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1

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

E-print Network

.), Integration of Insect-Resistant 195 Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs. © Springer ScienceChapter 7 The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars valuable process for developing new potato cultivars, but the commercialization of genetically modified (GM

Douches, David S.

2

Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are

R. PRIBYLOVA; I. PAVLIK; M. BARTOS

2006-01-01

3

Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However,\\u000a zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding\\u000a or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk\\u000a of age-related macular degeneration.

Achim Bub; Jutta Möseneder; Gerhard Wenzel; Gerhard Rechkemmer; Karlis Briviba

2008-01-01

4

Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops  

PubMed Central

There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

2005-01-01

5

A PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified potatoes by the gene ac 2 from Amaranthus caudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms have become a part of our everyday life. New modifications arise every year. The most of papers is focused on publication of detection protocols for genetically modified corn, soyabean, rape, or cotton. Minor modification, such as in potatoes attracts little attention. This work is based on developing an easy and cheap PCR method for the detection of

Radka Pribylova; Ivo Pavlik; Zdenka Rozsypalova; Milan Bartos

2006-01-01

6

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles.  

PubMed

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in protection from damage by all insect stages in the laboratory and in dramatic levels of protection at multiple field locations. Analysis of these genetically modified potatoes indicated that they conform to the standards for Russet Burbank potatoes in terms of agronomic and quality characteristics including taste. PMID:8507832

Perlak, F J; Stone, T B; Muskopf, Y M; Petersen, L J; Parker, G B; McPherson, S A; Wyman, J; Love, S; Reed, G; Biever, D

1993-05-01

7

Different Selective Effects on Rhizosphere Bacteria Exerted by Genetically Modified versus Conventional Potato Lines  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we assessed the actively metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of potato using two potato cultivars, i.e. the genetically-modified (GM) cultivar Modena (having tubers with altered starch content) and the near-isogenic non-GM cultivar Karnico. To achieve our aims, we pulse-labelled plants at EC90 stage with 13C-CO2 and analysed their rhizosphere microbial communities 24 h, 5 and 12 days following the pulse. In the analyses, phospholipid fatty acid/stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) as well as RNA-SIP followed by reverse transcription and PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis, were used to determine the bacterial groups that actively respond to the root-released 13C labelled carbonaceous compounds. Methodology/Principal findings The PLFA-SIP data revealed major roles of bacteria in the uptake of root-released 13C carbon, which grossly increased with time. Gram-negative bacteria, including members of the genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, were strong accumulators of the 13C-labeled compounds at the two cultivars, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were lesser responders. PCR-DGGE analysis of cDNA produced from the two cultivar types showed that these had selected different bacterial, alpha- and betaproteobacterial communities at all time points. Moreover, an effect of time was observed, indicating dynamism in the structure of the active bacterial communities. PCR-DGGE as well as clone library analyses revealed that the main bacterial responders at cultivar Karnico were taxonomically affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, next to Gluconacetobacter and Paracoccus. Cultivar Modena mainly attracted Burkholderia, next to Moraxella-like (Moraxellaceae family) and Sphingomonas types. Conclusions/Significance Based on the use of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia as proxies for differentially-selected bacterial genera, we conclude that the selective forces exerted by potato cultivar Modena on the active bacterial populations differed from those exerted by cultivar Karnico. PMID:23844136

Hannula, Silja Emilia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cássia; Salles, Joana Falcão; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2013-01-01

8

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

9

Is the titer of adipokinetic peptides in Leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes increased by oxidative stress?  

PubMed

The level of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) (Peram-CAH-I and II) in the corpora cardiaca and the hemolymph of Leptinotarsa decemlineata enormously increases in the adults fed on genetically modified potatoes containing either GNA lectin or Cry 3Aa toxin concomitant with increased oxidative stress in gut tissues. A similar enhancement of the AKH titer is achieved when the adults are injected with paraquat that evokes oxidative stress. On the other hand, an injection of exogenous AKH reduces oxidative stress biomarkers in the hemolymph by reducing protein carbonyls and enhancing reduced glutathione levels. These facts indicate that there is a feedback regulation between an oxidative stressor action and the level of AKH in the insect body, and that AKHs might be involved in the activation of an antioxidant protection mechanism. These results are to our knowledge, the first evidence for the involvement of AKHs in oxidative stress mitigation, in addition to a plethora of other roles. PMID:17353065

Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habustová, Oxana

2007-05-01

10

Storage stability of potato chips fried in genetically modified canola oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage stability of potato chips fried in regular (RCO), hydrogenated (HYCO), low-linolenic (LLCO), and high-oleic (HOCO)\\u000a canola oils was compared. Potato chips were fried in each oil over a 5-d period for a total of 40 h of frying. Chips from\\u000a frying day 1 and 5 were packaged and stored at 60°C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and

I. Petukhov; L. J. Malcolmson; R. Przybylski; L. Armstrong

1999-01-01

11

Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted compositional analysis was carried out on transgenic potato tubers of either cultivar (cv.) Record or cv. Desirée\\u000a to assess the potential for unintended effects caused by the genetic modification process. The range of transgenic lines analysed\\u000a included those modified in primary carbohydrate metabolism, polyamine biosynthesis and glycoprotein processing. Controls included\\u000a wildtype tubers, tubers produced from plants regenerated through tissue

Louise V. T. Shepherd; James W. McNicol; Ruth Razzo; Mark A. Taylor; Howard V. Davies

2006-01-01

12

Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients.  

PubMed

Targeted compositional analysis was carried out on transgenic potato tubers of either cultivar (cv.) Record or cv. Desirée to assess the potential for unintended effects caused by the genetic modification process. The range of transgenic lines analysed included those modified in primary carbohydrate metabolism, polyamine biosynthesis and glycoprotein processing. Controls included wildtype tubers, tubers produced from plants regenerated through tissue culture (including a callus phase) and tubers derived from transformation with the 'empty vector' i.e. no specific target gene included (with the exception of the kanamycin resistance gene as a selectable marker). Metabolite analysis included soluble carbohydrates, glycoalkaloids, vitamin C, total nitrogen and fatty acids. Trypsin inhibitor activity was also assayed. These cover the major compounds recommended by the OECD in their Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of Potatoes: Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-Nutrients and Toxicants (2002). Data was statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for individual compounds and, where applicable, principal component analysis (PCA). In general, targeted compositional analysis revealed no consistent differences between GM lines and respective controls. No construct specifically induced unintended effects. Statistically significant differences between wildtype controls and specific GM lines did occur but appeared to be random and not associated with any specific construct. Indeed such significant differences were also found between wildtypes and both tissue culture derived tubers and tubers derived from transformation with the empty vector. This raises the possibility that somaclonal variation (known to occur significantly in potato, depending on genotype) may be responsible for an unknown proportion of any differences observed between specific GM lines and the wildtype. The most obvious differences seen in GC-MS profiles were between the two potato varieties used in the study. PMID:16906442

Shepherd, Louise V T; McNicol, James W; Razzo, Ruth; Taylor, Mark A; Davies, Howard V

2006-08-01

13

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods  

E-print Network

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods and the Attack on Nature Stuart A. Newman of the annual soybean crop and 50 percent of the corn crop in the United States had come to be genetically and Arpad Pusztai, ``Effect of Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Expressing galanthus nivalis

Newman, Stuart A.

14

The Canon of Potato Science: 6. Genetic Modification and Cis and Transgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is it? Genetic modification is the act of inserting one or more agriculturally important genes into the genome of a potato plant by in vitro techniques and by using modified Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a natural gene transfer tool. The end product is a genetically modified (GM) plant. Important preconditions for transformation are in vitro regeneration and transformation ability of

E. Jacobsen

2007-01-01

15

Genetic modification of respiratory capacity in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial respiration was altered in transgenic potato (so- lanum tuberosum) lines by overexpression of the alternative oxidase Aoxl gene. Overexpressing lines showed higher levels of Aoxl mRNA, increased levels of alternative oxidase protein(s), and an ~~sual higher molecular weight PolYPePtide, which maY be a normal processing\\/modification intermediate. Evidence suggests that the alternative oxidase protein is further processed\\/modified beyond removal of

Carrie Hiser; Philipp Kapranov; Lee Mclntosh

1996-01-01

16

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Through 2003 there have been more than 38 trillion GM [genetically modified] plants grown in the U.S." , and "GM plants are the most deeply studied and understood (genetically, physiological, and ecologically) plants ever grown anywhere. These two statements, presented by the author, set the stage...

17

The canon of potato science. . . 50 topics in potato science that every potato scientist should know: 1) Genetic diversity and gene banks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a compilation of invited reviews on 50 key potato science topics to celebrate the 50 anniversary of the journal Potato Research published by the European Potato Association. The article in question reviews potato genetic diversity and gene banks. It presents basic aspects of the mission an...

18

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

19

Genetic Modifiers of Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Genetic modifiers make an important contribution to neurological disease phenotypes. Significant progress has been made by studying genetic modifiers in model organisms. The ability to study complex genetic interactions in model systems contributes to our understanding of the genetic factors that influence neurological disease. This will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies and personalized treatment based on genetic risk. PMID:21251811

Kearney, Jennifer A.

2011-01-01

20

Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

21

GENETIC MANIPULATION FOR ENHANCING CALCIUM CONTENT IN POTATO TUBER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased calcium (Ca) in potatoes may increase the production rate by enhancing tuber quality and storability. Additionally, increased Ca levels in important agricultural crops may help ameliorate the incidence of osteoporosis. However, the capacity to alter Ca levels in potato tubers through genet...

22

Quantifying the expression of potato genetic diversity in the high Andes through growth analysis and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop growth analysis and modeling based on a slightly modified version of the LINTUL model was used for the assessment of the effect of genetic diversity, as expressed by differences in characteristics such as ploidy, parentage and other specific traits, on the growth and yield responses of Andean potatoes to agroecological conditions in Bolivia. The aim of the present study

Bruno Condori; Robert J. Hijmans; Roberto Quiroz; Jean-Franccois Ledent

2010-01-01

23

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

24

Genetic diversity of potato virus Y complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus Y (PVY) has re-emerged as a significant problem in all potato-producing areas, including North America. PVY exists as a complex of strains producing a range of disease symptoms in various potato cultivars leading to yield reduction, and some of these strains are known to affect tuber qu...

25

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

26

Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

27

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

28

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries  

E-print Network

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries ­ the hybridization potential ................................................. 118 #12;General introduction 5 General introduction Hybridization and genetically modified economic, the introduction of genetically modified (GM) economic plants has raised questions about the potential

Amrhein, Valentin

29

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand ...

30

Genetic analysis of pigmented tuber flesh in potato.  

PubMed

Interest in anthocyanin-pigmented potato tuber flesh is increasing. To genetically map and characterize loci that influence this trait, diploid potato clone 10618-01, which has partially pigmented flesh, was crossed with diploid 320-02, which has white flesh. Almost all progeny exhibited purple coloration in the flesh, with some clones having only a small percentage of tissue pigmented, other clones having most tissue pigmented, and the majority of clones showing intermediate color phenotypes. The two parents and 228 progeny were genotyped with 493 AFLP, 8 CAPS, and 13 SSR markers. QTLs influencing extent of flesh pigmentation were detected on chromosomes 5, 8, and 9. The potato homolog of Petunia an1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, was found to co-localize with the QTL on chromosome 9. A CAPS marker based on this gene was used to evaluate a collection of 21 tetraploid potato clones with highly or fully pigmented red or purple flesh, as well as 53 cultivars with white or yellow flesh. All 21 pigmented-flesh clones shared a marker allele that was present in only 21 of the 53 white and yellow clones, suggesting that a common bHLH allele contributes toward, although it is clearly not sufficient for, highly or fully pigmented tuber flesh in cultivated potato. PMID:19363602

Zhang, Yongfei; Jung, Chun Suk; De Jong, Walter S

2009-06-01

31

Genetic structure and molecular variability of potato virus M populations.  

PubMed

To investigate the genetic diversity of potato virus M (PVM; genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae), the complete nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of 30 PVM isolates from a major potato-growing region in Iran were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of these Iranian PVM isolates together with those available in the GenBank database suggested two divergent evolutionary lineages that did not reflect the origin of the isolates, and these were designated as PVM-o and PVM-d. Examination of the genetic variability of the coat protein of Iranian isolates and their counterparts whose sequences are available in the Genbank database revealed 16 genotype groups in the PVM population. Analysis of the synonymous-tononsynonymous ratio showed strong purifying selection in the CP gene in the genotype groups of divergent clades. PMID:24658780

Tabasinejad, Fatemeh; Jafarpour, Behrooz; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Siampour, Majid; Rouhani, Hamid; Mehrvar, Mohsen

2014-08-01

32

Effect of antiviral genetical modification on softening of potato tubers during cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the influence of genetical modification on potato tubers should include also an estimation of their technological usability. Potato tubers of 15 clones of cultivar Irga transformed with viral genome sequences in order to improve their resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) were examined. The effect of cooking on tissue texture, expressed by fracture

Jadwiga Sadowska; Josef Vacek; Józef Fornal; W?odzimierz Zagórski-Ostoja

2005-01-01

33

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

34

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

35

Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

36

Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

37

Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating the Potato Genome with Genetic and Physical Maps  

PubMed Central

The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker?based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal “pseudomolecules”. PMID:24062527

Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D’Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S.; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A.; Hamilton, John P.; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J.; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E.; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E.; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M. E.; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J.

2013-01-01

38

Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato: integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps.  

PubMed

The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker-based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal "pseudomolecules". PMID:24062527

Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A; Hamilton, John P; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J

2013-11-01

39

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

40

Screening for resistance against the wart fungus Synchytrium endobioticum in potato seedlings with a modified Spieckermann method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spieckermann method of testing potatoes for resistance against potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Perc.) was modified by using the plant growth regulator Cycocel to cause early initiation of tubers from potato seedlings and to allow maintenance of the plants in small containers (e.g. ‘Jiffy pellets’) until symptom expression. Less space, time and much less inoculum are needed in comparison

F. Frey

1980-01-01

41

Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

2014-09-15

42

Genetically modified Plasmodium parasites as a protective  

E-print Network

.............................................................. Genetically modified Plasmodium that are only expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite4,5 . Here, we show by reverse genetics is sustained and stage specific. Our findings demonstrate that a safe and effective, genetically attenuated

Arnold, Jonathan

43

Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

44

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

45

The effect of consumer risk perceptions on the propensity to purchase genetically modified foods in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates consumer purchase propensity for genetically modified (GM) food products in Romania, shedding light on consumer preferences in developing Eastern European nations. Results based on a bivariate probit model of purchase propensity for GM sunflower oil and table potatoes show that consumers in Romania are generally opposed to GM food consumption, similar to consumers in Western Europe, but

Kynda R. Curtis; Klaus Moeltner

2007-01-01

46

A SURVEY OF GENETIC VARIATION IN STREPTOMYCES ISOLATES CAUSING POTATO COMMON SCAB IN THE UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common scab is a serious disease of potatoes and other root and tuber crops, affecting the quality and market value of the crop. The disease is caused by a genetically complex group of gram positive soil bacteria in the genus Streptomyces. Although common scab occurs wherever potatoes are grown in t...

47

Genetic Consequences of Tuber Versus Seed Sampling in Two Wild Potato Species Indigenous to the USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild potatoes reproduce in the wild (in situ) clonally by tubers or sexually by seeds. This study used model populations to assess the genetic consequences of sampling in situ tubers or in situ seeds for two indigenous potato species of the USA, Solanum stoloniferum PI 564039 (sto) and Solanum james...

48

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

49

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism or recombinant DNA technology. In biomedical sciences, genetically modified animals are typically generated

Sibille, Etienne

50

[Applications of genetically modified animals].  

PubMed

The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2009-01-01

51

Pesticide contamination has little effect on the genetic diversity of potato species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous study examining the effects of agrichemicals on the reproductive capacity of potato species revealed that the pesticide carbofuran negatively influenced flowering duration and pollen viability. These changes could limit reproductive ability non-randomly, modify allelic frequencies, and ...

52

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

53

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

54

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

55

Societal aspects of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and

L. J. Frewer; J. Lassen; B. Kettlitz; J. Scholderer; V. Beekman; K. G. Berdal

2004-01-01

56

Comparative analysis of population genetic structure of Potato virus Y from different hosts.  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequences of P3 and pipo genes of Potato virus Y (PVY) from potato and tobacco were compared to investigate the effect of hosts on the population genetic structure. Meanwhile, mutation, natural selection and gene flow were evaluated to determine evolutionary forces responsible for the population genetic dynamics. The fixation indices of population differentiation (FST) of PVY from tobacco and potato were 0.116 and 0.120, respectively with significant difference, suggesting a moderate genetic differentiation between the two populations. Genetic variation analysis showed that nucleotide identities in P3 and pipo genes among the viral isolates from tobacco were respectively in the range of 85.2%-100% and 76.5%-100% while that from potato were respectively in the range of 95.7%-100% and 93.0%-100%, indicating higher genetic variation in PVY from tobacco than that from potato. Moreover, purifying selection was detected on the majority of polymorphic sites within P3 gene, suggesting that most of mutations in the gene were harmful and consequently being eliminated by natural selection. Conversely, positive selection was detected on two polymorphic sites, suggesting that these two mutations were beneficial to PVY. Neither purifying nor positive selection was detected in pipo gene, indicating neutral evolution of the gene. The values of gene flow (Nm) between PVY populations from tobacco and potato in P3 and pipo genes were 1.91 and 1.83, respectively, suggesting strong gene flow also contributes significantly to the population genetic dynamics of PVY population. In summary, this study indicates there was a significant genetic variation in PVY hosted by tobacco and potato, and mutation, natural selection and gene flow all contribute to the genetic diversity and population dynamic of the virus. PMID:25787004

Fei, Chang; Wenchao, Zou; Fangluan, Gao; Jianguo, Shen; Jiasui, Zhan

2015-03-20

57

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens  

E-print Network

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens Goods: Biological Substances, Category B (BSCB), Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMMO) and Exempt · Individuals wishing to ship Biological Substances Category B (BSCB) and/or Genetically Modified

Jia, Songtao

58

Genetic diversity of potato landraces from northwestern Argentina assessed with simple sequence repeats (SSRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andean potato varieties are cultivated in the northwest of Argentina and constitute the most important staple food for the\\u000a local farmers. The genetic diversity of 155 accessions conserved at the Genebank of Balcarce (INTA) was tested using four\\u000a microsatellites. Three commercial potato varieties of Tuberosum group and one accession of Curtilobum group were used as outgroups.\\u000a The presence of bands

Verónica Nilda Ispizúa; Irma Rosana Guma; Sergio Feingold; Andrea Martina Clausen

2007-01-01

59

Genetic diversity of thiamine and folate in primitive cultivated and wild potato (Solanum) species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofortification of staple crops like potato via breeding is an attractive strategy to reduce human micronutrient deficiencies. A prerequisite is metabolic phenotyping of genetically diverse material which can be used as parents in breeding programs. Thus, the natural genetic diversity of thiamine a...

60

Genetically modified crops deserve greater ecotoxicological scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians are keen to remind us that history tends to rhyme, even if it does not repeat itself. In a historical context, the story of today’s genetically modified (GM) crops resembles that of the synthetic organic insecticides beginning circa the second half of the last century. In practice, GM crops include crop cultivars that have been modified by incorporating one

Nicolas Desneux; Julio S. Bernal

2010-01-01

61

Splicing regulation as a potential genetic modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases are associated with profound phenotypic variability, which is affected strongly by genetic modifiers. The splicing machinery could be one such modifying system, through a mechanism involving splicing motifs and their interaction with a complex repertoire of splicing factors. Mutations in splicing motifs and changes in levels of splicing factors can result in different splicing patterns. Changes in the

Malka Nissim-Rafinia; Batsheva Kerem

2002-01-01

62

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

63

Self modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Parity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying CGP (SMCGP) is a developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming(CGP). It differs from CGP by including primitive functions which modify the pro- gram. Beginning with the evolved genotype the self-modifying functions produce a new program (phenotype) at each iteration. In this paper we have applied it to a well known digital circuit building problem: even-parity. We show that

Simon Harding; Julian Francis Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2009-01-01

64

Genetically modified mouse models in cancer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified animals represent a resource of immense potential for cancer research. Classically, genetic modifications\\u000a in mice were obtained through selected breeding experiments or treatments with powerful carcinogens capable of inducing random\\u000a mutagenesis. A new era began in the early 1980s when genetic modifications by inserting foreign DNA genes into the cells of\\u000a an animal allowed for the development of

Javier Santos; Pablo Fernández-Navarro; María Villa-Morales; Laura González-Sánchez; José Fernández-Piqueras

2008-01-01

65

Genetic stability in potato germplasm for resistance to root galling caused by the powdery scab pathogen spongospora subterranea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spongospora subteranea, the causal agent of potato powdery scab is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Little is known about the genetic basis of resistance to this disease. The present study tested the hypothesis that potato genotypes with stable genetic resistance to "Spongospora root galli...

66

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

67

Nanostructural morphology of plasticized wheat gluten and modified potato starch composites: relationship to mechanical and barrier properties.  

PubMed

In the present study, we were able to produce composites of wheat gluten (WG) protein and a novel genetically modified potato starch (MPS) with attractive mechanical and gas barrier properties using extrusion. Characterization of the MPS revealed an altered chain length distribution of the amylopectin fraction and slightly increased amylose content compared to wild type potato starch. WG and MPS of different ratios plasticized with either glycerol or glycerol and water were extruded at 110 and 130 °C. The nanomorphology of the composites showed the MPS having semicrystalline structure of a characteristic lamellar arrangement with an approximately 100 Å period observed by small-angle X-ray scattering and a B-type crystal structure observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis. WG has a structure resembling the hexagonal macromolecular arrangement as reported previously in WG films. A larger amount of ?-sheets was observed in the samples 70/30 and 30/70 WG-MPS processed at 130 °C with 45% glycerol. Highly polymerized WG protein was found in the samples processed at 130 °C versus 110 °C. Also, greater amounts of WG protein in the blend resulted in greater extensibility (110 °C) and a decrease in both E-modulus and maximum stress at 110 and 130 °C, respectively. Under ambient conditions the WG-MPS composite (70/30) with 45% glycerol showed excellent gas barrier properties to be further explored in multilayer film packaging applications. PMID:25629918

Muneer, Faraz; Andersson, Mariette; Koch, Kristine; Menzel, Carolin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Plivelic, Tomás S; Kuktaite, Ramune

2015-03-01

68

Genetically modified mice and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition in transgenic and knockout mice is preferentially assessed by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Awareness is growing, however, that the putative cognitive deficits observed using such a paradigm may be biased by the genetic background and behavioral peculiarities of the specific animals used. Recent progress in cognitive research includes new behavioral tests and refined analysis of performance

Hans-Peter Lipp; David P Wolfer

1998-01-01

69

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

70

Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

Wells, Dominic J

2010-01-01

71

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene

Farid E. Ahmed

2002-01-01

72

Frankenfoods? The Debate Over Genetically Modified Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This discussion case, in which a university research laboratory is vandalized by environmental activists opposed to genetic engineering, focuses on the science and ethics of genetically modified crops. Students consider both the risks and benefits of biotechnology and explore the positions of various stakeholders, including environmentalists, conservationists, agricultural businesses, research scientists, and farmers. Originally written for a vegetable crops course, the case would be appropriate for a wide variety of courses in which biotechnology is discussed.

Bill Rhodes

2001-01-01

73

Genetically engineered resistance to potato virus X in four commercial potato cultivars.  

PubMed

The genes for the capsid protein (CP) and the 8K movement protein of PVX were introduced into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and expressed under the control of CaMV 35S promoter using a binary vector andAgrobacterium tumefaciens. Four commercial potato cultivars (Russet Burbank, Shepody, Desirée and Bintje) have been efficiently transformed. Eleven independent transgenic clones, with CP expression levels higher than 0.05% of the soluble leaf proteins, were analyzed for resistance to inoculation with PVX (5 and 50µg/ml). The resistance of the transgenic plants to PVX was observed with the lower titer of virus inoculation (5 µg/ml) but not with higher titer (50 µg/ml). A significant reduction in the accumulation of virus in the inoculated transgenic potato plants has been observed under greenhouse and field conditions. Furthermore, the CP gene is very stable and is transferred to new plants originated from stem cuttings or from tubers. The transgenic plants appeared to be phenotypically identical to the nontransformed controls. PMID:24185662

Xu, H; Khalilian, H; Eweida, M; Squire, S; Abouhaidar, M G

1995-01-01

74

Genetic variability in mineral content of potato tubers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contents of eight mineral constituents in the tuber of potato genotypes in Tri-State and Western Regional trials grown at different locations were tested. Tubers were washed free of soil, cleaned with a 1N HCl bath, sliced with skin on, air dried, ground to a fine powder, and wet-ashed in 12 N n...

75

Genetic diversity of the potato cyst nematode in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida (Stone) originate from the Andes region in South America and have been introduced into Western Europe since 1850. Both species are successful colonizers. Once primary founders have established vital populations, an area is rapidly colonized by secondary founding events. The mode of spread results in patchy distribution patterns. Analyses

R. T. Folkertsma

1997-01-01

76

Genetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

77

Introduction to Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

78

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Transgenic potato plants can be used to evaluate  

E-print Network

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Transgenic potato plants can be used to evaluate stability of transgenic plants in plant breeding. This includes gene sta- bility in somatic tissues of the plant during plants were used to evaluate the stability of the phenotypic marker gene rolC during the life cycle

Boyer, Edmond

79

Genetically Modified Crops: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supporters of genetic engineering point to the potential of genetically modified (GM) crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. But some concerned groups argue that the risks of GM crops may outweigh their benefits. These groups urge avoiding GM crops, or at least subjecting them to more rigorous government scrutiny. Without taking sides, this module shows how to use the issues surrounding GM crops as a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science and genetics and how science and technology interact and influence each other in our society.

Environmental Literacy Council

2007-05-16

80

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

81

The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive

Matin Qaim

2009-01-01

82

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable

Keith T. Atherton

2002-01-01

83

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

84

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

85

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

86

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

87

Retailing and risk society: genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the social environment experienced by UK food retailers regarding the marketing of genetically modified (GM) foodstuffs. Beck’s notion of risk society provides a critical foundation for analysing retail organisations’ decision making under conditions of “post-Enlightenment contemporary irrationality”. He advocates “understanding and conceptualisation” of “… insecurities of the contemporary spirit …”, arguing of these that it is “… ideologically cynical

Richard Pearce; Maria Hansson

2000-01-01

88

Genetically modified foods: the effect of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2005-01-01

89

Toward Rational Regulation of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified food pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that unnecessarily exposes society and the environment to adverse risks of biotechnology and introduces numerous inefficiencies into the regulatory system. These risks and inefficiencies include gaps in regulation, duplicative and inconsistent regulation, unnecessary regulatory expense, agencies acting outside

Gregory N. Mandel

2006-01-01

90

Chinese gatekeeper perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of food distribution gatekeepers in China regarding likely acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by Chinese consumers. It also aims to consider policy implications for food exporting countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory approach using in-depth interviews was adopted. Key informants of a sample of 20 companies in five main

John G. Knight; Hongzhi Gao

2009-01-01

91

The patenting of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property protection, including patents, is a critical factor underpinning investment and progress in the development of genetically modified foods. The GATT agreement made suggestions for the harmonization of patent laws and also made provisions for the avoidance of discrimination based on place of invention. However, plant and animal ‘varieties’ are currently not patentable. Much of the debate concerns what

Hilary Newiss

1998-01-01

92

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

93

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

94

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

95

ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

96

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensification of agriculture has provided cheaper more plentiful food, but has also caused declines in farm- land wildlife. The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may exacerbate this, or offer new ways of mitigating anthropogenic impacts. The potential conse- quences of the introduction of GM crops have been stud- ied for over a decade, since commercialization. Although the specific

Rosemary S Hails

2009-01-01

97

Trade Conflict Over Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the USA, seconded by Argentina and Canada, initiated litigation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union's regulatory policy for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The three plaintiffs claimed that the EU's GMO policy was creating illegal trade restrictions. Specifically, they argued (i) that the EU had implemented a de facto moratorium on approval of new biotech

Thomas Bernauer; Philipp Aerni; Kevin Gallagher

98

Release of genetically modified organisms: precautionary legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the debates surrounding the drafting and passage through the UK Parliament of the Environmental Protection Bill, Part VI, regarding the potential hazards arising from release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Both the previous voluntary and the current statutory systems have been precautionary (or proactive) in their approach to risk regulation.The EPA establishes a framework for guiding decisions

Les Levidow; Joyce Tait

1992-01-01

99

What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle

Keith G. Davies

2001-01-01

100

Genetic variation for bacterial wilt resistance in a population of tetraploid potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variance components and heritability were estimated for resistance to bacterial wilt in a population of tetraploid potato with resistance derived from several specific sources. Both additive and non-additive variance components were significant. Their relative magnitudes indicated the importance of non-additive gene action in the genetic control of the resistance. Narrow-sense heritability was relatively low for both disease index and

Pham X. Tung

1992-01-01

101

Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods.  

PubMed

Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene sequences is not available, new approaches, such as near-infrared spectrometry, might tackle the problem of detection of non-approved genetically modified (GM) foods. The efficiency of screening, identification and confirmation strategies should be examined with respect to false-positive rates, disappearance of marker genes, increased use of specific regulator sequences and the increasing number of GM foods. PMID:11943377

Ahmed, Farid E

2002-05-01

102

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

PubMed

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293

Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

2006-05-01

103

Genetic diversity of the ordinary strain of potato virus Y (PVY) and origin of recombinant PVY strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ordinary strain of Potato virus Y (PVY), PVYO, causes mild mosaic in tobacco and induces necrosis and severe stunting in potato cultivars carrying the Ny gene. There is, however, a growing body of evidence that PVYO strain group is not uniform both genetically and biologically. A novel sub-strai...

104

Genetic modification of potato development using Ri T-DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two potato plants were regenerated from a hairy-root line obtained after infection of a shoot of Solanum tuberosum cv ‘Desiree’ with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 (pRil855). Transformed plants were uniform and had a distinct phenotype and development compared with untransformed controls. Their growth was vigorous, especially early in their development, their roots were abundant and showed reduced geotropism, their

G. Ooms; A. Karp; M. M. Burrell; D. Twell; J. Roberts

1985-01-01

105

Genetic diversity of the Andean tetraploid cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. andigena Hawkes) evaluated by chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers.  

PubMed

Andigena potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. andigena Hawkes) (2n = 4x = 48) are native farmer-selected important cultivars that form a primary gene pool of the common potato (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum). The genetic diversity of 185 Andigena accessions and 6 Chilean native potatoes (S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) was studied using chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) microsatellites and nuclear DNA (nDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Andigena potatoes had 14 ctDNA haplotypes and showed higher variability in the central Andes, particularly in Bolivia, whereas those in the northern regions of the distribution area were remarkably uniform with A1 ctDNA and Chilean subsp. tuberosum with T ctDNA. Most of 123 clearly scored RFLP bands using 30 single-copy probes were randomly distributed throughout the distribution area and proved the same gene pool shared among these widely collected accessions. Nevertheless, the geographic trend of the nDNA differentiation from north to south along the Andes and the correlated differentiation between nDNA and ctDNA (r = 0.120) could also be revealed by canonical variates analysis. These results suggest that the genetic diversity in Andigena was brought about primarily from cultivated diploid species but considerably modified through sexual polyploidization and intervarietal and (or) introgressive hybridization and long-distance dispersal of seed tubers by humans. PMID:15729397

Sukhotu, Thitaporn; Kamijima, Osamu; Hosaka, Kazuyoshi

2005-02-01

106

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

107

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

108

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance-target organism Á Genetically modified crops Introduction Aquatic environments support a wide range of ecological

Gruner, Daniel S.

109

Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods

Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

2007-01-01

110

Genetic diversity of Streptomyces spp. causing common scab of potato in eastern Canada.  

PubMed

Common scab is an important disease of potato caused by Streptomyces scabies and other closely related species. In this study, the genetic diversity of Streptomyces spp. causing common scab of potato in eastern Canada was for the first time investigated. Forty-one Streptomyces spp. isolates were retrieved from necrotic lesions of potato tubers harvested from different regions of the Canadian provinces New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince-Edward-Island. Most isolates were closely related to known pathogenic S. scabies strains on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal (r) RNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses. Two isolates were identified as pathogenic species of Streptomyces acidiscabies. To our knowledge, this species has never been previously isolated in these areas. Genome fingerprinting studies using repetitive elements (rep) polymerase chain reactions (PCR) revealed 10 distinct genetic groups in eastern Canada. The geographical distribution of the genetic groups was region-dependant. Pathogenicity- and virulence-related genes (txtA, txtC, and tomA) were PCR-amplified from each isolate, and nucleotide sequence analysis of partial gene fragments revealed slight polymorphisms in both txtA and txtC genes. No genetic variation was noted in the partial tomA gene sequences. PMID:18947953

St-Onge, Renée; Goyer, Claudia; Coffin, Robert; Filion, Martin

2008-12-01

111

A survey of genetic variation in streptomyces isolates causing potato common scab in the United States.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Common scab is a serious disease of potatoes and other root and tuber crops, affecting crop quality and market value. The disease is caused by gram positive soil bacteria in the genus Streptomyces. Disease incidence and severity vary in different locations and years; this is due in part to variation in the environment (weather) and genetic variation in potato cultivars. Little information is available on the contribution of genetic variation by the pathogen. To examine genetic diversity in different locations within the United States, streptomycetes were isolated from lesions on field-grown potatoes from six states. Isolates were classified into species based on sequence of variable regions in the 16s rRNA gene. The presence of genes associated with the recently described S. turgidiscabies pathogenicity island (PAI) was also determined. About half of the isolates belonged to S. scabies or S. europaeiscabiei based on 16s rDNA sequence, and had characteristic features of the PAI. They were found in all six states, and were pathogenic on potato and radish. The remaining isolates included pathogens and nonpathogens. They were varied in appearance, and represent several species, including one pathogenic species not previously reported. Some pathogenic isolates lacked one or more genes characteristic of the PAI, although all had genes for biosynthesis of the pathogenicity determinant thaxtomin. In this relatively small survey, regional differences in scab-causing streptomycetes were seen. This report furnishes tools and baseline data for population genetic study of scab-causing streptomycetes in the United States. PMID:18943669

Wanner, Leslie A

2006-12-01

112

Violaxanthin Cycle Pigment Contents in Potato and Tobacco Plants with Genetically Reduced Photosynthetic Capacity.  

PubMed Central

The influence of photosynthetic activity on the light-dependent adaptation of the pool size of the violaxanthin cycle pigments (violaxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin) was studied in leaves of wild-type and transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. The genetically manipulated plants expressed an antisense mRNA coding for the chloroplastic fructose-bisphosphatase. Chl fluorescence quenching analysis revealed that the transformed plants exhibited a greatly impaired electron transport capacity. Light-limited and light-saturated non-photochemical quenching was strongly enhanced in the mRNA antisense potato plants. After 7 d of adaptation at various high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs), the violaxanthin cycle pool size increased, with a progressive elevation in PPFD. The pool size was higher for transgenic potatoes than for wild-type plants at all PPFDs. This difference vanished when pool size was correlated with the PPFD in excess of photosynthesis, as indicated by the epoxidation state of the violaxanthin cycle. Contrasting results were obtained for tobacco; in this species, photosynthetic activity did not affect the pool size. We conclude that regulatory mechanisms exist in potato, by which photosynthetic activity can influence the violaxanthin cycle pool size. Furthermore, evidence is provided that this adaptation of the pool size may contribute to an improved photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus under high-light conditions. However, tobacco plants seem to regulate their pool size independently of photosynthetic activity. PMID:12228557

Bilger, W.; Fisahn, J.; Brummet, W.; Kossmann, J.; Willmitzer, L.

1995-01-01

113

Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing ?-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

Dymi?ska, L.; G?gor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; ?uk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

2014-09-01

114

Plastidial Starch Phosphorylase in Sweet Potato Roots Is Proteolytically Modified by Protein-Protein Interaction with the 20S Proteasome  

PubMed Central

Post-translational regulation plays an important role in cellular metabolism. Earlier studies showed that the activity of plastidial starch phosphorylase (Pho1) may be regulated by proteolytic modification. During the purification of Pho1 from sweet potato roots, we observed an unknown high molecular weight complex (HX) showing Pho1 activity. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and reverse immunoprecipitation analyses showed that HX is composed of Pho1 and the 20S proteasome. Incubating sweet potato roots at 45°C triggers a stepwise degradation of Pho1; however, the degradation process can be partially inhibited by specific proteasome inhibitor MG132. The proteolytically modified Pho1 displays a lower binding affinity toward glucose 1-phosphate and a reduced starch-synthesizing activity. This study suggests that the 20S proteasome interacts with Pho1 and is involved in the regulation of the catalytic activity of Pho1 in sweet potato roots under heat stress conditions. PMID:22506077

Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Han-Min; Chou, I-Min; Chen, An-Na; Chen, Chia-Pei; Young, Guang-Huar; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chung; Juang, Rong-Huay

2012-01-01

115

Genetic relationships of introduced Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata populations in Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an infamous invasive species worldwide that aggressively attacks potato and other Solanaceae crops. CPB was first found in China in 1993 and has since spread across 2.77 × 10(5) km(2) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. To better understand genetic variation and migration patterns, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to elucidate the genetic relationships and gene flow among 10 CPB populations across Xinjiang. (i) Overall low levels of genetic diversity were detected on the entire population in Xinjiang but most of the diversity was retained among populations during invasion. (ii) The mean pairwise FST was low (0.071 ± 0.043) among populations. The genetic differentiation was little (pairwise FST 0.038 ± 0.016) between the five interior populations (Wusu, Urumqi, Jimsar, Qitai and Mulei) and Tacheng population. The six populations might come from the same genetic group via Bayesian clustering and were closely related on a neighbor-joining tree. Combining the history data, the five interior populations may have originated from Tacheng. (iii) Gene flow was frequent, especially among the five interior populations. Individuals from the interior populations could be assigned to Tacheng at higher probabilities (means 0.518 ± 0.127) than vice versa (means 0.328 ± 0.074), suggesting that the beetle population has spread from the border to the interior in Xinjiang. PMID:23955877

Zhang, Jing-Jie; Yang, Juan; Li, Ying-Chao; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Run-Zhi

2013-10-01

116

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

117

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

118

Potential Adverse Health Effects of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins.

Anita Bakshi

2003-01-01

119

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen Jianping Yao, MEMBER Singapore 639798 Abstract. A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of holographic diffusers for diffuse IR wireless home networking. The novel algorithm combines the conventional genetic

Yao, Jianping

120

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen and Jianping Yao A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels

Yao, Jianping

121

MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

122

Alternative pathways of photosystem I-dependent electron transport in two genetically different potato cultivars in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative pathways of electron transport involving photosystem I (PSI) only were studied in leaves of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Desiree), modified by yeast invertase gene, controlled by tuber-specific class I patatin B33 promoter with proteinase II signal peptide for apoplastic localization of the enzyme. Nontransformed (wild-type) potato cultivar\\u000a Desiree was used as a source of control plants. Phototrophic

A. N. Deryabin; M. S. Sin’kevich; N. G. Bukhov; T. I. Trunova

2006-01-01

123

Genetic mapping and transcription analyses of resistance gene loci in potato using NBS profiling.  

PubMed

NBS profiling is a method for the identification of resistance gene analog (RGA) derived fragments. Here we report the use of NBS profiling for the genome wide mapping of RGA loci in potato. NBS profiling analyses on a minimal set of F1 genotypes of the diploid mapping population previously used to generate the ultra dense (UHD) genetic map of potato, allowed us to efficiently map polymorphic RGA fragments relative to 10,000 existing AFLP markers. In total, 34 RGA loci were mapped, of which only 13 contained RGA sequences homologous to RGAs genetically positioned at approximately similar positions in potato or tomato. The remaining RGA loci mapped either at approximate chromosomal regions previously shown to contain RGAs in potato or tomato without sharing homology to these RGAs, or mapped at positions not yet identified as RGA-containing regions. In addition to markers representing RGAs with unknown functions, segregating markers were detected that were closely linked to four functional R genes that segregate in the UHD mapping population. To explore the potential of NBS profiling in RGA transcription analyses, RNA isolated from different tissues was used as template for NBS profiling. Of all the fragments amplified approximately 15% showed putative intensity or absent/present differences between different tissues suggesting putative tissue specific RGA or R gene transcription. Putative absent/present differences between individuals were also found. In addition to being a powerful tool for generating candidate gene markers linked to R gene loci, NBS profiling, when applied to cDNA, can be instrumental in identifying those members of an R gene cluster that are transcribed, and thus putatively functional. PMID:18806994

Brugmans, Bart; Wouters, Doret; van Os, Hans; Hutten, Ronald; van der Linden, Gerard; Visser, Richard G F; van Eck, Herman J; van der Vossen, Edwin A G

2008-11-01

124

The voyage of an invasive species across continents: genetic diversity of North American and European Colorado potato beetle populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradox of successful invading species is that they are likely to be genetically depau- perate compared to their source population. This study on Colorado potato beetles is one of the few studies of the genetic consequences of continent-scale invasion in an insect pest. Understanding gene flow, population structure and the potential for rapid evolution in native and invasive populations

ALESSANDRO GRAPPUTO; SANNA BOMAN; LEENA LINDSTRÖM; ANNE LYYTINEN; JOHANNA MAPPES

2005-01-01

125

Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

2013-05-01

126

Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

2012-01-01

127

Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products

Steve L. Taylor; Susan L. Hefle

2001-01-01

128

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods & Teaching Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes instructional materials developed to address two major needs in biology education--how to form scientific opinions and providing a link between students and literature. Presents two essays, rats and potatoes and butterflies and corn, introduces students to article searching, reading peer-reviewed scientific studies, writing, critical…

Flores, Vanessa S.; Tobin, Allan J.

2003-01-01

129

Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

130

SMCGP2: self modifying cartesian genetic programming in two dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming. Using a combination of computational functions and special functions that can modify the phenotype at runtime, it has been employed to find general solutions to certain Boolean circuits and mathematical problems. In the present work, a new version, of SMCGP is proposed and demonstrated.

Simon Harding; Julian F. Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2011-01-01

131

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

132

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

133

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

134

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

135

Fate of genetically modified microorganisms in the corn rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fates of genetically modified (GM)Escherichia coli andPseudomonas putida in the corn rhizosphere were investigated. Under hydrophonic and sterile conditions, both bacteria grew well in the presence of root exudates used as a sole carbon source. The growth patterns of wild types and genetically modified strains ofE. coli andP. putida were similar under the conditions tested.

Jean Louis Morel; Gabriel Bitton; G. Rasul Chaudhry; Judy Awong

1989-01-01

136

PCR detection of genetically modified soya and maize in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genetically modified foodstuffs is becoming both a food sales and legal necessity. This study reports a rapid DNA extraction\\/PCR-based method for the detection of genetically modified soya (GMS) and maize (GMM) in mixed samples of transgenic and unmodified soybeans and maize kernels, and a variety of processed samples including soya flour, soya protein isolates, extruded defatted soya,

Carolyn D. Hurst; Angus Knight; Ian J. Bruce

1999-01-01

137

Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time.

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2004-01-01

138

Genetically Modified Organisms and Biodiversity: Assessing the Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are those into whose genome a foreign well-characterized DNA from a different source (plant, animal or microorganism) has been stably inserted. Transgenic plants are a recognized ex- ample. Scientists genetically modify plants to: increase post-harvest life, resist biotic and abiotic stresses, improve plant nutrient qualities and use them as biofactories in pharmaceutical and vaccine production. For

Camilo Ayra Pardo

2003-01-01

139

Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

140

Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We reviewed 19 studies of mammals fed with commercialized genetically modified soybean and maize which represent, per trait\\u000a and plant, more than 80% of all environmental genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated on a large scale, after they\\u000a were modified to tolerate or produce a pesticide. We have also obtained the raw data of 90-day-long rat tests following court\\u000a actions or

Gilles-Eric Séralini; Robin Mesnage; Emilie Clair; Steeve Gress; Joël Spiroux de Vendômois; Dominique Cellier

2011-01-01

141

Developments in Cartesian Genetic Programming: self-modifying CGP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Genetic Programming\\u000a founded on Cartesian Genetic Programming. In addition to the usual computational functions, it includes functions that can\\u000a modify the program encoded in the genotype. This means that programs can be iterated to produce an infinite sequence of programs\\u000a (phenotypes) from a single evolved genotype. It

Simon HardingJulian; Julian F. Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2010-01-01

142

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

143

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

E-print Network

the subsequent genetic expression [1, 2]. The concept of self-modification can be a unifying way of looking that by utilizing self-modification opera- tions within an existing computational method (a form of geneticSelf Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing Simon

Fernandez, Thomas

144

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via  

E-print Network

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via Nucleic Acid Hybridization and devices. In this report, cysteine residues were genetically engineered onto the virion surface of tobacco transistors.1,2 In addition, the genetically derived nanostructures of viruses have been exploited

Rubloff, Gary W.

145

Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens

S. L Taylor

1997-01-01

146

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

147

Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. PMID:24607250

Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

2014-03-01

148

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

149

Genetically modified crops and food security.  

PubMed

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

150

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

151

Genetic diversity in Brazilian sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Solanales, Convolvulaceae) landraces assessed with microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the genetic diversity of 78 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) accessions (58 landraces and 20 putative clones) from traditional agricultural households from 19 local communities in the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Eight SSR loci were assessed using 6% (w\\/v) polyacrylamide gels stained with silver nitrate and the accessions genotyped considering

Elizabeth Ann Veasey; Aline Borges; Mariana Silva Rosa; Jurema R. Queiroz-Silva; Eduardo de Andrade Bressan; Nivaldo Peroni

2008-01-01

152

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

153

Qualitative risk assessment for adventitious presence of unauthorized genetically modified organisms  

E-print Network

Qualitative risk assessment for adventitious presence of unauthorized genetically modified presence of unauthorized genetically modified organisms is becoming a concern for producers, manufacturers decision support tool implementations. Key Words: decision support, genetically modified organisms, food

Bohanec, Marko

154

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease: strategies and  

E-print Network

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease modifier gene, Mendelian disorders, disease expression, linkage, association Introduction Genetic factors determined diseases, and this variability may itself involve genetic factors, the so-called modifier genes

Boyer, Edmond

155

Spectroscopy detection of green and red fluorescent proteins in genetically modified plants using a fiber optics system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fiber optic spectroscopy is developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in vivo. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fiber optic spectroscopy. Fluorescence at the appropriate emission wavelengths could be detected up to 64X dilution for EGFP and 40X dilution for DsRED. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in vivo, transgenic potato hairy roots expressing EGFP and DsRED were regenerated. This was achieved by cloning the EGFP and DsRED genes into the plant binary vector, pTMV35S, to create the recombinant vectors pGLOWGreen and pGLOWRed. These latter binary vectors were introduced into Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4T. Infection of potato cells with transformed agrobacteria was used to insert the fluorescent protein genes into the potato genome. Genetically modified potato cells were then regenerated into hairy roots. A panel of transformed hairy roots expressing varying levels of fluorescent proteins was selected by fluorescence microscopy. We are now assessing the capability of spectroscopic detection system for in vivo quantification of green and red fluorescence levels in transformed roots.

Liew, Oi Wah; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; Chew, Yiwen; Yu, Shangjuan; Yeo, Gare H.

2001-05-01

156

Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.  

PubMed

In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

2014-01-01

157

Identification of the molecular make-up of the Potato virus Y strain PVYZ: genetic typing of the PVYZ-NTN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus Y (PVY) strains were originally defined by interactions with different resistance genes in standard potato cultivars. In the most recent classification, five distinct strain groups are defined that cause local and/or systemic hypersensitive response in the genetic background with a corr...

158

Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0.905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts. PMID:24440815

Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

2014-04-01

159

A Survey of Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a general purpose, graph-based, developmental form of Cartesian Genetic\\u000a Programming. In addition to the usual computational functions found in CGP, SMCGP includes functions that can modify the evolved\\u000a program at run time. This means that programs can be iterated to produce an infinite sequence of phenotypes from a single\\u000a evolved genotype. Here, we discuss

Simon Harding; Wolfgang Banzhaf; Julian F. Miller

2011-01-01

160

Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.  

PubMed

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L

2011-01-01

161

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

162

Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

2014-01-01

163

Global Genetics and Invasion History of the Potato Powdery Scab Pathogen, Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea  

PubMed Central

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss) causes two diseases on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lesions on tubers and galls on roots, which are economically important worldwide. Knowledge of global genetic diversity and population structure of pathogens is essential for disease management including resistance breeding. A combination of microsatellite and DNA sequence data was used to investigate the structure and invasion history of Sss. South American populations (four countries, 132 samples) were consistently more diverse than those from all other regions (15 countries, 566 samples), in agreement with the hypothesis that Sss originated in South America where potato was domesticated. A substantial genetic differenciation was found between root and tuber-derived samples from South America. Estimates of past and recent gene flow suggested that Sss was probably introduced from South America into Europe. Subsequently, Europe is likely to have been the recent source of migrants of the pathogen, acting as a “bridgehead” for further global dissemination. Quarantine measures must continue to be focussed on maintaining low global genetic diversity and avoiding exchange of genetic material between the native and introduced regions. Nevertheless, the current low global genetic diversity of Sss allows potato breeders to select for resistance, which is likely to be durable. PMID:23840791

Gau, Rebecca D.; Merz, Ueli; Falloon, Richard E.; Brunner, Patrick C.

2013-01-01

164

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying CGP (SMCGP) is a developmental form of Cartesian Genetic Programming(CGP). It is able to modify its own phe- notype during execution of the evolved program. This is done by the inclusion of modification operators in the function set. Here we present the use of the technique on several different sequence generation and regression problems.

Simon Harding; Julian Francis Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2009-01-01

165

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

166

FIELD DECOMPOSITION OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CORN RESIDUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The decomposition of residue from three genetically-modified (GM) corn varieties expressing one or more Bt endotoxins was compared to that from a variety with the unmodified base genetics. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DK...

167

Review: genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the “first generation” were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent

Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara; Kazuki Saito

2006-01-01

168

Modified Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Selection of Compartmental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified genetic algorithm has been developed for the task of optimal parameter selection for compartmental models. As a case study, a predictive model of the emerging health threat of obesity in America was developed which incorporated varying levels of three treatment strategies in an attempt to decrease the amount of overweight Americans over a ten-year period. The genetic algorithm

Neil A. Shah; Richard A. Moffitt; May D. Wang

2007-01-01

169

Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic modification of crop plants from the methodology involved in their production through to the current debate on their use in agriculture are reviewed. Techniques for plant transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment, and for the selection of transgenic plants using marker genes are described. The benefits of currently available genetically modified (GM) crops in reducing waste and

Nigel G Halford; Peter R Shewry

2000-01-01

170

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

171

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

172

Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.  

PubMed

Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. PMID:24426015

Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

2013-12-01

173

Genetic variation in potato virus M isolates infecting pepino (Solanum muricatum) in China.  

PubMed

Potato virus M (PVM, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexviridae) is considered to be one of most economically important pathogens of pepino in China. However, the details and the mechanisms underlying PVM evolution are unknown. In this study, we determined and analyzed 40 TGB 1 gene sequences, 67 TGB 2 and TGB 3 gene sequences, and 88 CP and NABP gene sequences from viruses isolated from 19 samples of pepino (Solanum muricatum) and one sample of tomato (S. lycopersicum) collected from different areas of China. Recombination analysis identified only one clear recombinant in the TGB2-TGB3-CP region, but no recombinants were detected for each of the five individual genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PVM isolates could be divided into at least two lineages in trees derived from the TGB 2, CP, and NABP gene sequences, and the lineages seemed to reflect geographical origin. The five PVM genes in this study were found to be under strong negative selection pressure. The PVM isolates examined showed frequent gene flow between the Chinese and European populations, and also within the Chinese population. Clear star phylogenies and the neutral equilibrium model test showed that pepino isolates of PVM appear to be experiencing a new expansion after a recent introduction into China, and these isolates display low levels of genetic diversity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report describing genetic structure, recombination, and gene flow in PVM populations, and it provides strong evolutionary evidence for the virus populations from different geographic regions of China. PMID:25233939

Ge, Beibei; He, Zhen; Zhang, Zhixiang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

2014-12-01

174

Effects of protein-modifying reagents on an isoenzyme of potato apyrase  

PubMed Central

Treatment of an isoenzyme of potato apyrase of high adenosine triphosphatase/adenosine diphosphatase (ATPase/ADPase) ratio with iodine, N-acetylimidazole or tetranitromethane inactivates the ATPase activity of this enzyme faster than its ADPase activity. There was protection by substrates with the two last-named substances. This and the appearance of nitrotyrosine suggests the participation of tyrosyl residues in both enzymic activities of potato apyrase. The participation of thiol groups is excluded by the insensitivity of apyrase to p-chloromercuribenzoate. Also, 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide or carboxymethylation produce the same rate of inactivation of ATPase and ADPase activities. Substrates protect both activities from inactivation. Hydrogen peroxide and photo-oxidation inactivate ATPase activity faster than ADPase activity. There is no protection by substrates. Analysis of pH effects on Vmax. and Km suggest different pK values for the amino acid residues at the ATP and ADP sites. PMID:4356057

Valenzuela, M. Antonieta; Del Campo, Guillermo; Marín, Eugenio; Traverso-Cori, Aída

1973-01-01

175

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment. PMID:18289760

Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

2008-05-01

176

The voyage of an invasive species across continents: genetic diversity of North American and European Colorado potato beetle populations.  

PubMed

The paradox of successful invading species is that they are likely to be genetically depauperate compared to their source population. This study on Colorado potato beetles is one of the few studies of the genetic consequences of continent-scale invasion in an insect pest. Understanding gene flow, population structure and the potential for rapid evolution in native and invasive populations offers insights both into the dynamics of small populations that become successful invaders and for their management as pests. We used this approach to investigate the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) from North America to Europe. The beetles invaded Europe at the beginning of the 20th century and expanded almost throughout the continent in about 30 years. From the analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, we found the highest genetic diversity in beetle populations from the central United States. The European populations clearly contained only a fraction of the genetic variability observed in North American populations. European populations show a significant reduction at nuclear markers (AFLPs) and are fixed for one mitochondrial haplotype, suggesting a single successful founder event. Despite the high vagility of the species and the reduction of genetic diversity in Europe, we found a similar, high level of population structure and low gene flow among populations on both continents. Founder events during range expansion, agricultural management with crop rotation, and selection due to insecticide applications are most likely the causes partitioning genetic diversity in this species. PMID:16313587

Grapputo, Alessandro; Boman, Sanna; Lindström, Leena; Lyytinen, Anne; Mappes, Johanna

2005-12-01

177

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, pigs have been used to develop some of the most important large animal models for biomedical research. Advances in pig genome research, genetic modification (GM) of primary pig cells and pig cloning by nuclear transfer, have facilitated the generation of GM pigs for xenotransplantation and various human diseases. This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Broadly used genetic engineering tools for porcine cells are also discussed. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated for xenotransplantation and human disease processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, bone diseases, cancers and epidermal skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this review provides an overview of the progress in GM pig research over the last two decades and perspectives for future development. PMID:22453682

Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt

2012-07-01

178

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

179

A PIEZOELECTRIC AFFINITY BIOSENSOR FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs) DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoelectric affinity sensor, based on DNA hybridisation has been studied for applications to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) detection. The thiol\\/dextran modified surfaces were coupled to streptavidin for immobilising 5'-biotinyltead probes (25-mer). The probes sequences were respectively internal to the amplified product of P35S and T-NOS. These target sequences were chosen on the base of their wide presence in GMOs.

M. Minunni; S. Tombelli; S. Pratesi; M. Mascini; P. Piatti; P. Bogani; M. Buiatti

2001-01-01

180

Genetically modified crops and agricultural landscapes: spatial patterns of contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial question facing the global agri-food system is whether genetically modified (GM) crops can co-exist with traditional crops. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the presence of GM crops and changes in the probability of genetic transfer between crops on an agricultural landscape can result in non-GM crop contamination. To investigate this issue, we develop and

Ken Belcher; James Nolan; Peter W. B. Phillips

2005-01-01

181

Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.  

PubMed

The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among qualitative descriptors and among potatoes coming from the two differently fertilized soils. PMID:25016108

Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

2014-09-15

182

[Expression of a partially modified delta-endotoxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis in transgenic potato plants].  

PubMed

A modified gene (Bt77) of delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis was constructed and cloned into pMON505. This binary transformation vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing different helper disarmed Ti-plasmids, LBA4404, A281, and CBE21. These Agrobacterium strains were used to transform potato stem segments (S. tuberosum, cv Desiree, Resy, Temp, Granat). Regenerants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. The presence of the Bt77 sequence in plant genomic DNA was confirmed by PCR analysis. Bt gene expression was studied in regenerated plants. Western blot analysis revealed that transgenic plants produced the Bt protein in the range of 0.005-0.02% of total protein. Total protection against insect damage of leaf tissue from these plants was observed in laboratory bioassays with of Colorado beetle larvae. Transgenic plants showed incomplete protection from CB larvae. PMID:7990839

Gulina, I V; Shul'ga, O A; Mironov, M V; Revenkova, E V; Kraev, A S; Pozmogova, G E; Iakovleva, G A; Skriabin, K G

1994-01-01

183

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize  

E-print Network

is the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. On one hand, GM crops have genetical charateristicsSMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize for the assessment of coexistence between genetically modified and conventional maize. The assessment is based

Bohanec, Marko

184

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms  

E-print Network

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms Anne genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results-L, Nagarajan M, Veyrieras J-B, Bottin H, Steinmetz LM, et al. (2012) Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opali?ski, Ireneusz

2014-10-01

186

Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut varieties for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. The flavor of peanut seed is an important characteristic influencing consumer acceptance. It is important that the flavor of the peanut varieties is at least maintained during the ...

187

Genetically modified tumour vaccines (GMTV) in melanoma clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since melanoma is a model immunogenic malignancy incurable in the disseminated phase of its natural course different immunotherapeutic approaches are tested in clinical trials. A number of tumour vaccines genetically modified (GMTV), with various immunostimulatory factors, are tested in phase I\\/II clinical trials. These factors include cytokines, tumour antigens (TA), costimulatory molecules or HLA antigens. We have designed a novel,

Sergiusz Nawrocki; Pawe? Murawa; Julian Malicki; Malgorzata Kapcinska; Katarzyna Gryska; Dariusz Izycki; Aldona Kaczmarek; Maria Laciak; Anna Czapczyk; Aldona Karczewska; Stefan Rose-John; Andrzej Mackiewicz

2000-01-01

188

Genetically modified crops and country image of food exporting countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Many countries have held back from planting genetically modified (GM) food crops due to perceived negative reaction in export and domestic markets. Three lines of research have tested the reality of this fear. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth interviews were conducted in European countries with key companies and organisations in the European food sector. Supermarket intercepts were used to ascertain

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

189

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

190

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

191

An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory

Kristian Borch; Birgitte Rasmussen

2000-01-01

192

The case for genetically modified crops with a poverty focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently seven National Academies of Science produced a report on transgenic plants and world agriculture. The report provides scientific perspectives to the ongoing public debate about the potential role for transgenic technology in world agriculture. In this article, we develop the themes of the report and emphasize the potential for future genetically modified (GM) crops with a poverty focus, emphasizing

Howard J. Atkinson; Jayne Green; Sue Cowgill; Aurora Levesley

2001-01-01

193

The status and prospects for genetically modified crops in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid expansion in the global area planted with genetically modified (GM) crops, there has been resistance to this technology in Europe: this article considers why. Molecular technologies used to produce GM crops are reviewed and crops currently and soon to become available listed. It is argued that the prospects for GM crops depend on: (1) consumer acceptance —

Jeremy R. Franks

1999-01-01

194

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

195

Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

2009-01-01

196

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

197

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

198

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

199

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

200

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

201

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

202

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

203

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

204

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

205

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

206

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

207

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

208

Acceptance of genetically modified food in India: perspectives of gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer and public policy resistance to genetically modified (GM) foods in rich countries has caused governments in many poor countries to withhold official permission for planting GM food crops for fear of damaging export markets for conventional crops. A total of 15 countries are already producing GM food crops. If China and India, the world's two most populous

John Knight; Amit Paradkar

2008-01-01

209

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A TELEPHONE SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a pilot U.S. national telephone survey on genetically modified foods (vegetable oil, cornflake cereal, and salmon). The survey featured contingent valuation in which respondents chose between the GM and non-GM alternatives. The binary and multinomial logit models yield estimated willingness to pay to avoid the GM alternatives. Perceived risk of GM food is an important

Naoya Kaneko; Wen S. Chern

2003-01-01

210

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

2004-01-01

211

Risk, genetically modified food and the US\\/EU divide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Genetically Modified (GM) food and crops issue illustrates some key contemporary differences between the EU and the USA on environmental issues. These differences have been parallel to the apparently stronger influence of environmentalists since 1990 on a range of issues in the EU, compared to the USA. Beck's 'Risk Society' theory has general resonance with contemporary western attitudes to

Dave Toke

2007-01-01

212

On consumers’ willingness to purchase nutritionally enhanced genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses consumers' willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food products with two different types of benefits: an input (i.e., reduced pesticides) and an output trait benefit (i.e., nutritionally enhanced). Data were collected using a telephone survey of an Italian households sample. Discrete choice approach is used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Four separate probit models

Maurizio Canavari; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr

2009-01-01

213

Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Food With Consumer Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread consumer resistance towards genetically modified (GM) food, particularly as reported in news media, has led to slow adoption of this technology outside of North America. Much of the consumer resistance appears to stem from public perceptions that GM crops benefit large multinational corporations, food producers, and typically have no apparent consumer benefits. In order to test whether clearly defined

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

214

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

215

Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science—biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized.

Peter Celec; Martina Kuku?ková; Veronika Renczésová; Satheesh Natarajan; Roland Pálffy; Roman Gardlík; Július Hodosy; Michal Behuliak; Barbora Vlková; Gabriel Minárik; TomᚠSzemes; Stanislav Stuchlík; Ján Tur?a

2005-01-01

216

Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context,

Anne Constable

2002-01-01

217

Examining Consumer Behavior Toward Genetically Modified (GM) Food in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the

Alexa Spence; Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

218

Challenges for methods to detect genetically modified DNA in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative detection methods for genetically modified (GM) DNA sequences in foods have evolved fast during the past years. The sensitivity of these systems is extremely high, even for processed foodstuffs. However, in future, quantitative results about the fraction of GM material in a composite food will be needed and the fast increasing number of GM foods on the market demands

Georg A Schreiber

1999-01-01

219

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) 2,3  

E-print Network

Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-UK-2008-60) for placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide tolerant maize GA21 for food and feed uses, import, processing and cultivation under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Syngenta Seeds 1

unknown authors

220

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

221

Genetically Modified Organisms in Peasant Farming: Social Impact and Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's first objective is to discuss the potential social impact of the diffusion of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into peasant sectors of less developed countries. While unwanted environmental impacts of the new technology can be partially assessed in controlled, experimental settings, assessment of social impacts requires experience and observation in particular farming systems. Owing to the absence of direct

STEPHEN B. BRUSH

2001-01-01

222

Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL

Jinfeng Liu; Da Xing; Xingyan Shen; Debin Zhu

2005-01-01

223

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45%

Cheah Yoke-Kqueen; Son Radu

2006-01-01

224

Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European Community (EC) legal measures that govern the contained use, deliberate release, and labeling of GMOs. To illustrate Member

MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN; A. BRYAN ENDRES

2000-01-01

225

Detection approaches for genetically modified organisms in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the various detection strategies for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. It begins with a brief discussion of the issues related to the technology especially the risks and public concerns. An introduction to the biological aspects of the major GMOs then follows. The bulk of the review is concerned with the different approaches toward detection: (a)

Anil K. Deisingh; Neela Badrie

2005-01-01

226

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in bioremediation and legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some authors expect genetically modified organisms (GMO) to bring a breakthrough in bioremediation. Besides biochemistry and microbial ecology, legislation and biosafety should be considered in this regard. World wide rules request risk assessment to be performed before any release of GMO to the environment. Recently, the protocol has been negotiated by UNEP to the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), which

Jaroslav Drobn??k

1999-01-01

227

Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for genetically modified organisms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity biosensor based on DNA hybridisation is described. This biosensor has been applied to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor chip of an SPR device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the complementary sequence (target) was monitored. The probe sequences were

Elisa Mariotti; Maria Minunni; Marco Mascini

2002-01-01

228

Enacting Closure in the Environmental Control of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of environmental law is to turn complex realities into coherent regulatory phenomena. The task requires ordering and boundary making. Motivated by this fact, this article studies the various types of closure through which releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are made manageable in the European Union. We analyse the legal framework for controlling environmental releases of

Helena Valve; Jussi Kauppila

2008-01-01

229

Consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops are popular in many regions of the world, but their deployment in Africa is hindered by safety concerns and regulatory issues, although the continent is in dire need of boosting its food production. Although consumers' acceptance of GM food has been analyzed in many continents, no such studies have been conducted in Africa. Therefore, a survey

Simon Chege Kimenju; Hugo De Groote

2008-01-01

230

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

231

ASSESSMENT OF THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF IN SITU POPULATIONS OF WILD POTATO SOLANUM FENDLERI ECO-GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED IN THE CHIRICAHUA MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information on the spatial distribution and amount of genetic diversity (GD) of populations in their natural habitats could be helpful for germplasm conservation. For instance, potato genebanks could target habitats as well as populations identified with significant genetic richness and/or distincti...

232

HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA  

EPA Science Inventory

Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

233

Genetic diversity in potato field populations of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-3, revealed by ITS polymorphism and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to survey genetic variability in relation to agronomic and regional factors among 60 isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani) collected from lesions on potato stems or sclerotia of potato tubers. Based on comparative sequence analysis it was shown that all isolates belonged to anastomosis group 3 subgroup Potato Type (AG-3 PT). ITS1 sequence polymorphisms were found within 45 of the 60 isolates showing that different types of the ITS-region are present in individual isolates. Cloning and sequence analysis of the ITS1 region from three selected isolates with sequence polymorphism showed that two different ITS1-types were present in each isolate. RAPD analysis identified 51 RAPD-phenotypes among the 60 investigated isolates indicating a high level of diversity within the subgroup AG-3 PT. Putative clonal isolates with identical RAPD- and ITS1-types were identified within fields, and in one case the same phenotype was found in two different fields separated by several hundred kilometers. Population subdivision analysis based on phenotypic as well as genotypic diversities showed differentiation among populations from different fields when isolates were sampled from tubers, indicating restricted gene flow among soil populations. Low differentiation was seen among field populations sampled from stems, indicating that gene flow is taking place. The population structure was not influenced by the previous crop in the rotation nor by the two cultivars 'Sava' and 'Bintje'. PMID:15000234

Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Yohalem, David; Bay, Anne; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2003-11-01

234

Evolution, development and learning using self-modifying cartesian genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) is a form of genetic programming that integrates developmental (self-modifying) features as a genotype-phenotype mapping. This paper asks: Is it possible to evolve a learning algorithm using SMCGP?

Simon Harding; Julian Francis Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2009-01-01

235

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

236

On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity  

PubMed Central

New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

2013-01-01

237

Utilisation of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding is set in the context of the evolution of the crop and the\\u000a need to widen its genetic base by introgression and base broadening. The introduction of the potato to Europe and its subsequent\\u000a worldwide spread is described. An introduction is given to the world's major potato genebanks, and the

John E. Bradshaw; Gavin Ramsay

2005-01-01

238

SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potato starch was irradiated with a 60Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation.

Cie?la, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bo?ena; Królak, Edward

2015-01-01

239

Detection of Genetically Modified Plants in Seeds, Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different techniques and analytical strategies are applied for detecting and quantifying the presence of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plants in food and feed products or in seeds. DNA-based detection is performed by qualitative PCR or by quantitative\\u000a real-time PCR, whereas for protein-based detection immunoassays such as lateral flow devices and ELISA are applied. The testing\\u000a strategy for GMO detection is constituted

Lutz Grohmann

240

CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation

Kristine M. Grimsrud; Jill J. McCluskey; Maria L. Loureiro; Thomas I. Wahl

2002-01-01

241

Explaining International Differences in Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have adopted labeling policies for genetically modified (GM) food, and the regulations vary considerably across countries. We evaluate the importance of political-economic factors implicit in the choice of GM food labeling regulations. Using an analytical model, we show that production and trade-related interests play a prominent role in labeling decision-making. This conclusion is validated by an empirical analysis

Guillaume P. Gruère; Colin A. Carter; Y. Hossein Farzin

2009-01-01

242

Genetically Modified Crops and Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genetically-modified (GM) crops presently are central components of pest management strategies for several important crops\\u000a worldwide. GM crops include insect-resistant varieties (expressing transgenes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or from plant species other than the GM crop, though only the former varieties are commercially available), and herbicide-tolerant\\u000a varieties (which tolerate post-emergent applications of particular herbicides). This chapter examines potential and

Julio S. Bernal

243

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

244

Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops – European and American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified (GM) crops occupy a unique place in the evolution of risk governance approaches to dealing with modern,\\u000a path-breaking technologies. They were the first such technology to be regulated on a precautionary basis, in a generic sense,\\u000a from the earliest stages of a technology development process that began in the 1980s and is still evolving.\\u000a \\u000a Today, distinctively different risk

Joyce Tait

245

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  In Europe, the EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically\\u000a modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to:\\u000a (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved\\u000a ERA

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Jörg Römbke; Stephan Jänsch; Hanka Teichmann; Beatrix Tappeser

2011-01-01

246

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

247

Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Food Products in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a large U.S. export market, there has been growing public opposition against genetically modified (GM) foods. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method, findings show the discount needed for Japanese Seikyou consumers to purchase GM food products is positively affected (i.e., a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM food, higher levels

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2003-01-01

248

Examining consumer behaviour toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study examined,behaviour towards genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based,sample. We used an equivalent gaintask in which participants actually received the options they chose to encoura ge truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behaviour (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavio ural influences in this domain. Here the

Alexa Spence

2006-01-01

249

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) 3,4  

E-print Network

Scientific Opinion on applications EFSA-GMO-UK-2005-09 and EFSA-GMO-RX-MON531×MON1445 for the placing on the market of food and feed produced from or containing ingredients produced from insectresistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified cotton MON 531 × MON 1445, 1 and for the renewal of authorisation of existing products produced from cotton MON 531 × MON 1445, 2 both under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

unknown authors

250

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

251

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

252

Genetically modified crop plants: science versus society? — A perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants offer the possibility of solving local virus-related production agricultural\\u000a problems for local communities in both developed and undeveloped countries. However, major concerns are held regarding the\\u000a safety, health (personal and environmental) and ethics of growing GM crop plants. Such non-technical factors and regulatory\\u000a processes have slowed and\\/or prevented the field testing and commercialisation of many

Robin MacDiarmid

2007-01-01

253

Genetically modified organisms in agriculture: can regulations work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been recognised to be economically beneficial to subsistence farmers and have been projected\\u000a as essential tools for addressing challenges in hunger, environmental sustainability and international development. Yet the\\u000a uncertainty of their effects on human health and the undesirable ecological consequences of these organisms have raised concerns\\u000a on the rapid pace of their production. Regulating the

David Kothamasi; Saskia Vermeylen

2011-01-01

254

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

255

96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize (Bt corn) and  

E-print Network

to produce their own pesticides or insecticides. The engineering of genetically modified food is a rel96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize the short-term effects of genetically modified (GM) maize, specifically MON810 and MON863, on laboratory

Thaxton, Christopher S.

256

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model  

E-print Network

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Benjamin for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Abstract Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide foods for Southern Korea. #12;South Korea public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random

Neimark, Alexander V.

257

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, includingA long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

258

February 9, 2011 Ottawa rejects stronger export regulations for genetically modified crops  

E-print Network

February 9, 2011 Ottawa rejects stronger export regulations for genetically modified crops By JAMES that govern the export of genetically modified crops. But hours earlier in Guelph, Ont., leading minds and promote fast-moving innovations in the field. Manipulating genes to create genetically modified organisms

Raizada, Manish N.

259

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna  

E-print Network

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The cultivation of genetically modified (GM: Duc C, Nentwig W, Lindfeld A (2011) No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat

Richner, Heinz

260

Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges  

PubMed Central

Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

2015-01-01

261

The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kate?ina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

262

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.?A) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

2015-02-01

263

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

264

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.?A) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

2015-02-01

265

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

266

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

267

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

2014-01-07

268

Detection of glycoalkaloids using disposable biosensors based on genetically modified enzymes.  

PubMed

In this work we present a rapid, selective, and highly sensitive detection of ?-solanine and ?-chaconine using cholinesterase-based sensors. The high sensitivity of the devices is brought by the use of a genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE), combined with a one-step detection method based on the measurement of inhibition slope. The selectivity was obtained by using butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme able to detect these two toxins with differential inhibition kinetics. The enzymes were immobilized via entrapment in PVA-AWP polymer directly on the working electrode surface. The analysis of the resulting inhibition slope was performed employing linear regression function included in Matlab. The high toxicity of ?-chaconine compared to ?-solanine due to a better affinity to the active site was proved. The inhibition of glycoalkaloids (GAs) mixture was performed over AChE enzyme wild-type AChE and BChE biosensors resulting in the detection of synergism effect. The developed method allows the detection of (GAs) at 50 ppb in potato matrix. PMID:24747413

Espinoza, Michelle Arredondo; Istamboulie, Georges; Chira, Ana; Noguer, Thierry; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Marty, Jean-Louis

2014-07-15

269

Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.  

PubMed

It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

2014-01-01

270

IDENTIFIG.ATION OF GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING CHIP COLOR IN DIPLOID POTATO (Solonum spp.)  

E-print Network

. Se detennin6 visualmente el color de la papa 'Asst. Prof. and former Ph.D. student, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences. Michigan State Univ.. East LanSlllg, MI 48824. Prese nt addre~s of ur. f, eyre i$ Dept (II). The reduc ing sug'ar levels in potato tubers is the primary f

Douches, David S.

271

Successful prediction of genetic richness at wild potato collection sites in southeastern Arizona  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much time, money, and effort is needed to collect even a fraction of the potential geographic range of wild potato species, so there is efficiency to gain if one could predict and prioritize spots particularly rich in unique alleles for collecting. A previous experiment that used AFLP markers to com...

272

Predicting genetic richness at wild potato collection sites in southeastern Arizona  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It takes a lot of time and money to collect even a fraction of the potential geographic range of wild potato species, so there is efficiency to gain if one could predict diversity “hot spots” for collecting. A previous experiment that used AFLPs to compare “remote” versus “easy” collection sites wit...

273

M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

274

Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani AG3 from potato and tobacco in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) of Rhizocto- nia solani (teleomorph 5 Thanatephorus cucumeris) is frequently associated with diseases of potato (AG-3 PT) and tobacco (AG-3 TB). Although isolates of R. solani AG-3 from these two Solanaceous hosts are so- matically related based on anastomosis reaction and taxonomically related based on fatty acid, isozyme and DNA characters, considerable differences are ev- ident

Paulo C. Ceresini; Marc A. Cubeta

2002-01-01

275

Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

276

Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

2014-01-01

277

Therapeutic potential of genetically modified adult stem cells for osteopenia  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells have therapeutic potential because of their intrinsic capacity for self-renewal, especially for bone regeneration. The present study demonstrates the utility of ex vivo modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to enhance bone density in an immunocompetent mouse model of osteopenia. MSC were transduced ex vivo with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV) expressing BMP-2 under the transcriptional control of collagen type-1? promoter. To enrich bone homing in vivo, the cells were further modified to transiently express the mouse ?-4 integrin. The modified MSC were systemically administered to ovariectomized, female C57BL/6 mice. Effects of the therapy were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, 3D micro-CT, histology, and immunohistochemistry for up to six months. Results indicated that mice transplanted with MSC expressing BMP-2 showed significant increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content(p<0.001) with relatively better proliferative capabilities of bone marrow stromal cells and higher osteocompetent pool of cells compared to control animals. Micro-CT analysis of femora and other bone histomorphometric analyses indicated more trabecular bone following MSC-BMP-2 therapy. Results obtained by transplanting genetically modified MSC from GFP transgenic mouse suggested that production of BMP2 from transplanted MSC also influenced the mobilization of endogenous progenitors for new bone formation. PMID:19741731

Kumar, Sanjay; Nagy, Tim R.; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2010-01-01

278

Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

2014-01-01

279

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

280

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

281

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

282

[Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].  

PubMed

Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops. PMID:24645345

Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

2013-12-01

283

PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato  

E-print Network

PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the Þeld and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines

Douches, David S.

284

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

285

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms Matthieu scheme. Genetic algorithms (GA) have been used rather exten- sively for this purpose, and in particular to further explore its modified counterpart, Modified FM (ModFM), which has not been used as widely, and its

Smyth, Tamara

286

Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and

W. K Novak; A. G Haslberger

2000-01-01

287

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

288

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

289

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

290

Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods. Effects of different information strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here aimed to investigate the effects of different types of information about genetically modified foods on both consumer attitudes towards genetic modification and their tendency to choose genetically modified products (compared to more traditionally manufactured alternatives). The impact of information strategy (balanced, or product specific), attributed information source (The “European Association of Consumers”, the “European Association of

Lynn Frewer; Joachim Scholderer; Clive Downs; Lone Bredahl

2000-01-01

291

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

292

Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

2013-06-15

293

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

294

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

295

Genetic structure of populations of Rhizoctonia solani AG3 on potato in eastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was developed to identify and differentiate genotypes of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 subgroup PT (AG-3 PT), a fungal pathogen of potato. Poly- morphic co-dominant single-locus PCR-RFLP mark- ers were identified after sequencing of clones from a genomic library and digestion with restriction en- zymes. Multilocus genotypes were determined by a

Paulo C. Ceresini; H. David Shew; Rytas J. Vilgalys; U. Liane Rosewich; Marc A. Cubeta

2002-01-01

296

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

297

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

298

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

299

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

PubMed

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

300

Global market effects of alternative European responses to genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Market Effects of Alternative European Responses to Genetically Modified Organisms. — Current debates about genetically\\u000a modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture reveal substantial differences in the perception of the associated risks and benefits.\\u000a Genetically modified crop varieties allegedly provide farmers with agronomic benefits, but environmental, health and ethical\\u000a concerns are also being raised. This paper discusses the ways in which

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson

2001-01-01

301

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

302

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

303

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges  

PubMed Central

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

304

The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

Smyth, Stuart J

2014-07-01

305

Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.  

PubMed

Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

2013-01-01

306

Genetic modifiers of cognitive maintenance among older adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Identify genetic factors associated with cognitive maintenance in late life and assess their association with gray matter (GM) volume in brain networks affected in aging. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study of ?2.4 M markers to identify modifiers of cognitive trajectories in Caucasian participants (N?=?7,328) from two population-based cohorts of non-demented elderly. Standardized measures of global cognitive function (z-scores) over 10 and 6 years were calculated among participants and mixed model regression was used to determine subject-specific cognitive slopes. “Cognitive maintenance” was defined as a change in slope of???0 and was compared with all cognitive decliners (slope?genetic scores to assess whether carrying more cognitive maintenance alleles was associated with greater GM volume in specific brain networks using voxel-based morphometry. Results The most significant association was on chromosome 11 (rs7109806, P?=?7.8 × 10?8) near RIC3. RIC3 modulates activity of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and beta-amyloid binding. In the neuroimaging cohort, carrying more cognitive maintenance alleles was associated with greater volume in the right executive control network (RECN; PFWE?=?0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that there may be genetic loci that promote healthy cognitive aging and that they may do so by conferring robustness to GM in the RECN. Future work is required to validate top candidate genes such as RIC3 for involvement in cognitive maintenance. PMID:24616004

Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Evans, Daniel S; Coppola, Giovanni; Kramer, Joel H; Tranah, Gregory J; Yaffe, Kristine

2014-01-01

307

Evaluation of modified PCR quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean using reference molecules: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative methods were previously developed and validated for genetically modified (GM) maize or soy. In this study, the quantification step of the validated methods was modified, and an interlaboratory study was conducted. The modification included the introduction of the PCR system SSIIb 3 instead of SSIIb 1 for the detection of the taxon-specific sequence of maize, as well as the adoption of colE1 as a carrier included in a reference plasmid solution as a replacement for salmon testis. The interlaboratory study was conducted with the ABI PRISM 7700 and consisted of 2 separate stages: (1) the measurement of conversion factor (Cf) value, which is the ratio of recombinant DNA (r-DNA) sequence to taxon-specific sequence in each genuine GM seed, and (2) the quantification of blind samples. Additionally, Cf values of other instruments, such as the ABI PRISM 7900 and the ABI PRISM 7000, were measured in a multilaboratory trial. After outlier laboratories were eliminated, the repeatability and reproducibility for 5.0% samples were <15.8 and 20.6%, respectively. The quantitation limits of these methods were 0.5% for Bt11, T25, and MON810, and 0.1% for GA21, Event176, and RR soy. The quantitation limits, trueness, and precision of the current modified methods were equivalent to those of the previous methods. Therefore, it was concluded that the modified methods would be a suitable replacement for the validated methods. PMID:19382580

Kodama, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2009-01-01

308

POTATO LATE BLIGHT MANAGEMENT IN THE TOLUCA VALLEY: FIELD VALIDATION OF SIMCAST MODIFIED FOR CULTIVARS WITH HIGH FIELD RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management of potato late blight in the highland tropics is very costly and remains difficult. Reducing the impact of late blight through the use of resistant cultivars in combination with a fungicide forecasting system could lower the number of costly fungicide applications. Previously, we evaluate...

309

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

310

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

311

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

312

The factualization of uncertainty: Risk, politics, and genetically modified crops – a case of rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandatory risk assessment is intended to reassure concerned citizens and introduce reason into the heated European controversies on genetically modified crops and food. The authors, examining a case of risk assessment of genetically modified oilseed rape, claim that the new European legislation on risk assessment does nothing of the sort and is not likely to present an escape from the

Gitte Meyer; Anna Paldam Folker; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen; Martin Krayer von Krauss; Peter Sandøe; Geir Tveit

2005-01-01

313

A critique of ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical and social issues of genetically modified crops as reported by the Nuffield Bioethics Committee are summarised. A critique of their findings is presented. It is argued that the apparent benefits are outweighed by the ecological, social and economic costs, and that the yields of some genetically modified crops are poorer when compared to conventional species. Furthermore, the current

Ian Moffatt

2000-01-01

314

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

315

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2001-01-01

316

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

317

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

318

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

319

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

320

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

321

Quasi-option values for enhanced information regarding genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning the long-term environmental and health risks associated with the production of genetically modified foods remain highly topical in Australia. It is unclear how consumers values for a precautionary approach to the release of genetically modified crops compares to the opportunity costs of forgoing economic growth associated with the use of these technologies. In this paper, an application of

Peter Donaghy; John Rolfe; Jeffrey W. Bennett

2004-01-01

322

ANALYSING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD BY A VARIANCE-BASED STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying gene technology in agricultural production, which results on the so-called genetically modified (GM) foods, is one of the most controversial scientific, political and social debates. In the EU, the underdevelopment of biotech crops is attributed to the social distrust in transgenic food. The potential consumers’ reactions towards Genetically Modified (GM) food influence the commercial feasibility and determine the economic

Melania Salazar-Ordonez; Macario Rodriguez-Entrena

2012-01-01

323

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

324

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant Retrovirus  

E-print Network

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant June 1, 1998; accepted March 10, 1999 Neural stem cells have been shown to participate in the repair to genetically modify a clone of neural stem cells, C17, to overproduce neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The cells were

Fischer, Itzhak

325

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system

M. Miraglia; K. G. Berdal; C. Brera; P. Corbisier; A. Holst-Jensen; E. J. Kok; H. J. P. Marvin; H. Schimmel; J. Rentsch; J. P. P. F. van Rie; J. Zagon

2004-01-01

326

An Analysis of McLean County, Illinois Farmers' Perceptions of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLean County, Illinois farmers were surveyed in order to explore and analyze their perceptions of genetically modified crops and their genetically modified cropping decisions. Questionnaires were mailed to 400 randomly selected farmers, and 156 were returned. The 134 respondents who reported that they planned to plant crops in 2003 were asked to provide information about gender, age, education, and number

Nagesh Chimmiri; Kerry W. Tudor; Aslihan D. Spaulding

2005-01-01

327

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

328

Introducing Genetically Modified Plants: Now or Later - An Option Value Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using market data, we have estimated the quasi option value of delaying to grow genetically modified corn and soybeans in Europe. We find that the current quasi option value of growing genetically modified soybeans and corn in Europe is high. This makes it likely that for the time being the information value of waiting exceeds the market gains of growing

Eirik Romstad; Live Brimi; Urda Ljorerud

2005-01-01

329

WHEAT CHARACTERISTIC DEMAND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural biotechnology is advancing rapidly and is embracing all major crops. The adoption of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and cotton have reached high levels in the United States. Wheat is the next major crop confronting the biotechnology issue, but no commercial varieties of genetically modified (GM) wheat have been released yet. Primary opportunities for GM developments in wheat center around

Edward L. Janzen; Jeremy W. Mattson; William W. Wilson

2001-01-01

330

A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2014-01-01

331

Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the

Yuyuan Li; Da Xing; Chunsun Zhang

2009-01-01

332

Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: a history of the genetically modified organisms debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and

Ryuma Shineha; Kazuto Kato

2009-01-01

333

Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann

2012-01-01

334

Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

Kleter, Gijs A.

2005-01-01

335

Genetic Modifiers of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Response to Lifestyle Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose Numerous prospective studies indicate that improved cardiorespiratory fitness reduces type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and delays disease progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants modify fitness response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) randomized clinical trial, aimed to detect whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2D compared to a standard of care. Methods Polymorphisms in established fitness genes and in all loci assayed on the Illumina CARe iSelect chip were examined as predictors of change in metabolic equivalent (MET) level, estimated using a treadmill test, in response to a one-year intervention in 3,899 participants. Results We identified a significant signal in previously reported fitness-related gene RUNX1 that was associated with one-year METs response in ILI (0.19±0.04 MET less improvement per minor allele copy; P=1.9×10?5) and genotype-intervention interaction (P=4.8×10?3). In the chip-wide analysis, FKBP7 rs17225700 showed a significant association with ILI response among subjects not receiving beta-blocker medications (0.47±0.09 METs less improvement; P=5.3×10?7), and genotype-treatment interaction (P=5.3×10?5). GRAIL pathway-based analysis identified connections between associated genes, including those influencing vascular tone, muscle contraction, cardiac energy substrate dynamics, and muscle protein synthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to identify genetic variants associated with fitness responses to a randomized lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. RUNX1 and FKBP7, involved in erythropoesis and muscle protein synthesis, respectively, are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness in response to exercise. PMID:23899896

Peter, Inga; Papandonatos, George D.; Belalcazar, L. Maria; Yang, Yao; Erar, Bahar; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Lipkin, Edward W.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Huggins, Gordon S.

2013-01-01

336

Do You Really Know What You're Eating?: Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study uses the example of genetically modified corn to examine concepts of modern molecular genetics and microbiology. Students will read a fictional news report about consumers having an allergic reaction to tainted genetically modified corn. The lesson is intended for high school and lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Reese, Mary Celeste

337

OVERCOMING HYBRIDIZATION BARRIERS IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated potato is a major crop worldwide. It is a high input crop with complex quality requirements at harvest and during storage. Potato breeders are fortunate to have access to a very diverse and accessible germplasm resource. Wild Solanum relatives provide genetic diversity as well as g...

338

Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

339

Impact on the metabolome of down-regulating glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

340

NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

2013-01-01

341

Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging. PMID:25049619

Muhlisin, S. M. Kang; Choi, W. H.; Lee, K. T.; Cheong, S. H.; Lee, S. K.

2012-01-01

342

Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.  

PubMed

India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule. PMID:23143480

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

2013-01-01

343

Fungal community associated with genetically modified poplar during metal phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing demand for phytoremediation, many transgenic poplars have been developed to enhance the bioremediation of heavy metals. However, structural changes to indigenous fungal communities by genetically modified organisms (GMO) presents a major ecological issue, due to the important role of fungi for plant growth in natural environments. To evaluate the effect of GM plant use on environmental fungal soil communities, extensive sequencing-based community analysis was conducted, while controlling the influence of plant clonality, plant age, soil condition, and harvesting season. The rhizosphere soils of GM and wild type (WT) poplars at a range of growth stages were sampled together with unplanted, contaminated soil, and the fungal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing the D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene. The results show that the overall structure of the rhizosphere fungal community was not significantly influenced by GM poplars. However, the presence of GM specific taxa, and faster rate of community change during poplar growth, appeared to be characteristic of the GM plant-induced effects on soil-born fungal communities. The results of this study provide additional information about the potential effects of GM poplar trees aged 1.5-3 years, on the soil fungal community. PMID:23274976

Hur, Moonsuk; Lim, Young Woon; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Choi, Young Im; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Il; Yi, Hana

2012-12-01

344

Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the environmental consequences of genetically modified rice. Within the next few years, many types of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) will be ready for commercialization, including varieties with higher yields, greater tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, resistance to herbicides, improved nutritional quality, and novel pharmaceutical proteins. Although rice is primarily self-pollinating, its transgenes are expected to disperse to nearby weedy and wild relatives through pollen-mediated gene flow. Sexually compatible Oryza species often co-occur with the crop, especially in tropical countries, but little is known about how quickly fitness-enhancing transgenes will accumulate in these populations and whether this process will have any unwanted environmental consequences. For example, weedy rice could become much more difficult to manage if it acquires herbicide resistance, produces more seeds, or occurs in a wider range of habitats because of the spread of certain transgenes. Rice-growing countries urgently need publicly available ecological assessments of the risks and benefits of transgenic rice before new varieties are released.

BAO-RONG LU and ALLISON A. SNOW (; )

2005-08-01

345

Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

2013-01-01

346

Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon  

PubMed Central

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

347

Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.  

PubMed

Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives. PMID:22430852

Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

2012-01-01

348

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

349

Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

350

Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"  

E-print Network

We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra.We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

C. M. Bridge; Pasi Hakala; Mark Cropper; Gavin Ramsay

2004-04-05

351

Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"  

E-print Network

We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aq...

Bridge, C M; Cropper, M; Ramsay, G

2004-01-01

352

Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments.  

PubMed

The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context, regulatory control may develop in several directions. One response to the public concern is to strengthen the data requirements for the risk assessment process. Several avenues have been proposed. They include the application of technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics to assess unintended changes, and the development of predictive methods to evaluate allergenicity. Obligations for post-launch surveillance have appeared in regulations. Criteria are required to define when and why such approaches are necessary. Significant challenges including feasibility and validation of the methods, and safety relevance of the data generated will have to be addressed before any general application of these new approaches. Effective monitoring requires the ability to identify the presence of GM products and trace their origin. Traceability and labeling are therefore important developments in the GM food regulatory arena. Both require the development of reliable analytical detection tools. PMID:12052676

Schilter, Benoît; Constable, Anne

2002-02-28

353

Genetic determinants of Potato virus Y required to overcome or trigger hypersensitive resistance to PVY strain group O controlled by the gene Ny in potato.  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) (genus Potyvirus) is the most economically damaging and widely distributed virus in potato. Spread of PVY in the field is controlled by growing resistant cultivars. The dominant potato gene Ny(tbr) for hypersensitive resistance (HR) controls ordinary PVY strains (PVY(O)) but is overcome by PVY(N) strains. Studies with infectious PVY chimeras and mutants indicated that the viral determinants necessary and sufficient to overcome Ny(tbr) reside within the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) (residues 227 to 327). Specifically, eight residues and the modeled three-dimensional conformation of this HC-Pro region distinguish PVY(N) from PVY(O) strains. According to the model, the conserved IGN and CCCT motifs implicated in potyvirus replication and movement, respectively, are situated in a coiled structure and an ?-helix, respectively, within this region in PVY(O); however, their locations are reversed in PVY(N). Two residues (R269 and K270) are crucial for the predicted PVY(O)-specific HC-Pro conformation. Two viral chimeras triggered Ny(tbr) and induced veinal necrosis in tobacco, which is novel for PVY. One chimera belonged to strain group PVY(E). Our results suggest a structure-function relationship in recognition of PVY(O) HC-Pro by Ny(tbr), reveal HC-Pro amino acid signatures specific to PVY(O) and PVY(N), and facilitate identification of PVY strains overcoming Ny(tbr). PMID:23113714

Tian, Yan-Ping; Valkonen, Jari P T

2013-03-01

354

Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies. PMID:24789648

Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

2014-01-01

355

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic from a modified genetic algorithm (GA). Model performance was evaluated between the empirical landscape

Wang, Le

356

Incidence, Distribution, and Genetic Variations of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp.' Associated with Zebra Chip of Potato in North America.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLs) and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ (CLp) were confirmed in potato plants affected with zebra chip/zebra complex (ZC) disease throughout Texas potato production areas in 2005-2008, in seed tubers produced from Wyoming in 2007, and in...

357

Optimising ketocarotenoid production in potato tubers: Effect of genetic background, transgene combinations and environment.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin is a high value carotenoid produced by some bacteria, a few green algae, several fungi but only a limited number of plants from the genus Adonis. Astaxanthin has been industrially exploited as a feed supplement in poultry farming and aquaculture. Consumption of ketocarotenoids, most notably astaxanthin, is also increasingly associated with a wide range of health benefits, as demonstrated in numerous clinical studies. Currently astaxanthin is produced commercially by chemical synthesis or from algal production systems. Several studies have used a metabolic engineering approach to produce astaxanthin in transgenic plants. Previous attempts to produce transgenic potato tubers biofortified with astaxanthin have met with limited success. In this study we have investigated approaches to optimising tuber astaxanthin content. It is demonstrated that the selection of appropriate parental genotype for transgenic approaches and stacking carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes with the cauliflower Or gene result in enhanced astaxanthin content, to give six-fold higher tuber astaxanthin content than has been achieved previously. Additionally we demonstrate the effects of growth environment on tuber carotenoid content in both wild type and astaxanthin-producing transgenic lines and describe the associated transcriptome and metabolome restructuring. PMID:25804807

Campbell, Raymond; Morris, Wayne L; Mortimer, Cara L; Misawa, Norihiko; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Hedley, Pete E; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

2015-05-01

358

Origin and genetic diversity of Western European populations of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) inferred from mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Native to South America, the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is one of the principal pests of Andean potato crops and is also an important global pest following its introduction to Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and Oceania. Building on earlier work showing a clear south to north phylogeographic pattern in Peruvian populations, we have been able to identify the origin of Western European populations with high accuracy. They are all derived from a single restricted area in the extreme south of Peru, located between the north shore of the Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Only four cytochrome b haplotypes are found in Western Europe, one of them being also found in some populations of this area of southern Peru. The allelic richness at seven microsatellite loci observed in the Western European populations, although only one-third of that observed in this part of southern Peru, is comparable to the allelic richness observed in the northern region of Peru. This result could be explained by the fact that most of the genetic variability observed at the scale of a field or even of a region is already observed at the scale of a single plant within a field. Thus, even introduction via a single infected potato plant could result in the relatively high genetic variability observed in Western Europe. This finding has important consequences for the control of this pest and the development of quarantine measures. PMID:18410291

Plantard, O; Picard, D; Valette, S; Scurrah, M; Grenier, E; Mugniéry, D

2008-05-01

359

Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

360

Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.  

PubMed

Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting of GMO and wild soybeans. GMO soybeans revealed a unique strong immunoglobulin E binding band at 25 kDa in some patients and wild soybeans showed a strong immunoglobulin E binding band at 30-36 kDa. To assess the allergenicity of GMO food, more research, including a selection of controlled sample materials and immunoassays of qualified sera, is needed. PMID:16119037

Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

2005-01-01

361

Genetically Modified Organisms and the deterioration of health in the United States N.L. Swanson, 4/24/2013  

E-print Network

Genetically Modified Organisms and the deterioration of health in the United States N.L. Swanson, 4 is a GMO? A genetically modified organism, or GMO is the term commonly used for crops that have been genetically engineered (GE) to produce some desired trait. The first GE crops were tobacco plants modified

Seneff, Stephanie

362

Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.  

PubMed

I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. PMID:25903238

Edwards, Sachi

2015-05-01

363

Factors Influencing Stakeholders Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Aedes Mosquito.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

2014-06-01

364

Effects of rice cystatin I expression in transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of OCI (Oryzacystatin I) expressing transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle (CPB) larvae development was investigated. Transgenic potatoes, resistant to kanamycin and expressing the OCI cysteine protease inhibitor (PI), were obtained via Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetic transformation. Four independent transgenic lines were shown by molecular analysis to exhibit a high level of OCI expression. Larvae of CPB were independently

Anne Lecardonnel; Laura Chauvin; Lise Jouanin; Antony Beaujean; Geneviève Prévost; Brigitte Sangwan-Norreel

1999-01-01

365

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

366

An Experiment on the Effects of Message Factors with Advertising for Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of genetically modified foods (GMF) in the marketplace has sparked a lively debate on the legal requirements for labelling of these products, especially in Australasia. Several studies confirm the initial negative connotations associated with these \\

Michelle Renton; David Fortin; Kevin Voges

367

Identification of Convection Constants for Electronic Packages Using Modified Genetic Algorithm and Reduced-Basis Method  

E-print Network

A new inverse analysis method is presented to identify parameters of heat convection in microelectronic packages. This approach adopts a modified Micro Genetic Algorithm (µGA) in finding the global optimum of parameters. ...

Yang, Zhenglin

368

A Modified Genetic Algorithm Applied to Horizontal Well Placement Optimization in Gas Condensate Reservoirs  

E-print Network

A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO HORIZONTAL WELL PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ADRIAN NICOLAS MORALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Condensate Reservoirs Copyright 2010 Adrian Nicolas Morales A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO HORIZONTAL WELL PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ADRIAN NICOLAS MORALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

Morales, Adrian

2011-02-22

369

A Case Study for Assessment of Microbial Community Dynamics in Genetically Modified Bt Cotton Crop Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted\\u000a to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin\\u000a (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used

Manisha Kapur; Ranjana Bhatia; Gunjan Pandey; Janmejay Pandey; Debarati Paul; Rakesh K. Jain

2010-01-01

370

Persistence of Cry toxins and cry genes from genetically modified plants in two agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact of genetically modified crops has been the subject of intense research in the past decade. Since\\u000a the introduction of insect-resistant crops in 1996, cultivation of this group of genetically modified crops has grown substantially.\\u000a Most insect-resistant varieties, including corn and cotton, have been engineered to express crystal (Cry) toxins. Although\\u000a several studies concerning the environmental fate of

Elisa Marchetti; Cesare Accinelli; Valentina Talamè; Rosanna Epifani

2007-01-01

371

Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Crops: Differentiated Risk Assessment and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risks and benefits of genetically modified crops have varying degrees of certainty. The U.S. regulatory\\u000a system evaluates a suite of hazards for the crops primarily by minimizing type I error. However, genetically modified crops\\u000a vary widely in their potential for environmental harm. We develop a differentiated risk assessment process using three models\\u000a that shift from primary emphasis on

David E. Ervinand; Rick Welsh

372

Biological containment of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis for intestinal delivery of human interleukin 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified Lactococcus lactis secreting interleukin 10 provides a therapeutic approach for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the release of such genetically modified organisms through clinical use raises safety concerns. In an effort to address this problem, we replaced the thymidylate synthase gene thyA of L. lactis with a synthetic human IL10 gene. This thyA?hIL10+L. lactis strain produced human IL-10 (hIL-10),

Sabine Neirynck; Nathalie Huyghebaert; Veerle Snoeck; An Vermeire; Bruno Goddeeris; Eric Cox; Jean Paul Remon; Erik Remaut; Lothar Steidler

2003-01-01

373

Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both

G. Moulin

374

Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides,guidance,on how,to assess the safety of foods derived from,genetically modified,crops (GM crops); it sum- marises conclusions,and recommendations,of Working,Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed,approach,to safety assessment,starts

A. Ko Nig; A. Cockburn; R. w. r. Crevel; E. Debruyne; R. Grafstroem; U. Hammerling; I. Kimber; I. Knudsen; H. a. Kuiper; A. a. c. m. Peijnenburg; A. h. Penninks; M. Poulsen; M. Schauzu; J. m. Wal

375

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.  

PubMed

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials with varying chromosome numbers. The existing and proposed regulatory EU requirements for traceability of genetically modified products fit within a broader tendency towards traceability of foods in general and, commercially, towards products that can be distinguished from each other. Traceability systems document the history of a product and may serve the purpose of both marketing and health protection. In this framework, segregation and identity preservation systems allow for the separation of genetically modified and non-modified products from "farm to fork". Implementation of these systems comes with specific technical requirements for each particular step of the food processing chain. In addition, the feasibility of traceability systems depends on a number of factors, including unique identifiers for each genetically modified product, detection methods, permissible levels of contamination, and financial costs. In conclusion, progress has been achieved in the field of sampling, detection, and traceability of genetically modified products, while some issues remain to be solved. For success, much will depend on the threshold level for adventitious contamination set by legislation. PMID:15123385

Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

2004-07-01

376

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

377

Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as

João Lúcio Azevedo; Welington Luiz Araujo

2003-01-01

378

Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking

A. Springer; Konstadinos Mattas; G. Papastefanou; Asterios Tsioumanis

2002-01-01

379

Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods.

Bahri Karli; Abdulbaki Bilgic; Bulent Miran

2008-01-01

380

Planning Environmental Risk Assessment for Genetically Modified Crops: Problem Formulation for Stress-Tolerant Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientifically sound environmental risk assess- ment is required for crops derived from modern bio- technology (also referred to as genetically modified (GM)) priortounrestrictedreleaseinto theenvironment. The scientific principles underlying the environmental risk assessments completed for herbicide-tolerant and insect-protected GM crops commercialized to date are now being applied to crops currently under develop- ment that are modified for improved tolerance to

Thomas E. Nickson

2008-01-01

381

Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the

A. Koniga; A. Cockburnb; R. W. R. Crevelc; E. Debruyned; R. Grafstroeme; U. Hammerling; I. Knudsenh; I. Knudsen; H. A. Kuiper; A. A. C. M. Peijnenburg; A. H. Penninks; M. Poulsen; M. Schauzu; J. M. Wal

2004-01-01

382

Self modifying cartesian genetic programming: finding algorithms that calculate pi and e to arbitrary precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming (SMCGP) aims to be a general purpose form of developmental genetic programming. The evolved programs are iterated thus allowing an infinite sequence of phenotypes (programs) to be obtained from a single evolved genotype. In previous work this approach has already shown that it is possible to obtain mathematically provable general solutions to certain problems. We

Simon Harding; Julian F. Miller; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2010-01-01

383

The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or

Dorit Schuller; Margarida Casal

2005-01-01

384

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use and enjoy their lands, giving rise to an

Neil Craik; Keith Culver; Norman Siebrasse

2007-01-01

385

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition GOLDEN RICE: A GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOLUTION TO  

E-print Network

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition GOLDEN RICE: A GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOLUTION, such as beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A), which makes this predominant food source the main cause for vitamin Humanitarian Board, 2005-2011), a biofortified rice that was only possible through genetic engineering

Thomas, Andrew

386

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues

Amar Chiter; J. Michael Forbes; G. Eric Blair

2000-01-01

387

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

2007-01-01

388

Risk and Regulation: U.S. Regulatory Policy on Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, successive White House Administrations have shaped federal policy on genetically modified food and agriculture to (1) be product-based, (2) presume low risk from genetic modification, and (3) review GM products under existing federal standards. For two decades, the FDA, USDA, and EPA have erected a regulatory framework for GM products based on these three principles. This Article

Emily Marden

2003-01-01

389

The Use of Genetically Modified Embryonic Stem Cells to Generate Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted genetic modification of embryonic stem cells (ESC) was used to obtain nondifferentiated cell clones containing the foreign genetic material in the genome. It was demonstrated that transgenic animals may be obtained by ESC injection in preimplantation embryos and subsequent transplantation of the embryos into a recipient female. Using this method, we constructed chimeric animals with a modified genome.

M. V. Pryzhkova; I. R. Zakeeva; A. V. Kibardin; G. P. Georgiev; S. L. Kiselev

2004-01-01

390

Erratum: Invasion of transgenes from salmon or other genetically modified organisms into natural populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been widespread concern about the ecological and genetic effects of genetically modified organisms. In salmon and other fishes, transgenic growth hormone genes have been shown to have large ef- fects on size and various traits related to fitness. In this paper, I have shown by using a deterministic model that if such a transgene has

Philip W. Hedrick

2001-01-01

391

PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND ORGANIC FOODS AND PROCESSES: NORTH DAKOTA COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of genetically modified (GM) and organic food among North Dakota college students were elicited and compared. Participants responded to one of two survey instruments containing identical wording except for reference to genetic modification or organic, after reading a primer defining the term used in their instrument. Participants' indicated their level of agreement with statements in the construct areas of

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

2005-01-01

392

EU–US Trade Disputes about Risk Regulation: The Case of Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of crops increasingly employs genetically modified organisms worldwide. The nature and the probability of side and latent effects of the mass use of genetic engineering are, at present, unforeseeable. A trade-off between risks and benefits is therefore hard to define. The precautionary principle is a globally known though not undisputed approach to handling such uncertainties. Its application is

Arno Scherzberg

2006-01-01

393

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

394

Mapping genes for resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum in tetraploid and diploid potato populations using haplotype association tests and genetic linkage analysis.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilt disease of potato is caused predominantly by Verticillium albo-atrum and V. dahliae. StVe1 -a putative QTL for resistance against V. dahliae -was previously mapped to potato chromosome 9. To develop allele-specific, SNP-based markers within the locus, the StVe1 fragment from a set of 30 North American potato cultivars was analyzed. Three distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be distinguished at the StVe1 locus. These were detected in 97%, 33%, and 10% of the cultivars analyzed. We tested for haplotype association and for genetic linkage between the StVe1 haplotypes and resistance of tetraploid potato to V. albo-atrum. Moreover, field resistance was assessed in diploid populations with known molecular linkage maps in order to identify novel QTLs. Resistance QTLs against V. albo-atrum were detected on four chromosomes (2, 6, 9, and 12) at the diploid level, with one QTL on chromosome 2 contributing over 40% to the total phenotypic variation of the trait. At the tetraploid level, a significant association between the StVe1-839-C haplotype and susceptibility to the disease was detected, suggesting that resistance-related genes directed against V. albo-atrum and V. dahliae are located in the same genomic region of chromosome 9. However, on the basis of the present analysis, we cannot determine whether these genes are closely linked or if a single gene provides resistance against both Verticillium species. To assess the usefulness of the StVe1-839-C haplotype for marker-assisted selection, we subjected the resistance data to Bayesian analysis, and calculated positive (0.65) and negative (0.75) predictive values, and overall predictive accuracy (0.72). Our results indicate that tagging of additional genes for resistance to Verticillium with molecular markers will be required for efficient marker-assisted selection. PMID:15107986

Simko, I; Haynes, K G; Ewing, E E; Costanzo, S; Christ, B J; Jones, R W

2004-06-01

395

Oviposition of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and natural predation on its egg masses in Bt-expressing fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalist predators are relevant natural enemies of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) in Europe. In fields of insect resistant genetically modified plants (GMPs), predators could be exposed to toxins either directly (e.g., via pollen), or indirectly through feeding on herbivorous prey. Hence, they represent an important functional group to consider when studying environmental impacts of GMPs. CPB females show a

S. Arpaia; J. E. U. Schmidt; G. M. Di Leo; M. C. Fiore

2009-01-01

396

Do You Really Know What You're Eating? A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting from a fictional “news” report about an apparent allergic reaction to a taco tainted by genetically modified corn, students consider some of the techniques and procedures used in modern molecular genetics and microbiology as well as some of the issues associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Originally designed for role-play and PowerPoint assignments, suggestions for a shortened version are also provided. Suitable for a general microbiology course, the case could also be used in an introductory molecular biology course with appropriate modifications. Various levels of coverage of the topic of recombinant DNA are possible.

Wayne Shew

2007-01-01

397

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

398

Estimating the Market Effect of a Food Scare: The Case of Genetically Modified StarLink Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modification of crops has revolutionized food production, but it remains controversial due to food safety and environmental concerns. A recent food safety scare provides a natural experiment on the corn market's willingness to accept unapproved genetically modified organisms. In 2000, a genetically modified corn variety called StarLink was discovered in the food-corn supply, even though it was not approved

Colin A. Carter; Aaron D. Smith

2006-01-01

399

Review Huntington’s disease: the case for genetic modifiers  

E-print Network

For almost three decades, Huntington’s disease has been a prototype for the application of genetic strategies to human disease. HD, the Huntington’s disease gene, was the first autosomal defect mapped using only DNA markers, a finding in 1983 that helped to spur similar studies in many other disorders and contributed to the concept of the human genome project. The search for the genetic defect itself pioneered many mapping and gene-finding technologies, and culminated in the identi fi cation of the HD gene, its mutation and its novel protein product in 1993. Since that time, extensive investigations into the pathogenic mechanism have utilized the knowledge of the disease gene and its defect but, with notable exceptions, have rarely relied for guidance on the genetic findings in human patients to interpret the relevance of findings in non-human model systems.

James F Gusella; Marcy E Macdonald

400

Three vitrification-based cryopreservation procedures cause different cryo-injuries to potato shoot tips while all maintain genetic integrity in regenerants.  

PubMed

We previously reported successful cryopreservation of shoot tips of potato 'Zihuabai' by three vitrification-based protocols. In the present study, cryo-injury to shoot tips and genetic stability in regenerants recovered from cryopreserved shoot tips by the three vitrification-based protocols were further investigated. The results showed that sucrose preculture caused no obviously different injuries, while dehydration with plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) was the step causing major damage to cells of shoot tips, regardless of the cryogenic procedures. Compared with droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification caused the most severe injury to cells of the shoot tips, thus resulting in much longer time duration for shoot recovery and much lower shoot regrowth rate. Cells in apical dome and the youngest leaf primordia were able to survive and subsequently some of them regrew into shoots following all three vitrification-based cryopreservation procedures. Analyses using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in shoots regrown from all three vitrification-based protocols did not find any polymorphic bands. The results reported here suggest that vitrification-based cryo-procedures can be considered promising methods for long-term preservation of potato genetic resources. PMID:24858678

Wang, Biao; Li, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Ren-Rui; Ma, Yan-Li; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Keller, E R Joachim; Wang, Qiao-Chun

2014-08-20

401

ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

402

[Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].  

PubMed

Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. PMID:21111655

Aris, A; Paris, K

2010-12-01

403

Potato Flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

404

Genetically modified multiuser detection for code division multiple access systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is considered. By combining the theory of multiuser detection (MUD) and evolutionary computation, a hybrid genetic engine is proposed, suitable for the detection of CDMA signals in the presence of MAI and ISI. The proposed hybrid detector structure can be extended

S. Abedi; R. Tafazolli

2002-01-01

405

Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

406

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

407

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

2007-01-01

408

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming Simon Harding  

E-print Network

of Cartesian Genetic Programming that includes self-modification operations. One advantage of this approach of problems and demonstrate the characteristics and advantages that self-modification brings. Categories into their phenotypes are not merely the string of bases in the DNA. Such a view would be akin to the once domi- nant

Fernandez, Thomas

409

Creating genetically modified pigs by using nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfer (NT) is a procedure by which genetically identical individuals can be created. The technology of pig somatic NT, including in vitro maturation of oocytes, isolation and treatment of donor cells, artificial activation of reconstructed oocytes, embryo culture and embryo transfer, has been intensively studied in recent years, resulting in birth of cloned pigs in many labs. While it

Liangxue Lai; Randall S Prather

2003-01-01

410

Systemic Delivery of Recombinant Proteins by Genetically Modified Myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth

Eliav Barr; Jeffrey M. Leiden

1991-01-01

411

Genetic mechanisms and modifying factors in hereditary hemochromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary iron overload is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. Several genetic mutations underlie the various forms of the disease, which have similar pathophysiological profiles but distinct clinical presentations. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis absorb too much iron from the diet, which accumulates over time within parenchymal cells. This accumulation leads to eventual organ failure as a consequence of

Günter Weiss

2009-01-01

412

Suppression of NGB and NAB/ERabp1 in tomato modifies root responses to potato cyst nematode infestation.  

PubMed

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to major crops throughout the world. The small number of genes conferring natural plant resistance and the limitations of chemical control require the development of new protective strategies. RNA interference or the inducible over-expression of nematicidal genes provides an environment-friendly approach to this problem. Candidate genes include NGB, which encodes a small GTP-binding protein, and NAB/ERabp1, which encodes an auxin-binding protein, which were identified as being up-regulated in tomato roots in a transcriptome screen of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) feeding sites. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in?situ hybridization confirmed the localized up-regulation of these genes in syncytia and surrounding cells following nematode infection. Gene-silencing constructs were introduced into tomato, resulting in a 20%-98% decrease in transcription levels. Nematode infection tests conducted on transgenic plants showed 57%-82% reduction in the number of G.?rostochiensis females in?vitro and 30%-46% reduction in pot trials. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a deterioration of cytoplasm, and degraded mitochondria and plastids, in syncytia induced in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. Cytoplasm in syncytia induced in plants with low NGB expression was strongly electron translucent and contained very few ribosomes; however, mitochondria and plastids remained intact. Functional impairments in syncytial cytoplasm of silenced plants may result from NGB's role in ribosome biogenesis; this was confirmed by localization of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-labelled NGB protein in nucleoli and co-repression of NGB in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. These results demonstrate that NGB and NAB/ERabp1 play important roles in the development of nematode-induced syncytia. PMID:25131407

D?browska-Bronk, Joanna; Czarny, Magdalena; Wi?niewska, Anita; Fudali, Sylwia; Baranowski, Lukasz; Sobczak, Miros?aw; Swi?cicka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Brzy?ek, Grzegorz; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Dobosz, Renata; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Filipecki, Marcin

2014-08-18

413

Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.  

PubMed

A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

2014-07-01

414

Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts  

SciTech Connect

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1991-12-06

415

Therapeutic potential of genetically modified adult stem cells for osteopenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stem cells have therapeutic potential because of their intrinsic capacity for self-renewal, especially for bone regeneration. The present study shows the utility of ex vivo modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to enhance bone density in an immunocompetent mouse model of osteopenia. MSC were transduced ex vivo with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)

S Kumar; T R Nagy; S Ponnazhagan

2010-01-01

416

GENETIC STUDIES AND BREEDING OF STABLE LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE OF POTATO IN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Toluca Valley of Mexico is the putative center of origin of Phytophthora infestans. This oomycete shows tremendous variability found no where else in the world. It is an excellent site to test for durable resistance in potato. During a five year period breeding materials derived from highly d...

417

Genetically Modified Food: GM Crops: Time to Choose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this Nature Web focus explains, "just four countries account for 99% of the world's commercially grown transgenic crops," and other countries "have been stalling over whether to embrace transgenic agriculture, but won't be able to put off the decision for much longer." Readers can get an in-depth look at this issue with free features from Nature, including recent news articles, an interactive map of the world, and a link to Nature Reviews Genetics_ (also free of charge).

418

Detection of genetically modified plant products by protein strip testing: an evaluation of real-life samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the presence of genetically modified plant material by the detection of expressed genetically engineered\\u000a proteins using lateral flow protein strip tests has been evaluated in different matrices. The presence of five major genetically\\u000a engineered proteins (CP4-EPSPS, CryIAb, Cry9C, PAT\\/pat and PAT\\/bar protein) was detected at low levels in seeds, seed\\/leaf powder and leaf tissue from genetically modified

Marc Van den Bulcke; Adinda De Schrijver; Daniele De Bernardi; Yann Devos; Guillaume MbongoMbella; Amaya Leunda Casi; William Moens; Myriam Sneyers

2007-01-01

419

Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibres enhanced with poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically modified flax fibres, derived from transgenic flax with expression of three bacterial genes necessary for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have been analysed. These transgenic flaxes, enhanced with different amount of the PHB, have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes as well as the differences between the natural and genetically modified flax fibres. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibres.

Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymi?ska, Lucyna; M?czka, Miros?aw; Hanuza, Jerzy

2009-02-01

420

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

2001-09-01

421

Genetically modified wine yeasts and risk assessment studies covering different steps within the wine making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of gene technology to modify the genome of wine yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae began in the early 1990s. From a purely scientific point of view, many yeast constructs [genetically modified organisms (GMO)]\\u000a have been made so far, covering more or less all stages of the wine making process in which microorganisms or commercial enzymes\\u000a play

Manfred Grossmann; Falk Kießling; Julian Singer; Heidi Schoeman; Max-Bernd Schröder; Christian von Wallbrunn

2011-01-01

422

Metabolomics and the Detection of Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter describes current procedures for the safety assessment of genetically modified crops and foods. The concepts of\\u000a substantial equivalence, the conventional comparator, and intended and unintended effects are introduced. Most published examples\\u000a of substantial equivalence testing deal with crops that have been modified for insect resistance or herbicide tolerance. A\\u000a standard procedure has developed based on broadly similar field

Laetitia Shintu; Gwénaëlle Le Gall; Ian J. Colquhoun

423

The Market Effect of a Food Scare: The Case of Genetically Modified StarLink Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modification of crops has revolutionized food production, but it remains controversial due to food safety concerns. A recent food safety scare provides a natural experiment on the market's willingness to accept an increase in perceived risk from genetically modified (GM) food. We analyze the market impact of contamination of the U.S. food-corn supply by a GM variety called StarLink.

Colin A. Carter; Aaron D. Smith

2004-01-01

424

A Precautionary Approach to Genetically Modified Organisms: Challenges and Implications for Policy and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has revealed a broad range of views among scientists\\u000a and other stakeholders on perspectives of genetic engineering (GE) and if and how GMOs should be regulated. Within this controversy,\\u000a the precautionary principle has become a contentious issue with high support from skeptical groups but resisted by GMO advocates.\\u000a How to handle lack

Anne Ingeborg Myhr

2010-01-01

425

Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been\\u000a altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries\\u000a require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical\\u000a methods for GMO

Dimitrios S. Elenis; Despina P. Kalogianni; Kyriaki Glynou; Penelope C. Ioannou; Theodore K. Christopoulos

2008-01-01

426

A PCR-microarray method for the screening of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to screen and to identify genetically modified organisms (GMO) is presented in this paper. It is based on the\\u000a detection of multiple genetic elements common to GMO by their amplification via PCR followed by direct hybridisation of the\\u000a amplicons on microarray. The pattern of the elements is then compared to a database of the composition of EU-approved

Sandrine Hamels; Thomas Glouden; Karine Gillard; Marco Mazzara; Frédéric Debode; Nicoletta Foti; Myriam Sneyers; Teresa Esteve Nuez; Maria Pla; Gilbert Berben; William Moens; Yves Bertheau; Colette Audéon; Guy Van den Eede; José Remacle

2009-01-01

427

New trends in bioanalytical tools for the detection of genetically modified organisms: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the production of GM crops is increasing, especially\\u000a in developing countries. Thanks to new technologies involving genetic engineering and unprecedented access to genomic resources,\\u000a the next decade will certainly see exponential growth in GMO production. Indeed, EU regulations based on the precautionary\\u000a principle require any food containing more than 0.9% GM content

Elisa Michelini; Patrizia Simoni; Luca Cevenini; Laura Mezzanotte; Aldo Roda

2008-01-01

428

Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

Burr, Ben (Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept) [Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept

2006-03-16

429

Reinventing potato at the diploid level  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

430

Turkish preschool staff's opinions about hormones, additives and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the meals served at preschools are purchased and cooked by preschool staff in Turkey. This study delves preschool staff's opinions about additives, hormones, and genetically modified organisms (GMO). The data were collected from preschool staff using the Preschool Food Survey(PFS). We have found that preschool supervisors and teachers have some knowledge about the food prepared in their preschool.

Burcu Cabuk Ozer; Gokhan Duman; Burcak Cabuk

2009-01-01

431

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

432

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

433

Olfactory ensheathing cells genetically modified to secrete GDNF to promote spinal cord repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation has emerged as a very promising therapy for spinal cord repair. In this study, we tested the ability of genetically modified OECs to secrete high levels of glial cell line- derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to promote spinal cord repair. The GDNF gene was transduced into OECs using a retroviral-based system. The engineered OECs were

Li Cao; Li Liu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Li-Mei Wang; Jun-Li Ye; Hai-Yan Qiu; Chang-Lin Lu; Cheng He

2004-01-01

434

Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the  

E-print Network

Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens, 2000 (received for review January 24, 2000) Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver compartment of mammalian cells. The engineered anthrax toxin vaccine appears unlikely to induce an antibody

Lieberman, Judy

435

Distinct strategies are required to suppress antigen-specific responses to genetically modified keratinocytes and fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Keratinocytes and fibroblasts are potential targets of gene/cell therapy for genodermatoses. Immune elimination of genetically modified cells, however, presents a major impediment to effective therapy. Using ex vivo approaches to gene transfer, we have previously shown that expression of an antigen by either cell type in skin induces immune rejection of transplanted cells, although the nature of immune responses induced by these two cell types are distinct. In this study, we explore the efficacy of local immunosuppressive strategies to divert destructive immune responses from genetically modified fibroblast and keratinocytes. Expression of CTLA4Ig and, to a lesser extent, PDL1, by antigenic fibroblasts protected them from immune rejection resulting in long-term graft survival (>18 weeks). Similar treatment was not effective for antigenic keratinocytes. Long-term protection of transgenic keratinocytes was achieved through transient blockade of CD40/CD154 interactions during the first 2 weeks of cell transplantation. Although neither of these strategies induced antigen-specific tolerance, they were sufficient to prevent rejection of genetically modified cells. These results indicate that different strategies are required to protect antigenic cell types even within the same tissue. Moreover, induction of antigen-specific tolerance is not a necessary requirement for long-term survival of genetically modified skin cells. PMID:21988876

Ghazizadeh, Soosan; Huang, Li T; Zhang, Weibing

2012-01-01

436

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis  

E-print Network

is decidedly mixed: public perceptions of food biotechnology are characterized by ongoing tension between of biotechnology emphasizing benefits to mankind in the form of improved supply of food and medicine and opponentsConsumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis Benjamin

Neimark, Alexander V.

437

Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

Ekborg, Margareta

2008-01-01

438

Membrane based detection of genetically modified organisms in some representatives food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, DNA-based techniques became very common for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. For rapid and easy detection of GMOs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening methods, which amplify common transgenic elements, are applied in routine analysis. Incorporation of PCR and membrane method introduced in this study offer an alternative detection of GMOs. In this study, a

Yoke-Kqueen Cheah; Radu Son; Wong Vui Ling Michael Clemente

2006-01-01

439

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN FOOD - POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has implemented a set of strict procedures for the approval to utilise genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food or food ingredients. In addition, the European Union assures that the European consumer's rights for information are fully guaranteeed. Analytical methods are necessary in order to show compliance with labelling requirements that have been issued in order to be

VAN DEN EEDE; ANKLAM E

440

A general multiplex-PCR assay for the general detection of genetically modified soya and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for the detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with

V. T. Forte; A. Di Pinto; C. Martino; G. M. Tantillo; G. Grasso; F. P. Schena

2005-01-01

441

Genetically modified crops in the European Union: regulatory conflicts as precautionary opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first genetically modified crops and foods to be approved for commercial use in the European Union have prompted intense controversy. Food retailers and processors have been forced to take up the concerns voiced by their customers. New networks of groups have formed to oppose the technology. In response to these pressures, regulators who approved the products have had to

Les Levidow; Susan Carr; David Wield

2000-01-01

442

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review

R. P. Freckleton; P. A. Stephens; W. J. Sutherland; A. R. Watkinson

2004-01-01

443

Genetically Modified Crop Innovations and Product Differentiation: Trade and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology

Andrei Sobolevsky; GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan

2002-01-01

444

Planting Decisions and Uncertain Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Crop Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists much uncertainty about consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods. If it happens that sufficient (insufficient) acres are planted under nonmodified seed to meet postharvest demand, then a price premium will not (will) emerge for the nonmodified varieties. A nonlinearity originates in the fact that a price premium may not be supported. This nonlinearity interacts with demand uncertainty to

Alexander E. Saak; David A. Hennessy

2002-01-01

445

Commercial Production of Genetically Modified Crops: A Prognosis Towards Global Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The improvement of plant growth, crop productivity and supply of agricultural products in adverse environmental conditions are the major objectives of plant molecular biology research. Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have provided a unique and successful way of addressing some severe environmental constraints. Therefore, the production of GMCs has continued to cover increasing areas in the world despite the controversies

Kotchoni O. Simeon; Emma W. Gachomo; Maina Mwangi

446

Assessing Genetically Modified Crops to Minimize the Risk of Increased Food Allergy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the

Richard E. Goodman; Susan L. Hefle; Steven L. Taylor; Ronald van Ree

2005-01-01

447

Responding Public Demand for Assurance of Genetically Modified Crops: Case from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops provide a classic example of risk characterised with uncertainty and ambiguity. This article analyses the risk management of GM crops in Japan as a case and investigates how the Japanese government has responded to the growing public demand for safety assurance of new agricultural and food varieties. It argues that, while the government realised the need

Mariko Nishizawa; Ortwin Renn

2006-01-01

448

Evaluating environmental risks of genetically modified crops: ecological harm criteria for regulatory decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

European risk managers currently face substantial difficulty in evaluating the risks of genetically modified (GM) crops for biodiversity. This difficulty is not primarily due to a lack of scientific data (the data are abundant) but rather to a lack of clear criteria for determining what represents environmental harm. Establishing criteria that define harm is not a scientific process but a

Olivier Sanvido; Jörg Romeis; Achim Gathmann; Marco Gielkens; Alan Raybould; Franz Bigler

449

A qualitative multi-attribute model for economic and ecological assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have become a real option in modern agriculture. They offer advantages for agricultural production, but they also raise concerns about their ecological and economic impacts. Decisions about GM crops are complex and call for decision support. This paper presents a qualitative multi-attribute model for the assessment of ecological and economic impacts at a farm-level of GM

Marko Bohanec; Antoine Messéan; Sara Scatasta; Frédérique Angevin; Bryan Griffiths; Paul Henning Krogh; Martin Žnidarši?; Sašo Džeroski

2008-01-01

450

Cracking export markets with genetically modified crops : What is the entry mode strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public and private policy responses to the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops have differed across countries and regions, resulting in market fragmentation that is in conflict with the entry mode strategy of standardisation that has dominated the food distribution system for a century. To deal with the new market reality, an alternative entry mode strategy must be established which

Grant E. Isaac; Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr

2004-01-01

451

RESPONSE TO AN ASYMMETRIC DEMAND FOR ATTRIBUTES: AN APPLICATION TO THE MARKET FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is developed for examining the price and welfare effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. In the short run, non-GM grain generally becomes another niche product. However, more profound market effects are observed under some reasonable parameterizations. In the long run, consumer and producer welfare are usually greater after the introduction of GM technology. Nevertheless, in

Sergio H. Lence; Dermot J. Hayes

2001-01-01

452

Genetically Modified Crops: a US Farmer's Versus an EU Citizen's Point of View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been widely adopted by American farmers. Mainly two traits, herbicide resistance and insect resistance, constitute the area of GM crops. The commercial success of these crops derives from benefits in farm management and more generally from greater efficiency in production. European population surveys continue to show widespread opposition to GM crops and other applications of

Kathrine Hauge Madsen; Jesper Lassen; Peter Sandøe

2003-01-01

453

Genetically Modified Crops, Corporate Pricing Strategies, and Farmers' Adoption: The Case of Bt Cotton in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes adoption and impacts of Bt cotton in Argentina against the background of monopoly pricing. Based on survey data, it is shown that the technology significantly reduces insecticide applications and increases yields; however, these advantages are curbed by the high price charged for genetically modified seeds. Using the contingent valuation method, it is shown that farmers' average willingness

Matin Qaim; Alain de Janvry

2003-01-01

454

Controversy over genetically modified crops in India: discursive strategies and social identities of farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversies over genetically modified crops (GM crops) in India involve what Gieryn (1999) refers to as ‘boundary work’ in the ongoing competition for credibility and trustworthiness among claimsmakers with opposing points of view. Discourse about GM crops involves extensive drawing of boundaries by actors including policymakers, technocrats, NGOs, scientists, industrialists, and farmers. The issues raised range from governmental processes

Tomiko Yamaguchi

2007-01-01

455

TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED  

EPA Science Inventory

Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

456

POTENTIAL INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SORGHUM LINES GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOR REDUCED LIGNIN CONTENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential increased resistance to Fusarium species in sorghum lines genetically modified for reduced lignin content. Deanna L. Funnell and Jeffery F. Pedersen, Grain, Forage and Bioenergy Research, USDA-ARS; Departments of Plant Pathology (DLF) and Agronomy (JFP), University of Nebraska. Lincoln, 6...

457

Potential market segments for genetically modified food: Results from cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial success of genetically modified (GM) food may be improved with appropriately targeted marketing. To that end, data from a survey of supermarket shoppers in New Zealand were analysed with a cluster analysis. A six-cluster solution found three clusters with positive intentions to purchase GM apples and three clusters with negative intentions. Positive intentions appeared to result from either

William Kaye-Blake; Anna OConnell; Charles Lamb

2007-01-01

458

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

459

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

460

Consumer acceptability of genetically modified foods with special reference to farmed salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM) farmed salmon as a focus for the research. The results identified a small group of “triers” - willing to try any GM food product, and a small group of “refusers” - rejecting the technology and derivative

Sharron Kuznesof; Christopher Ritson

1996-01-01

461

The use of non-hypothetical experimental markets for measuring the acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings from a study measuring consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods are presented. The empirical data were collected in an experimental market, an approach used extensively in experimental economics for measuring the monetary value of goods. The approach has several advantages over standard approaches used in sensory and marketing research (e.g., surveys and focus groups) because of its

Sara R. Jaeger; Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2004-01-01

462

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

463

Comparison of Consumer Responses to Genetically Modified Foods in Asia, North America, and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward genetically modified (GM) food products are complex and differ across cultures. This study uses consumer survey data to compare consumer attitudes towards GM food across Canada, China, Japan, Norway, and the United States. The comparisons are based on the significance of covariates included in country-wise estimations of willingness to pay for GM foods. The Canadian respondents were

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Thomas I. Wahl

464

CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

465

International sources of environmental policy change in China: the case of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's agricultural biotechnology policy has undergone a profound transformation over the last decade, from a strongly promotional to a more precautionary approach. From the 1980s onwards, China invested heavily in biotechnology development and in the early 1990s emerged as the leading biotech country in the developing world. In the late 1990s, however, it halted the authorization of new genetically modified

Robert Falkner

2006-01-01

466

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

467

ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

468

Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how consumers could potentially react to the introduction of genetically modified food. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data, however, to date limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implications for policy. This paper contributes to the literature by

José M. Gil; W. Bruce Traill

2008-01-01

469

Trust in sources of information about genetically modified food risks in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of trust have been identified as an important element in the risk communication process. This research is concerned with establishing the degree of trust the general public has in various possible sources of information about the health effects associated with consuming genetically modified food. Participants were asked directly about the degree to which they would trust information about the

Stephen Hunt; Lynn J. Frewer

2001-01-01

470

The consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified foods in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the factors that have influences upon benefit and risk perceptions of applying gene technology to food production, perceptions that may in turn determine the consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified (GM) foods in Taiwan. Results of structural equation modeling analysis give evidence that general attitude toward and trust in institutes and scientists performing gene manipulation have positive

Mei-Fang Chen; Hsiao-Lan Li

2007-01-01

471

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher

Theodoros H. Varzakas; G. Chryssochoidis; D. Argyropoulos

2007-01-01

472

A Continuum of Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national telephone survey was conducted in the United States in April 2002 to study the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes toward GM foods were examined through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), analyzing the interrelationships among many categorical variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes.

Pierre Ganiere; Wen S. Chern; David E. Hahn

2006-01-01

473

Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

2014-01-01

474

KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

475

Affective Influences on Risk Perceptions of, and Attitudes Toward, Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about risk perceptions and public understanding of genetically modified (GM) food, yet little if any of the academic writings on this topic take into account the role of feelings or affect in these processes. Here, the available literature on the topic of GM food is explored in order to highlight findings consistent with the notion that

Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

476

Trust in governance and the acceptance of genetically modified food in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assumes that trust is a major issue in the interaction between government, citizens and societal organizations. The central question in this paper relates to the specific determinants of public trust. A survey study is reported (n = 1019) which focuses on the role of trust in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Our expectation was that three

Jan Gutteling; Lucien Hanssen; Veer van der Neil; Erwin Seydel

2006-01-01

477

Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived riskof genetically modified food: an overview of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the riskof genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on riskperception as

Melissa L. Finucane; Joan L. Holup

478

Providing “thoughtful feedback”: Public participation in the regulation of Australia's first genetically modified food crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified (GM) food crops has generated considerable debate over the role of public participation in science and technology decision-making. In 2002 and 2003 the newly established Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR) considered the first application for the commercial release of a GM food crop in Australia. Despite rhetorical statements from government in support of

Kerry Ross

2007-01-01

479

Are perceptions of ‘risks’ and ‘benefits’ of genetically modified food (in)dependent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research has revealed evidence of European Union (EU) citizens’ sceptical attitudes towards genetically modified food, there has been a limited focus on how individuals learn about the risks and benefits of GM food, along with the influence of information sources on the formation of both risk and benefits perceptions. Following a rational learning model, we examine the determinants

Elias Mossialos

2007-01-01

480

Labelling genetically modified food products: consumers’ concern in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAn online survey method was used to collect data regarding the concern and attitude of UK consumers towards genetically modified (GM) food labelling. Questionnaires were sent to 9000 participants of the online panel via emails, and 2568 consumers completed the online survey. The response rate was 29%. This study found that more than 75% of the consumers questioned were concerned

Arbindra Rimal; Wanki Moon; Siva Balasubramanian

2007-01-01

481

An integrated research framework to understand consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Given that the increased marketing of genetically modified (GM) food products and the attitudes of the public have a strong impact on the progress of this emerging gene technology, this study aims to shed light on the antecedents relating to the extent of both the adoption and the purchase intention of GM foods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This work is

Mei-Fang Chen

2008-01-01

482

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH Cultivos alimenticios genéticamente modificados y salud pública  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM) crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom,

ORLANDO ACOSTA

483

Consumers’ trust in government and their attitudes towards genetically modified food: empirical evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the determinants of consumers’ acceptance towards genetically modified food (GMF) is critically important for the biotechnology industry. Based on a unique data set collected by the authors in 2002 and 2003 in 11 cities of China, an econometric model of consumers’ acceptance of GMF is estimated. The results show that consumers’ acceptance of GMF is high in urban China

Huanguang Qiu; Jikun Huang; Carl Pray; Scott Rozelle

2012-01-01

484

The Marketing Battle Over Genetically Modified Foods: Consumer Acceptance of Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the biotechnology battlefield, proponents try to sell the benefits of genetically modified foods, and opponents try to sell the risks. Yet for both camps, oversimplified assumptions about consumers have lead to counter productive strategies and tactics. For instance, proponents assume the biotechnology issue will \\

Brian Wansink; Junyong Kim

485

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods II: Graded testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

486

Trust in Authorities Monitoring the Distribution of Genetically Modified Foods: Dimensionality, Measurement Issues, and Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a combined internet and mail survey in Germany the independence of indicators of trust in public authorities from indicators of attitudes toward genetically modified food is tested. Despite evidence of a link between trust indicators on the one hand and evaluation of benefits and perceived likelihoods of risks, correlation with other factors is found to be moderate on

Andreas Bocker; Giuseppe Nocella

2005-01-01

487

A Comparison between Perception of Risk and Willingness to Serve Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dichotomy between perceptions of the acceptability of risk associated with genetically modified (GM) foods and willingness to consume GM foods is investigated. Results indicate that some consumers are willing to consume GM foods even though they may perceive such foods as somewhat unsafe, with determinants such as self-perceived knowledge about the availability of GM foods and altruistic motives having

William E. Nganje; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

2009-01-01

488

Critical Success Factors for Firms in the Genetically Modified Foods Industry: A Managerial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of consensus that has emerged among various stakeholders as to whether or not the production and commercialisation of genetically modified foods (GMFs) should be encouraged is quite apparent and well documented in the literature. Research also suggests that where firms have opted to produce and commercialise these foods, often very disparate factors have accounted for their success. An

Clare DSouza; Ali Quazi; Robert Rugimbana; P. W. Senarath Yapa; Marthin Nanere

2007-01-01

489

The environmental feature in consumer purchasing preferences: The case of Genetically Modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in Biotechnology (Gene Revolution) tends to be compared with that of the Green Revolution in the sixties and seventies. This process is developing in a context of increasing concern by the consumers for food safety and environmental conservation, stirring controversy in the scientific community and society about the potential benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In

Macario Rodriguez-Entrena; Samir Sayadi

2008-01-01

490

Effect of Feeding Cows Genetically Modified Maize on the Bacterial Community in the Bovine Rumen?  

PubMed Central

Rumen-cannulated cows (n = 4) were fed successively silage made from either conventional or genetically modified (GM) maize. Results revealed no effects of GM maize on the dynamics of six ruminal bacterial strains (investigated by real-time PCR) compared to the conventional maize silage. PMID:17933942

Wiedemann, S.; Gürtler, P.; Albrecht, C.

2007-01-01

491

Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil (87% oleic acid) were compared with those of regular sunflower (17% oleic acid), soybean, corn, and peanut oils during storage at 55°C and simulated deep fat frying at 185°C. Oxidative stability was evaluated by measuring the oxygen content and volatile compounds in the sample bottle headspace and peroxide

Stephanie A. Smith; Robert E. King; David B. Min

2007-01-01

492

Integrating Technology Traits and Producer Heterogeneity: A Mixed-Multinomial Model of Genetically Modified Corn Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a model of technology adoption that integrates demand for individual traits of new technologies with the potential for heterogeneity based on farm and farmer characteristics. The model is applied to recent genetically modified corn adoption data from Minnesota and Wisconsin farmers, using a mixed-multinomial logit (MMNL) model to estimate the effects of traits and farm and farmer

Pilar Useche; Bradford L. Barham; Jeremy D. Foltz

2009-01-01

493

Monitoring of MON810 genetically modified maize in foods in Brazil from 2005 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations for the use and labeling of genetically modified (GM) products and derived ingredients were implemented in Brazil in 2003. In 2008, GM maize line MON810 was approved for commercialization in Brazil; nevertheless, maize Bt11, Bt176 and MON810 were found in Brazilian market products sold in 2000 and 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the

Andréia Zilio Dinon; Jaqueline Elis de Melo; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

2008-01-01

494

Integrating Technology Traits and Producer Heterogeneity: A Mixed-Multinomial Model of Genetically Modified Corn Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a model of technology adoption that integrates demand for individual traits of new technologies with the potential for heterogeneity based on farm and farmer characteristics. The model is applied to recent genetically modified corn adoption data from Minnesota and Wisconsin farmers, using a mixed-multinomial logit (MMNL) model to estimate the effects of traits and farm and farmer

Pilar Useche; Bradford L. Barham; Jeremy D. Foltz

2006-01-01

495

Effects of Feeding Rations with Genetically Modified Whole Cottonseed to Lactating Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition fromfeedingrationsthatcontaineddifferentsourcesof genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multipa- rous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square de- sign, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk

A. R. Castillo; M. R. Gallardo; M. Maciel; J. M. Giordano; G. A. Conti; M. C. Gaggiotti; O. Quaino; C. Gianni; G. F. Hartnell

2004-01-01

496

Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM

B. L. Ma; Robert E. Blackshaw; Julie Roy; Tianpei He

2011-01-01

497

Investigations on Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pig Nutrition: Chemical Composition and Nutritional Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the composition and the nutritional value of parental and transgenic maize seeds fed to pigs. The parental maize line was genetically modified to incorporate a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressing a toxin against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Both (parental and transgenic) maize lines were analyzed for crude nutrients,

T. Reuter; Karen Aulrich; A. Berk; G. Flachowsky

2002-01-01

498

A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last ten years, in accordance with the increased use of genetically modified (GM) foods for human and livestocks, a large number of feeding studies have been carried out. However, the evidence is still far from proving whether the long-term consumption of GM foods posses a possible danger for human or animal health. Therefore, this study was designed to

Aysun K?l?ç; M. Turan Akay

2008-01-01

499

Genetically Modified Grain Corn and Soybeans in Quebec and Ontario in 2000 and 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses on the changes in the area of genetically modified (GM) grain corn and soybeans, comparing the year 2001 with 2000. In the 2001 growing season, total GM area increased significantly for both GM grain corn and soybean crops in Quebec and Ontario. The number of large farms seeding GM crops rose considerably, while the number of small-

Bernard Hategekimana

2002-01-01

500

Attitudes about Genetically Modified Foods among Korean and American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, South Korea mandated labeling of foods con- taining genetically modified (GM) ingredients. The issue of labeling in the United States remains largely contentious due to uncertainty regarding consumer response to GM food content information. It is possible that information provided through labeling and recent negative press in Korea may have reduced acceptance of GM foods among Korean consumers.

Michael S. Finke; Heaseon Kim