated potatoes. Compression resistance was expressed by fracture stress F (kPa), fracture strain D (mm/mm), and Young modulus E (kPa). The differences in microstructure of potato tubers (unmodified and modified) were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The observed differentiation in the mechanical properties of heat-treated potatoes was less connected with genetic modification but most of all with a kind of the process used. The heat processes caused a distinct decrease in mechanical resistance in all the examined tubers. However, the process of microwave heating resulted in more significant changes in mechanical properties of tubers than cooking. Deformation of parenchyma cells during cooking was directly connected with starch, gelatinisation and gel formation. Microwave heating affected significantly cellular water evaporation which resulted in intercellular failure, collapsing of cells, and limitation of starch gelatinisation. PMID:15285106

Btaszczak, Wioletta; Sadowska, Jadwiga; Fornal, Józef; Vacek, Josef; Flis, Bogdan; Zagórski-Ostoja, W?odzimierz

2004-06-01

384

Caecal fermentation in rats fed diets containing transgenic potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caecal fermentation in rats fed diets with 40% autoclaved potato tubers was examined. The potato tubers of the conventional cultivar, Irga, somaclone Irga, and four transgenic lines with genetically improved resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY N ) were compared. As regards the analysed indices, tubers of transgenic clone R1F (truncated gene coding PVY N

J. Ju?kiewicz; Z. Zdu?czyk; S. Frejnagel; J. Fornal

385

A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural\\u000a variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations\\u000a underlying the assessment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM) plant variety and\\u000a a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment

Hilko van der Voet; Joe N Perry; Billy Amzal; Claudia Paoletti

2011-01-01

386

Genetically modified wine yeasts and risk assessment studies covering different steps within the wine making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of gene technology to modify the genome of wine yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae began in the early 1990s. From a purely scientific point of view, many yeast constructs [genetically modified organisms (GMO)]\\u000a have been made so far, covering more or less all stages of the wine making process in which microorganisms or commercial enzymes\\u000a play

Manfred Grossmann; Falk Kießling; Julian Singer; Heidi Schoeman; Max-Bernd Schröder; Christian von Wallbrunn

2011-01-01

387

Metabolomics and the Detection of Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter describes current procedures for the safety assessment of genetically modified crops and foods. The concepts of\\u000a substantial equivalence, the conventional comparator, and intended and unintended effects are introduced. Most published examples\\u000a of substantial equivalence testing deal with crops that have been modified for insect resistance or herbicide tolerance. A\\u000a standard procedure has developed based on broadly similar field

Laetitia Shintu; Gwénaëlle Le Gall; Ian J. Colquhoun

388

Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been\\u000a altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries\\u000a require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical\\u000a methods for GMO

Dimitrios S. Elenis; Despina P. Kalogianni; Kyriaki Glynou; Penelope C. Ioannou; Theodore K. Christopoulos

2008-01-01

389

A Precautionary Approach to Genetically Modified Organisms: Challenges and Implications for Policy and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has revealed a broad range of views among scientists\\u000a and other stakeholders on perspectives of genetic engineering (GE) and if and how GMOs should be regulated. Within this controversy,\\u000a the precautionary principle has become a contentious issue with high support from skeptical groups but resisted by GMO advocates.\\u000a How to handle lack

Anne Ingeborg Myhr

2010-01-01

390

New trends in bioanalytical tools for the detection of genetically modified organisms: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the production of GM crops is increasing, especially\\u000a in developing countries. Thanks to new technologies involving genetic engineering and unprecedented access to genomic resources,\\u000a the next decade will certainly see exponential growth in GMO production. Indeed, EU regulations based on the precautionary\\u000a principle require any food containing more than 0.9% GM content

Elisa Michelini; Patrizia Simoni; Luca Cevenini; Laura Mezzanotte; Aldo Roda

2008-01-01

391

A PCR-microarray method for the screening of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to screen and to identify genetically modified organisms (GMO) is presented in this paper. It is based on the\\u000a detection of multiple genetic elements common to GMO by their amplification via PCR followed by direct hybridisation of the\\u000a amplicons on microarray. The pattern of the elements is then compared to a database of the composition of EU-approved

Sandrine Hamels; Thomas Glouden; Karine Gillard; Marco Mazzara; Frédéric Debode; Nicoletta Foti; Myriam Sneyers; Teresa Esteve Nuez; Maria Pla; Gilbert Berben; William Moens; Yves Bertheau; Colette Audéon; Guy Van den Eede; José Remacle

2009-01-01

392

Detection of genetically modified plant products by protein strip testing: an evaluation of real-life samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the presence of genetically modified plant material by the detection of expressed genetically engineered\\u000a proteins using lateral flow protein strip tests has been evaluated in different matrices. The presence of five major genetically\\u000a engineered proteins (CP4-EPSPS, CryIAb, Cry9C, PAT\\/pat and PAT\\/bar protein) was detected at low levels in seeds, seed\\/leaf powder and leaf tissue from genetically modified

Marc Van den Bulcke; Adinda De Schrijver; Daniele De Bernardi; Yann Devos; Guillaume MbongoMbella; Amaya Leunda Casi; William Moens; Myriam Sneyers

2007-01-01

393

Cytokine Secretion by Genetically Modified Nonimmunogenic Murine Fibrosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Recent investigations have demonstrated that the in vivo growth of weakly immunogenic murine tumors can be inhibited by genetic manipulations that enable them to secrete a variety of cytokines. Inasmuch as most human tumors fail to elicit a detectable host immune response we questioned whether the growth of a nonimmunogenic murine tumor could be inhibited by the secretion of cytokines. We have thus inserted the cDNA encoding for human IL-2 or TNF into the nonimmunogenic murine fibrosarcoma MCA 102. Tumor cells secreting IL-2 failed to grow in vivo despite normal in vitro growth. This growth inhibition required an intact immune system as tumors grew progressively in mice sublethally irradiated before tumor injection. Tumor inhibition was abrogated by the in vivo depletion, by specific mAb before tumor injection, of either CD8+ T cells or NK cells, but not CD4+ T cells. IL-2 secretion by tumor afforded a significant survival benefit to the animal, and IL-2-secreting tumor limited the growth of admixed nonsecreting parental tumor. Histologic evidence and FACS analyses revealed a dense lymphocytic infiltration of IL-2-secreting tumors composed of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In contrast, secretion of TNF failed to inhibit the growth of MCA 102, and similar lymphocyte subset depletions, or administration of specific anti-TNF mAb had no effect on the growth of TNF secreting MCA 102. In summary, these investigations demonstrated that the host response to this nonimmunogenic tumor can be markedly enhanced by the genetic manipulation of the tumor cells to secrete IL-2, but not TNF. This strategy has potential application for the development of immunotherapies for nonimmunogenic tumors.

Karp, Stephen E.; Farber, Alik; Salo, Jonathan C.; Hwu, Patrick; Jaffe, Gitie; Asher, Anthony L.; Shiloni, Eitan; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Mule, James J.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

2007-01-01

394

Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

Burr, Ben (Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept)

2006-03-16

395

Genetic modificationTransgene introgression from genetically modified crops to their wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenes engineered into annual crops could be unintentionally introduced into the genomes of their free-living wild relatives. The fear is that these transgenes might persist in the environment and have negative ecological consequences. Are some crops or transgenic traits of more concern than others? Are there natural genetic barriers to minimize gene escape? Can the genetic transformation process be exploited

Matthew D. Halfhill; Suzanne I. Warwick; C. Neal Stewart

2003-01-01

396

Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem formulation is the first step in environmental risk assessment (ERA) where policy goals, scope, assessment endpoints, and methodology are distilled to an explicitly stated problem and approach for analysis. The consistency and utility of ERAs for genetically modified (GM) plants can be improved through rigorous problem formulation (PF), producing an analysis plan that describes relevant exposure scenarios and the

Jeffrey D. Wolt; Paul Keese; Alan Raybould; Julie W. Fitzpatrick; Moises Burachik; Alan Gray; Stephen S. Olin; Joachim Schiemann; Mark Sears; Felicia Wu

2009-01-01

397

Opinion building on a socio-scientific issue: the case of genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school answered questionnaires, in which they expressed

M. argareta Ekborg

2008-01-01

398

Gaps, Inexperience, Inconsistencies, and Overlaps: Crisis in the Regulation of Genetically Modified Plants and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified products pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that is passive rather than proactive about risks, has difficulty adapting to biotechnology advances, and is highly fractured and inefficient-transgenic plants and animals are governed by at least twelve different statutes and five different agencies or services. The

Gregory N Mandel

2004-01-01

399

Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to

O. W. Liew; Jenny P. C. Chong; Anand K. Asundi

2005-01-01

400

Development of a Modified Gentamicin Resistance Cassette for Genetic Manipulation of the Oral Spirochete Treponema denticola  

PubMed Central

Herein, we report that a modified gentamicin cassette and a PCR-based method can be used for targeted mutagenesis of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola. This approach minimizes polar effects and spontaneous antibiotic resistance. Therefore, it can serve as a reliable tool for genetic manipulation of T. denticola.

Bian, Jiang; Fenno, J. Christopher

2012-01-01

401

Immunodiagnostic analysis of transgenic vegetative insecticidal protein in genetically modified crops\\/produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of development of insect resistant genetically modified (GM) crops and also to evaluate the consistency in the expression of toxin under field conditions, immunological assays are commonly being used. We have developed immunoassay to support labelling of vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A) based GM produce. The developed ELISA for measurement of Vip3A is a triple antibody sandwich procedure

Chandra K. Singh; Rajesh Kumar; Rajeshwar P. Sinha; Prakash C. Misra

2011-01-01

402

A Conjoint\\/Logit Analysis of Consumers' Responses to Genetically Modified Tofu in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data collected from a consumer survey of face-to-face interviews to determine consumer demand for genetically modified (GM) tofu attributes in Taiwan. Conjoint analysis using logit models reveals that, on average, brand is the most important attribute in terms of influence on consumers' preferences, followed by price, with GM content having the least influence. However, the analysis also reveals

Man-ser Jan; Tsu-tan Fu; Chung L. Huang

2007-01-01

403

Public awareness and perception of genetically modified\\/ engineered foods in Trinidad, West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study sets out to assess public awareness and perception of genetically modified (GM) foods in Trinidad, West Indies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Respondents (113) were interviewed by structured questionnaire on demographics, awareness, perceived risks, perceived benefits, labelling, availability of GM foods and responsibility for information. Findings – Some respondents (31.0 per cent) had not heard of GM foods. Most

Neela Badrie; Marynese Titre; Martha Jueanville; Faye DHeureux-Calix

2006-01-01

404

Toxicity Studies of Genetically Modified Plants: A Review of the Published Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals

José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

405

Unplanned Exposure to Genetically Modified OrganismsDivergent Responses in the Global South  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the divergent political responses to unplanned exposure to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Global South. Although scientific and domestic political considerations have some relevance to explaining different positions among developing countries, trade considerations appear to be a principal driver of GMO policy. This consideration is strikingly clear when we compare the different responses to unplanned GMO

Jennifer Clapp

2006-01-01

406

An Open Mind Wants More: Opinion Strength and the Desire for Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two opposing viewpoints regarding consumers' acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods and their desire for the labeling of these foods. Some suggest consumers are unconcerned and do not desire any GM labeling while others indicate the opposite. The mixed results may be because consumers are capable of making finer distinctions than surveys have called for, and appear to

Sonja Radas; Mario Teisl

2007-01-01

407

Should the United States Regulate Mandatory Labeling for Genetically Modified Foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public debate continues over whether the United States should regulate genetically modified (GM) foods by imposing a mandatory labeling policy. This paper develops a model that shows that a voluntary GM-labeling policy results in higher welfare than a regulated mandatory GM-labeling policy, if consumers can accurately read the signals in each market. We then develop an experiment that shows consumers

Wallace Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2002-01-01

408

Public Policy and Endogenous Beliefs: The Case of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

When individuals have limited information and are uncertain about the quality of a good, government policy, or the lack thereof, can serve as a signal to consumers about the likelihood of realizing alternatives states of nature. In this paper, we focus on a controversial beliefs about government intervention: the market for genetically modified food. Data from a mail survey were

Jayson L. Lusk; Anne Rozan

2008-01-01

409

Labeling genetically modified food in India: Economic consequences in four marketing channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, India proposed a draft rule requiring the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) foods and products derived thereof. In this paper, we use primary and secondary market data to assess the economic implications of introducing such a mandatory labeling policy for GM food. We focus on four products that would likely be the first affected by such a

Sangeeta Bansal; Guillaume Gruère

2010-01-01

410

Transplantation of genetically modified cells contributes to repair and recovery from spinal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of transplantation of fibroblasts genetically modified to produce brain derived neurotrophin factor (Fb\\/BDNF) on rescue of axotomized neurons, axonal growth and recovery of function was tested in a lateral funiculus lesion model in adult rats. Operated control animals included those in which the lesion was filled with gelfoam implant (Hx) and those in which the cavity was filled

Marion Murray; D Kim; Y Liu; C Tobias; A Tessler; I Fischer

2002-01-01

411

Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived riskof genetically modified food: an overview of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the riskof genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on riskperception as

Melissa L. Finucane; Joan L. Holup

412

Industrial applications of genetically modified microorganisms: gene technology at Chr. Hansen A\\/S  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of recombinant DNA technology to produce genetically modified microorganisms is one of the most important scientific advances of the 20th century. It has great potential in research because it allows the development of highly sensitive analytical procedures. It also has potential in industry, leading to processes and products that would be difficult to develop using conventional techniques. These

Claus Maxel Henriksen; Dan Nilsson; Sven Hansen; Eric Johansen

1999-01-01

413

Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil (87% oleic acid) were compared with those of regular sunflower (17% oleic acid), soybean, corn, and peanut oils during storage at 55°C and simulated deep fat frying at 185°C. Oxidative stability was evaluated by measuring the oxygen content and volatile compounds in the sample bottle headspace and peroxide

Stephanie A. Smith; Robert E. King; David B. Min

2007-01-01

414

Genetically Modified Crops: a US Farmer's Versus an EU Citizen's Point of View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been widely adopted by American farmers. Mainly two traits, herbicide resistance and insect resistance, constitute the area of GM crops. The commercial success of these crops derives from benefits in farm management and more generally from greater efficiency in production. European population surveys continue to show widespread opposition to GM crops and other applications of

Kathrine Hauge Madsen; Jesper Lassen; Peter Sandøe

2003-01-01

415

Ultrastructural Morphometrical and Immunocytochemical Analyses of Hepatocyte Nuclei from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

No direct evidence that genetically modified (GM) food may represent a possible danger for health has been reported so far; however, the scientific literature in this field is still quite poor. Therefore, we carried out an ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical study on hepatocytes from mice fed on GM soybean, in order to investigate eventual modifications of nuclear components of these

Manuela Malatesta; Chiara Caporaloni; Stefano Gavaudan; Marco B. L. Rocchi; Sonja Serafini; Cinzia Tiberi; Giancarlo Gazzanelli

2002-01-01

416

Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

Ekborg, Margareta

2008-01-01

417

Critical Success Factors for Firms in the Genetically Modified Foods Industry: A Managerial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of consensus that has emerged among various stakeholders as to whether or not the production and commercialisation of genetically modified foods (GMFs) should be encouraged is quite apparent and well documented in the literature. Research also suggests that where firms have opted to produce and commercialise these foods, often very disparate factors have accounted for their success. An

Clare DSouza; Ali Quazi; Robert Rugimbana; P. W. Senarath Yapa; Marthin Nanere

2007-01-01

418

Genetically modified crops in the European Union: regulatory conflicts as precautionary opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first genetically modified crops and foods to be approved for commercial use in the European Union have prompted intense controversy. Food retailers and processors have been forced to take up the concerns voiced by their customers. New networks of groups have formed to oppose the technology. In response to these pressures, regulators who approved the products have had to

Les Levidow; Susan Carr; David Wield

2000-01-01

419

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review

R. P. Freckleton; P. A. Stephens; W. J. Sutherland; A. R. Watkinson

2004-01-01

420

Genetically Modified Crops, Corporate Pricing Strategies, and Farmers' Adoption: The Case of Bt Cotton in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes adoption and impacts of Bt cotton in Argentina against the background of monopoly pricing. Based on survey data, it is shown that the technology significantly reduces insecticide applications and increases yields; however, these advantages are curbed by the high price charged for genetically modified seeds. Using the contingent valuation method, it is shown that farmers' average willingness

Matin Qaim; Alain de Janvry

2003-01-01

421

Evaluating environmental risks of genetically modified crops: ecological harm criteria for regulatory decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

European risk managers currently face substantial difficulty in evaluating the risks of genetically modified (GM) crops for biodiversity. This difficulty is not primarily due to a lack of scientific data (the data are abundant) but rather to a lack of clear criteria for determining what represents environmental harm. Establishing criteria that define harm is not a scientific process but a

Olivier Sanvido; Jörg Romeis; Achim Gathmann; Marco Gielkens; Alan Raybould; Franz Bigler

422

A qualitative multi-attribute model for economic and ecological assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have become a real option in modern agriculture. They offer advantages for agricultural production, but they also raise concerns about their ecological and economic impacts. Decisions about GM crops are complex and call for decision support. This paper presents a qualitative multi-attribute model for the assessment of ecological and economic impacts at a farm-level of GM

Marko Bohanec; Antoine Messéan; Sara Scatasta; Frédérique Angevin; Bryan Griffiths; Paul Henning Krogh; Martin Žnidarši?; Sašo Džeroski

2008-01-01

423

RESPONSE TO AN ASYMMETRIC DEMAND FOR ATTRIBUTES: AN APPLICATION TO THE MARKET FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is developed for examining the price and welfare effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. In the short run, non-GM grain generally becomes another niche product. However, more profound market effects are observed under some reasonable parameterizations. In the long run, consumer and producer welfare are usually greater after the introduction of GM technology. Nevertheless, in

Sergio H. Lence; Dermot J. Hayes

2001-01-01

424

Controversy over genetically modified crops in India: discursive strategies and social identities of farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversies over genetically modified crops (GM crops) in India involve what Gieryn (1999) refers to as ‘boundary work’ in the ongoing competition for credibility and trustworthiness among claimsmakers with opposing points of view. Discourse about GM crops involves extensive drawing of boundaries by actors including policymakers, technocrats, NGOs, scientists, industrialists, and farmers. The issues raised range from governmental processes

Tomiko Yamaguchi

2007-01-01

425

Responding Public Demand for Assurance of Genetically Modified Crops: Case from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops provide a classic example of risk characterised with uncertainty and ambiguity. This article analyses the risk management of GM crops in Japan as a case and investigates how the Japanese government has responded to the growing public demand for safety assurance of new agricultural and food varieties. It argues that, while the government realised the need

Mariko Nishizawa; Ortwin Renn

2006-01-01

426

Cracking export markets with genetically modified crops : What is the entry mode strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public and private policy responses to the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops have differed across countries and regions, resulting in market fragmentation that is in conflict with the entry mode strategy of standardisation that has dominated the food distribution system for a century. To deal with the new market reality, an alternative entry mode strategy must be established which

Grant E. Isaac; Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr

2004-01-01

427

Genetically Modified Crop Innovations and Product Differentiation: Trade and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology

Andrei Sobolevsky; GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan

2002-01-01

428

Commercial Production of Genetically Modified Crops: A Prognosis Towards Global Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The improvement of plant growth, crop productivity and supply of agricultural products in adverse environmental conditions are the major objectives of plant molecular biology research. Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have provided a unique and successful way of addressing some severe environmental constraints. Therefore, the production of GMCs has continued to cover increasing areas in the world despite the controversies

Kotchoni O. Simeon; Emma W. Gachomo; Maina Mwangi

429

Planting Decisions and Uncertain Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Crop Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists much uncertainty about consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods. If it happens that sufficient (insufficient) acres are planted under nonmodified seed to meet postharvest demand, then a price premium will not (will) emerge for the nonmodified varieties. A nonlinearity originates in the fact that a price premium may not be supported. This nonlinearity interacts with demand uncertainty to

Alexander E. Saak; David A. Hennessy

2002-01-01

430

Effect of Ionizing Radiation on the Quantification of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid spread of Genetically Modified (GM) crops globally and the mandatory labeling of GM food and feed imposed by many countries has led to the development of relevant detection techniques. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – based methods are presently the most effective and reliable for GM detection even in processed food products. This study evaluated the effect of electron

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Dora Koraki; Vassilia J. Sinanoglou; Amalia D. Karagouni; Kostas Sflomos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2008-01-01

431

Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from The Italian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible transfer and accumulation of novel DNA and\\/or proteins in food for human consumption derived from animals receiving genetically modified (GM) feed is at present the object of scientific dispute. A number of studies failed to identify GM DNA in milk, meat, or eggs derived from livestock receiving GM feed ingredients. The present study was performed in order to:

Antonella Agodi; Martina Barchitta; Agata Grillo; Salvatore Sciacca

2006-01-01

432

Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods with Health Benefits: A Study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in Germany in order to assess consumers' acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods with health benefits (bread, yohurt and eggs). Acceptability of GM foods increases when its source does not involve animal products such as eggs. Three factors have been identified as direct antecedents of the acceptance of GM foods: respondents' attitude towards biotechnology, health

José I. Rojas-Méndez; Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Rodrigo Claro-Riethmüller; Achim Spiller

2012-01-01

433

Genetically Modified Grain Corn and Soybeans in Quebec and Ontario in 2000 and 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses on the changes in the area of genetically modified (GM) grain corn and soybeans, comparing the year 2001 with 2000. In the 2001 growing season, total GM area increased significantly for both GM grain corn and soybean crops in Quebec and Ontario. The number of large farms seeding GM crops rose considerably, while the number of small-

Bernard Hategekimana

2002-01-01

434

Disaggregating consumer demands for organic and genetically modified foods using the Choice Modelling technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning consumer demands for genetically modified and organic food remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers perceive issues associated with food production such as food safety, environmental impacts or animal welfare. It is also unclear how consumers might value potential changes in those issues. This paper reports on research using the choice modelling technique to estimate

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2002-01-01

435

An integrated research framework to understand consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Given that the increased marketing of genetically modified (GM) food products and the attitudes of the public have a strong impact on the progress of this emerging gene technology, this study aims to shed light on the antecedents relating to the extent of both the adoption and the purchase intention of GM foods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This work is

Mei-Fang Chen

2008-01-01

436

Trust in Authorities Monitoring the Distribution of Genetically Modified Foods: Dimensionality, Measurement Issues, and Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a combined internet and mail survey in Germany the independence of indicators of trust in public authorities from indicators of attitudes toward genetically modified food is tested. Despite evidence of a link between trust indicators on the one hand and evaluation of benefits and perceived likelihoods of risks, correlation with other factors is found to be moderate on

Andreas Bocker; Giuseppe Nocella

2005-01-01

437

Are perceptions of ‘risks’ and ‘benefits’ of genetically modified food (in)dependent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research has revealed evidence of European Union (EU) citizens’ sceptical attitudes towards genetically modified food, there has been a limited focus on how individuals learn about the risks and benefits of GM food, along with the influence of information sources on the formation of both risk and benefits perceptions. Following a rational learning model, we examine the determinants

Elias Mossialos

2007-01-01

438

An Evaluation of the Behavioural Impact of Proposed Genetically Modified Labelling Provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian and New Zealand governments are in the process of regulating a mandatory labelling system for foods that are (or contain) genetically modified organisms (GM). A vocal perspective has placed pressure on authorities to provide for the concerns about GM food and in response the Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) was due to report to the Australian and New

Terry Macpherson; Wayne Binney; Zane Kearns

2000-01-01

439

A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last ten years, in accordance with the increased use of genetically modified (GM) foods for human and livestocks, a large number of feeding studies have been carried out. However, the evidence is still far from proving whether the long-term consumption of GM foods posses a possible danger for human or animal health. Therefore, this study was designed to

Aysun K?l?ç; M. Turan Akay

2008-01-01

440

Using ILP to Study the Presence of Genetically Modified Variants in Organic Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops in European agriculture has continued to increase during the last ten years. The possibility of GM crops mixing with conventional or or- ganic crops (e.g., by pollen being blown by wind) has become a delicate issue and the detection of GM crops in non-GM fields presents a chal- lenge. In this study

Aneta Ivanovska; Celine Vens; Saso Dzeroski

441

Genetically Modified Organisms: Rights To Use Commodity Names and the Lemons Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops have met some consumer opposition domestically and abroad. This opposition has resulted in variety market and policy reactions with a large potential to disrupt trade and to become a focus of international negotiations. In this paper we consider the spillover from adopters to the non-adopters and non-consumers of GM technology. In the absence of any (organizational) transaction

Richard Gray; Charles B. Moss; Andrew Schmitz

2004-01-01

442

Distinct Strategies Are Required to Suppress Antigen-specific Responses to Genetically Modified Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocytes and fibroblasts are potential targets of gene\\/cell therapy for genodermatoses. Immune elimination of genetically modified cells, however, presents a major impediment to effective therapy. Using ex vivo approaches to gene transfer, we have previously shown that expression of an antigen by either cell type in skin induces immune rejection of transplanted cells, although the nature of immune responses induced

Soosan Ghazizadeh; Li T Huang; Weibing Zhang

2012-01-01

443

Challenges and Opportunities for Global Civil Society: The Global Social Movement Opposed to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this thesis is to examine the relationship between global civil society and global governance using a case study of the global social movement opposed to genetically modified organisms in the European Union and the United States. This thesis argues that social movement actors will be most effective when they focus on a variety of targets including

Jessica Lise Edge

2006-01-01

444

Mapping social and environmental concerns and the acceptability of genetically modified organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous conflicting attitudes towards an object make both predicting and explaining behaviour a complex endeavour. This paper explores the hypothesis of social ambivalence (so called as well or approach-avoidance conflict) as a phenomenon influencing attitudes towards the environmental effects of the introduction of GMOs (Genetic Modified Organisms). If social ambivalence exists it would be suggestive of an interplay between rational

2011-01-01

445

Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco

2005-01-01

446

Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin in Mice by Genetically Modified Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined whether the secretion of erythropoietin (Epo) from genetically modified cells could represent an alternative to repeated injections of the recombinant hormone for treating chronic anemias responsive to Epo. Primary mouse skin fibroblasts were transduced with a retroviral vector in which the murine Epo cDNA is expressed under the control of the murine phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. \\

N. Naffakh; A. Henri; J. L. Villeval; P. Rouyer-Fessard; P. Moullier; N. Blumenfeld; O. Danos; W. Vainchenker; J. M. Heard; Y. Beuzard

1995-01-01

447

The program for phenotyping of genetically modified animals at AstraZeneca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mice offer a wide range of possibilities in preclinical drug discovery, e.g. for use in target identification, target validation and disease model generation. However, genomic modification and alteration in gene expression may cause unpredicted phenotypic alterations in the organism other than the intended ones. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of establishing the phenotype

Anna-Lena Berg; Mohammad Bohlooly-Y

2006-01-01

448

Ultrastructural analysis of pancreatic acinar cells from mice fed on genetically modified soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

No direct evidence that genetically modified (GM) food may represent a possible danger for health has been reported so far; however, the scientific literature in this field is quite poor. Therefore, we investigated the possible effects of a diet containing GM soybean on mouse exocrine pancreas by means of ultrastructural, morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses. Our observations demonstrate that, although no

Manuela Malatesta; Chiara Caporaloni; Luigia Rossi; Serafina Battistelli; Marco B. L. Rocchi; Francesco Tonucci; Giancarlo Gazzanelli

2002-01-01

449

Genetically modified plants and the 35S promoter: assessing the risks and enhancing the debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 35S promoter, derived from the common plant virus, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), is a component of transgenic constructs in more than 80% of genetically modified (GM) plants. Alarming reports have suggested that the 35S promoter might cause accidental activation of plant genes or endogenous viruses, promote horizontal gene transfer, or might even recombine with mammalian viruses such as HIV,

R. Hull; S. N. Covey; P. Dale

2000-01-01

450

Effects of genetically modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has been a topic of considerable public debate in recent years. GMPs hold great promise for improving agricultural output, but the potential for unwanted effects of GMP use is still not fully understood. The majority of studies addressing potential risks of GMP cultivation have addressed only aboveground effects. However, recent methodological

M. Bruinsma; G. A. Kowalchuk; J. A. van Veen

2003-01-01

451

Environmental risk and the precautionary principle. “Late lessons from early warnings” applied to genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risk associated with genetically modified organisms (GMO) implies that new approaches to risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are needed. In this paper we discuss the role of the precautionary principle in policy responses to GMO risk. We first discuss application of the criteria in the European Environment Agency report “Late lessons from early warnings: The precautionary

2004-01-01

452

Environmental Risk and the Precautionary Principle: “Late Lessons from Early Warnings” Applied to Genetically Modified Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risk associated with genetically modified organisms (GMO) implies that new approaches to risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are needed. In this paper we discuss the role of the precautionary principle in policy responses to GMO risk. We first discuss application of the criteria in the European Environment Agency report “Late lessons from early warnings: The precautionary

Iulie Aslaksen; Bent Natvig; Inger Nordal

2006-01-01

453

Effects of Feeding Rations with Genetically Modified Whole Cottonseed to Lactating Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition fromfeedingrationsthatcontaineddifferentsourcesof genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multipa- rous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square de- sign, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk

A. R. Castillo; M. R. Gallardo; M. Maciel; J. M. Giordano; G. A. Conti; M. C. Gaggiotti; O. Quaino; C. Gianni; G. F. Hartnell

2004-01-01

454

Competitors co-operating: establishing a supply chain to manage genetically modified canola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity preserving production and marketing (IPPM) systems are used extensively in the Canadian canola industry to segregate varieties with different traits from the commodity stream. This paper examines one use of identify preserved production and marketing systems for genetically modified (GM) canola. A number of transgenic herbicide tolerant (HT) varieties have been approved for release in Canada since 1995 but

Stuart J. Smyth; Peter W. B. Phillips

2001-01-01

455

Controversies Over the Adoption of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview of the Special Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the controversial issues surrounding the adoption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are addressed in this special issue of JAFIO. There is concern that due to institutional constraints the biotechnology gene revolution will not live up to its potential. The potential for GM crops in less-developed countries appears to be less than for developed nations. In the United States

Andrew Schmitz

2004-01-01

456

EXTERNALITIES AND THE SIX FACETS MODEL OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT: GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN AGRIBUSINESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Six Facets Model of technology management has previously only been applied to process innovation at the firm and the industry level. In this article, the model is applied to product innovation for the first time. In the context of genetically-modified organisms in the agribusiness industry, we examine radical product innovation through the Six Facets Model. We propose, based on

STEPHEN R. LUXMORE; CLYDE EIRÍKUR HULL

2010-01-01

457

Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most significant research findings in this time period include the fact that we have demonstrated that our genetically-modified pigskin grafts will perform as well human cadaveric allogeneic skin grafts as a temporary biologic cover for severe burn in...

D. H. Sachs J. C. Cetrulo

2010-01-01

458

A case of contested ecological modernisation: the governance of genetically modified crops in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological modernisation is a normative theory that explains why society's institutions and practices change in response to environmental consequences of industrial economies. It is also a term used to describe broader processes of change in environmental governance. In this paper, we use the second concept to explore the development of Brazil's governance of genetically modified (GM) or transgenic crops. We

Wendy E Jepson; Christian Brannstrom; Renato Stancato de Souza

2005-01-01

459

Consumer Choice of Genetically Modified Products: the Effect of Media Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study into the impact of negative and positive media content on the introduction of a new milk that has been genetically modified to eliminate cholesterol. A sample of 1008 consumers were presented with choice scenarios in which there were four purchase choices (existing, new, organic, no purchase) and randomly assigned to one of three media conditions:

Kate Owen; Jordan Louviere

460

Measuring The Attitudes Of Australian Food Manufacturers Towards Genetically Modified (GM) Foods - A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) foods varies amongst countries, Europeans generally show low levels of acceptance and US consumers are seen as divided in attitudes. As acceptance is essential for the adoption of new technologies in food production and the ultimate market success of new food products, this study, unlike prior Australian research, which has focused on consumer attitudes

Frances Woodside; Gabriel Ogunmokun; Leslie R. Brown

461

Virus-host co-evolution under a modified nuclear genetic code.  

PubMed

Among eukaryotes with modified nuclear genetic codes, viruses are unknown. However, here we provide evidence of an RNA virus that infects a fungal host (Scheffersomyces segobiensis) with a derived nuclear genetic code where CUG codes for serine. The genomic architecture and phylogeny are consistent with infection by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Totivirus. We provide evidence of past or present infection with totiviruses in five species of yeasts with modified genetic codes. All but one of the CUG codons in the viral genome have been eliminated, suggesting that avoidance of the modified codon was important to viral adaptation. Our mass spectroscopy analysis indicates that a congener of the host species has co-opted and expresses a capsid gene from totiviruses as a cellular protein. Viral avoidance of the host's modified codon and host co-option of a protein from totiviruses suggest that RNA viruses co-evolved with yeasts that underwent a major evolutionary transition from the standard genetic code. PMID:23638388

Taylor, Derek J; Ballinger, Matthew J; Bowman, Shaun M; Bruenn, Jeremy A

2013-03-05

462

Understanding governance and networks: EU–US interactions and the regulation of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

EU–US (European Union–United States) interactions in relation to the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been examined in detail in recent years. To do this scholars have tended to focus on a small number of high profile processes, such as the formal complaint of the US to the World Trade Organisation regarding the regulation of GMOs in the Europe.

Joseph Murphy; Helen Yanacopulos

2005-01-01

463

Genetically Modified Organisms and Trade Rules: Identifying Important Challenges for the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial debates associated with the establishment of international market access rules for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) illustrate a more general challenge facing the World Trade Organisation (WTO); to acceptably accommodate growing consumer concerns regarding a product's production and processing methods (PPM). This paper aims to clarify the debates by examining the foundations of and the procedures for the WTO's decision–making

Grant E. Isaac; William A. Kerr

2003-01-01

464

Genetically modified organisms, consumer scepticism and trade law: implications for the organisation of international supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rapid rates of technological improvements possible, using modern biotechnology, the product life cycle of new genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is likely to be short and, hence, those investing in their development will desire access to the widest international market possible. There is, however, considerable consumer scepticism regarding GMOs, which is being translated into both government policy responses and

William A. Kerr

1999-01-01

465

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction\\/membrane hybridization assay for detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve detection efficiency and result accuracy, four screening primer pairs, four identifying primer pairs, one common primer pair and corresponding probes were designed for the development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction\\/membrane hybridization assay (MPCR–MHA) for detection of the foreign genes insert in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). After detecting condition and parameter were optimized and determined, MPCR reactions were developed

Wenijn Su; Siyang Song; Minnan Long; Guangming Liu

2003-01-01

466

Are the Precautionary Principle and the International Trade of Genetically Modified Organisms Reconcilable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to find possibilities forreconciliation of the implementation of theprecautionary principle and the promotion ofinternational trade of genetically modified organisms,based on the assumption that a sustainabledevelopment is a right objective to strive for. Itstarts with an explanation of the background and therole of the precautionary principle, and describes inwhat way measures based on the precautionary principlecan easily lead

Mariëlle Matthee; Dominique Vermersch

2000-01-01

467

Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in Food: Comparison Among Three Different DNA Extraction Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vodret, B., Milia, M., Orani, M.G., Serratrice, G. and Mancuso, M.R., 2007. Detection of genetically modified organisms in\\u000a food: Comparison among three different DNA extraction methods. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 385–388

B. Vodret; M. Milia; M. G. Orani; G. Serratrice; M. R. Mancuso

2007-01-01

468

A simple procedure for quantification of genetically modified organisms using hybrid amplicon standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the genetically modified organism (GMO) content in foods and feeds by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires appropriate calibration standards. For this purpose, commercial certified reference materials calibrants (CRMCs) are commonly used. However, quantitative results depend on the actual GMO content of the standards, which may vary from lot to lot. Furthermore, commercial CRMCs are available

Andreas Pardigol; Stéphanie Guillet; Bert Pöpping

2003-01-01

469

Walking backwards into the future: Mori views on genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of research conducted among Mori people in New Zealand concerning their views on genetically modified organisms (GMO's). Participants invoked a number of traditional principles, values and beliefs that were used to assess and evaluate the risks and benefits posed by GMO's to Mori culture. Suggestions for a decision-making framework incorporating these principles and capable of

Roma Mere Roberts

470

The role of risk assessments in the governance of genetically modified organisms in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy abounds in the governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for use in agriculture, partly due to ideological differences. Technological optimism and the “shallow” and the “deep” ecology movements are three influential ideologies that are seen to differ both on value commitments and factual beliefs with respect to GMOs. Factual matters are clarified but not resolved by science, since the

Roger Strand

2001-01-01

471

Incommensurate risks and the regulator's dilemma: considering culture in the governance of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand's 1996 Hazardous Substance and New Organisms (HSNO) Act defines environmental effects as physical, social, and cultural. However, recent debates in this country about the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) revealed the Act's fault lines. Relying on probabilistic assessments of risk, New Zealand's GMO regulator, the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA), found itself unable to address adequately cultural

Terre Satterfield; Mere Roberts

2008-01-01

472

Suggestions for the Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing continuously and, accordingly, there is a great desire to evaluate the allergenic potential of components in our daily environment (e.g., food). Although there is almost no scientific evidence that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) exhibit increased allergenicity compared with the corresponding wild type significant concerns have been raised regarding this matter. In principle,

Armin Spök; Helmut Gaugitsch; Sylvia Laffer; Gabrielle Pauli; Hirohisa Saito; Hugh Sampson; Elopy Sibanda; Wayne Thomas; Marianne van Hage; Rudolf Valenta

2005-01-01

473

Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

474

Nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor for visual detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although screening of raw ingredients and food products for genetically modified organisms (GMO) may be accomplished by detecting either the exogenous DNA or the novel protein, DNA is the preferred analyte because of its superior stability during food processing. The development of DNA biosensors is of increasing importance due to the growing demand for rapid and reliable methods for GMO

Despina P. Kalogianni; Theodora Koraki; Theodore K. Christopoulos; Penelope C. Ioannou

2006-01-01

475

The debate over genetically modified organisms: scientific uncertainty and public controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversy over genetically modified organisms in the UK came to a head with the publication of three official reports in May 1999. A review of the three reports leads to the suggestion that the controversy is exacerbated in part by the conflation of three sets of issues: the underlying uncertainty of the physical processes involved, the nature of scientific

Linda Hadfield

2000-01-01

476

Community Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: a Difficult Relationship Between Law and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:The European Community legislator regulates the area of genetically modified organisms according to the precautionary principle, which implies keeping a distance from scientific results in decision-making. However, a positivist approach continues to exist within the same legislation. Paradoxically, this approach is promoted by the means of implementation of the precautionary principle. But to a large extent, it takes root in

Zeynep Kivilcim Forsman

2004-01-01

477

A global perspective on the utilization of genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate globally the use, desires and constraints associated with the development of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fisheries and aquaculture, a questionnaire was distributed internationally. The questionnaire focused on five main areas: (1) the current status of aquatic biotechnology, i.e. activities; (2) existing or proposed policies regulating the research, release, commercialization and patenting of GMO; (3) the level of

Devin M. Bartley; Eric M. Hallerman

1995-01-01

478

Screening genetically modified organisms using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex-PCR) coupled with a DNA microarray system simultaneously aiming at many targets in a consecutive reaction to detect a genetically modified organism (GMO). There are a total of 20 probes for detecting a GMO in a DNA microarray which can be classified into three categories according to their purpose: the

Jia Xu; Haizhen Miao; Houfei Wu; Wensheng Huang; Rong Tang; Minyan Qiu; Jianguo Wen; Shuifang Zhu; Yao Li

2006-01-01

479

Membrane based detection of genetically modified organisms in some representatives food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, DNA-based techniques became very common for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. For rapid and easy detection of GMOs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening methods, which amplify common transgenic elements, are applied in routine analysis. Incorporation of PCR and membrane method introduced in this study offer an alternative detection of GMOs. In this study, a

Yoke-Kqueen Cheah; Radu Son; Wong Vui Ling Michael Clemente

2006-01-01

480

Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods by DNA Amplification Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the different DNA amplification techniques that are being used for detecting genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods are examined. This study intends to provide an updated overview (including works published till June 2002) on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in GMO detection in foods. Some relevant facts on sampling,

VIRGINIA GARCÍA-CAÑAS; ALEJANDRO CIFUENTES; RAMÓN GONZÁLEZ

2004-01-01

481

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN FOOD - POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has implemented a set of strict procedures for the approval to utilise genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food or food ingredients. In addition, the European Union assures that the European consumer's rights for information are fully guaranteeed. Analytical methods are necessary in order to show compliance with labelling requirements that have been issued in order to be

VAN DEN EEDE; ANKLAM E

482

CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

483

A general multiplex-PCR assay for the general detection of genetically modified soya and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for the detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with

V. T. Forte; A. Di Pinto; C. Martino; G. M. Tantillo; G. Grasso; F. P. Schena

2005-01-01

484

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher

Theodoros H. Varzakas; G. Chryssochoidis; D. Argyropoulos

2007-01-01

485

Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed

Andrea Paparini; Vincenzo Romano-Spica

2004-01-01

486

Consumer acceptability of genetically modified foods with special reference to farmed salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM) farmed salmon as a focus for the research. The results identified a small group of “triers” - willing to try any GM food product, and a small group of “refusers” - rejecting the technology and derivative

Sharron Kuznesof; Christopher Ritson

1996-01-01

487

ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

488

International sources of environmental policy change in China: the case of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's agricultural biotechnology policy has undergone a profound transformation over the last decade, from a strongly promotional to a more precautionary approach. From the 1980s onwards, China invested heavily in biotechnology development and in the early 1990s emerged as the leading biotech country in the developing world. In the late 1990s, however, it halted the authorization of new genetically modified

Robert Falkner

2006-01-01

489

Attitudes about Genetically Modified Foods among Korean and American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, South Korea mandated labeling of foods con- taining genetically modified (GM) ingredients. The issue of labeling in the United States remains largely contentious due to uncertainty regarding consumer response to GM food content information. It is possible that information provided through labeling and recent negative press in Korea may have reduced acceptance of GM foods among Korean consumers.

Michael S. Finke; Heaseon Kim

490

The use of non-hypothetical experimental markets for measuring the acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings from a study measuring consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods are presented. The empirical data were collected in an experimental market, an approach used extensively in experimental economics for measuring the monetary value of goods. The approach has several advantages over standard approaches used in sensory and marketing research (e.g., surveys and focus groups) because of its

Sara R. Jaeger; Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2004-01-01

491

Trust in sources of information about genetically modified food risks in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of trust have been identified as an important element in the risk communication process. This research is concerned with establishing the degree of trust the general public has in various possible sources of information about the health effects associated with consuming genetically modified food. Participants were asked directly about the degree to which they would trust information about the

Stephen Hunt; Lynn J. Frewer

2001-01-01

492

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

493

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

494

Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how consumers could potentially react to the introduction of genetically modified food. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data, however, to date limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implications for policy. This paper contributes to the literature by

José M. Gil; W. Bruce Traill

2008-01-01

495

KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

496

Comparison of Consumer Responses to Genetically Modified Foods in Asia, North America, and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward genetically modified (GM) food products are complex and differ across cultures. This study uses consumer survey data to compare consumer attitudes towards GM food across Canada, China, Japan, Norway, and the United States. The comparisons are based on the significance of covariates included in country-wise estimations of willingness to pay for GM foods. The Canadian respondents were

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Thomas I. Wahl

497

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

498

Potential market segments for genetically modified food: Results from cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial success of genetically modified (GM) food may be improved with appropriately targeted marketing. To that end, data from a survey of supermarket shoppers in New Zealand were analysed with a cluster analysis. A six-cluster solution found three clusters with positive intentions to purchase GM apples and three clusters with negative intentions. Positive intentions appeared to result from either

William Kaye-Blake; Anna OConnell; Charles Lamb

2007-01-01

499

Trust in governance and the acceptance of genetically modified food in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assumes that trust is a major issue in the interaction between government, citizens and societal organizations. The central question in this paper relates to the specific determinants of public trust. A survey study is reported (n = 1019) which focuses on the role of trust in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Our expectation was that three

Jan Gutteling; Lucien Hanssen; Veer van der Neil; Erwin Seydel

2006-01-01

500

The consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified foods in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the factors that have influences upon benefit and risk perceptions of applying gene technology to food production, perceptions that may in turn determine the consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified (GM) foods in Taiwan. Results of structural equation modeling analysis give evidence that general attitude toward and trust in institutes and scientists performing gene manipulation have positive

Mei-Fang Chen; Hsiao-Lan Li

2007-01-01