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1

Anomalous accumulation of selenium by genetically modified potato, stable to Colorado beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ordinary and genetically modified potatoes stable to Colorado beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, are known to possess very small differences in chemical composition, nothing is known about selenium (Se) accumulation by these plants. Using a fluorimetric method of analysis, we have demonstrated extremely high Se accumulation in leaves of CPB-resistant potatoes (more than 1mgkg?1 dry weight) and moderate accumulation

Nadezhda Golubkina; Konstantin Skriabin

2010-01-01

2

Rhizosphere Communities of Genetically Modified Zeaxanthin-Accumulating Potato Plants and Their Parent Cultivar Differ Less than Those of Different Potato Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 19 February 2009\\/Accepted 10 April 2009 The effects of genetically modified (GM), zeaxanthin-accumulating potato plants on microbial communities in the rhizosphere were compared to the effects of different potato cultivars. Two GM lines and their parental cultivar, as well as four other potato cultivars, were grown in randomized field plots at two sites and in different years. Rhizosphere samples

Nicole Weinert; Remo Meincke; Christine Gottwald; Holger Heuer; Newton C. M. Gomes; Michael Schloter; Gabriele Berg; Kornelia Smalla

2009-01-01

3

Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.  

PubMed

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

2005-12-10

4

Evaluation of genetically modified potatoes against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea  

E-print Network

and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa; 3Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Potato Center in Lima, Peru (Raman and Palacios, 1982). Because resistance in already improved cultivars than to other cultivars (Gyawali, 1989). The common soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces

Douches, David S.

5

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

E-print Network

potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of potato relies almost entirely to L. decemlineata, potato virus Y, and potato leaf roll virus were registered and marketed in the USA

Douches, David S.

6

Evaluation of the sensitization rates and identification of IgE-binding components in wild and genetically modified potatoes in patients with allergic disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The potato is one of the most common types of genetically modified (GM) food. However, there are no published data evaluating the impact of genetic manipulations on the allergenicity of GM potatoes. To compare the allergenicity of GM potatoes with that of wild-type potatoes using in vivo and in vitro methods in adult allergy patients sensitized to potatoes. Methods A total of 1886 patients with various allergic diseases and 38 healthy controls participated in the study. Skin-prick testing and IgE-ELISA were carried out with extracts prepared from wild-type and GM potatoes. An ELISA inhibition test was used to confirm the binding specificity. IgE-binding components in extracts from the two types of potato were identified by SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting. The effects of digestive enzymes and heat on the allergenicity of the extracts was evaluated by preincubating the potatoes with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in the absence or presence of heat. Results Positive responses (ratio of the wheal size induced by the allergen to that induced by histamine (A/H) ? 2+) to wild-type or GM potato extracts, as demonstrated by the skin-prick test, were observed in 108 patients (5.7%). Serum-specific IgE was detected in 0–88% of subjects who tested positively. ELISA inhibition tests indicated significant inhibition when extract from each type of potato was added. IgE-immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of 14 IgE-binding components within the wild-type potato and 9 within the GM potato. Furthermore, a common 45-kDa binding component that yielded similar IgE-binding patterns was noted in more than 80% of the reactions using sera from patients sensitized to wild-type or GM potato. Exposure to simulated gastric fluid and heat treatment similarly inhibited IgE binding by extracts from wild-type and GM potatoes, whereas minimal changes were obtained following exposure of the extracts to simulated intestinal fluid. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that genetic manipulation of potatoes does not increase their allergenic risk. The sensitization rate of adult allergy patients to both types of extract was 5.7%, and a common major allergen (45 kDa) was identified. PMID:16817976

Lee, Soo-Keol; Ye, Young-Min; Yoon, Sung-Ho; Lee, Bou-Oung; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Hae-Sim

2006-01-01

7

Evaluation of abiotic stress tolerance of genetically modified potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abiotic stresses such as drought and extremes of temperature commonly reduce both yield and quality of potato. This study\\u000a investigated the potential to use gene transfer technology to enhance the tolerance of potato to commonly encountered abiotic\\u000a stresses. Agrobacterium mediated transformation was used to create lines of potato (cv. Desiree) that over-expressed either a wheat mitochondrial\\u000a Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD3:1),

D. Waterer; Nicole T. Benning; Guohai Wu; Ximing Luo; Xunjia Liu; Michael Gusta; Alan McHughen; Lawrence V. Gusta

2010-01-01

8

Is the titer of adipokinetic peptides in Leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes increased by oxidative stress?  

PubMed

The level of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) (Peram-CAH-I and II) in the corpora cardiaca and the hemolymph of Leptinotarsa decemlineata enormously increases in the adults fed on genetically modified potatoes containing either GNA lectin or Cry 3Aa toxin concomitant with increased oxidative stress in gut tissues. A similar enhancement of the AKH titer is achieved when the adults are injected with paraquat that evokes oxidative stress. On the other hand, an injection of exogenous AKH reduces oxidative stress biomarkers in the hemolymph by reducing protein carbonyls and enhancing reduced glutathione levels. These facts indicate that there is a feedback regulation between an oxidative stressor action and the level of AKH in the insect body, and that AKHs might be involved in the activation of an antioxidant protection mechanism. These results are to our knowledge, the first evidence for the involvement of AKHs in oxidative stress mitigation, in addition to a plethora of other roles. PMID:17353065

Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habustová, Oxana

2007-05-01

9

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods  

E-print Network

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS Genetically Modified Foods and the Attack on Nature Stuart A. NewmanBy:[Newman,StuartA.]At:16:493July2009 #12;about, genetically modified (GM) food as scientifically ignorant, economically and Arpad Pusztai, ``Effect of Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Expressing galanthus nivalis

Newman, Stuart A.

10

The influence of an increased degree of branching on the physico-chemical properties of starch from genetically modified potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potatoes were studied which contained starch with an increased degree of branching of the starch as a result of the expression of the glycogen branching enzyme gene (glgB) of Anacystis nidulans or Escherichia coli. These trans-genes were expressed in a normal amylose-containing wildtype and in an amylose-free (amf) potato mutant. The degree of branching of these starches had increased

Anne J Kortstee; Luc C. J. M Suurs; Angela M. G Vermeesch; Christel J. A. M Keetels; Evert Jacobsen; Richard G. F Visser

1998-01-01

11

FINANCIAL AND HEALTH COSTS OF PESTICIDE USE IN GROWING CONVENTIONAL AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED POTATOES IN PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of potato farming in Canada occurs in tightly clustered geographic locations and requires substantial chemical inputs. The possibility of pesticide drift, pesticide residues on food and the effect of pesticides on the environment, leads to interest in quantifying the different effects that pesticides may have on human health and the environment. This study focuses on the potential use

Wiktor L. Adamowicz; Michele M. Veeman; Elspeth White

2004-01-01

12

Validation of ST-LS1 as an Endogenous Reference Gene for Detection of AmA1 and cry1Ab Genes in Genetically Modified Potatoes using Multiplex and Real Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum tuberosum L. belonging to family Solanaceae being the most important tuberous vegetable crop, the development of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) potato with improved traits is the need of the hour. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays are being widely used in\\u000a GM detection to meet the regulatory and legislative requirements. Detection of target sequences along with plant species specific\\u000a endogenous reference

Gurinder Jit Randhawa; Monika Singh; Ruchi Sharma

2009-01-01

13

Characteristics of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of modified potato and sweet potato flours have been determined by incorporating acetyl groups (acetylation) and by treating with glucoamylase (enzymatic modification). Fractionation studies on Sepharose CL-2B showed that the content of high molecular weight fraction decreased, with a proportionate increase in the lower molecular weight carbohydrate fraction, whereas FT-IR indicated changes in crystallinity of the modified starches.

A. Ramesh Yadav; S. Mahadevamma; R. N. Tharanathan; R. S. Ramteke

2007-01-01

14

Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study outlines the controversy surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and how it impacts North American based food service companies' marketing policies. Recent developments have made foods derived from GMOs a strategic marketing challenge for food service franchise and chain operations. Headlines such as “Why McDonalds Pulled Frankenfries from Menus” have unwittingly put restaurants on the frontline of the battle

Robert R. Nelson; Ali A. Poorani; Justin E. Crews

2004-01-01

15

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

16

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2012-12-04

17

Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Bt Corn, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers the planting of genetically modified corn instead of using insecticides and the possible ill effects this corn may have on monarch butterflies.

18

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this

Olivia Boyce

1999-01-01

19

Detection of Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union.For convenience, the resource is divided into 5 sections, all pdf files, including background, wet lab,paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2009-08-31

20

Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

2014-01-01

21

Gene transfer from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about the safety of genetically modified food includes some important scientific issues where more scientific data would aid the robustness of safety evaluation. One example is the possibility of gene transfer, especially from genetically modified plant material.

Michael J Gasson

2000-01-01

22

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

23

Labeling Genetically Modified Foods: An Economic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both at home and abroad concerns about genetically modified foods have disrupted food markets and raised a number of problems for international trade. This paper addresses the issue of labeling foods produced using genetically modified ingredients from an economic perspective. The wide range of consumer attitudes with respect to food safety and genetically modified foods highlights the need for research

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Stephen R. Crutchfield

24

Comparison of PCR-based marker systems for the analysis of genetic relationships in cultivated potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of AFLPs, RAPDs and SSRs to examine genetic relationships in the primary northwestern European cultivated potato gene pool was investigated. Sixteen potato cultivars were genotyped using five AFLP primer combinations, 14 RAPD primers, and 17 database-derived SSR primer pairs. All three approaches successfully discriminated between the 16 cultivars using a minimum of one assay. Similarity matrices produced for

Dan Milbourne; Rhonda Meyer; John E. Bradshaw; Eileen Baird; Nicky Bonar; Jim Provan; Wayne Powell; Robbie Waugh

1997-01-01

25

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

26

Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Genetically Modified Food Seeds: Health, Socioeconomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about genetically modified (GM) food seeds are serious and well-founded, the problems which these seeds raise are usually not unique to GM seeds alone. GM organisms are only one example of problematic new varieties or breeds. Large soybean and other monocultural plantations have serious environmental effects which GM seeds exacerbate. Although GM seeds may benefit large scale commercial

Frank J. Leavitt

27

Discredited: Many arguments against genetically modified rice  

E-print Network

The debate surrounding the dangers posed by genetically modified organisms is becoming emotionalDiscredited: Many arguments against genetically modified rice lack any scientific basis.12 The Dark Success in the GO-Bio Competition 10 On the Net VIEWPOINT 12 Cultural War over Genetic Engineering

28

Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was

Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer

2005-01-01

29

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries  

E-print Network

Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified strawberries ­ the hybridization potential between cultivated and wild strawberries Inauguraldissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der

Amrhein, Valentin

30

[Applications of genetically modified animals].  

PubMed

The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2009-01-01

31

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism a wide variety of genetically modified organisms have been created to date for numerous research purposesGenetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department

Sibille, Etienne

32

Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

Brandner, Diana L.

2002-01-01

33

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods

Marieke Saher; Marjaana Lindeman; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2006-01-01

34

Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

35

Poplar trees could be genetically modified to  

E-print Network

Poplar trees could be genetically modified to provide a more accessible source of cellulose yields or the ability to grow on non-arable land. For example, scientists are developing a genetically-modified' biofuels, mainly produced from food crops, were initially regarded as a potential renewable and sustainable

36

Societal aspects of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and

L. J. Frewer; J. Lassen; B. Kettlitz; J. Scholderer; V. Beekman; K. G. Berdal

2004-01-01

37

Genetically Modified Products – Contradictions and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the perception that consumers have about GM products, also taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and production of products based on genetically modified organisms. Therefore, the paper presents both aspects to clarify the concept of genetically modified organism (GMO issues such as typology, national or international regulations regarding this area) and global market development

Rodica Pamfilie; Lavinia-Alexandra Cristescu

2011-01-01

38

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

39

Traceability of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

2002-01-01

40

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

41

Reproductive ecology and genetic variability in natural populations of the wild potato, Solanum kurtzianum.  

PubMed

The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) has more than 200 related wild species distributed along the Andes, adapted to a wide range of geographical and ecological areas. Since the last century, several collection expeditions were carried out to incorporate genetic variability into the potato germplasm around the world. However, little is known about the reproductive ecology and genetic population structure of natural potato population from field studies. The aim of this work is to study, in the field, the genetic variability and reproductive strategies of populations of one of the most widely distributed potato species in Argentina, Solanum kurtzianum, growing in Mendoza province. AFLP markers showed that the genetic variability is mainly present among plants within populations, indicating that in the sampled populations, sexual reproduction is more relevant than clonal multiplication (by tubers). Additional evidence was obtained evaluating the genetic diversity in populations with a distribution in patches, where several genotypes were always detected. From a field study performed in the Villavicencio Natural Reserve, we found that the average number of plump seeds per fruit was 94.3, identified and calculated the foraging distance of four insect pollinators, and demonstrated the seed dispersal by storm water channels. We argue that the breeding system, the two modes of reproduction and the ecological interaction described here may have a prominent role in determining the genetic structure of S. kurtzianum populations, and discuss the importance of field studies on population genetics, reproductive biology and ecology to design collections and conservation strategies. PMID:23957312

Marfil, C F; Masuelli, R W

2014-03-01

42

Characteristics of oxidative stress in potato plants with modified carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sugars on the development of hypothermia-induced oxidative stress were studied in leaves of two potato genotypes\\u000a (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Désirée): with normal carbohydrate metabolism and a genotype with increased sugar content modified by insertion of\\u000a yeast-derived invertase gene. It was found that generation of proceeds more actively in transformed plants than in control\\u000a plants. On the contrary

M. S. Sin’kevich; A. N. Deryabin; T. I. Trunova

2009-01-01

43

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens  

E-print Network

ShippingInfectious Substances, Genetically Modified Microorganisms, and Exempt Specimens Goods: Biological Substances, Category B (BSCB), Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMMO) and Exempt · Individuals wishing to ship Biological Substances Category B (BSCB) and/or Genetically Modified

Jia, Songtao

44

The potato genetic resources held in trust by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Potatoes account for about half of the world's annual output of all roots and tubers, and since the early 1960s, the increase\\u000a in area planted in developing countries has been higher than for any other major food crop. Annual world production currently\\u000a totals 274 million tons on 18 million hectares, with China and India accounting for 22 percent of this

Zósimo Huamán; Peter Schmiediche

1999-01-01

45

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

46

Genetically Modified Pigs for Medicine and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into

RANDALL S. PRATHER; MIAODA SHEN; YIFAN DAI

2008-01-01

47

Splicing regulation as a potential genetic modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases are associated with profound phenotypic variability, which is affected strongly by genetic modifiers. The splicing machinery could be one such modifying system, through a mechanism involving splicing motifs and their interaction with a complex repertoire of splicing factors. Mutations in splicing motifs and changes in levels of splicing factors can result in different splicing patterns. Changes in the

Malka Nissim-Rafinia; Batsheva Kerem

2002-01-01

48

Genetically modified crops deserve greater ecotoxicological scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians are keen to remind us that history tends to rhyme, even if it does not repeat itself. In a historical context, the story of today’s genetically modified (GM) crops resembles that of the synthetic organic insecticides beginning circa the second half of the last century. In practice, GM crops include crop cultivars that have been modified by incorporating one

Nicolas Desneux; Julio S. Bernal

2010-01-01

49

Genetically modified mice and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition in transgenic and knockout mice is preferentially assessed by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Awareness is growing, however, that the putative cognitive deficits observed using such a paradigm may be biased by the genetic background and behavioral peculiarities of the specific animals used. Recent progress in cognitive research includes new behavioral tests and refined analysis of performance

Hans-Peter Lipp; David P Wolfer

1998-01-01

50

Genetic transformation of sweet potato by particle bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient and stable expression of foreign genes has been achieved in sweet potato using the particle bombardment system of gene delivery. Callus and root isolates of two genotypes (Jewel and TIS-70357) with positive signs of transformation have been recovered. Tungsten microcarriers coated with plasmid DNA (pBI 221 containing the gusA gene) were accelerated at high velocity using a biolistic device

C. S. Prakash; U. Varadarajan

1992-01-01

51

Frankenfoods? The Debate Over Genetically Modified Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This discussion case, in which a university research laboratory is vandalized by environmental activists opposed to genetic engineering, focuses on the science and ethics of genetically modified crops. Students consider both the risks and benefits of biotechnology and explore the positions of various stakeholders, including environmentalists, conservationists, agricultural businesses, research scientists, and farmers. Originally written for a vegetable crops course, the case would be appropriate for a wide variety of courses in which biotechnology is discussed.

Rhodes, Bill; Alkhazindar, Maha M.; Schiller, Nancy A.

2001-01-01

52

Patents for genetically modified animals.  

PubMed

Should genetically engineered animals be patented? This issue has been one of the most contentious as lawmakers have grappled with how best to protect intellectual property. Since the 1980 case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a living microorganism is patentable, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has determined that plants and nonhuman animals can be patented. These policy decisions have led to congressional debate on whether animals should be patentable subject matter. Patenting of living organisms is unique for three reasons: the invention itself is alive; the invention in some instances can reproduce itself; and the invention sometimes cannot be adequately described for patent specification purposes, leading to the need for deposit of the invention for patent purposes. PMID:8505268

O'Connor, K W

1993-01-01

53

Genetically Modified Crops: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supporters of genetic engineering point to the potential of genetically modified (GM) crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. But some concerned groups argue that the risks of GM crops may outweigh their benefits. These groups urge avoiding GM crops, or at least subjecting them to more rigorous government scrutiny. Without taking sides, this module shows how to use the issues surrounding GM crops as a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science and genetics and how science and technology interact and influence each other in our society.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

54

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of genetic engineering for the construction of GM yeast is reviewed and possible requirements for their application are discussed. 'Self-cloning' yeast will be the most likely candidate for the first commercial application of GM microorganisms in food and beverage industries. PMID:16233347

Akada, Rinji

2002-01-01

55

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having modified diacetyl reductase activities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having a reduced or lacking or enhanced diacetyl reductase activity, acetoin reductase activity and/or butanediol dehydrogenase activity are provided. Such bacteria are used in starter cultures in the production of food products including dairy products where it is desired to have a high content of diacetyl and for reducing or completely removing diacetyl in beverages including beers, fruit juices and certain types of wine, where the presence of diacetyl is undesired.

2002-07-02

56

Unpacking atitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and worry best accounted for the data. Negative - but not

Yaël de Liver; Joop van der Pligt; Daniël Wigboldus

2005-01-01

57

The patenting of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property protection, including patents, is a critical factor underpinning investment and progress in the development of genetically modified foods. The GATT agreement made suggestions for the harmonization of patent laws and also made provisions for the avoidance of discrimination based on place of invention. However, plant and animal ‘varieties’ are currently not patentable. Much of the debate concerns what

Hilary Newiss

1998-01-01

58

Understanding Receptivity to Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers in the United States and Europe have not fully embraced genetically modified (gm) foods. In the United States, public opinion remains undecided, whereas in Europe, people tend to regard such foods in a negative light. While opposition to gm products may be more vigorous in Europe, consumer enthusiasm for these foods is actually quite limited on both sides of

John T. Lang; Susanna Hornig Priest

2007-01-01

59

ROMANIAN APPROACH TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - an extreme controversed issue in the entire world, raise numerous questions concerning the impact on the human health, biodiversity, farmers, legislation, etc. In Romania, country that is dealing now with lots of difficulties on agriculture and environmental protection, especially due to the recent European Union's accession , the population is poorly informed on the risks,

Anghel Gabriel; Popovici Veronica

60

Genetically modified foods: the effect of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper examines the attitudes of young Greek University students towards genetically modified (GM) foods and studies the effect of appropriate information in shaping this attitude. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was distributed to 433 Greek students of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens during the academic year 2003-2004. Results were processed by SPSS 11.0. Findings – The survey

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Evangelia Dimitriou; Dionisios Liatsos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2005-01-01

61

Genetically Modified Foods: Threat or Opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gene technology has the potential to offer many improvements in the quality and quantity of the world's food supply provided that genuine concerns regarding safety, en- vironmental impact, information and ethics are satisfactorily addressed. In this article, some of the benefits as well as concerns about genetically modified foods are discussed using examples such as tomatoes, soybeans, corn and

Sibel Roller

62

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

63

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

64

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

65

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of

Artemis Dona; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

2009-01-01

66

Strategic environmental assessments for genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops appear to provide a promising option in finding sustainable solutions to end global hunger and poverty, but strategic decisions need to be made on how to spend limited agricultural research funds. Potentially, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) may be used as part of an environmental management system to introduce mainstreaming of environmental considerations in the policy research and

Nicholas A. Linacre; Joanne Gaskell; Mark W. Rosegrant; Jose Falck-Zepeda; Hector Quemada; Mark Halsey; Regina Birner

2006-01-01

67

Genetically modified plants – the debate continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about the potential risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has hit the headlines over the past few months. The polarization of much of the debate obscures what really constitutes ecological risk, and what methods we can apply to identify and quantify those risks. Ecological science has much to offer in this respect, including ecological theory, manipulative

Rosie S. Hails

2000-01-01

68

A Second Generation of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was a cross-cultural investigation of views regarding Genetically Modified Organisms, specifically food crops, to determine if there were significant differences in the views of French and American respondents. In addition, we sought to introduce the issue of possible consumer benefits of second generation GMOs into the research by examining differences in acceptance of value-enhanced GMOs

Klervi N. Le Marre; Carl L. Witte; Timothy J. Burkink; Marko Grünhagen; Gary J. Wells

2007-01-01

69

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods: A Brief Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever-increasing population burden, genetically modified (GM) foods promised great potential, to solve many of the world's hunger and malnutrition problems, and also to preserve the environment. The authentic GM foods may not only have better nutritional and pharmaceutical values but are also resistant to pest and diseases, tolerant to extreme temperatures and herbicides. Yet they pose many challenges

Farrukh Jamal; Q. S. Haque; Tabish Qidwai; U. P. India

70

Detection methods for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) as the Roundup Ready (RR) soya and Bt corn, the European food industry came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and its derivatives. Although even today, no defined European legislation is available, a definitive need for detection methods exists. Both DNA

Gert van Duijn; Ria van Biert; Henriëtte Bleeker-Marcelis; Heleen Peppelman; Martin Hessing

1999-01-01

71

Chinese gatekeeper perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of food distribution gatekeepers in China regarding likely acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by Chinese consumers. It also aims to consider policy implications for food exporting countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory approach using in-depth interviews was adopted. Key informants of a sample of 20 companies in five main

John G. Knight; Hongzhi Gao

2009-01-01

72

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

73

Screening Methodologies for Genetic Modified Organsims (GMOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for analytical methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in food due to the growth of use of GMOs, or their derivatives, in the food industry. This paper aims to briefly introduce the reader to GMOs, to describe the state of the art in detection methods for GMOs, and to provide the

M. Minunni; M. Mascini; I. Cozzani

2000-01-01

74

Should genetically modified organisms be patentable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some of the philosophical issues involved in patenting genetically modified organisms. In particular, what we think has been highly problematic has been the tendency to use terms such as intervention, identification, creation, authorship and artifact interchangeably as criteria for invention. We examine attempts by various people to formulate a philosophically precise set of criteria for

Justine Lacey; Julian Lamont

75

Molecular analysis of genetic variation in potato ( Solarium tuberosum L.). II. International cultivar spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seventy-five commercial potato cultivars orginating from North America, Europe and Japan were analysed using AFLP and SSR\\u000a markers to assess their genetic relationships. Results of cluster and principal coordinate analysis reflect in most cases\\u000a known pedigree information. Independent of the marker system used it was possible to identify groups based on their geographical\\u000a descent. Cultivars from Central and East Europe

A. Braun; K. Schullehner; G. Wenzel

2004-01-01

76

Violaxanthin Cycle Pigment Contents in Potato and Tobacco Plants with Genetically Reduced Photosynthetic Capacity.  

PubMed Central

The influence of photosynthetic activity on the light-dependent adaptation of the pool size of the violaxanthin cycle pigments (violaxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin) was studied in leaves of wild-type and transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. The genetically manipulated plants expressed an antisense mRNA coding for the chloroplastic fructose-bisphosphatase. Chl fluorescence quenching analysis revealed that the transformed plants exhibited a greatly impaired electron transport capacity. Light-limited and light-saturated non-photochemical quenching was strongly enhanced in the mRNA antisense potato plants. After 7 d of adaptation at various high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs), the violaxanthin cycle pool size increased, with a progressive elevation in PPFD. The pool size was higher for transgenic potatoes than for wild-type plants at all PPFDs. This difference vanished when pool size was correlated with the PPFD in excess of photosynthesis, as indicated by the epoxidation state of the violaxanthin cycle. Contrasting results were obtained for tobacco; in this species, photosynthetic activity did not affect the pool size. We conclude that regulatory mechanisms exist in potato, by which photosynthetic activity can influence the violaxanthin cycle pool size. Furthermore, evidence is provided that this adaptation of the pool size may contribute to an improved photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus under high-light conditions. However, tobacco plants seem to regulate their pool size independently of photosynthetic activity. PMID:12228557

Bilger, W.; Fisahn, J.; Brummet, W.; Kossmann, J.; Willmitzer, L.

1995-01-01

77

GMEnzy: A Genetically Modified Enzybiotic Database  

PubMed Central

GMEs are genetically modified enzybiotics created through molecular engineering approaches to deal with the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance prevalence. We present a fully manually curated database, GMEnzy, which focuses on GMEs and their design strategies, production and purification methods, and biological activity data. GMEnzy collects and integrates all available GMEs and their related information into one web based database. Currently GMEnzy holds 186 GMEs from published literature. The GMEnzy interface is easy to use, and allows users to rapidly retrieve data according to desired search criteria. GMEnzy’s construction will increase the efficiency and convenience of improving these bioactive proteins for specific requirements, and will expand the arsenal available for researches to control drug-resistant pathogens. This database will prove valuable for researchers interested in genetically modified enzybiotics studies. GMEnzy is freely available on the Web at http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/gmenzy/. PMID:25084271

Lu, Hairong; Li, Guodong; Huang, Qingshan

2014-01-01

78

Corporate Decisions about Labelling Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether individual companies have an ethical obligation to label their Genetically Modified (GM) foods.\\u000a GM foods and ingredients pervade grocery store shelves, despite the fact that a majority of North Americans have worries about\\u000a eating those products. The market as whole has largely failed to respond to consumer preference in this regard, as have North\\u000a American governments.

Chris MacDonald; Melissa Whellams

2007-01-01

79

Genetically Modified Organisms as Invasive Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a controversial subject. Some perceive it to be the single most important\\u000a development in biology since the discovery of natural selection. Others are concerned that the movement of genes with no reference\\u000a to natural species boundaries could pose new ecological risks. One conjectural risk is that transgenes will either cause the\\u000a host

Rosie Hails; Tracey Timms-Wilson

80

Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns  

PubMed Central

Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

2011-01-01

81

The population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT from potato in the Colombian Andes.  

PubMed

The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3PT) is a globally important potato pathogen. However, little is known about the population genetic processes affecting field populations of R. solani AG-3PT, especially in the South American Colombian Andes, which is near the center of diversity of the two most common groups of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum and S. phureja. We analyzed the genetic structure of 15 populations of R. solani AG-3PT infecting potato in Colombia using 11 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 288 different multilocus genotypes were identified among 349 fungal isolates. Clonal fractions within field populations were 7 to 33%. RST statistics indicated a very low level of population differentiation overall, consistent with high contemporary gene flow, though moderate differentiation was found for the most distant southern populations. Genotype flow was also detected, with the most common genotype found widely distributed among field populations. All populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode, including both asexual and sexual reproduction, but two populations displayed evidence of inbreeding. PMID:23464900

Ferrucho, Rosa L; Ceresini, Paulo C; Ramirez-Escobar, Ursula M; McDonald, Bruce A; Cubeta, Marc A; García-Domínguez, Celsa

2013-08-01

82

Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods

Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

2007-01-01

83

Genetically Modified Products in Lithuania: Situational Analysis and Consumers’ Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to

Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene

2012-01-01

84

Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing ?-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

Dymi?ska, L.; G?gor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; ?uk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

2014-09-01

85

[Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].  

PubMed

The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

Ludwicki, J K

1998-01-01

86

Genetic transformation in two potato cultivars with T-DNA from disarmed Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivatives of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv.'s ‘Maris Bard’ and ‘Desiree’) transformed with disarmed T-DNA from genetically engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains were isolated. The transformed plants were recovered from shoot-forming tumours induced by infection of wounds with mixedcultures of shoot-inducing A. tumefaciens strains T37 and either Agrobacterium strain LBA1834(pRAL1834), (Hille et al. 1983) or LBA4404(pBIN6; pRAL4404), (Bevan 1984). Two small-scale feasibility

G. Ooms; M. M. Burrell; A. Karp; M. Bevan; J. Hille

1987-01-01

87

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

88

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

89

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen and Jianping Yao A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels

Yao, Jianping

90

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Holographic diffuser design using a modified genetic algorithm Mengtao Wen Jianping Yao, MEMBER Singapore 639798 Abstract. A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of holographic diffusers for diffuse IR wireless home networking. The novel algorithm combines the conventional genetic

Yao, Jianping

91

Identifying Carriers of a Genetic Modifier Using Nonparametric  

E-print Network

Identifying Carriers of a Genetic Modifier Using Nonparametric Bayesian Methods Peter D. Hoff and Newton effects of Min. In order to genetically map the location of the modifier gene, it is necessary a mutant allele at a modifier gene, suppressing the tumor-causing #12;328 Hoff, Halberg, Shedlovsky, Dove

Dove, William

92

Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products

Steve L. Taylor; Susan L. Hefle

2001-01-01

93

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods & Teaching Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes instructional materials developed to address two major needs in biology education--how to form scientific opinions and providing a link between students and literature. Presents two essays, rats and potatoes and butterflies and corn, introduces students to article searching, reading peer-reviewed scientific studies, writing, critical…

Flores, Vanessa S.; Tobin, Allan J.

2003-01-01

94

Spatial and temporal genetic variability in French populations of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

The peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), has a complex reproductive mode in which some lineages reproduce by continuous parthenogenesis, whereas others reproduce sexually once a year. The climate is thought to act directly on the reproductive mode, because sexual eggs are the only form that can resist frost in cold regions. Sexual reproduction necessitates an obligatory host alternation that may result in long-distance dispersal. Here, we examined the genetic variability at seven microsatellite loci of populations of M. persicae in France, where both reproductive modes occur. We provide clear genetic evidence that the breeding system affects genotypic variability, as cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are far more variable than their obligately parthenogenetic counterparts. A temporal decrease in genetic variability and a temporal genetic differentiation effect suggest the existence of selective factors that play an important role in shaping the genetic structure of M. persicae populations. Lastly, differences in the population structure between reproductive modes suggest that the migration associated with the change of host during sexual reproduction lowers the level of population differentiation. PMID:12886281

Guillemaud, T; Mieuzet, L; Simon, J-C

2003-08-01

95

High-Resolution Metabolic Phenotyping of Genetically and Environmentally Diverse Potato Tuber Systems. Identification of Phenocopies  

PubMed Central

We conducted a comprehensive metabolic phenotyping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Desiree) tuber tissue that had been modified either by transgenesis or exposure to different environmental conditions using a recently developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling protocol. Applying this technique, we were able to identify and quantify the major constituent metabolites of the potato tuber within a single chromatographic run. The plant systems that we selected to profile were tuber discs incubated in varying concentrations of fructose, sucrose, and mannitol and transgenic plants impaired in their starch biosynthesis. The resultant profiles were then compared, first at the level of individual metabolites and then using the statistical tools hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. These tools allowed us to assign clusters to the individual plant systems and to determine relative distances between these clusters; furthermore, analyzing the loadings of these analyses enabled identification of the most important metabolites in the definition of these clusters. The metabolic profiles of the sugar-fed discs were dramatically different from the wild-type steady-state values. When these profiles were compared with one another and also with those we assessed in previous studies, however, we were able to evaluate potential phenocopies. These comparisons highlight the importance of such an approach in the functional and qualitative assessment of diverse systems to gain insights into important mediators of metabolism. PMID:11706160

Roessner, Ute; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2001-01-01

96

Beliefs About Genetically Modified Foods: A Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to examine consumers’ beliefs about genetically modified foods. Ten focus group interviews of community members and a random questionnaire-based mail survey of 500 Australian (Victorian) adults were conducted (58% response). Participants were generally negative about genetically modified foods, with concerns being raised about them being unnatural, difficult to identify, and having unknown long-term health and environmental

Emma Lea

2005-01-01

97

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

98

Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as

Petra Tenbült; Nanne K. de Vries; Ellen Dreezens; Carolien Martijn

2005-01-01

99

Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

Michael Gasson; Derek Burke

2001-01-01

100

Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0.905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts. PMID:24440815

Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

2014-04-01

101

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security  

PubMed Central

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

2013-01-01

102

Genetically modified plants and human health.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt 'health campaigns', the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly - through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production - but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal Mw

2008-06-01

103

Genetically modified plants and human health  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

2008-01-01

104

Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

105

Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 from potato and tobacco in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) of Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph = Thanatephorus cucumeris) is frequently associated with diseases of potato (AG-3 PT) and tobacco (AG-3 TB). Although isolates of R. solani AG-3 from these two Solanaceous hosts are somatically related based on anastomosis reaction and taxonomically related based on fatty acid, isozyme and DNA characters, considerable differences are evident in their biology, ecology, and epidemiology. However, genetic diversity among field populations of R. solani AG-3 PT and TB has not been documented. In this study, the genetic diversity of field populations of R. solani AG-3 PT and AG-3 TB in North Carolina was examined using somatic compatibility and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) criteria. A sample of 32 isolates from potato and 36 isolates from tobacco were paired in all possible combinations on PDA plus activated charcoal and examined for their resulting somatic interactions. Twenty-eight and eight distinct somatic compatibility groups (SCG) were identified in the AG-3 PT and AG-3 TB samples, respectively. AFLP analyses indicated that each of the 32 AG-3 PT isolates had a distinct AFLP phenotype, whereas 28 AFLP phenotypes were found among the 36 isolates of AG-3 TB. None of the AG-3 PT isolates were somatically compatible or shared a common AFLP phenotype with any AG-3 TB isolate. Clones (i.e., cases where two or more isolates were somatically compatible and shared the same AFLP phenotype) were identified only in the AG-3 TB population. Four clones from tobacco represented 22% of the total population. All eight SCG from tobacco were associated with more than one AFLP phenotype. Compatible somatic interactions between AG-3 PT isolates occurred only between certain isolates from the same field (two isolates in each of four different fields), and when this occurred AFLP phenotypes were similar but not identical. PMID:21156515

Ceresini, Paulo C; Shew, H David; Vilgalys, Rytas J; Cubeta, Marc A

2002-01-01

106

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

107

Self-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming Simon Harding  

E-print Network

of Cartesian Genetic Programming that includes self-modification operations. One advantage of this approachSelf-Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming Simon Harding Dept. of Computer Science Memorial-writing, multi- cell- ularity, or genetic regulation. In many cases it has been difficult to produce general

Fernandez, Thomas

108

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

E-print Network

the subsequent genetic expression [1, 2]. The concept of self-modification can be a unifying way of looking that by utilizing self-modification opera- tions within an existing computational method (a form of geneticSelf Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing Simon

Fernandez, Thomas

109

Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include

Bruce A. Hamilton; Benjamin D. Yu

2012-01-01

110

Global genetics and invasion history of the potato powdery scab pathogen, Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea.  

PubMed

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss) causes two diseases on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lesions on tubers and galls on roots, which are economically important worldwide. Knowledge of global genetic diversity and population structure of pathogens is essential for disease management including resistance breeding. A combination of microsatellite and DNA sequence data was used to investigate the structure and invasion history of Sss. South American populations (four countries, 132 samples) were consistently more diverse than those from all other regions (15 countries, 566 samples), in agreement with the hypothesis that Sss originated in South America where potato was domesticated. A substantial genetic differentiation was found between root and tuber-derived samples from South America. Estimates of past and recent gene flow suggested that Sss was probably introduced from South America into Europe. Subsequently, Europe is likely to have been the recent source of migrants of the pathogen, acting as a "bridgehead" for further global dissemination. Quarantine measures must continue to be focussed on maintaining low global genetic diversity and avoiding exchange of genetic material between the native and introduced regions. Nevertheless, the current low global genetic diversity of Sss allows potato breeders to select for resistance, which is likely to be durable. PMID:23840791

Gau, Rebecca D; Merz, Ueli; Falloon, Richard E; Brunner, Patrick C

2013-01-01

111

Spectroscopy detection of green and red fluorescent proteins in genetically modified plants using a fiber optics system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fiber optic spectroscopy is developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in vivo. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fiber optic spectroscopy. Fluorescence at the appropriate emission wavelengths could be detected up to 64X dilution for EGFP and 40X dilution for DsRED. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in vivo, transgenic potato hairy roots expressing EGFP and DsRED were regenerated. This was achieved by cloning the EGFP and DsRED genes into the plant binary vector, pTMV35S, to create the recombinant vectors pGLOWGreen and pGLOWRed. These latter binary vectors were introduced into Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4T. Infection of potato cells with transformed agrobacteria was used to insert the fluorescent protein genes into the potato genome. Genetically modified potato cells were then regenerated into hairy roots. A panel of transformed hairy roots expressing varying levels of fluorescent proteins was selected by fluorescence microscopy. We are now assessing the capability of spectroscopic detection system for in vivo quantification of green and red fluorescence levels in transformed roots.

Liew, Oi Wah; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; Chew, Yiwen; Yu, Shangjuan; Yeo, Gare H.

2001-05-01

112

IN VIVO STUDIES ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND FEED—WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INGREDIENTS CONSISTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration: -ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals\\/fish -ingredients produced by\\/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present -studies

IAN F. PRYME; ROLF LEMBCKE

113

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

114

Hydroxypropyl-Modified Potato Starch Increases Fecal Bile Acid Excretion in Rats1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hydroxypropyl potato starches (HPS) of three different degrees of substitution (DS) on concentration of plasma cholesterol, apparent digestibility of protein, fecal excretion of bile acids, fecal output and cecal pool of organic acids such as acetic, propionic, butyric, lactic and succinic acid were studied in rats in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the effects of hydroxypropyl distarch

Kiyoshi Ebihara; Rumiko Shiraishi; Kazuhiro Okuma

115

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease: strategies and  

E-print Network

Hum Genet . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Identifying modifier genes of monogenic disease modifier gene, Mendelian disorders, disease expression, linkage, association Introduction Genetic factors determined diseases, and this variability may itself involve genetic factors, the so-called modifier genes

Boyer, Edmond

116

The genetic stability of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) molecular variants.  

PubMed Central

RNA viruses propagate as a population of genetically related entities composing a quasi-species. Specific representatives are the result of both a high mutation rate during replication and competition between the continuously arising sequence variants. Similar to other RNA pathogens, potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) propagates as a population of similar but nonidentical sequences. The sequence of progeny molecules derived from cloned molecular variants of PSTVd were studied after one and six consecutive plant passages. Although the severe parental sequence S23 was found to be genetically stable, all five other parental sequences analyzed, irrespective of their pathogenicity, led to the appearance of complex populations. Divergence of the progeny was observed at the sequence level, but also, more surprisingly, at the level of the pathogenicity of individual progeny molecules. In two cases, the parental sequence was retained in the progeny population. In the other cases, it was completely out-competed and eliminated, sometimes in as little as one plant passage. Although it has been observed previously that artificially mutated PSTVd molecules may revert rapidly to the wild-type sequence, this study presents direct evidence for the rapid evolution of naturally occurring PSTVd sequence variants. PMID:8990400

Góra-Sochacka, A; Kierzek, A; Candresse, T; Zagórski, W

1997-01-01

117

Genetic variation in potato virus M isolates infecting pepino (Solanum muricatum) in China.  

PubMed

Potato virus M (PVM, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexviridae) is considered to be one of most economically important pathogens of pepino in China. However, the details and the mechanisms underlying PVM evolution are unknown. In this study, we determined and analyzed 40 TGB 1 gene sequences, 67 TGB 2 and TGB 3 gene sequences, and 88 CP and NABP gene sequences from viruses isolated from 19 samples of pepino (Solanum muricatum) and one sample of tomato (S. lycopersicum) collected from different areas of China. Recombination analysis identified only one clear recombinant in the TGB2-TGB3-CP region, but no recombinants were detected for each of the five individual genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PVM isolates could be divided into at least two lineages in trees derived from the TGB 2, CP, and NABP gene sequences, and the lineages seemed to reflect geographical origin. The five PVM genes in this study were found to be under strong negative selection pressure. The PVM isolates examined showed frequent gene flow between the Chinese and European populations, and also within the Chinese population. Clear star phylogenies and the neutral equilibrium model test showed that pepino isolates of PVM appear to be experiencing a new expansion after a recent introduction into China, and these isolates display low levels of genetic diversity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report describing genetic structure, recombination, and gene flow in PVM populations, and it provides strong evolutionary evidence for the virus populations from different geographic regions of China. PMID:25233939

Ge, Beibei; He, Zhen; Zhang, Zhixiang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

2014-12-01

118

Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses. PMID:22216349

Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

2011-01-01

119

Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

2014-01-01

120

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via  

E-print Network

Patterned Assembly of Genetically Modified Viral Nanotemplates via Nucleic Acid Hybridization nanotemplates can be dimensionally assembled via nucleic acid hybridization. Biologically derived materials methodologies for genomics, proteomics, and drug discovery. Biological components are also assuming a more

Rubloff, Gary W.

121

Fate of introduced genetic markers in transformed root clones and regenerated plants of monohaploid and diploid potato genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium transformation of stem internodes of four monohaploid (839-79, 849-7, 851-23, 855-1) and two diploid (M9 and HH260) potato genotypes using hairy root-inducing single (LBA 1020, LBA 9365, LBA 9402) and binary (LBA 1060KG) vectors is reported. Various media and successive culture steps were tested for plant regeneration from different transformed root clones. The fate of introduced genetic markers in

E. de Vries-Uijtewaal; L. J. W. Gilissen; E. Flipse; K. Sree Ramulu; W. J. Stiekema; B. Groot

1989-01-01

122

Consumer preferences and trade in genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major agricultural exporters have adopted genetic engineering in agriculture to increase productivity. However, consumers in certain importing countries, particularly the EU and Japan, are wary of these products. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food on global production, prices, and trade patterns. We find that the potential benefits for GM producers depend

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2003-01-01

123

The Impact of Genetically Modified Crops on Soil Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifica- tions occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of re- ports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for ex- perimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM

Manuela Giovannetti; Cristiana Sbrana; Alessandra Turrini

2005-01-01

124

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

125

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer'?s decision to purchase GM

Abdullahi O. Abdulkadri; Simone Pinnock; Paula F. Tennant

2004-01-01

126

Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (PInteraction = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (PInteraction = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (PInteraction = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

2014-11-01

127

Low-income consumers, though less aware of genetically modified foods, are concerned and want labels  

E-print Network

genetically modified foods was low, but ethical and safetygenetically modified food was introduced, concerns among the focus group participants focused on ethics and safety.food safety, such as that biotechnology. Consumer attitudes about genetically modified

King, Nicelma J.

2003-01-01

128

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

129

MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. PMID:21500243

García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-01-01

130

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

131

Genetic diversity in potato field populations of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-3, revealed by ITS polymorphism and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to survey genetic variability in relation to agronomic and regional factors among 60 isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani) collected from lesions on potato stems or sclerotia of potato tubers. Based on comparative sequence analysis it was shown that all isolates belonged to anastomosis group 3 subgroup Potato Type (AG-3 PT). ITS1 sequence polymorphisms were found within 45 of the 60 isolates showing that different types of the ITS-region are present in individual isolates. Cloning and sequence analysis of the ITS1 region from three selected isolates with sequence polymorphism showed that two different ITS1-types were present in each isolate. RAPD analysis identified 51 RAPD-phenotypes among the 60 investigated isolates indicating a high level of diversity within the subgroup AG-3 PT. Putative clonal isolates with identical RAPD- and ITS1-types were identified within fields, and in one case the same phenotype was found in two different fields separated by several hundred kilometers. Population subdivision analysis based on phenotypic as well as genotypic diversities showed differentiation among populations from different fields when isolates were sampled from tubers, indicating restricted gene flow among soil populations. Low differentiation was seen among field populations sampled from stems, indicating that gene flow is taking place. The population structure was not influenced by the previous crop in the rotation nor by the two cultivars 'Sava' and 'Bintje'. PMID:15000234

Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Yohalem, David; Bay, Anne; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2003-11-01

132

Huntingtin Interacting Proteins Are Genetic Modifiers of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%–4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to co-immunoprecipitate with full-length Htt from mouse brain. These studies demonstrate that high-throughput screening for protein interactions combined with genetic validation in a model organism is a powerful approach for identifying novel candidate modifiers of polyglutamine toxicity. PMID:17500595

Becklin, Robert R; Chettier, Rakesh; Bell, Russell; Phansalkar, Amit; Strand, Andrew; Torcassi, Cameron; Savage, Justin; Hurlburt, Anthony; Cha, Guang-Ho; Ukani, Lubna; Chepanoske, Cindy Lou; Zhen, Yuejun; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Olson, James; Kurschner, Cornelia; Ellerby, Lisa M; Peltier, John M; Botas, Juan; Hughes, Robert E

2007-01-01

133

Genetic modifiers of cancer risk in Lynch syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

The report by Aldred Scott Warthin in 1913 of a cancer family history and expanded on by Henry T. Lynch demonstrated one of the most enduring traits observed in patients with Lynch syndrome. The recognition of a variety of malignancies occurring at differing ages within a single family suggested the role of genetic variance on disease expression in an autosomal dominantly inherited genetic condition. With the identification of the genetic basis of Lynch syndrome and the subsequent collection of families and their medical records it has become possible to identify subtle genetic effects that influence the age at which disease onset occurs in this cancer predisposition. Knowledge about genetic modifiers influencing disease expression has the potential to be used to personalise prophylactic screening measures to maximise the benefits for family members and their carers. PMID:23471748

Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Wijnen, Juul T; Grice, Desma M; Scott, Rodney J

2013-06-01

134

Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

2011-01-01

135

Utilisation of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding is set in the context of the evolution of the crop and the\\u000a need to widen its genetic base by introgression and base broadening. The introduction of the potato to Europe and its subsequent\\u000a worldwide spread is described. An introduction is given to the world's major potato genebanks, and the

John E. Bradshaw; Gavin Ramsay

2005-01-01

136

LABELING, TRADE AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOS): A PROPOSED SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this brief article is to assess the current controversy over Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and its potential implications for the global trading system. More importantly, it offers a solution to the serious potential for injury to this system, to be developed below. The remainder of this article is divided into three sections. The next section

C. Ford Runge; Lee Ann Jackson

1999-01-01

137

Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Food: Empirical Evidence From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the advent of genetically modified (GM) foods changed the agricultural scenario in developed countries, existing research confirms that consumer perception about the consumption of the same is often distorted. GM foods entered the Indian market amid widespread controversies and criticisms. There exists a host of studies that tried to establish the factors that shape favorable consumer perception toward GM

Santanu Mandal; Rik Paul

2012-01-01

138

CONSENSUS CONFERENCES ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report goes on to review the introduction and evolution of the use of consensus conferences in Norway, as well as their evaluation. The specific case of the 1996 consensus conference on genetically modified food is described in terms of its organisation, process and results. The key findings of the independent evaluation report on the consensus conference, issued in 1997,

Alf J. Mørkrid

2001-01-01

139

Attitudes of the Croatian population toward genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the Croatian public has been relatively indifferent and unaware of issues related to genetically modified (GM) food products. However, the situation has changed and the Croatian public is becoming deeply sceptical about the benefits of GM food, and also generally about the food they eat. This paper examines some of the dimensions of the attitudes of the Croatian

Natasa Renko

2003-01-01

140

Regulating genetically modified organisms in the interests of whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeks to answer the question “whose interests are being served by the laws of purporting to regulate genetically modified organisms?“ Considers the interests of the seed\\/chemical multinational companies, trade and investment for the countries in which these companies operate and the innovation of science and technology. Covers the European interests with regards to the single internal market and the conflict

Diane Ryland

2001-01-01

141

Perceptions of Genetically Modified and Organic Foods and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both organic production and the use of biotechnology have increased dramatically over the past decade. This study contrib- utes to existing work on consumer acceptance of these prac- tices and the resulting products through the use of twin survey instruments. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements about genetically modified (GM) or organic pro- cesses and products in the

Jon C. Anderson; Cheryl J. Wachenheim; William C. Lesch

142

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

2004-01-01

143

Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Food With Consumer Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread consumer resistance towards genetically modified (GM) food, particularly as reported in news media, has led to slow adoption of this technology outside of North America. Much of the consumer resistance appears to stem from public perceptions that GM crops benefit large multinational corporations, food producers, and typically have no apparent consumer benefits. In order to test whether clearly defined

John G. Knight; Damien W. Mather; David K. Holdsworth

2005-01-01

144

Consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops are popular in many regions of the world, but their deployment in Africa is hindered by safety concerns and regulatory issues, although the continent is in dire need of boosting its food production. Although consumers' acceptance of GM food has been analyzed in many continents, no such studies have been conducted in Africa. Therefore, a survey

Simon Chege Kimenju; Hugo De Groote

2008-01-01

145

Acceptance of genetically modified food in India: perspectives of gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer and public policy resistance to genetically modified (GM) foods in rich countries has caused governments in many poor countries to withhold official permission for planting GM food crops for fear of damaging export markets for conventional crops. A total of 15 countries are already producing GM food crops. If China and India, the world's two most populous

John Knight; Amit Paradkar

2008-01-01

146

Response Dimensions Towards Genetically Modified Foods: A Consumer Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing public awareness of genetically modified (GM) foods and their availability on retail store shelves has resulted in profound cleavages of opinions amongst various interest groups regarding the possible risks they pose to consumers and their ethical implications. This paper proposes that response patterns of consumers may depend upon their moral and ethical orientations. This paper suggests that clearer groupings

Ali Quazi; Gamini Herath

2002-01-01

147

Who Should Certify the Safety of Genetically Modified Foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of addressing consumer concerns regarding the use of genetically modified foods are evaluated using conjoint analysis � the use of a familiar brand and government certification. In one survey, consumers were asked to rate hypothetical products based on brand, price, and production technology attributes. In a second survey, consumers rated hypothetical products that included government certification, price, and

Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

2005-01-01

148

A Meta-Analysis of Genetically Modified Food Valuation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plethora of research in recent years has been devoted to estimating consumer demand for genetically modified food, an important piece of information needed to create appropriate public policy. To examine this body of work, a meta-analysis was conducted of 25 studies that, in aggregate, report 57 valuations for GM food. Findings indicate as much as 89% of the variation

Jayson L. Lusk; Mustafa Jamal; Lauren Kurlander; Maud Roucan; Lesley Taulman

2005-01-01

149

Genetically modified food issues : Attitudes of Irish university scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) food is currently being intensely debated in Ireland and throughout Europe. Academic scientists are important players in both the public discourse and in the public policy formulation process. This paper reveals and explores the perceptions and attitudes of Irish university based academic scientists to issues regarding GM food. Most notably, 79.1 per cent of respondents stated that

Shane H. Morris; Catherine C. Adley

2000-01-01

150

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

151

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

152

How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be

Gene Rowe

2004-01-01

153

Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to conduct research on consumer willingness to buy genetically modified (GM) foods with a price advantage and other benefits, compared with organic and ordinary types of foods, employing a robust experimental method. The importance of this increases as the volume and range of GM foods grown and distributed globally increase, as consumer fears surrounding perceived risk decrease

Damien Mather; John Knight; David Holdsworth

2005-01-01

154

Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is, first, to explore consumer beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified (GM) food and second, based on this exploration, to develop a hypothetical model which can explain and predict consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to GM food. For this twofold purpose, qualitative research and a review of relevant, mainly

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

155

Regulation of genetically modified foods in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food standards in Australia and New Zealand build on the level of food safety that is generally accepted by the community. An explicitly cautious approach is applied in cases where there is no established history of safe human consumption, as is the case for foods produced using gene technology. Novel foods, including genetically modified (GM) foods, undergo a mandatory pre-market

Paul Brent; Dennis Bittisnich; Simon Brooke-Taylor; Nora Galway; Lynda Graf; Marion Healy; Lisa Kelly

2003-01-01

156

Focus Group Reactions to Genetically Modified Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use focus groups to gauge US consumer reactions to alter- native genetically modified (GM) food labeling policies. We find a low level of awareness about GM foods, which is surprising given the amount of media activity surrounding the issue. We also find negative reactions to \\

Mario F. Teisl; Lynn Halverson; Kelly O'Brien; Brian Roe; Nancy Ross; Mike Vayda

2002-01-01

157

Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson, Damania, and Jackson develop a common-agency lobbying model to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies toward genetically modified (GM) food. Their results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policymakers to influence standards, and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition

Kym Anderson; Richard Damania; Lee Ann Jacskon

2004-01-01

158

Detection strategies for food authenticity and genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for authenticity testing have been described for all types of food and can give us important indications for analytical strategies to be developed for the detection and quantitation of genetically modified foods. Transgenic plants contain newly introduced traits or marker genes that are expressed and should be detectable by DNA or protein-based methods. Recent literature clearly favours PCR

Jürg Lüthy

1999-01-01

159

Consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of genetically modified foods (GMF) in consumer markets worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate. Media hype and the strong position against GMF by activist groups have contributed to the negative image of GMF, often labelled as “Frankenstein” foods. Given this negative image, the purpose of this study is to find out if consumers display more positive

David R. Fortin; Michelle S. Renton

2003-01-01

160

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A TELEPHONE SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a pilot U.S. national telephone survey on genetically modified foods (vegetable oil, cornflake cereal, and salmon). The survey featured contingent valuation in which respondents chose between the GM and non-GM alternatives. The binary and multinomial logit models yield estimated willingness to pay to avoid the GM alternatives. Perceived risk of GM food is an important

Naoya Kaneko; Wen S. Chern

2003-01-01

161

Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

Renee B Kim

2009-01-01

162

Genetically modified organisms and risks of their introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this review is to assess food risks of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. The author analyzes the properties of the several classes of target proteins used in the transgenic constructions and discusses the problems that arise due to the pleiotropic action of transgenic proteins, the horizontal transfer of the transgenic constructions, primarily in bacteria,

A. M. Kulikov

2005-01-01

163

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

164

Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the amount of GM varieties in crops and products. Labeling legislation

Leena Tripathi

165

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

166

Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research using genetically modified mice has revealed significant sex differences in cardiac phenotypes. In the majority of strains, females display a lower mortality, less severe hypertrophy, better preserved function and mitigated cardiac pathology compared with male counterparts. Thus, gender is an independent determinant for the development of cardiac phenotype in murine models. While there is strong evidence for estrogen

Xiao-Jun Du

2004-01-01

167

The Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms on Human Health  

E-print Network

What are genetically modified organisms? A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic structure has been altered by incorporating a gene that will express a desirable trait, often termed gene splicing. Most often the transferred gene allows the organism to express a trait that will add to its desirability to producers or consumers of the end product. For example, the first food produced from gene splicing and evaluated by the FDA was the Flavr Savr Tomato. Tomatoes generally get softer as they ripen because of a protein in the tomato that breaks down the cell walls of the tomato, which makes it difficult to transport a quality ripe tomato across the country. The Flavr Savr Tomato had a gene spliced into its DNA to prevent the breakdown of the tomatoes ’ cell walls. The result of the incorporation of the new gene is a firm ripe

Sereana Howard Dresbach Ph. D; Holly Flax M. S; Amanda Sokolowski M. S; John Allred Ph. D

168

An Efficient Vector System to Modify Cells Genetically  

PubMed Central

The transfer of foreign genes into mammalian cells has been essential for understanding the functions of genes and mechanisms of genetic diseases, for the production of coding proteins and for gene therapy applications. Currently, the identification and selection of cells that have received transferred genetic material can be accomplished by methods, including drug selection, reporter enzyme detection and GFP imaging. These methods may confer antibiotic resistance, or be disruptive, or require special equipment. In this study, we labeled genetically modified cells with a cell surface biotinylation tag by co-transfecting cells with BirA, a biotin ligase. The modified cells can be quickly isolated for downstream applications using a simple streptavidin bead method. This system can also be used to screen cells expressing two sets of genes from separate vectors. PMID:22096482

Han, Huamin; Liu, Qingjun; He, Wen; Ong, Kristy; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Bin

2011-01-01

169

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms  

E-print Network

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms Anne genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results-L, Nagarajan M, Veyrieras J-B, Bottin H, Steinmetz LM, et al. (2012) Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Copyright 01996 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Evaluation of Candidate Genes for the Moml Modifier  

E-print Network

strains and fine-structure genetic mapping. For the Moml modifier of intestinal adenomas caused by A p p, Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Boston, MA 02115. We previously mapped themajor genetic modifierCopyright 01996 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Evaluation of Candidate Genes

Dove, William

171

Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein ?-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A; McNally, Elizabeth M

2011-01-01

172

Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein ?-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A.

2011-01-01

173

Construction and analytical application of a biosensor based on stearic acid-graphite powder modified with sweet potato tissue in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biosensor based on stearic acid-graphite powder modified with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) tissue as peroxidase source was constructed and applied in organic solvents. Several parameters were studied to evaluate\\u000a the performance of this biosensor such as stearic acid-graphite powder and tissue composition, type and concentration of supporting\\u000a electrolyte, organic solvents, water\\/organic solvent ratio (% v\\/v) and hydrogen

O. Fatibello-Filho; I. Cruz Vieira

2000-01-01

174

Biosensor based on paraffin\\/graphite modified with sweet potato tissue for the determination of hydroquinone in cosmetic cream in organic phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic-phase biosensor based on paraffin\\/graphite modified with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) tissue as the source of peroxidase was developed and used for determining hydroquinone in cosmetic creams. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of hydroquinone to p-quinone which electrochemical reduction back to hydroquinone was obtained at a peak potential of ?0.22 V.

Iolanda Cruz Vieira; Orlando Fatibello-Filho

2000-01-01

175

Genetic interactions and modifier genes in Hirschsprung's disease.  

PubMed

Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital disorder that occurs in 1:5000 live births. It is characterised by an absence of enteric neurons along a variable region of the gastrointestinal tract. Hirschsprung's disease is classified as a multigenic disorder, because the same phenotype is associated with mutations in multiple distinct genes. Furthermore, the genetics of Hirschsprung's disease are highly complex and not strictly Mendelian. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung's disease also suggests the involvement of modifier genes. Here, we summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying Hirschsprung's disease based on human and animal studies, focusing on the principal causative genes, their interactions, and the role of modifier genes. PMID:22174542

Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Richard B

2011-12-01

176

The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

Taylor, Ann T. S.

2004-01-01

177

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

178

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks can be characterised by several parameters. A risk is commonly defined to be the product of the extent of damage and\\u000a the probability of its occurrence. But there are several other characteristics to be taken into account: degree of certainty\\u000a in determining extent and probability, persistency, ubiquity, irreversibility, delay effect and mobilisation potential. As\\u000a potential risks of genetically modified

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

179

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical\\u000a trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which\\u000a may arise due to the clinical use of

B. Anliker; S. Longhurst; C. J. Buchholz

2010-01-01

180

Genetically modified organisms in agriculture: can regulations work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) crops have been recognised to be economically beneficial to subsistence farmers and have been projected\\u000a as essential tools for addressing challenges in hunger, environmental sustainability and international development. Yet the\\u000a uncertainty of their effects on human health and the undesirable ecological consequences of these organisms have raised concerns\\u000a on the rapid pace of their production. Regulating the

David Kothamasi; Saskia Vermeylen

2011-01-01

181

CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation

Kristine M. Grimsrud; Jill J. McCluskey; Maria L. Loureiro; Thomas I. Wahl

2002-01-01

182

The transatlantic rift in genetically modified food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory structures underlying United States and European Union policies regarding genetically modified (GM) food and\\u000a crops are fundamentally different. The US regulates GM foods and crops as end products, applying roughly the same regulatory\\u000a framework that it does to non GM foods or crops. The EU, on the other hand, regulates products of agricultural biotechnology\\u000a as the result of

Celina Ramjoué

2007-01-01

183

Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Food Products in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a large U.S. export market, there has been growing public opposition against genetically modified (GM) foods. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method, findings show the discount needed for Japanese Seikyou consumers to purchase GM food products is positively affected (i.e., a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM food, higher levels

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2003-01-01

184

Genetic Factors Modifying Clinical Expression of Autosomal Dominant RP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors modifying clinical expression of inherited diseases are likely to be complex, involving genetic factors, environmental\\u000a factors and stochastic effects. One way to reduce the complexity is to focus on individuals who share a dominant mutation\\u000a identical by descent, thus eliminating variability in the underlying mutation and variation in cis to the mutation. A further simplification is to limit analysis

Stephen P. Daiger; Suma P. Shankar; Alice B. Schindler; Lori S. Sullivan; Sara J. Bowne; Terri M. King; E. Warick Daw; Edwin M. Stone; John R. Heckenlively

185

Genetic Modifiers That Affect Phenotypic Expression of Retinal Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in onset, progression, severity, and phenotypic expression is commonly observed in many retinal diseases (Tables\\u000a 1 and 2). Although interfamily variability may be caused by environmental or allelic differences, intrafamily variability,\\u000a when a common mutation is segregating, may also be due to genetic modifiers (1–3). In contrast to independently acting alleles that may lead to an additive effect on

Malia M. Edwards; Dennis M. Maddox; Jungyeon Won; Jürgen K. Naggert; Patsy M. Nishina

2007-01-01

186

Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable\\u000a public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological\\u000a risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important\\u000a in regulating

Wenke Liu

2010-01-01

187

Explaining International Differences in Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have adopted labeling policies for genetically modified (GM) food, and the regulations vary considerably across countries. We evaluate the importance of political-economic factors implicit in the choice of GM food labeling regulations. Using an analytical model, we show that production and trade-related interests play a prominent role in labeling decision-making. This conclusion is validated by an empirical analysis

Guillaume P. Gruère; Colin A. Carter; Y. Hossein Farzin

2009-01-01

188

NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS AND CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes U.S. consumers�' acceptance of genetically modified foods within the ordered-probit-model framework. The willingness to consumer three difference GM foods is modeled in terms of consumers�' economic, demographic, and value attributes. Empirical results indicate that respondents�' attitudes and perceptions of biotechnology and their views about various private and public institutions associated with this technology are important determinants of

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin M. Onyango; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Brian J. Schilling; William K. Hallman

2003-01-01

189

Detection of Genetically Modified Plants in Seeds, Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different techniques and analytical strategies are applied for detecting and quantifying the presence of genetically modified\\u000a (GM) plants in food and feed products or in seeds. DNA-based detection is performed by qualitative PCR or by quantitative\\u000a real-time PCR, whereas for protein-based detection immunoassays such as lateral flow devices and ELISA are applied. The testing\\u000a strategy for GMO detection is constituted

Lutz Grohmann

190

Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops – European and American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically Modified (GM) crops occupy a unique place in the evolution of risk governance approaches to dealing with modern,\\u000a path-breaking technologies. They were the first such technology to be regulated on a precautionary basis, in a generic sense,\\u000a from the earliest stages of a technology development process that began in the 1980s and is still evolving.\\u000a \\u000a Today, distinctively different risk

Joyce Tait

191

Regulating Genetically-Modified Seeds in Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the implications of biosafety regulation on national seed policy. Biosafety regulation—the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology, in particular, the release of genetically-modified organisms—has been extensively discussed at various national and international fora. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks, and, at the international

Patricia L. Traynor; John Komen

2002-01-01

192

Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

2004-09-01

193

Genetically modified pigs produced with a nonviral episomal vector  

PubMed Central

Genetic modification of cells and animals is an invaluable tool for biotechnology and biomedicine. Currently, integrating vectors are used for this purpose. These vectors, however, may lead to insertional mutagenesis and variable transgene expression and can undergo silencing. Scaffold/matrix attachment region-based vectors are nonviral expression systems that replicate autonomously in mammalian cells, thereby making possible safe and reliable genetic modification of higher eukaryotic cells and organisms. In this study, genetically modified pig fetuses were produced with the scaffold/matrix attachment region-based vector pEPI, delivered to embryos by the sperm-mediated gene transfer method. The pEPI vector was detected in 12 of 18 fetuses in the different tissues analyzed and was shown to be retained as an episome. The reporter gene encoded by the pEPI vector was expressed in 9 of 12 genetically modified fetuses. In positive animals, all tissues analyzed expressed the reporter gene; moreover in these tissues, the positive cells were on the average 79%. The high percentage of EGFP-expressing cells and the absence of mosaicism have important implications for biotechnological and biomedical applications. These results are an important step forward in animal transgenesis and can provide the basis for the future development of germ-line gene therapy. PMID:17101993

Manzini, Stefano; Vargiolu, Alessia; Stehle, Isa M; Bacci, Maria Laura; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Giovannoni, Roberto; Zannoni, Augusta; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Forni, Monica; Donini, Pierluigi; Papa, Michele; Lipps, Hans J; Lavitrano, Marialuisa

2006-01-01

194

General resistance against potato virus Y introduced into a commercial potato cultivar by genetic transformation with PVY N coat protein gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Transgenic cv. Folva potato plants expressing the coat protein gene of potato virus Y strain N (PVYN) were produced usingAgrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. Forty independent transformants were selected for resistance screening. Four clones showed complete\\u000a resistance to mechanical inoculation with all the five PVY isolates tested: the PVYN isolate from which the coat protein gene was derived, two PVYO isolates,

Daisaku Okamoto; Søren V. S. Nielsen; Merete Albrechtsen; Bernhard Borkhardt

1996-01-01

195

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the

Gijs A. Kleter; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk J. M. Aarts

2005-01-01

196

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis  

E-print Network

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis Benjamin #12;Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods In Korea: Factor and Cluster Analysis Abstract and desirability of food biotechnology 2 #12;Introduction Consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) 1 food

Neimark, Alexander V.

197

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model  

E-print Network

South Korea Public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Benjamin for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random Parameter Model Abstract Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide foods for Southern Korea. #12;South Korea public Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods: a Random

Neimark, Alexander V.

198

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, includingA long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

199

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna  

E-print Network

No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The cultivation of genetically modified (GM: Duc C, Nentwig W, Lindfeld A (2011) No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat

Richner, Heinz

200

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant Retrovirus  

E-print Network

Intraspinal Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Using Neural Stem Cells Genetically Modified by Recombinant to genetically modify a clone of neural stem cells, C17, to overproduce neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The cells were re- sults show that: (i) most of the genetically modified cells express both NT-3 and lacZ genes

Fischer, Itzhak

201

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

202

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

203

Genetic characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot disease of potato in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectobacterium wasabiae has a narrow host range, having previously only been associated with Japanese horseradish. However, recent characterisation\\u000a of Pectobacterium causing soft rotting in New Zealand has identified putative P. wasabiae isolates pathogenic to potato. In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of acnA and mdh DNA sequences and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) were used to confirm the identity of

Andrew R. Pitman; Sally A. Harrow; Sandra B. Visnovsky

2010-01-01

204

Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.  

PubMed

A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context. PMID:24971889

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

2014-07-23

205

Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.  

PubMed

A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods. PMID:16621089

Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2006-09-18

206

Multiple Alleles for Tuber Shape in Diploid Potato Detected by Qualitative and Quantitative Genetic Analysis Using Rflps  

PubMed Central

Tuber shape in potato is commonly regarded as displaying continuous variation, yet at the diploid level phenotypes can be discerned visually, having round or long tubers. Inheritance of qualitative tuber shape can be explained by a single locus Ro, round being dominant to long. With restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) the Ro locus was mapped on chromosome 10. Tuber shape was also studied as a quantitative trait, using the length/width ratio as trait value. The estimated broad sense heritability was h(2) = 0.80. The morphologically mapped Ro locus explained 75% of the genetic variation, indicating the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) at the Ro locus and minor genetic factors. RFLP alleles linked with Ro alleles were used to divide the progeny into four genotypic classes: Ro( &) Ro( &) : Ro( &) ro : roRo( &) : roro = 1 : 1 : 1 : 1. The recessive ro allele is identical by descent in both parents. The significantly different effects (P = 0.0157) of the non-identical alleles Ro( &) and Ro( &) provided evidence for multiallelism at the Ro locus. Linkage mapping of the Ro locus was compared with QTL mapping. Only those markers which are polymorphic in both parents allow accurate QTL mapping when genetic factors segregate from both parents. This finding applies to QTL mapping in all outbreeders without homozygous inbred strains. PMID:7914504

van-Eck, H. J.; Jacobs, JME.; Stam, P.; Ton, J.; Stiekema, W. J.; Jacobsen, E.

1994-01-01

207

Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.  

PubMed

Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czy?ewska, Krystyna

2013-01-01

208

[The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].  

PubMed

This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society. PMID:22267031

Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

2012-02-01

209

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900

Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

2006-12-15

210

[Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].  

PubMed

Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops. PMID:24645345

Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

2013-12-01

211

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

212

Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

2013-06-15

213

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

214

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

215

Relative Contribution of Genetic and Non-genetic Modifiers to Intestinal Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus or MI) occurs in 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Our aim was to determine the relative contribution of genetic and non-genetic modifiers to the development of this major complication of CF. Methods Using clinical data and DNA collected by the CF Twin and Sibling Study, 65 monozygous twin pairs, 23 dizygous twin/triplet sets, and 349 sets of siblings with CF were analyzed for MI status, significant covariates, and genome-wide linkage. Results Specific mutations in CFTR, the gene responsible for CF, correlated with MI indicating a role for CFTR genotype. Monozygous twins showed substantially greater concordance for MI than dizygous twins and siblings (p=1×10?5) demonstrating that modifier genes independent of CFTR contribute substantially to this trait. Regression analysis revealed that MI was correlated with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS; p=8×10?4). Unlike MI, concordance analysis indicated that the risk for development of DIOS in CF patients is primarily due to non-genetic factors. Regions of suggestive linkage (logarithm of the odds of linkage >2.0) for modifier genes that cause MI (chromosomes 4q35.1, 8p23.1, and 11q25) or protect from MI (chromosomes 20p11.22 and 21q22.3) were identified by genome-wide analyses. These analyses did not support the existence of a major modifier gene within the CFM1 region on chromosome 19 that had previously been linked to MI. Conclusions The CFTR gene along with two or more modifier genes are the major determinants of intestinal obstruction in newborn CF patients, while intestinal obstruction in older CF patients is primarily due to non-genetic factors. PMID:17030173

Blackman, Scott M.; Deering-Brose, Rebecca; McWilliams, Rita; Naughton, Kathleen; Coleman, Barbara; Lai, Teresa; Algire, Marilyn; Beck, Suzanne; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Hamosh, Ada; Fallin, M. Daniele; West, Kristen; Arking, Dan E.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Cutler, David J.; Cutting, Garry R

2006-01-01

216

Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. Objective: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. Design: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5–10 y of age (BMI-z5to10). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z5to10 (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. Results: The median BMI-z5to10 was ?0.07 (range: ?3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z5to10 was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z5to10 than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ?16% and ?15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. Conclusions: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect. PMID:23134884

Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

2012-01-01

217

Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods. Effects of different information strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here aimed to investigate the effects of different types of information about genetically modified foods on both consumer attitudes towards genetic modification and their tendency to choose genetically modified products (compared to more traditionally manufactured alternatives). The impact of information strategy (balanced, or product specific), attributed information source (The “European Association of Consumers”, the “European Association of

Lynn Frewer; Joachim Scholderer; Clive Downs; Lone Bredahl

2000-01-01

218

Reforming the WTO to Defuse Potential Trade Conflicts in Genetically Modified Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguably genetic modification is one of the most important technological change seen to date. Its effects on both human health and the environment are both profound and controversial. In particular consumers, mainly in the EU, have concerns regarding the long term effects of consuming genetically modified foods on their health. They are also concerned regarding the effect that genetically modified

Nicholas Perdikis; William A. Kerr Shelburne; Jill E. Hobbs

2001-01-01

219

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers' perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2006-01-01

220

The effects of prior beliefs and learning on consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food products using genetically modified crops appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996, and consumers’ perceived some risks. This paper examines the role of consumers prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified. We use data from economics experiments and show that participants who had

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2007-01-01

221

Are United States Consumers Tolerant of Genetically Modified Foods&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounds the introduction of genetically modified foods. One key issue relates to tolerance levels—the impurity rate tolerated before a commodity must be labeled. Currently, the United States has not defined a tolerance level for genetically modified foods. This paper uses data from experimental auctions to test whether consumers prefer foods with 0, 1, or 5% tolerance levels for genetically

Matthew Rousu; Wallace E. Huffman; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

222

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

223

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods I: Conceptual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

224

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Automatic Calibration of Modified FM Synthesis to Harmonic Sounds using Genetic Algorithms Matthieu scheme. Genetic algorithms (GA) have been used rather exten- sively for this purpose, and in particular to further explore its modified counterpart, Modified FM (ModFM), which has not been used as widely, and its

Smyth, Tamara

225

Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.  

PubMed

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.51; published online 4 December 2012. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

226

Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin)-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited) cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application. PMID:23212298

Borjigin, Mandula; Strouse, Bryan; Niamat, Rohina A; Bialk, Pawel; Eskridge, Chris; Xie, Jingwei; Kmiec, Eric B

2012-01-01

227

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

228

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Protein and Genetic Traits in Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the market introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods, and ingredients, legislation worldwide came face to face with the question of the use and labeling requirements on GMO crops and their derivatives. In this review, protein- and DNA-based methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blots, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (Q-PCR) are

P. Markoulatos; N. Siafakas; A. Papathoma; E. Nerantzis; B. Betzios; V. Dourtoglou; M. Moncany

2004-01-01

229

A rapid determination method for ethylenethiourea in potato and cucumber by modified QuEChERS - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in potatoes and cucumbers is developed. This method employs modified QuEChERS followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. ETU was extracted by alkaline acetonitrile (containing 1%NH(3).H(2)0), separated on a ZIC-pHILIC column, confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionisation source. This modified procedure showed satisfactory recovery (90.6-103.5%) fortified at the range of 0.005-0.05 mg kg(-1) with relative standard deviation (RSD)<7%. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.002 mg kg(-1) and 0.005 mg kg(-1), respectively. Matrix effect and HILIC retention mechanism were also evaluated. The method was finally applied to detect ETU in potato and cucumber samples collected at harvest period. Residues of ETU were detected in four cucumber samples with the level lower than LOQ. PMID:23411254

Zhou, Li; Liu, Xiaoliang; Kang, Shu; Zhang, Fengzu; Pan, Canping

2013-06-01

230

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

2010-01-01

231

Modified Niched Pareto Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm for Construction Scheduling Optimization  

E-print Network

, a new data structure is proposed to define a solution to the problem and a general Niched Pareto Genetic Algorithm (NPGA) is modified to facilitate optimization procedure. The main features of the proposed Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA...

Kim, Kyungki

2012-10-19

232

Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene-gene interaction for asthma  

PubMed Central

Objective A recent admixture mapping analysis identified interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL6 receptor (IL6R) as candidate genes for inflammatory diseases. In the airways during allergic inflammation, IL6 signaling controls the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. In addition, albuterol, a commonly prescribed asthma therapy, has been shown to influence IL6 gene expression. Therefore, we reasoned that interactions between the IL6 and IL6R genes might be associated with bronchodilator drug responsiveness to albuterol in asthmatic patients. Methods Four functional IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a nonsynonymous IL6R SNP were genotyped in 700 Mexican and Puerto Rican asthma families and in 443 African-American asthma cases and controls. Both family-based association tests and linear regression models were used to assess the association between individual SNPs and haplotypes with bronchodilator response. Gene–gene interactions were tested by using multiple linear regression analyses. Results No single SNP was consistently associated with drug response in all the three populations. However, on the gene level, we found a consistent IL6 and IL6R pharmacogenetic interaction in the three populations. This pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction was contextual and dependent upon ancestry (racial background). This interaction resulted in higher drug response to albuterol in Latinos, but lower drug response in African-Americans. Herein, we show that there is an effect modification by ancestry on bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol. Conclusion Genetic variants in the IL6 and IL6R genes act synergistically to modify the bronchodilator drug responsiveness in asthma and this pharmacogenetic interaction is modified by the genetic ancestry. PMID:19503017

Corvol, Harriet; De Giacomo, Anthony; Eng, Celeste; Seibold, Max; Ziv, Elad; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon; Watson, H. Geoffrey; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael; Avila, Pedro C.; Choudhry, Shweta; Burchard, Esteban Gonz!lez

2009-01-01

233

The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs. PMID:16440278

Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

2005-01-01

234

Insecticidal Activity of Avidin Combined with Genetically Engineered and Traditional Host Plant Resistance Against Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a destructive pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L.), in North America. It is renowned for adapting to insecticides. With the arsenal of effective insecticides decreasing, it is important to consider alternative forms of control. Biotin is an essential coenzyme for insect growth and development. Avidin is a protein found in chicken egg that sequesters

Susannah G. Cooper; David S. Douches; Edward J. Grafius

2006-01-01

235

Evaluation of modified PCR quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean using reference molecules: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative methods were previously developed and validated for genetically modified (GM) maize or soy. In this study, the quantification step of the validated methods was modified, and an interlaboratory study was conducted. The modification included the introduction of the PCR system SSIIb 3 instead of SSIIb 1 for the detection of the taxon-specific sequence of maize, as well as the adoption of colE1 as a carrier included in a reference plasmid solution as a replacement for salmon testis. The interlaboratory study was conducted with the ABI PRISM 7700 and consisted of 2 separate stages: (1) the measurement of conversion factor (Cf) value, which is the ratio of recombinant DNA (r-DNA) sequence to taxon-specific sequence in each genuine GM seed, and (2) the quantification of blind samples. Additionally, Cf values of other instruments, such as the ABI PRISM 7900 and the ABI PRISM 7000, were measured in a multilaboratory trial. After outlier laboratories were eliminated, the repeatability and reproducibility for 5.0% samples were <15.8 and 20.6%, respectively. The quantitation limits of these methods were 0.5% for Bt11, T25, and MON810, and 0.1% for GA21, Event176, and RR soy. The quantitation limits, trueness, and precision of the current modified methods were equivalent to those of the previous methods. Therefore, it was concluded that the modified methods would be a suitable replacement for the validated methods. PMID:19382580

Kodama, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2009-01-01

236

Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are grown widely for pest control, but insect adaptation can reduce their efficacy. The genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were designed to counter insect resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Previous results suggested that the modified toxins would be effective only if resistance was linked with mutations in genes encoding toxin-binding cadherin proteins. Here we report evidence from five major crop pests refuting this hypothesis. Relative to native toxins, the potency of modified toxins was >350-fold higher against resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis in which resistance was not linked with cadherin mutations. Conversely, the modified toxins provided little or no advantage against some resistant strains of three other pests with altered cadherin. Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains. PMID:21983521

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Fangneng; Ghimire, Mukti N; Leonard, B Rogers; Siegfried, Blair D; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Yang, Yajun; Wu, Yidong; Gahan, Linda J; Heckel, David G; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

2011-12-01

237

Origin and genetic diversity of Western European populations of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) inferred from mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Native to South America, the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is one of the principal pests of Andean potato crops and is also an important global pest following its introduction to Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and Oceania. Building on earlier work showing a clear south to north phylogeographic pattern in Peruvian populations, we have been able to identify the origin of Western European populations with high accuracy. They are all derived from a single restricted area in the extreme south of Peru, located between the north shore of the Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Only four cytochrome b haplotypes are found in Western Europe, one of them being also found in some populations of this area of southern Peru. The allelic richness at seven microsatellite loci observed in the Western European populations, although only one-third of that observed in this part of southern Peru, is comparable to the allelic richness observed in the northern region of Peru. This result could be explained by the fact that most of the genetic variability observed at the scale of a field or even of a region is already observed at the scale of a single plant within a field. Thus, even introduction via a single infected potato plant could result in the relatively high genetic variability observed in Western Europe. This finding has important consequences for the control of this pest and the development of quarantine measures. PMID:18410291

Plantard, O; Picard, D; Valette, S; Scurrah, M; Grenier, E; Mugniéry, D

2008-05-01

238

Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging. PMID:25049619

Muhlisin, S. M. Kang; Choi, W. H.; Lee, K. T.; Cheong, S. H.; Lee, S. K.

2012-01-01

239

Evaluating the allergic risk of genetically modified soybean.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) soybean (carrying the EPSPS transgene) is the most common GM food in Korea. In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic adults who had been sensitized to soybeans. We enrolled 1,716 adult allergy patients and 40 healthy, non-atopic controls. Skin prick tests and IgE enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed using wild-type and GM soybean extracts, along with other common inhaled allergens. The specificities of serum IgE antibodies from allergic patients and the identities of the IgE-reactive components of the soybean extracts were compared using ELISA inhibition testing, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and IgE immunoblotting. To evaluate the effects of digestive enzymes and heat treatment, the soybean extracts were heated or pre- incubated with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The IgE sensitization rates to wild-type and GM soybeans were identical (3.8% of allergic adults), and circulating IgE antibodies specific for the two extracts were comparable. The results of the ELISA inhibition test, SDS-PAGE, and IgE immunoblotting showed a similar composition of IgE-binding components within the wild-type and GM extracts, which was confirmed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, IgE immunoblotting, and amino acid sequencing. None of the subjects had a positive response to purified EPSPS protein in the skin prick test, ELISA, or IgE immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that the IgE sensitization rate to GM soybean extracts is identical to that of wild-type soybean extracts in adult allergy patients. In addition, based on both in vivo and in vitro methods, the allergenicity of wild type and GM soybean extracts was identical. PMID:16941740

Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

2006-08-31

240

ANALYSING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD BY A VARIANCE-BASED STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying gene technology in agricultural production, which results on the so-called genetically modified (GM) foods, is one of the most controversial scientific, political and social debates. In the EU, the underdevelopment of biotech crops is attributed to the social distrust in transgenic food. The potential consumers’ reactions towards Genetically Modified (GM) food influence the commercial feasibility and determine the economic

Melania Salazar-Ordonez; Macario Rodriguez-Entrena

2012-01-01

241

Predicting the effects of genetically modified organisms - more questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankenstein foods or a more sophisticated and scientific approach to feeding the world? Genetically modified (GM) crops and foods have become one of the main issues of the late 1990s, but are the critics scaremongering or the industry being complacent? The possible effects of releasing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment include those directly associated with the GMO itself,

Sue Mayer

242

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

243

Multielemental analysis of genetically modified food using ANAA and PIXE techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of two techniques, ANAA and PIXE, used in the analyses of some availa- ble commercial food containing regular and genetically modified ingredients, as well as soybens cultivated with regular and genetically modified seeds (GMS). The aim of this work is determine their elemental composition to perform a comparative analysis. The elemental composition results of both

Ilca Marli; Moitinho Amaral; Cibele Bugno Zamboni Medeiros; Jos ´ e; Agostinho Goncalves de Medeiros; Marcia de Almeida Rizzutto

2005-01-01

244

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize  

E-print Network

SMAC Advisor: A Decision-Support Tool on Coexistence of Genetically-Modified and Conventional Maize for the assessment of coexistence between genetically modified and conventional maize. The assessment is based. In order to meet the demands for food, ensuring food quality and safety, contributing to sustainable

Bohanec, Marko

245

Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system

M. Miraglia; K. G. Berdal; C. Brera; P. Corbisier; A. Holst-Jensen; E. J. Kok; H. J. P. Marvin; H. Schimmel; J. Rentsch; J. P. P. F. van Rie; J. Zagon

2004-01-01

246

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

247

Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food Products in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide consumer response toward food products made from genetically modified ingredients has been largely negative. However, the majority of the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food products were conducted in developed countries in Europe as well as Japan. The small number of studies conducted in developing countries obtained different results from the developed world. This paper considers

Kynda R. Curtis; Thomas I. Wahl; Jill J. McCluskey

2003-01-01

248

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

249

Is dread of Genetically Modified food associated with the consumers’ demand for information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the dread of Genetically Modified (GM) food is an expression of the individual's demand for information as a self-protective action. This study empirically examines the determinants of the demand for information on Genetically Modified Food and tests whether this demand is jointly determined with the individual's dread of GM food. A UK representative sample of the 1999

Elias Mossialos

2005-01-01

250

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: ROLE OF PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PERCEIVED RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness

Benjamin M. Onyango

2003-01-01

251

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2001-01-01

252

Factors that influence purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods among Argentine consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of genetically modified (GM) crops to Argentine's economy, it was hypothesized that Argentine consumers are in a unique situation regarding their perception of GM foods. Factors that influenced purchase intent and perceptions of genetically modified foods by 256 Argentine consumers were investigated through a drop-off survey. Purchase intent for GM foods was low, unless a nutritional

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough; Cesar Ziliani

2004-01-01

253

Agricultural Deskilling and the Spread of Genetically Modified Cotton in Warangal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is a key cotton-growing area in one of the most closely watched arenas of the global struggle over genetically modified crops. In 2005 farmers adopted India's first genetically modified crop, Bt cotton, in numbers that resemble a fad. Various parties, including the biotechnology firm behind the new technology, interpret the spread as the result of

2007-01-01

254

Evaluating the fate of genetically modified microorganisms in the environment: Are they inherently less fit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified microorganisms hold great promise for environmental applications. Nonetheless, some may have unintended adverse effects. Of particular concern for risk assessment is the simple fact that microorganisms are self-replicating entities, so that it may be impossible to control an adverse effect simply by discontinuing further releases of the organism. It has been suggested, however, that genetically modified microorganisms will

R. E. Lenski

1993-01-01

255

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized  

E-print Network

Transplants of Cells Genetically Modified To Express Neurotrophin-3 Rescue Axotomized Clarke cells can rescue axotomized neurons, we transplanted fibroblasts and immortalized neural stem cells in adult rats by T8 hemisection. Rats received transplants of fibroblasts or NSCs genetically modified

Fischer, Itzhak

256

A Multiplex PCR?Based Assay for the Detection of Genetically Modified Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of nucleotide sequences specific for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in raw and processed food is based on different technological strategies, such as the extraction of DNA and the amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allow to obtain qualitative and quantitative information. We developed a multiplex PCR?based DNA assay for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified

Enrico Dainese; Clotilde Angelucci; Paola De Santis; Mauro Maccarrone; Ivo Cozzani

2004-01-01

257

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

258

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

259

Stakeholder attitudes towards the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and interests of stakeholders involved in national public debates on the risks and benefits of genetically modified crops are having a significant influence on public opinion as well as public policy outcomes related to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture in developed and developing countries. This article discusses the results of a perception survey conducted

Philipp Aerni

2005-01-01

260

Environmental Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified CropsImplications for Regulatory Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for evaluating the environmental costs and benefits associated with agricultural genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including impacts on plants, humans, animals, and the environment at large. The authors build on this knowledge to explore how and why GMOs should be regulated, highlighting the need for policy makers to bear in mind that genetically modified seeds

AMY W. ANDO; MADHU KHANNA

2000-01-01

261

A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2014-01-01

262

Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

Kleter, Gijs A; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Aarts, Henk J M

2005-01-01

263

Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria. PMID:12083279

Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

2002-01-01

264

[Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].  

PubMed

A method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) papaya (55-1 line), of which the mandatory safety assessment has not been finished in Japan because of insufficient data. The papaya intrinsic papain gene was used as an internal control. The results of PCR amplification of the papain gene segment indicated that a commercial silica membrane type kit (QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini) was useful for extraction of DNA from papaya fruit, but not for extraction from canned papaya fruit. On the other hand, a commercial ion-exchange type kit (QIAGEN Genomic-tip) provided enough purified DNA for PCR from canned papaya fruit. Compared with the parental line and other commercial non-GM papayas, the DNA from GM papaya fruit provided specific amplification bands in PCR with five primer pairs (Nos. 2-6) including beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene-specific ones. On the other hand, the primer pairs recognizing these genes showed false-positive results when we used DNAs from canned papaya. Therefore, we recommend that the primer pairs (Nos. 5 and 6) recognizing the sequences derived from two different species of organism should be used in order to detect specifically the GM papaya in canned fruits. PMID:11817137

Goda, Y; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Hino, A; Toyoda, M

2001-08-01

265

Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

266

Fungal community associated with genetically modified poplar during metal phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing demand for phytoremediation, many transgenic poplars have been developed to enhance the bioremediation of heavy metals. However, structural changes to indigenous fungal communities by genetically modified organisms (GMO) presents a major ecological issue, due to the important role of fungi for plant growth in natural environments. To evaluate the effect of GM plant use on environmental fungal soil communities, extensive sequencing-based community analysis was conducted, while controlling the influence of plant clonality, plant age, soil condition, and harvesting season. The rhizosphere soils of GM and wild type (WT) poplars at a range of growth stages were sampled together with unplanted, contaminated soil, and the fungal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing the D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene. The results show that the overall structure of the rhizosphere fungal community was not significantly influenced by GM poplars. However, the presence of GM specific taxa, and faster rate of community change during poplar growth, appeared to be characteristic of the GM plant-induced effects on soil-born fungal communities. The results of this study provide additional information about the potential effects of GM poplar trees aged 1.5-3 years, on the soil fungal community. PMID:23274976

Hur, Moonsuk; Lim, Young Woon; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Choi, Young Im; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Il; Yi, Hana

2012-12-01

267

Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

2005-01-01

268

Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?  

PubMed

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems. PMID:19806453

Liu, Wenke

2010-02-01

269

Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"  

E-print Network

We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aq...

Bridge, C M; Cropper, M; Ramsay, G

2004-01-01

270

Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"  

E-print Network

We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra.We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

C. M. Bridge; Pasi Hakala; Mark Cropper; Gavin Ramsay

2004-04-05

271

Do You Really Know What You're Eating?: Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study uses the example of genetically modified corn to examine concepts of modern molecular genetics and microbiology. Students will read a fictional news report about consumers having an allergic reaction to tainted genetically modified corn. The lesson is intended for high school and lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Reese, Mary C.; Shew, Wayne

2010-12-31

272

Influence of genetic variability on specialty potato functional components and their effect on prostate cancer cell lines  

E-print Network

The influence of genotype (selection), location, and year on antioxidant activity (AOA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), phenolic and carotenoid composition was studied using specialty (colored) potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from...

Reddivari, Lavanya

2009-05-15

273

NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

2013-01-01

274

Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.  

PubMed

Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting of GMO and wild soybeans. GMO soybeans revealed a unique strong immunoglobulin E binding band at 25 kDa in some patients and wild soybeans showed a strong immunoglobulin E binding band at 30-36 kDa. To assess the allergenicity of GMO food, more research, including a selection of controlled sample materials and immunoassays of qualified sera, is needed. PMID:16119037

Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

2005-01-01

275

Genetic Modifiers of MeCP2 Function in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The levels of methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT) as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins) and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction) abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax), the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself. PMID:18773074

Cukier, Holly N.; Perez, Alma M.; Collins, Ann L.; Zhou, Zhaolan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Botas, Juan

2008-01-01

276

Transgene x Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology. PMID:20635001

Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-01-01

277

Long term evaluation of field-released genetically modified rhizobia.  

PubMed

This is the report of the first open field release of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) in Italy. It covers ten years of monitoring, and follows in-field GMM dynamics from strain release to disappearance below detection limits, as well as assessment of impact on resident microorganisms. The bacteria released belong to the nitrogen fixing legume endosymbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, and were engineered with non-agronomically-proficient traits, in order to assess their behavior and fate without GMM-specific positive feedback from the plant. A DNA cassette containing mercury resistance and ss-galactosidase genes was introduced in either plasmid-borne or chromosomally integrated versions, in order to test the resulting strain stability. A synthetic promoter was used to drive the lacZ gene, conferring high catabolic activity to the GMM. Two different wild-type Rhizobium backgrounds were tested, comparing a non-indigenous vs. an indigenous, highly competitive strain. The latter had much greater persistence, since it was able to survive and establish at technically detectable levels for over four years after release. Selection factors, such as reiterated presence of the plant host, or lactose substrate supply, enhanced long-term survival to different extents. The lactose treatment showed that even a single trophic supplementation can surpass the benefits of symbiotic interaction for a period of several years. Concerning impact, the GMMs did not alter substantially the other soil community general microbiota. However, there were some significant differences in microbiota as a consequence of the Rhizobium inoculation. This effect was observed with either the WT or GMM, and was more evident in the release of the indigenous Rhizobium. Moreover, as the indigenous GMM had its parental, dominant wild-type in the same soil, it was possible to evaluate to what extent the GMM version could result in parent displacement ("self-impact"), and how much the two rhizobia would additively contribute to nodulation. PMID:18001684

Corich, Viviana; Giacomini, Alessio; Vendramin, Elena; Vian, Patrizia; Carlot, Milena; Concheri, Giuseppe; Polone, Elisa; Casella, Sergio; Nuti, Marco P; Squartini, Andrea

2007-01-01

278

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic from a modified genetic algorithm (GA). Model performance was evaluated between the empirical landscape

Wang, Le

279

Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States,\\u000a accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking,\\u000a boiling, roasting, frying, steaming, and microwaving, allowing for a diversity of uses. Most people find potatoes to be an\\u000a agreeable food and

Shelley H. Jansky

2010-01-01

280

Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.  

PubMed

Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed. PMID:21424096

Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

2011-01-01

281

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431

Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

2010-03-01

282

[Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].  

PubMed

Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

2003-05-01

283

USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

284

Identification of Convection Constants for Electronic Packages Using Modified Genetic Algorithm and Reduced-Basis Method  

E-print Network

A new inverse analysis method is presented to identify parameters of heat convection in microelectronic packages. This approach adopts a modified Micro Genetic Algorithm (µGA) in finding the global optimum of parameters. ...

Yang, Zhenglin

285

Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as

João Lúcio Azevedo; Welington Luiz Araujo

2003-01-01

286

Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking

A. Springer; Konstadinos Mattas; G. Papastefanou; Asterios Tsioumanis

2002-01-01

287

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

288

Gender differences in consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that women are less accepting of genetically engineered products than men. We expect two mechanisms to be at work here. First, in consumer behaviour theory, more knowledge is assumed to lead to more acceptance. We assumed that for genetically engineered foods, this general principle does not apply since long-term consequences are not known yet. The well-informed consumer

H. Moerbeek; G. Casimir

2005-01-01

289

Assessing economic effects: Co-existence of genetically modified maize in agriculture in France and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations on genetically modified organisms in the EU require the implementation of co-existence systems in agriculture. This paper examines the economic effects and costs for farmers when introducing different co-existence measures in genetically modified maize. For this purpose different scientific methods are used including simulation methodology. First, the co-existence costs in maize crop and seed production for individual farmers are

Klaus Menrad; Daniela Reitmeier

2008-01-01

290

Development of a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for on-site monitoring of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been mainly developed for mass production of agricultural plants; however, there are concerns that transgenic crops might cause side effects on ecosystems and human beings. Therefore, to quantitatively trace the genetically modified products, we constructed a chemiluminometric immunosensor array for the detection of recombinant marker proteins expressed in GMOs, i.e., 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), neomycin phosphotransferase

Hye-Jee Jang; Il-Hoon Cho; Hee-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Jeon; Se-Young Hwang; Se-Hwan Paek

2011-01-01

291

Psychological concepts, public relations, and scientific responses to genetically modified organisms (GMOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms (e.g., plants, animals, and microorganisms) whose genetic information (i.e., DNA) is modified. Commercialization of GMOs has become an issue for an intense debate between parts of Europe and America, as well as within some developing countries. The main issues involve long-term health and environmental risks of using GMOs, safety assessment for their

Natapom Supanutsetkul; Linnda Caporael

2000-01-01

292

Organic and Genetically Modified Soybean Diets: Consequences in Growth and in Hematological Indicators of Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets\\u000a to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n?=?10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically\\u000a modified soy group (GG), and a control group

Julio Beltrame Daleprane; Tatiana Silveira Feijó; Gilson Teles Boaventura

2009-01-01

293

Persistence of Cry toxins and cry genes from genetically modified plants in two agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact of genetically modified crops has been the subject of intense research in the past decade. Since\\u000a the introduction of insect-resistant crops in 1996, cultivation of this group of genetically modified crops has grown substantially.\\u000a Most insect-resistant varieties, including corn and cotton, have been engineered to express crystal (Cry) toxins. Although\\u000a several studies concerning the environmental fate of

Elisa Marchetti; Cesare Accinelli; Valentina Talamè; Rosanna Epifani

2007-01-01

294

Biological containment of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis for intestinal delivery of human interleukin 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified Lactococcus lactis secreting interleukin 10 provides a therapeutic approach for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the release of such genetically modified organisms through clinical use raises safety concerns. In an effort to address this problem, we replaced the thymidylate synthase gene thyA of L. lactis with a synthetic human IL10 gene. This thyA?hIL10+L. lactis strain produced human IL-10 (hIL-10),

Sabine Neirynck; Nathalie Huyghebaert; Veerle Snoeck; An Vermeire; Bruno Goddeeris; Eric Cox; Jean Paul Remon; Erik Remaut; Lothar Steidler

2003-01-01

295

A Case Study for Assessment of Microbial Community Dynamics in Genetically Modified Bt Cotton Crop Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted\\u000a to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin\\u000a (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used

Manisha Kapur; Ranjana Bhatia; Gunjan Pandey; Janmejay Pandey; Debarati Paul; Rakesh K. Jain

2010-01-01

296

The Spiroplasma Motility Inhibition Test, a New Method for Determining Intraspecific Variation among Colorado Potato Beetle Spiroplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a major holarctic pest of solanaceous crops. Presumably, this insect spread from Solanurn species in central America to the Mexican plateau, and this was followed by multiple invasions of North America and Europe. Attempts are being made to control this beetle by using a genetically modified spiroplasma that occurs naturally in its gut.

KEVIN J. HACKETT; J. J. LIPA; G. E. GASPARICH; D. E. LYNN; M. KONAI; M. CAMP

1997-01-01

297

Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods.

Bahri Karli; Abdulbaki Bilgic; Bulent Miran

2008-01-01

298

Genetically Modified Network Topologies Nathan Eagle, Leon Danon and Derek Cummings  

E-print Network

Genetically Modified Network Topologies Nathan Eagle, Leon Danon and Derek Cummings MIT Media Lab for constructing networks with a given set of parameters using genetic algorithms. The tunable parameters include that the effects of maximizing entropy while constraining the number of links reproduces an exponential degree

299

Implications of Genetically Modified Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ?golden rice,? which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health

Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

2004-01-01

300

The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or

Dorit Schuller; Margarida Casal

2005-01-01

301

Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Products: An Evaluation of Developed Approaches and Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modifications of food products are gaining more and more interest, since they represent an effective and promising way to improve a wide range of food characteristics, including production, nutritive value, and shelf life. On the other hand, concern has been raised about the safety aspects of food derived through genetically modified products. Since 1990 continuously evolving guidelines and recommendations

M. Miraglia; R. Onori; C. Brera; E. Cava

1998-01-01

302

Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

2007-01-01

303

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition GOLDEN RICE: A GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOLUTION TO  

E-print Network

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition GOLDEN RICE: A GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOLUTION, such as beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A), which makes this predominant food source the main cause for vitamin Humanitarian Board, 2005-2011), a biofortified rice that was only possible through genetic engineering

Thomas, Andrew

304

DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues

Amar Chiter; J. Michael Forbes; G. Eric Blair

2000-01-01

305

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat Rubrospinal Axons and  

E-print Network

Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat atrophy and death. We studied whether transplants of fibroblasts genetically engineered to produce brain hemisection cavity that completely interrupted one RST. One and two months after lesion and transplantation

Fischer, Itzhak

306

Genetic differentiation between eastern populations and recent introductions of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) into western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera, Psyllidae), annually causes significant losses in potato and tomato crops in eastern Mexico and the central United States, infestations in western North America have been historically rare. However, substantial populations appeared in 2001 in western North America and caused losses in tomato production exceeding 80%; losses in 2004 reached 50%. To determine if

Deguang Liu; John T. Trumble; Richard Stouthamer

2006-01-01

307

The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler

308

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

309

Do You Really Know What You're Eating? A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting from a fictional “news” report about an apparent allergic reaction to a taco tainted by genetically modified corn, students consider some of the techniques and procedures used in modern molecular genetics and microbiology as well as some of the issues associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Originally designed for role-play and PowerPoint assignments, suggestions for a shortened version are also provided. Suitable for a general microbiology course, the case could also be used in an introductory molecular biology course with appropriate modifications. Various levels of coverage of the topic of recombinant DNA are possible.

Shew, Wayne; Reese, Mary C.

2007-01-01

310

Sweet Potatoes.  

E-print Network

amollg many shippers of the vegetable that the soft sugary yams so highly appreciated in the South do not meet with ready sale in the Northern markets, consequelltly Sweet Potatoes shipped to the latter market should be rather dry and mealy like... is nearly all vine with few potatoes'" Mr. E. V. Dunn, Grapevine, Texas, Nov. 6th 1893 wrote "I gathered 200 bushels of the Runch Yams from an acre. Half the acre SWEET POTATOES. 335. was set from the 25th to the 28th of July. The weather was very dry...

Price, R. H.

1893-01-01

311

Genetically modified multiuser detection for code division multiple access systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is considered. By combining the theory of multiuser detection (MUD) and evolutionary computation, a hybrid genetic engine is proposed, suitable for the detection of CDMA signals in the presence of MAI and ISI. The proposed hybrid detector structure can be extended

S. Abedi; R. Tafazolli

2002-01-01

312

Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect—or may affect—the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability requirement and, hence, liability under the tort of negligence. The article also examines how concern expressed by

Lara Khoury; Stuart Smyth

2007-01-01

313

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

314

Genetically Modified Organisms in New Zealand and Cultural Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modern society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents

Robin McFarlane; Mere Roberts

315

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Sustainability in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys on consumer acceptance of GM foods revealed differences in knowledge, risk perception and acceptance of GM foods in Japan, Norway, Spain, Taiwan and the United States. There were opponents and proponents of GM foods. However, even in the United States, one of the most supportive countries, consumers were willing to pay substantial premiums to avoid GM alternatives. While genetic

Wen S. Chern

2006-01-01

316

Systemic Delivery of Recombinant Proteins by Genetically Modified Myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth

Eliav Barr; Jeffrey M. Leiden

1991-01-01

317

Creating genetically modified pigs by using nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfer (NT) is a procedure by which genetically identical individuals can be created. The technology of pig somatic NT, including in vitro maturation of oocytes, isolation and treatment of donor cells, artificial activation of reconstructed oocytes, embryo culture and embryo transfer, has been intensively studied in recent years, resulting in birth of cloned pigs in many labs. While it

Liangxue Lai; Randall S Prather

2003-01-01

318

Measuring U.S. Consumer Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods Using Choice Modeling Experiments: The Role of Price,  

E-print Network

Measuring U.S. Consumer Preferences for Genetically Modified Foods Using Choice Modeling attributes of price, product benefits, and technology influence consumer demand for genetically modified food Modified Foods Using Choice Modeling Experiments: The Role of Price, Product Benefits and Technology

Neimark, Alexander V.

319

A Modified Genetic Algorithm for Job Shop Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a class of typical production scheduling problems, job shop scheduling is one of the strongly NP-complete combinatorial\\u000a optimisation problems, for which an enhanced genetic algorithm is proposed in this paper. An effective crossover operation\\u000a for operation-based representation is used to guarantee the feasibility of the solutions, which are decoded into active schedules\\u000a during the search process. The classical mutation

L. Wang; D.-Z. Zheng

2002-01-01

320

Can Leaf Litter from Genetically Modified Trees Affect Aquatic Ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations,\\u000a including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue.\\u000a We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of

E. Petter Axelsson; Joakim Hjältén; Carri J. LeRoy; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Anders Wennström; Gilles Pilate

2010-01-01

321

First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.  

PubMed

An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis. PMID:17300145

Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

2007-02-21

322

Pre-invasion history and demography shape the genetic variation in the insecticide resistance-related acetylcholinesterase 2 gene in the invasive Colorado potato beetle  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive pest species offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of genetic architecture, demography and selection on patterns of genetic variability. Invasive Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) populations have experienced a rapid range expansion and intense selection by insecticides. By comparing native and invasive beetle populations, we studied the origins of organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2) gene, and the role of selection and demography on its genetic variability. Results Analysis of three Mexican, two US and five European populations yielded a total of 49 haplotypes. Contrary to the expectations all genetic variability was associated with a point mutation linked to insecticide resistance (S291G), this mutation was found in 100% of Mexican, 95% of US and 71% of European beetle sequences analysed. Only two susceptible haplotypes, genetically very differentiated, were found, one in US and one in Europe. The genetic variability at the AChE2 gene was compared with two other genes not directly affected by insecticide selection, diapause protein 1 and juvenile hormone esterase. All three genes showed reduction in genetic variability indicative of a population bottleneck associated with the invasion. Conclusions Stochastic effects during invasion explain most of the observed patterns of genetic variability at the three genes investigated. The high frequency of the S291G mutation in the AChE2 gene among native populations suggests this mutation is the ancestral state and thus, either a pre-adaptation of the beetle for OP resistance or the AChE2 is not the major gene conferring OP resistance. The long historical association with host plant alkaloids together with recombination may have contributed to the high genetic variation at this locus. The genetic diversity in the AChE2 locus of the European beetles, in turn, strongly reflects founder effects followed by rapid invasion. Our results suggest that despite the long history of insecticide use in this species, demographic events together with pre-invasion history have been strongly influential in shaping the genetic diversity of the AChE2 gene in the invasive beetle populations. PMID:23331855

2013-01-01

323

Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.  

PubMed

A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

2014-07-01

324

A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural\\u000a variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations\\u000a underlying the assessment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM) plant variety and\\u000a a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment

Hilko van der Voet; Joe N Perry; Billy Amzal; Claudia Paoletti

2011-01-01

325

Implications of natural propagule flow for containment of genetically modified forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagule flow in populations of virtually all organisms has importance for both the genetic cohesion of the species and for\\u000a its interaction with natural selection. It’s relevance` for the deployment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is that\\u000a propagules can be expected to move, under a wide range of circumstances, and will carry transgenic elements with them. Any\\u000a consideration of the

Peter E. Smouse; Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio; Santiago C. González-Martínez

2007-01-01

326

A Modified Genetic Algorithm to Due Date of Job Shop Scheduling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modified genetic search algorithm for the non-regular job-shop scheduling problem with due date. The chromosome representation of the problem is based on the operation-based representation. In order to reduce the search space, the procedure for generating active schedules is constructed. For avoiding premature convergence in the conventional genetic algorithms (GA), the precedence operation crossover (POX) and

Chuanjun Zhu; Yurong Chen; Chaoyong Zhang

2009-01-01

327

Metabolomics and the Detection of Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter describes current procedures for the safety assessment of genetically modified crops and foods. The concepts of\\u000a substantial equivalence, the conventional comparator, and intended and unintended effects are introduced. Most published examples\\u000a of substantial equivalence testing deal with crops that have been modified for insect resistance or herbicide tolerance. A\\u000a standard procedure has developed based on broadly similar field

Laetitia Shintu; Gwénaëlle Le Gall; Ian J. Colquhoun

328

Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

Burr, Ben (Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept) [Senior Geneticist, BNL Biology Dept

2006-03-16

329

Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed

Genetic modification involves the insertion of genes from other organisms (within or between species) into host cells to select for desirable qualities. Potential benefits of GM foods include increased nutritional value; reduced allergenicity; pest and disease-resistance; and enhanced processing value. Possible detrimental outcomes include producing foods with novel toxins, allergens or reduced nutritional value, and development of antibiotic resistance or herbicide-resistant weeds. Benefits to individuals or populations need to be weighed against adverse health and environmental risks, and may differ between developing and Westernised countries. Whether testing and monitoring should exceed requirements for conventional foods is under debate. While not necessarily scientifically justifiable, consumer concerns have resulted in Australian and New Zealand requirements to label foods containing GM-produced proteins. Dissatisfied consumer advocacy groups are calling for all foods involving GM technology to be labelled, irrelevant of whether the final product contains novel protein. Goals to improve the quantity, quality and safety of foods are laudable; however, the primary aim of the bio-food industry is financial gain. GM foods may be as safe as conventional foods but public distrust runs high. It is important that discussion is informed by science and that claims of both benefits and risks are evidence-based, to ensure that the process is driven neither by the vested interest of the bio-technical multinational companies on the one hand, nor ill-informed public fears on the other. PMID:11529622

Goodyear-Smith, F

2001-08-01

330

Genetically Modified Organisms: Rights To Use Commodity Names and the Lemons Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops have met some consumer opposition domestically and abroad. This opposition has resulted in variety market and policy reactions with a large potential to disrupt trade and to become a focus of international negotiations. In this paper we consider the spillover from adopters to the non-adopters and non-consumers of GM technology. In the absence of any (organizational) transaction

Richard Gray; Charles B. Moss; Andrew Schmitz

2004-01-01

331

Challenges and Opportunities for Global Civil Society: The Global Social Movement Opposed to Genetically Modified Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this thesis is to examine the relationship between global civil society and global governance using a case study of the global social movement opposed to genetically modified organisms in the European Union and the United States. This thesis argues that social movement actors will be most effective when they focus on a variety of targets including

Jessica Lise Edge

2006-01-01

332

Genetically Modified Crop Innovations and Product Differentiation: Trade and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology

Andrei Sobolevsky; GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan

2002-01-01

333

Using ILP to Study the Presence of Genetically Modified Variants in Organic Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops in European agriculture has continued to increase during the last ten years. The possibility of GM crops mixing with conventional or or- ganic crops (e.g., by pollen being blown by wind) has become a delicate issue and the detection of GM crops in non-GM fields presents a chal- lenge. In this study

Aneta Ivanovska; Celine Vens; Saso Dzeroski

334

Monitoring of MON810 genetically modified maize in foods in Brazil from 2005 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations for the use and labeling of genetically modified (GM) products and derived ingredients were implemented in Brazil in 2003. In 2008, GM maize line MON810 was approved for commercialization in Brazil; nevertheless, maize Bt11, Bt176 and MON810 were found in Brazilian market products sold in 2000 and 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was employed to monitor the

Andréia Zilio Dinon; Jaqueline Elis de Melo; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

2008-01-01

335

Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the  

E-print Network

Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens, 2000 (received for review January 24, 2000) Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro

Lieberman, Judy

336

The Adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agricultural biotechnology becomes increasingly commercialised, numerous constraints limit adoption by developing-country producers. These include technology access, impacts on farmers' yields and profits, privatisation of research and intellectual property, biosafety regulatory frameworks, and trade-related market restrictions. This essay analyses development of the genetically modified papaya and its commercialisation in Hawaii as a response to a virulent plant disease, papaya ringspot

C. Gonsalves; D. R. Lee; D. Gonsalves

2007-01-01

337

Monopolization and the regulation of genetically modified crops: an economic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have recently attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impact has been far less common. This paper puts forward variants of a simple model of crop production, each one tailored to a particular aspect of transgenic food technology. The focus is on the possibility of monopolization and its consequential welfare costs.

Alistair Munro

2003-01-01

338

GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS: A NORTH\\/SOUTH PERSPECTIVE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs) is considered a controversial issue. On the one hand GMPs seem to promise a way to increase planetary food production, while on the other it seems to open Pandora's box with no hope to erase the impact of un-controlled GMP spread. Those who advocate Research & Demonstration (R&D) of GMPs argue that these

Berndt H. Brikell

339

Opinion building on a socio-scientific issue: the case of genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school answered questionnaires, in which they expressed

M. argareta Ekborg

2008-01-01

340

Consumer benefits of labels and bans on genetically modified food - An empirical analysis using Choice Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying an experiment on the choice of consumer goods, we show that Swedish consumers do not regard genetically modified (GM) food as being equivalent to conventional food. A central argument by proponents of GM is that the end products are identical to those where GM has not been used. That respondents in our survey disagree with this argument is supported

Fredrik Carlsson; Peter Frykblom; Carl Johan Lagerkvist

2004-01-01

341

Are perceptions of ‘risks’ and ‘benefits’ of genetically modified food (in)dependent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research has revealed evidence of European Union (EU) citizens’ sceptical attitudes towards genetically modified food, there has been a limited focus on how individuals learn about the risks and benefits of GM food, along with the influence of information sources on the formation of both risk and benefits perceptions. Following a rational learning model, we examine the determinants

Elias Mossialos

2007-01-01

342

An integrated research framework to understand consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Given that the increased marketing of genetically modified (GM) food products and the attitudes of the public have a strong impact on the progress of this emerging gene technology, this study aims to shed light on the antecedents relating to the extent of both the adoption and the purchase intention of GM foods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This work is

Mei-Fang Chen

2008-01-01

343

WHO ARE PROPONENTS AND OPPONENTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN THE UNITED STATES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national telephone survey was conducted in the U.S. in April 2002 to assess the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes towards GM foods were studied through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) method, analyzing the interrelationships among many variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes. Four

Pierre Ganiere; Wen S. Chern; David E. Hahn

2004-01-01

344

Trust in Authorities Monitoring the Distribution of Genetically Modified Foods: Dimensionality, Measurement Issues, and Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a combined internet and mail survey in Germany the independence of indicators of trust in public authorities from indicators of attitudes toward genetically modified food is tested. Despite evidence of a link between trust indicators on the one hand and evaluation of benefits and perceived likelihoods of risks, correlation with other factors is found to be moderate on

Andreas Bocker; Giuseppe Nocella

2005-01-01

345

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY: WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology is often viewed as the defining technology for the future of food and agriculture with the potential to deliver a wide range of economic and health benefits. Public acceptance of genetically modified food products is a critical factor for this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study examines public acceptance of food biotechnology by modeling consumers?'

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin M. Onyango; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Brian J. Schilling; William K. Hallman

2002-01-01

346

Labelling genetically modified food products: consumers’ concern in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAn online survey method was used to collect data regarding the concern and attitude of UK consumers towards genetically modified (GM) food labelling. Questionnaires were sent to 9000 participants of the online panel via emails, and 2568 consumers completed the online survey. The response rate was 29%. This study found that more than 75% of the consumers questioned were concerned

Arbindra Rimal; Wanki Moon; Siva Balasubramanian

2007-01-01

347

The Marketing Battle Over Genetically Modified Foods: Consumer Acceptance of Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the biotechnology battlefield, proponents try to sell the benefits of genetically modified foods, and opponents try to sell the risks. Yet for both camps, oversimplified assumptions about consumers have lead to counter productive strategies and tactics. For instance, proponents assume the biotechnology issue will \\

Brian Wansink; Junyong Kim

348

Perception of University Lecturers Towards Consumption of Genetically Modifi ed Foods in Nigeria and Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A comparison of university lecturers' perception towards consumption of genetically modifi ed foods in Nigeria and Botswana was conducted in 2007. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 lecturers out of 685 from fi ve faculties of agriculture in south western Nigeria and 47 from 67 in Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA). Data were collected through structured

Oladimeji Idowu OLADELE; Stephen Kayode SUBAIR

349

An introduction to the Farm-Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Several genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have cleared most of the regulatory hurdles required for commercial growing in the United Kingdom. However, concerns have been expressed that their management will have negative impacts on farmland biodiversity as a result of improved control given by the new herbicide regimes of the arable plants that support farmland birds and other

L. G. Firbank; M. S. Heard; I. P. Woiwod; C. Hawes; A. J. Haughton; G. T. Champion; R. J. Scott; M. O. Hill; A. M. Dewar; G. R. Squire; M. J. May; D. R. Brooks; D. A. Bohan; R. E. Daniels; J. L. Osborne; D. B. Roy; H. I. J. Black; P. Rothery; J. N. Perry

2003-01-01

350

Environmental Risk and the Precautionary Principle: “Late Lessons from Early Warnings” Applied to Genetically Modified Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risk associated with genetically modified organisms (GMO) implies that new approaches to risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are needed. In this paper we discuss the role of the precautionary principle in policy responses to GMO risk. We first discuss application of the criteria in the European Environment Agency report “Late lessons from early warnings: The precautionary

Iulie Aslaksen; Bent Natvig; Inger Nordal

2006-01-01

351

An Evaluation of the Behavioural Impact of Proposed Genetically Modified Labelling Provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian and New Zealand governments are in the process of regulating a mandatory labelling system for foods that are (or contain) genetically modified organisms (GM). A vocal perspective has placed pressure on authorities to provide for the concerns about GM food and in response the Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) was due to report to the Australian and New

Terry Macpherson; Wayne Binney; Zane Kearns

2000-01-01

352

Unplanned Exposure to Genetically Modified OrganismsDivergent Responses in the Global South  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the divergent political responses to unplanned exposure to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Global South. Although scientific and domestic political considerations have some relevance to explaining different positions among developing countries, trade considerations appear to be a principal driver of GMO policy. This consideration is strikingly clear when we compare the different responses to unplanned GMO

Jennifer Clapp

2006-01-01

353

What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there

Iain F. H. Purchase

2005-01-01

354

Public Policy and Endogenous Beliefs: The Case of Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

When individuals have limited information and are uncertain about the quality of a good, government policy, or the lack thereof, can serve as a signal to consumers about the likelihood of realizing alternatives states of nature. In this paper, we focus on a controversial beliefs about government intervention: the market for genetically modified food. Data from a mail survey were

Jayson L. Lusk; Anne Rozan

2008-01-01

355

Effect of Ionizing Radiation on the Quantification of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid spread of Genetically Modified (GM) crops globally and the mandatory labeling of GM food and feed imposed by many countries has led to the development of relevant detection techniques. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – based methods are presently the most effective and reliable for GM detection even in processed food products. This study evaluated the effect of electron

Anthimia M. Batrinou; Dora Koraki; Vassilia J. Sinanoglou; Amalia D. Karagouni; Kostas Sflomos; Vassiliki Pletsa

2008-01-01

356

Critical Success Factors for Firms in the Genetically Modified Foods Industry: A Managerial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of consensus that has emerged among various stakeholders as to whether or not the production and commercialisation of genetically modified foods (GMFs) should be encouraged is quite apparent and well documented in the literature. Research also suggests that where firms have opted to produce and commercialise these foods, often very disparate factors have accounted for their success. An

Clare DSouza; Ali Quazi; Robert Rugimbana; P. W. Senarath Yapa; Marthin Nanere

2007-01-01

357

Labeling genetically modified food in India: Economic consequences in four marketing channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, India proposed a draft rule requiring the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) foods and products derived thereof. In this paper, we use primary and secondary market data to assess the economic implications of introducing such a mandatory labeling policy for GM food. We focus on four products that would likely be the first affected by such a

Sangeeta Bansal; Guillaume Gruère

2010-01-01

358

TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED  

EPA Science Inventory

Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

359

Attitudes about Genetically Modified Foods among Korean and American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, South Korea mandated labeling of foods con- taining genetically modified (GM) ingredients. The issue of labeling in the United States remains largely contentious due to uncertainty regarding consumer response to GM food content information. It is possible that information provided through labeling and recent negative press in Korea may have reduced acceptance of GM foods among Korean consumers.

Michael S. Finke; Heaseon Kim

360

Trust in sources of information about genetically modified food risks in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of trust have been identified as an important element in the risk communication process. This research is concerned with establishing the degree of trust the general public has in various possible sources of information about the health effects associated with consuming genetically modified food. Participants were asked directly about the degree to which they would trust information about the

Stephen Hunt; Lynn J. Frewer

2001-01-01

361

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

362

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

363

The consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified foods in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the factors that have influences upon benefit and risk perceptions of applying gene technology to food production, perceptions that may in turn determine the consumer’s attitude toward genetically modified (GM) foods in Taiwan. Results of structural equation modeling analysis give evidence that general attitude toward and trust in institutes and scientists performing gene manipulation have positive

Mei-Fang Chen; Hsiao-Lan Li

2007-01-01

364

Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how consumers could potentially react to the introduction of genetically modified food. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data, however, to date limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implications for policy. This paper contributes to the literature by

José M. Gil; W. Bruce Traill

2008-01-01

365

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

366

The use of non-hypothetical experimental markets for measuring the acceptance of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings from a study measuring consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods are presented. The empirical data were collected in an experimental market, an approach used extensively in experimental economics for measuring the monetary value of goods. The approach has several advantages over standard approaches used in sensory and marketing research (e.g., surveys and focus groups) because of its

Sara R. Jaeger; Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2004-01-01

367

CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

368

Potential market segments for genetically modified food: Results from cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial success of genetically modified (GM) food may be improved with appropriately targeted marketing. To that end, data from a survey of supermarket shoppers in New Zealand were analysed with a cluster analysis. A six-cluster solution found three clusters with positive intentions to purchase GM apples and three clusters with negative intentions. Positive intentions appeared to result from either

William Kaye-Blake; Anna OConnell; Charles Lamb

2007-01-01

369

ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

370

Trust in governance and the acceptance of genetically modified food in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assumes that trust is a major issue in the interaction between government, citizens and societal organizations. The central question in this paper relates to the specific determinants of public trust. A survey study is reported (n = 1019) which focuses on the role of trust in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Our expectation was that three

Jan Gutteling; Lucien Hanssen; Veer van der Neil; Erwin Seydel

2006-01-01

371

Affective Influences on Risk Perceptions of, and Attitudes Toward, Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about risk perceptions and public understanding of genetically modified (GM) food, yet little if any of the academic writings on this topic take into account the role of feelings or affect in these processes. Here, the available literature on the topic of GM food is explored in order to highlight findings consistent with the notion that

Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

372

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher

Theodoros H. Varzakas; G. Chryssochoidis; D. Argyropoulos

2007-01-01

373

Consumer acceptability of genetically modified foods with special reference to farmed salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM) farmed salmon as a focus for the research. The results identified a small group of “triers” - willing to try any GM food product, and a small group of “refusers” - rejecting the technology and derivative

Sharron Kuznesof; Christopher Ritson

1996-01-01

374

International sources of environmental policy change in China: the case of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's agricultural biotechnology policy has undergone a profound transformation over the last decade, from a strongly promotional to a more precautionary approach. From the 1980s onwards, China invested heavily in biotechnology development and in the early 1990s emerged as the leading biotech country in the developing world. In the late 1990s, however, it halted the authorization of new genetically modified

Robert Falkner

2006-01-01

375

Comparison of Consumer Responses to Genetically Modified Foods in Asia, North America, and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward genetically modified (GM) food products are complex and differ across cultures. This study uses consumer survey data to compare consumer attitudes towards GM food across Canada, China, Japan, Norway, and the United States. The comparisons are based on the significance of covariates included in country-wise estimations of willingness to pay for GM foods. The Canadian respondents were

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Thomas I. Wahl

376

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

377

KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

378

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

379

A Continuum of Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national telephone survey was conducted in the United States in April 2002 to study the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes toward GM foods were examined through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), analyzing the interrelationships among many categorical variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes.

Pierre Ganiere; Wen S. Chern; David E. Hahn

2006-01-01

380

Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

2014-01-01

381

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review

R. P. Freckleton; P. A. Stephens; W. J. Sutherland; A. R. Watkinson

2004-01-01

382

Ethical, legal and social issues of genetically modifying insect vectors for public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified (GM) insects for control of human disease can be consistent with common ethical norms of international society to reduce human suffering. This paper considers a range of ethical issues including animal rights, informed consent, community consensus and environmental viewpoints. Each community needs to decide its own priorities for methodology of disease policy guidance for ethical

Darryl Macera

2005-01-01

383

SURVEY EVIDENCE ON PRODUCER USE AND COSTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEED  

Microsoft Academic Search

National survey data collected for 1997 in USDA's Agricultural Resource Management Study was used to derive implications and pose hypotheses about the impact on pesticide use, production practices, and producer costs of using genetically modified (GM) seed in soybean and cotton production. Results of the analysis suggest concurrence with scientific and industry claims about the environmental qualities of these technologies.

William D. McBride; Nora Books

2000-01-01

384

Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of

Shangxin Song; Guanghong Zhou; Feng Gao; Wei Zhang; Liangyan Qiu; Sifa Dai; Xinglian Xu; Hongmei Xiao

2011-01-01

385

Mapping social and environmental concerns and the acceptability of genetically modified organisms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous conflicting attitudes towards an object make both predicting and explaining behaviour a complex endeavour. This paper explores the hypothesis of social ambivalence (so called as well or approach-avoidance conflict) as a phenomenon influencing attitudes towards the environmental effects of the introduction of GMOs (Genetic Modified Organisms). If social ambivalence exists it would be suggestive of an interplay between rational

2011-01-01

386

A BIOMETRICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ESTIMATING RISK ASSESSMENTS ON RELEASING GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the architecture of a DSS, for the estimation of risk assessment of release of genetically modified organisms in the environment, is described. Details of the modules of the system and the methodology to be applied, for its efficient use in designing experiments and providing the appropriate information to decision makers and researchers, are also given. Sensitive legal

C. J. Gliddon; D. A. M. K. Rasch; K. Schmidt; G. A. M. Schütte; A. B. Sideridis; C. P. Yialouris

387

Defining a safe genetically modified organism: Boundaries of scientific risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) crops continues despite persisting uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. Canada is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of GM crops. Regulators have claimed that existing federal policies for assessing environmental hazards are ‘science-based’ and sufficiently precautionary. We challenge this by examining the scientific data used to approve one variety of GM

Katherine Barrett; Elisabeth Abergel

2002-01-01

388

Genetically modified crops in the European Union: regulatory conflicts as precautionary opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first genetically modified crops and foods to be approved for commercial use in the European Union have prompted intense controversy. Food retailers and processors have been forced to take up the concerns voiced by their customers. New networks of groups have formed to oppose the technology. In response to these pressures, regulators who approved the products have had to

Les Levidow; Susan Carr; David Wield

2000-01-01

389

www.newphytologist.org 1 Genetically modified (GM) rice with enhanced agronomic traits and pharmaceutical  

E-print Network

www.newphytologist.org 1 Research Summary · Genetically modified (GM) rice with enhanced agronomic requirements for achieving stringent transgene confinement in rice. To investigate the extent of pollen GM and nonGM rice (Oryza sativa) in China. · Three insect-resistant GM rice (Bt/CpTI) and non

Snow, Allison A.

390

Effects of genetically modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has been a topic of considerable public debate in recent years. GMPs hold great promise for improving agricultural output, but the potential for unwanted effects of GMP use is still not fully understood. The majority of studies addressing potential risks of GMP cultivation have addressed only aboveground effects. However, recent methodological

M. Bruinsma; G. A. Kowalchuk; J. A. van Veen

2003-01-01

391

Application of vector optimization employing modified genetic algorithm to permanent magnet motor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to solve the vector optimization problem that determines both the noninferior solution set and the best compromise solution employing a modified genetic algorithm. The algorithm differs from the conventional one in the definition of fitness value and convergence criterion. Some parameters of the algorithm are adjusted to the vector optimization. The algorithm also contains the

Dong-Joon Sim; Hyun-Kyo Jung; Song-Yop Hahn; Jong-Soo Won

1997-01-01

392

Sharpened cochlear tuning in a mouse with a genetically modified tectorial membrane  

E-print Network

Sharpened cochlear tuning in a mouse with a genetically modified tectorial membrane Ian J Russell membrane contains radially organized collagen fibrils that are imbedded in an unusual striated-sheet matrix the cochlea. The cochlea is the mammalian hearing organ, a sensory organ that detects sound stimuli

Allen, Jont

393

Measuring The Attitudes Of Australian Food Manufacturers Towards Genetically Modified (GM) Foods - A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) foods varies amongst countries, Europeans generally show low levels of acceptance and US consumers are seen as divided in attitudes. As acceptance is essential for the adoption of new technologies in food production and the ultimate market success of new food products, this study, unlike prior Australian research, which has focused on consumer attitudes

Frances Woodside; Gabriel Ogunmokun; Leslie R. Brown

394

A general multiplex-PCR assay for the general detection of genetically modified soya and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and\\/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for the detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with

V. T. Forte; A. Di Pinto; C. Martino; G. M. Tantillo; G. Grasso; F. P. Schena

2005-01-01

395

The dynamics of exploring future market potential of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to express a general review on how best in the present time can one market genetically modified (GM) foods in the face of the controversial arguments faced globally. Despite the importance of marketing, many organizations though they understand its worth, fail to find radical strategic solutions for the problems encountered by their

Clare D’Souza; Ali Quazi

2005-01-01

396

Laboratory Exercises A Simple Method for Detecting Genetically Modified Maize in Common Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially available leaf DNA extraction and amplification kit has been adapted for the detection of genetically modified material in common food products containing maize. Amplification using published primer pairs specific for the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and maize invertase genes results in a 226-bp invertase PCR product in all samples (an internal positive control) plus a 184-bp product in samples

Chris Brinegar; Darcy Levee

397

Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods with Health Benefits: A Study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in Germany in order to assess consumers' acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods with health benefits (bread, yohurt and eggs). Acceptability of GM foods increases when its source does not involve animal products such as eggs. Three factors have been identified as direct antecedents of the acceptance of GM foods: respondents' attitude towards biotechnology, health

José I. Rojas-Méndez; Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Rodrigo Claro-Riethmüller; Achim Spiller

2012-01-01

398

An Open Mind Wants More: Opinion Strength and the Desire for Genetically Modified Food Labeling Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two opposing viewpoints regarding consumers' acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods and their desire for the labeling of these foods. Some suggest consumers are unconcerned and do not desire any GM labeling while others indicate the opposite. The mixed results may be because consumers are capable of making finer distinctions than surveys have called for, and appear to

Sonja Radas; Mario Teisl

2007-01-01

399

A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods II: Graded testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this

Eunice Chao; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

400

The program for phenotyping of genetically modified animals at AstraZeneca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mice offer a wide range of possibilities in preclinical drug discovery, e.g. for use in target identification, target validation and disease model generation. However, genomic modification and alteration in gene expression may cause unpredicted phenotypic alterations in the organism other than the intended ones. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of establishing the phenotype

Anna-Lena Berg; Mohammad Bohlooly-Y

2006-01-01

401

Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM

B. L. Ma; Robert E. Blackshaw; Julie Roy; Tianpei He

2011-01-01

402

Genetically Modified Rice, Yields, and Pesticides: Assessing Farm-Level Productivity Effects in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genetically modified (GM) crops are being grown on increasing large areas in both developed and developing countries, with few minor exceptions, there has been almost no country that has commercialized a GM major food crop. One reason may be that it is unclear how the commercialization of GM crops will help poor, small farmers. The objective of this article

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Scott Rozelle; Carl Pray

2008-01-01

403

Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin in Mice by Genetically Modified Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined whether the secretion of erythropoietin (Epo) from genetically modified cells could represent an alternative to repeated injections of the recombinant hormone for treating chronic anemias responsive to Epo. Primary mouse skin fibroblasts were transduced with a retroviral vector in which the murine Epo cDNA is expressed under the control of the murine phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. \\

N. Naffakh; A. Henri; J. L. Villeval; P. Rouyer-Fessard; P. Moullier; N. Blumenfeld; O. Danos; W. Vainchenker; J. M. Heard; Y. Beuzard

1995-01-01

404

Genetically Modified Crops, Corporate Pricing Strategies, and Farmers' Adoption: The Case of Bt Cotton in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes adoption and impacts of Bt cotton in Argentina against the background of monopoly pricing. Based on survey data, it is shown that the technology significantly reduces insecticide applications and increases yields; however, these advantages are curbed by the high price charged for genetically modified seeds. Using the contingent valuation method, it is shown that farmers' average willingness

Matin Qaim; Alain de Janvry

2003-01-01

405

Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived riskof genetically modified food: an overview of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the riskof genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on riskperception as

Melissa L. Finucane; Joan L. Holup

406

Membrane based detection of genetically modified organisms in some representatives food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, DNA-based techniques became very common for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. For rapid and easy detection of GMOs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening methods, which amplify common transgenic elements, are applied in routine analysis. Incorporation of PCR and membrane method introduced in this study offer an alternative detection of GMOs. In this study, a

Yoke-Kqueen Cheah; Radu Son; Wong Vui Ling Michael Clemente

2006-01-01

407

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN FOOD - POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has implemented a set of strict procedures for the approval to utilise genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food or food ingredients. In addition, the European Union assures that the European consumer's rights for information are fully guaranteeed. Analytical methods are necessary in order to show compliance with labelling requirements that have been issued in order to be

VAN DEN EEDE; ANKLAM E

408

Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A study focusing on genetically modified (GM) foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from 31 different provinces. The study not only revealed important results about the perceptions of

Ali Demirci

2008-01-01

409

SHOULD THE UNITED STATES INITIATE A MANDATORY LABELING POLICY FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries, including those in the European Union, Japan, Australia, and China, labeling is required for foods that contain genetically modified material. Other countries, including the United States, do not require mandatory labeling of GM foods. The United States, however, does allow firms to voluntarily label their products as non-GM. This raises the question of whether a mandatory labeling

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew C. Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2002-01-01

410

Expanded genetic code technologies for incorporating modified lysine at multiple sites.  

PubMed

Protein engineering: Recent methods that enable site-specific installation of naturally occurring modified lysine at multiple sites in proteins are reviewed. Combinations of genetic-code expansion, genome engineering and protein engineering are promising for homogenous and large-scale preparations of proteins with multiple and site-specific lysine modifications that would facilitate analyses of proteins such as histones. PMID:25179816

Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Umehara, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2014-10-13

411

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

412

Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.  

PubMed

The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

2013-01-01

413

Potato processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of potato processing at the Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. plant in a recent agribusiness study of the Klamath and Western Snake River Basins in Oregon is described. The application of geothermal resources to the process and the economic analysis are included. (MHR)

Lienau

1979-01-01

414

[Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people tolerates foreign antigens. Food allergies in adults occur mainly among those allergic to pollen. PMID:10321121

Wüthrich, B

1999-04-01

415

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

416

Information Based Regulation and International Trade in Genetically Modified Agricultural Products: An Evaluation of The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Essay considers the regulation of international trade in genetically modified agricultural products. Specifically, it addresses both products released into the environment as seeds and products intended for consumption as food. The first part of the Essay describes the significance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture, especially agriculture in the United States. This discussion summarizes the risks and

Michael P. Healy

2002-01-01

417

Risk assessment of genetically modified crops. Potential of four arable crops to hybridize with the wild flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed introduction of genetically modified organisms into the environment has caused public and scientific concern. In response to this concern governments have set up biosafety regulations. In this paper a step-by-step scheme is described by which the safety of genetically modified organisms can be assessed. The first step is to determine the level of safety concern for the unmodified

A. J. A. M. Kapteijns

1992-01-01

418

GMOs ATTITUDES OF PULSE FARMERS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

Table 1: Demographics of respondents to survey of farmers about genetically A survey of pulse farmers in Western modified crops. Australia in April 1999 found high levels of awareness of and interest in genetic engineering. Farmers’ willingness to use or consume a range of crops genetically modified for onfarm production or input benefits (such as pest and herbicide resistance) was generally high. Acceptability of a range of other potential products specifying cross-species or crosskingdom gene transfer was less. Labelling of GM foods was rated as important. Concern over a number of GM issues was highest with regard to the corporate ownership and marketing of the technology, and the This survey of pulse (grain legume) Materials and Methods potential lack of demand for GM farmers in Western Australia was produce. Farmers also noted concern One thousand surveys were sent to conducted to: i) gauge farmer about a range of environmental and pulse farmers in Western Australia in understanding and perceptions of human health and safety issues. We genetic engineering; ii) assess farmer April, 1999. Farmers were randomly conclude that pulse farmers in attitudes to genetically modified crops selected by including one survey in Western Australia are highly aware of and their acceptance of the each fourth copy of the Grain Pool of and generally (but not entirely) technology; iii) investigate where Western Australia’s Legume Logic accepting of GMOs in agriculture. farmers get information about genetic newsletter. As the authors did not have Attitudes are most positive where a engineering; iv) raise farmers’ access to the list of recipients, no direct benefit to farm production is awareness about the issues follow-up requests were issued. A total indicated. Nonetheless significant surrounding the genetic engineering concerns over socio-economic, of 193 (19.3%) responses were received. debate; and, v) give farmers an environmental and human health Responses were analysed using Excel opportunity to voice opinions and issues are present. and Stata software packages. concerns. Responses to questions in the sections

D. J. Mcdougall; N. E. Longnecker; S. P. Marsh; F. P. Smith

419

Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods. Results of a qualitative study in four countries.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to gain insight into consumers> attitudes towards genetic modification in food production. With means-end chain theory as the theoretical basis, laddering interviews were conducted with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Perceived risks and benefits of genetic modification in foods were investigated using beer and yoghurt as examples. German and Danish responses revealed more complex cognitive structures than did the results from the United Kingdom and Italy. In all four countries, however, applying genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting products, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well, as were a number of other consequences that were perceived to conflict with both individual and social values. PMID:10625527

Bredahl, L

1999-12-01

420

The Search for Genetic Modifiers of Disease Severity in the ?-Hemoglobinopathies  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease (SCD) and ?-thalassemia, two monogenic diseases caused by mutations in the ?-globin gene, affect millions of individuals worldwide. These hemoglobin disorders are characterized by extreme clinical heterogeneity, complicating patient management and treatment. A better understanding of this patient-to-patient clinical variability would dramatically improve care and might also guide the development of novel therapies. Studies of the natural history of these ?-hemoglobinopathies have identified fetal hemoglobin levels and concomitant ?-thalassemia as important modifiers of disease severity. Several small-scale studies have attempted to identify additional genetic modifiers of SCD and ?-thalassemia, without much success. Fortunately, improved knowledge of the human genome and the development of new genomic tools, such as genome-wide genotyping arrays and next-generation DNA sequencers, offer new opportunities to use genetics to better understand the causes of the many complications observed in ?-hemoglobinopathy patients. Here I discuss the most important factors to consider when planning an experiment to find associations between ?-hemoglobinopathy-related complications and DNA sequence variants, with a focus on how to successfully perform a genome-wide association study. I also review the literature and explain why most published findings in the field of SCD modifier genetics are likely to be false-positive reports, with the goal to draw lessons allowing investigators to design better genetic experiments. PMID:23028136

Lettre, Guillaume

2012-01-01

421

Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

422

Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.  

PubMed

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

423

Genetic Modifiers Predisposing to Congenital Heart Disease in the Sensitized Down Syndrome Population  

PubMed Central

Background About half of people with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit some form of congenital heart disease (CHD). However, trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) alone is insufficient to cause CHD as half of all people with DS have a normal heart, suggesting that genetic modifiers interact with dosage sensitive gene(s) on Hsa21 to result in CHD. We hypothesize that a threshold exists in both Down syndrome and euploid populations for the number of genetic perturbations that can be tolerated before CHD results. Methods and Results We ascertained a group of individuals with DS and complete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) and sequenced two candidate genes for CHD, CRELD1, which is associated with AVSD in people with or without DS, and HEY2, whose mouse ortholog produces septal defects when mutated. Several deleterious variants were identified but the frequency of these potential modifiers was low. We crossed mice with mutant forms of these potential modifiers to the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. Crossing loss-of-function alleles of either Creld1 or Hey2 onto the trisomic background caused a significant increase in the frequency of CHD, demonstrating an interaction between the modifiers and trisomic genes. We showed further that although either of these mutant modifiers is benign by itself, they interact to affect heart development when inherited together. Conclusions Using mouse models of Down syndrome and of genes associated with congenital heart disease we demonstrate a biological basis for an interaction that supports a threshold hypothesis for additive effects of genetic modifiers in the sensitized trisomic population. PMID:22523272

Li, Huiqing; Cherry, Sheila; Klinedinst, Donna; DeLeon, Valerie; Redig, Jennifer; Reshey, Benjamin; Chin, Michael T.; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Reeves, Roger H.

2012-01-01

424

Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrp(rd6) identified by quantitative trait locus analysis.  

PubMed

The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrp(rd6)/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrp(rd6) retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrp(rd6)-associated photoreceptor loss. PMID:24200520

Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R; Philip, Vivek M; Stearns, Timothy M; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K; Krebs, Mark P; Nishina, Patsy M

2014-01-01

425

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

426

Genetic modifiers of chromatin acetylation antagonize the reprogramming of epi-polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Natural populations are known to differ not only in DNA but also in their chromatin-associated epigenetic marks. When such inter-individual epigenomic differences (or "epi-polymorphisms") are observed, their stability is usually not known: they may or may not be reprogrammed over time or upon environmental changes. In addition, their origin may be purely epigenetic, or they may result from regulatory variation encoded in the DNA. Studying epi-polymorphisms requires, therefore, an assessment of their nature and stability. Here we estimate the stability of yeast epi-polymorphisms of chromatin acetylation, and we provide a genome-by-epigenome map of their genetic control. A transient epi-drug treatment was able to reprogram acetylation variation at more than one thousand nucleosomes, whereas a similar amount of variation persisted, distinguishing "labile" from "persistent" epi-polymorphisms. Hundreds of genetic loci underlied acetylation variation at 2,418 nucleosomes either locally (in cis) or distantly (in trans), and this genetic control overlapped only partially with the genetic control of gene expression. Trans-acting regulators were not necessarily associated with genes coding for chromatin modifying enzymes. Strikingly, "labile" and "persistent" epi-polymorphisms were associated with poor and strong genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results estimate the amount of natural epigenomic variation that can be lost after transient environmental exposures, and they reveal the complex genetic architecture of the DNA-encoded determinism of chromatin epi-polymorphisms. Our observations provide a basis for the development of population epigenetics. PMID:23028365

Abraham, Anne-Laure; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Bottin, Hélène; Steinmetz, Lars M; Yvert, Gaël

2012-09-01

427

75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document corrects two Code of Federal Regulation citations in...

2010-01-11

428

Applications of Genetically Modified Tools to Safety Assessment in Drug Development  

PubMed Central

The process of new drug development consists of several stages; after identifying potential candidate compounds, preclinical studies using animal models link the laboratory and human clinical trials. Among many steps in preclinical studies, toxicology and safety assessments contribute to identify potential adverse events and provide rationale for setting the initial doses in clinical trials. Gene modulation is one of the important tools of modern biology, and is commonly employed to examine the function of genes of interest. Advances in new drug development have been achieved by exploding information on target selection and validation using genetically modified animal models as well as those of cells. In this review, a recent trend of genetically modified methods is discussed with reference to safety assessments, and the exemplary applications of gene-modulating tools to the tests in new drug development were summarized. PMID:24278499

Kay, Hee Yeon; Wu, Hongmin; Lee, Seo In

2010-01-01

429

Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European community.  

PubMed

This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both pharmaceutical and GMO regulations. In the early stages of the process, before applications for marketing authorisation are submitted, the assessment of clinical trials and experiments in contained areas is principally the responsibility of national authorities. However, the marketing of all VMPs containing or consisting of GMOs must be authorised at European level, although the national authorities are informed and involved in the assessment process. PMID:16110880

Moulin, G

2005-04-01

430

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

431

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.  

PubMed

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-11-01

432

EFFECTS OF PLANTS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOR INSECT RESISTANCE ON NONTARGET ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Insect resistance, based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins, is the second most widely used trait (after herbicide resistance) in commercial,genetically modified (GM) crops. Other modifications for insect resistance, such as proteinase in- hibitors and lectins, are also being used in many experimental crops. The extensive testing on nontarget plant-feeding insects and beneficial species that has accompanied the long-term

Maureen O'Callaghan; Travis R. Glare; Elisabeth P. J. Burgess; Louise A. Malone

2005-01-01

433

Report of the Questionnaire Survey for Consumers' Recognition to Genetically Modified Food in Beijing, China 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Based on the questionnaire surveys to 1000 consumers from 12 supermarkets in Beijing, China, 2004, this paper revealed consumers' attitudes on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM foods. The results show that 64.9% interviewees are not acquaintance to GMOs and GM products, while only 2.3% of respondents have a good understanding. With respect to GMOs labeling, 45.3% of interviewees

Dayuan XUE; Yuqing WANG

434

Kinetics of cell death in T lymphocytes genetically modified with two novel suicide fusion genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation are known to mediate graft-versus-leukemia effect (GVL). A major side effect of these immunotherapies is the development of graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD). One promising approach to prevent GVHD is to genetically modify donor T cells with a suicide mechanism that can be induced in the case of GVHD. Here we report on

K Junker; U Koehl; S Zimmerman; S Stein; D Schwabe; T Klingebiel; M Grez

2003-01-01

435

Effects of information from sources in conflict and in consensus on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a questionnaire based experimental design (n=159) people’s perceptions of the risk messages and the sources were compared when risk messages were attributed to combinations of expert sources in consensus or in conflict with a government agency message. Changes in perceptions of risks and benefits associated with genetically modified (GM) food were also assessed in the different conditions.Results showed that

Moira Dean; Richard Shepherd

2007-01-01

436

An Econometric Evaluation of Producers’ Preferences for Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Modified Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses multivariate statistical procedures to assess producers’ preferences for mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) products. The analysis is based on a sample of 1,887 farm producers in ten Southern states of the U.S. who claimed to be “somewhat knowledgeable†about biotechnology. A logistic regression model was employed to isolate characteristics of producers assumed to influence their perceptions

Duncan M. Chembezi; Elicia L. Chaverest; Gerald Wheelock; Govind C. Sharma; Ellene Kebede; Fisseha Tegegne

2008-01-01

437

International Approval and Labeling Regulations of Genetically Modified Food in Major Trading Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the approval and labeling regulations covering genetically modified (GM) foods in the United States, the European\\u000a Union (EU), Japan, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. We divide these countries into three groups according to their regulatory\\u000a approach. At one extreme, the United States and Canada use pragmatic and science-based regulations, and at the other extreme\\u000a the EU uses stringent

Colin A. Carter; Guillaume P. Gruère

438

Concepts for General Surveillance of Genetically Modified (GM) Plants: The EFSA position  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is requested to assess the scientific quality of Post Market Environmental Monitoring\\u000a (PMEM) plans submitted with each application for deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) plants according to part\\u000a C of EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC and according to EU Regulation 1829\\/2003. PMEM aims at identifying unanticipated adverse effects\\u000a on human health or the environment which

D. Bartsch; F. Bigler; P. Castanera; A. Gathmann; M. Gielkens; S. Hartley; K. Lheureux; S. Renckens; J. Schiemann; J. Sweet; R. Wilhelm

2006-01-01

439

Cultivation of genetically modified organisms: resource needs for monitoring adverse effects on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in non-European countries are introduced into the agro-environment on large scale with\\u000a little knowledge of adverse effects on biodiversity. In the European Union (EU) possible effects of GMOs on biodiversity have\\u000a to be accurately and precisely monitored. Monitoring biodiversity with a high precision is expensive and may only be achieved\\u000a in close cooperation between GMO monitoring

Dirk S. Schmeller; Klaus Henle

2008-01-01

440

Statistical Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Protocols Applied to Quantify Genetically Modified Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) is the technique of choice for event-specific quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)\\u000a by determining the amount of event with respect to a species-specific reference gene. Reference genes can be amplified from\\u000a the genome extracted from Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) or from ad hoc designed plasmids. In the present study, we\\u000a statistically evaluate the performance of RTi-PCR

Silvia Folloni; Gianni Bellocchi; Adelina Prospero; Maddalena Querci; William Moens; Monica Ermolli; Guy Van den Eede

2010-01-01

441

The reporting of the risks from genetically modified organisms in the mass media, 2002-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analysis of coverage of the risks from agricultural and food genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)\\u000a from April 2002 to April 2004 in 14 news media from six countries (Canada, France, Germany, Spain, the UK and the USA) which\\u000a was conducted as part of a review for the European Commission of the management of risk communication. A total of

Grant Lewison

2007-01-01

442

Many Minds, Common Sense and Genetically Modified Food: A Role for Q Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 15 years, genetically modified (GM) food has gradually reached around the globe. Yet, each new development occasions\\u000a controversy, and hence, leads to interest in strategies to engage people in searching for durable public bargains. Even-handed\\u000a treatment of diverse views is crucial to good engagement processes, as is the avoidance of processes that merely reinforce\\u000a fixed views. Ideally, views develop as

Amanda Wolf

2010-01-01

443

Presence of Unintended Agrobacterium tumefaciens Cloning Vector Sequences in Genetically Modified Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium transformation was used in the production of genetically modified plants from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). After inoculation stop with the antibiotic timentin, a subsequent one-week treatment eliminated the vector bacterium from\\u000a the oilseed rape plate explant cultures. From the tobacco, however, we recorded vector-derived signals one week after potting\\u000a the regenerants in the greenhouse and

Katarina Björklöf; Michael Färdig; Kirsten S. Jørgensen

2006-01-01

444

Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pre-treated corn meal were

Sergej Jerman; Aleš Podgornik; Katarina Cankar; Neža ?adež; Mihaela Skrt; Jana Žel; Peter Raspor

2005-01-01

445

Consumer beliefs and attitude towards genetically modified food: Basis for segmentation and implications for communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a consumer survey comprising 400 face-to-face interviews with Flemish consumers (Belgium), which was conducted in the summer of 2000, reveal four consumer segments based on beliefs and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) food, namely: the Halfhearted, the Green Opponents, the Balancers, and the Enthusiasts. While 23.5% of the respondents have positive attitudes (the Enthusiasts) towards GM food, 15.5%

Annelies Verdurme; Jacques Viaene

2003-01-01

446

Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Food: Relevance of Gene Transfer Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines consumer's willingness to consume different types of a nutritionally enhanced food product (i.e., breakfast cereal with calcium, omega fatty acids, or anti-oxidants) derived from grains genetically modified using two types of technologies: plant-to-plant gene transfer technology and animal-to plant gene transfer technology. Findings indicate a majority of the respondents are willing or somewhat willing to consume the

Benjamin M. Onyango; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.

2004-01-01

447

Awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy genetically modified foods in Urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern about the extent to which consumers will accept genetically modified (GM) foods if they are commercialized in China. The evidence from the existing literature is mixed and sometimes confusing. The objective of this study is to conduct a large in-depth face-to-face in-house survey that examines the consumers' awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy GM foods in

Jikun Huang; Huanguang Qiu; Junfei Bai; Carl Pray

2006-01-01

448

Consumer’s Resistance to Genetically Modified Foods: The Role of Information in an Uncertain Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) foods have been engulfed in considerable controversy, and the early optimism has been dampened. Information issues—labeling and asymmetric information—are central to the GM-food debate. Furthermore, it is important to understand the reaction in developed countries to GM-foods because they set the tone of the world market in grains, oilseeds, and animal products. New results are reported from

Wallace E. Huffman; Matthew Rousu; Jason F. Shogren; Abebayehu Tegene

2004-01-01

449

Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki

2010-01-01

450

Nitroreductase-mediated Gonadal Dysgenesis for Infertility Control of Genetically Modified Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) fish with desirable features such as rapid growth, disease resistance, and cold tolerance, among\\u000a other traits, have been established in aquaculture. However, commercially available GM fish are restricted because of global\\u000a concerns over the incomplete assessments of food safety and ecological impact. The ecological impact concerns include gene\\u000a flow and escape of the GM fish, which may

Shao-Yang Hu; Pei-Yu Lin; Chia-Hsuan Liao; Hong-Yi Gong; Gen-Hwa Lin; Koichi Kawakami; Jen-Leih Wu

2010-01-01

451

Regionalisation of flora elements in field boundaries sensitive to hybridisation with genetically modified oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  \\u000a Background, aim, and scope Gene flow via pollen dispersal to neighbouring non-genetically modified (GM) and organic fields or to biotopes containing\\u000a the same crop species and\\/or their wild relatives are among the most debated potential environmental risks of GM crops. These\\u000a crosses permit ingression of GM traits and may produce viable progeny. Current GM crop monitoring plans and concepts

A. Wurbs; M. Glemnitz; F. Graef; B. Funke; S. Ehlert

2010-01-01

452

Risk indication of genetically modified organisms (GMO): Modelling environmental exposure and dispersal across different scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indication is the most relevant way to approximate the implications of cause–effect networks which go beyond spatio-temporal extents of direct experimental accessibility. Risk analysis and risk management of genetically modified plants are an application field where indication of potential effects on the landscape and regional scale is required. Long-term implications of commercial use can be assessed only to a

Broder Breckling; Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Michael Glemnitz; Angelika Wurbs; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Wilhelm Windhorst

2011-01-01

453

Lack of transparency on environmental risks of genetically modified micro-organisms in industrial biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the sustainable development of technological innovations the involvement of non-specialist stakeholders is crucial, which requires transparency of the knowledge base of the risks and benefits concerned. This paper evaluates the basic assumptions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the environmental risks of genetically modified micro-organisms, in industrial biotechnology under Good Industrial Large-scale Practice. A clear factual

W. L. M. Tamis; A. van Dommelen; G. R. de Snoo

2009-01-01

454

Unraveling Genetic Modifiers in the Gria4 Mouse Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy (AE) is a common type of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), particularly in children. AE and GGE are complex genetic diseases with few causal variants identified to date. Gria4 deficient mice provide a model of AE, one for which the common laboratory inbred strain C3H/HeJ (HeJ) harbors a natural IAP retrotransposon insertion in Gria4 that reduces its expression 8-fold. Between C3H and non-seizing strains such as C57BL/6, genetic modifiers alter disease severity. Even C3H substrains have surprising variation in the duration and incidence of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the characteristic electroencephalographic feature of absence seizures. Here we discovered extensive IAP retrotransposition in the C3H substrain, and identified a HeJ-private IAP in the Pcnxl2 gene, which encodes a putative multi-transmembrane protein of unknown function, resulting in decreased expression. By creating new Pcnxl2 frameshift alleles using TALEN mutagenesis, we show that Pcnxl2 deficiency is responsible for mitigating the seizure phenotype – making Pcnxl2 the first known modifier gene for absence seizures in any species. This finding gave us a handle on genetic complexity between strains, directing us to use another C3H substrain to map additional modifiers including validation of a Chr 15 locus that profoundly affects the severity of SWD episodes. Together these new findings expand our knowledge of how natural variation modulates seizures, and highlights the feasibility of characterizing and validating modifiers in mouse strains and substrains in the post-genome sequence era. PMID:25010494

Frankel, Wayne N.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; McGarr, Tracy C.; Beyer, Barbara J.; Letts, Verity A.

2014-01-01

455

The release of genetically modified grasses. Part 1: pollen dispersal to traps in Lolium perenne  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a series of experiments on determining the risk of introducing genetically modified wind-pollinated forage grasses\\u000a an experiment on pollen dispersal was conducted and the use of theoretical descriptions to predict dispersal in model systems\\u000a investigated. Pollen traps were placed around a central source of Lolium perenne. Traps were exposed with their sticky surfaces towards and away from

G. D. Giddings; N. R. Sackville Hamilton; M. D. Hayward

1997-01-01

456

General surveillance of genetically modified plants in the EC and the need for controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post market environmental monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) after their deliberate release is a legal obligation in the European Union (Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC and EC-Regulation 1829\\/2003). It has been introduced in order to identify direct or indirect, immediate and\\/or delayed adverse effects of GMOs after their release on the market. The monitoring of environmental effects is subdivided in two parts:

Tom J. de Jong

2010-01-01

457

A conceptual framework for the design of environmentalpost-market monitoring of genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) may soon be cultivated commercially in several member countries of the European Union (EU). According to EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC, post-market monitoring (PMM) for commercial GMP cultivation must be implemented, in order to detect and prevent adverse effects on human health and the environment. However, no general PMM strategies for GMP cultivation have been established so far.

Olivier Sanvido; Franco Widmer; Michael Winzeler; Franz Bigler

2005-01-01

458

A Microarray-based Detection System for Genetically Modified (GM) Food Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex DNA microarray chip was developed for simultaneous identification of nine genetically modified organisms (GMOs),\\u000a five plant species and three GMO screening elements, i.e. the 35S promoter, the nos terminator and the nptII gene. The chips also include several controls, such as that for the possible presence of CaMV. The on-chip detection was\\u000a performed directly with PCR amplified products.

Serge Leimanis; Marta Hernández; Sophie Fernández; Francine Boyer; Malcolm Burns; Shirin Bruderer; Thomas Glouden; Neil Harris; Othmar Kaeppeli; Patrick Philipp; Maria Pla; Pere Puigdomènech; Marc Vaitilingom; Yves Bertheau; José Remacle

2006-01-01

459

Enhanced ethanol fermentation of brewery wastewater using the genetically modified strain E. coli KO11  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used liquid waste obtained from a beer brewery process to produce ethanol. To increase the productivity, genetically\\u000a modified organism, Escherichia\\u000a coli KO11, was used for ethanol fermentation. Yeast was also used to produce ethanol from the same feed stock, and the ethanol\\u000a production rates and resulting concentrations of sugars and ethanol were compared with those of KO11. In

Kripa Rao; Vaibhav Chaudhari; Sasidhar Varanasi; Dong-Shik Kim

2007-01-01

460

Utilization of genetically modified soybean meal in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of genetically modified soybean meal (GM SBM) was compared with that of non-GM SBM in Nile tilapia. Four experimental\\u000a diets were formulated to include either non-GM or GM SBM at 34 or 48%, respectively. These diets were fed to juvenile Nile\\u000a tilapia (49.5 g average weight) for 12 weeks. The uptake of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter fragment of

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Masato Endo; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki

2009-01-01

461

Availability of genetically modified feed ingredient: investigations of ingested foreign DNA in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign DNA fragments from genetically modified defatted soybean meal (GM SEM) in rainbow trout was traced by nested polymerase\\u000a chain reaction (PCR) and located by in situ hybridization. Either a GM or non-GM SBM formulated diet (42% protein) was fed to fish (average weight 50.5 g) for 2 weeks.\\u000a The degradation results showed that the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter

Pitchaya Chainark; Shuichi Satoh; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki; Makoto Endo

2008-01-01

462

Quantitative competitive PCR for the detection of genetically modified soybean and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surveillance of food labelling concerning genetically modified organisms (GMOs) requires DNA-based analytical techniques.\\u000a Present assay systems allow the detection of GMO in food; however, they do not permit their quantitation. In this study, we\\u000a report the development of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) systems for the detection and quantitation\\u000a of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and the Maximizer

Edgar Studer; Claudio Rhyner; Jürg Lüthy; P. Hübner

1998-01-01

463

Women’s Perceptions of Biotechnologies: The Case of Genetically Modified Foods in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications of biotechnology, in particular genetically modified foods, have been the object of considerable hopes and\\u000a debate. Analyzing the public’s perceptions of biotechnology, studies have found ‘publics’ rather than a single ‘general public’.\\u000a Among other social classifications, women constitute a definable public to analyze, in particular in a feminist perspective.\\u000a GM foods lie at the juncture of two essential

Fabienne Crettaz von Roten; Elvita Alvarez

464

An overview of general features of risk assessments of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intentional introduction into the environment or market of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is nearly always governed\\u000a by a framework of science-based risk assessment and risk management measures. This is usually implemented through the integration\\u000a of hazard identification and characterisation of all of the elements of risk associated with a new GM crop or derived product.\\u000a Typical categories of hazards

Wendy Craig; Mark Tepfer; Giuliano Degrassi; Decio Ripandelli

2008-01-01

465

Innovation and Trade with Endogenous Market Failure: The Case of Genetically Modified Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial-equilibrium, two-country model is developed to analyze implications from the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. In the model, innovators hold proprietary rights, farmers are (competitive) adopters, some consumers deem GM food to be inferior in quality to traditional food, and the mere introduction of GM crops affects the costs of non-GM food (because of costly identity preservation). Among

Harvey E. Lapan; GianCarlo Moschini

2004-01-01

466

Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns\\u000a of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for\\u000a a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this\\u000a hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes

Yann Devos; Mathias Cougnon; Sofie Vergucht; Robert Bulcke; Geert Haesaert; Walter Steurbaut; Dirk Reheul

2008-01-01

467

Suggested Improvements for the Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants Used in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population\\u000a has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather\\u000a patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding,\\u000a random mutagenesis, increased pesticide

Richard E. Goodman; Afua O. Tetteh

2011-01-01

468

Genetic Variation of DKK3 May Modify Renal Disease Severity in ADPKD  

PubMed Central

Significant variation in the course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease ( ADPKD) within families suggests the presence of effect modifiers. Recent studies of the variation within families harboring PKD1 mutations indicate that genetic background may account for 32 to 42% of the variance in estimated GFR (eGFR) before ESRD and 43 to 78% of the variance in age at ESRD onset, but the genetic modifiers are unknown. Here, we conducted a high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping association study of 173 biological candidate genes in 794 white patients from 227 families with PKD1. We analyzed two primary outcomes: (1) eGFR and (2) time to ESRD (renal survival). For both outcomes, we used multidimensional scaling to correct for population structure and generalized estimating equations to account for the relatedness among individuals within the same family. We found suggestive associations between each of 12 SNPs and at least one of the renal outcomes. We genotyped these SNPs in a second set of 472 white patients from 229 families with PKD1 and performed a joint analysis on both cohorts. Three SNPs continued to show suggestive/significant association with eGFR at the Dickkopf 3 (DKK3) gene locus; no SNPs significantly associated with renal survival. DKK3 antagonizes Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which may modulate renal cyst growth. Pending replication, our study suggests that genetic variation of DKK3 may modify severity of ADPKD resulting from PKD1 mutations. PMID:20616171

Liu, Michelle; Shi, Sally; Senthilnathan, Sean; Yu, Julie; Wu, Elliot; Bergmann, Carsten; Zerres, Klaus; Bogdanova, Nadja; Coto, Eliecer; Deltas, Constantinos; Pierides, Alkis; Demetriou, Kyproula; Devuyst, Olivier; Gitomer, Berenice; Laakso, Marku; Lumiaho, Anne; Lamnissou, Klea; Magistroni, Riccardo; Parfrey, Patrick; Breuning, Martijn; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Torra, Roser; Winearls, Christopher G.; Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.; Paterson, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

469

Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress. PMID:23882175

Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perello, Mario

2013-01-01

470

Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.  

PubMed

The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty. PMID:23414177

Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

2013-12-01

471

[Application of DNA extraction kit, 'GM quicker' for detection of genetically modified soybeans].  

PubMed

Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans. PMID:22450668

Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

2012-01-01

472

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

473

The debate surrounding the dangers posed by genetically modified organisms is becoming emotional and increasingly removed from the scientific context particularly when it  

E-print Network

, Philip Roth), is ulti- mately very strange (genetically modified food, Wall Street, George W. Bush)." How on earth did we reach the point where genetically modified food became a cultural difference betweenThe debate surrounding the dangers posed by genetically modified organisms is becoming emotional

474

A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps  

PubMed Central

The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb) as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the N-terminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M). The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

Krajewska, Agnieszka; Radecki, Jerzy; Radecka, Hanna

2008-01-01

475

Effect of different sanitizers on microbial and sensory quality of fresh-cut potato strips stored under modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemicals containing SH-groups as sulfites and chlorine-based agents are commonly employed in the fresh-cut process of vegetables such as potatoes to prevent browning and to sanitize produce. However, there is a concern over the application of these compounds in fresh-cut commodities as they might affect human and environmental safety and this has created the need to investigate alternatives. In the

David Beltrán; María V. Selma; Juan A. Tudela; María I. Gil

2005-01-01

476

Biohazards related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs): a call for a visuals-supported discourse on environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication about hazards related to genetically modified organisms ( GMO-related hazards) is characterized by skepticism about designing genes and concern about long-term environmental risks. On the other hand, \\

Charlotte Kaempf

2005-01-01

477

U.S. Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Labeling Information on Genetically Modified Foods: An Application of Choice Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes U.S. consumers' valuation of five types of genetically modified food labels on a cornflakes cereal product. Using a nationwide survey and choice-modeling framework, results indicate that consumers value the label \\

Benjamin M. Onyango; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Ramu Govindasamy

2005-01-01

478

Public Opinion, Risk Assessment, and Biotechnology: Lessons from Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Foods in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of biotechnology argue that citizens' opposition to innovations such as genetically modified (GM) foods is rooted in emotionalism, media and nongovernmental organizations' distortions of good science, and scientific ignorance. Critics charge that this \\

Jerome S. Legge Jr.; Robert F. Durant

2010-01-01

479

Regionalisation of climate variability used for modelling the dispersal of genetically modified oil seed rape in Northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint research project “Generic detection and extrapolation of genetically modified oilseed rape dispersal (GenEERA)” aimed at estimating the dispersal and persistence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in a larger region by combining a small-scale individual-based model and an up-scaling approach, for which various data sources had to be evaluated to deal with local processes and spatial

Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder

2011-01-01

480

GMOs and Global Justice: Applying Global Justice Theory to the Case of Genetically Modified Crops and Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of using genetically modified (GM) crops and food in the developing world often claim that it is unjust not to\\u000a use GMOs (genetically modified organisms) to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. In reply, the critics\\u000a of GMOs claim that while GMOs may be useful as a technological means to increase yields and crop quality, stable and efficient

Kristian Høyer Toft

481

Decomposition dynamics and structural plant components of genetically modified Bt maize leaves do not differ from leaves of conventional hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified Bt maize has raised environmental concerns, as large amounts of plant residues remain in the field and may negatively impact\\u000a the soil ecosystem. In a field experiment, decomposition of leaf residues from three genetically modified (two expressing\\u000a the Cry1Ab, one the Cry3Bb1 protein) and six non-transgenic hybrids (the three corresponding non-transformed near-isolines\\u000a and three conventional

Corinne Zurbrügg; Linda Hönemann; Michael Meissle; Jörg Romeis; Wolfgang Nentwig

2010-01-01

482

A Novel Lung Disease Phenotype Adjusted for Mortality Attrition for Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Modifier Studies  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genetic studies of lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis are hampered by the lack of a severity measure that accounts for chronic disease progression and mortality attrition. Further, combining analyses across studies requires common phenotypes that are robust to study design and patient ascertainment. Using data from the North American Cystic Fibrosis Modifier Consortium (Canadian Consortium for CF Genetic Studies, Johns Hopkins University CF Twin and Sibling Study, and University of North Carolina/Case Western Reserve University Gene Modifier Study), the authors calculated age-specific CF percentile values of FEV1 which were adjusted for CF age-specific mortality data. The phenotype was computed for 2061 patients representing the Canadian CF population, 1137 extreme phenotype patients in the UNC/Case Western study, and 1323 patients from multiple CF sib families in the CF Twin and Sibling Study. Despite differences in ascertainment and median age, our phenotype score was distributed in all three samples in a manner consistent with ascertainment differences, reflecting the lung disease severity of each individual in the underlying population. The new phenotype score was highly correlated with the previously recommended complex phenotype, but the new phenotype is more robust for shorter follow-up and for extreme ages. A disease progression and mortality adjusted phenotype reduces the need for stratification or additional covariates, increasing statistical power and avoiding possible distortions. This approach will facilitate large scale genetic and environmental epidemiological studies which will provide targeted therapeutic pathways for the clinical benefit of patients with CF. PMID:21462361

Taylor, Chelsea; Commander, Clayton W.; Collaco, Joseph M.; Strug, Lisa J.; Li, Weili; Wright, Fred A.; Webel, Aaron D.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Stonebraker, Jaclyn R.; Naughton, Kathleen; Dorfman, Ruslan; Sandford, Andrew; Blackman, Scott M.; Berthiaume, Yves; Pare, Peter; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Zielenski, Julian; Durie, Peter; Cutting, Garry R.; Knowles, Michael R.; Corey, Mary

2011-01-01

483

Use of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating neurodegenerative disorders has received growing attention recently because these cells are readily available, easily expanded in culture, and when transplanted, survive for relatively long periods of time. Given that such transplants have been shown to be safe in a variety of applications, in addition to recent findings that MSCs have useful immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, the use of these cells as vehicles for delivering or producing beneficial proteins for therapeutic purposes has been the focus of several labs. In our lab, the use of genetic modified MSCs to release neurotrophic factors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is of particular interest. Specifically, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been recognized as therapeutic trophic factors for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases, respectively. The aim of this literature review is to provide insights into: (1) the inherent properties of MSCs as a platform for neurotrophic factor delivery; (2) the molecular tools available for genetic manipulation of MSCs; (3) the rationale for utilizing various neurotrophic factors for particular neurodegenerative diseases; and (4) the clinical challenges of utilizing genetically modified MSCs. PMID:24463293

Wyse, Robert D.; Dunbar, Gary L.; Rossignol, Julien

2014-01-01

484

Piezoelectric Sensor for Determination of Genetically Modified Soybean Roundup Ready® in Samples not Amplified by PCR  

PubMed Central

The chemically modified piezoelectrodes were utilized to develop relatively cheap and easy to use biosensor for determination of genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean (RR soybean). The biosensor relies on the immobilization onto gold piezoelectrodes of the 21-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probes) related to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, which is an active component of an insert integrated into RR soybean genome. The hybridization reaction between the probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The system was optimized using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were applied for EPSPS gene detection in DNA samples extracted from animal feed containing 30% RR soybean amplified by the PCR and nonamplified by PCR. The detection limit for genomic DNA was in the range of 4.7·105 numbers of genom copies contained EPSPS gene in the QCM cell. The properties such as sensitivity and selectivity of piezoelectric senor presented here indicated that it could be applied for the direct determination of genetically modified RR soybean in the samples non-amplified by PCR.

Stobiecka, Magdalena; Ciesla, Jaroslaw M.; Janowska, Beata; Tudek, Barbara; Radecka, Hanna

2007-01-01

485

Genetic Interaction of Lobe With Its Modifiers in Dorsoventral Patterning and Growth of the Drosophila Eye  

PubMed Central

Dorsoventral (DV) patterning is essential for growth of the Drosophila eye. Recent studies suggest that ventral is the default state of the early eye, which depends on Lobe (L) function, and that the dorsal fate is established later by the expression of the dorsal selector gene pannier (pnr). However, the mechanisms of regulatory interactions between L and dorsal genes are not well understood. For studying the mechanisms of DV patterning in the early eye disc, we performed a dominant modifier screen to identify additional genes that interact with L. The criterion of the dominant interaction was either enhancement or suppression of the L ventral eye loss phenotype. We identified 48 modifiers that correspond to 16 genes, which include fringe (fng), a gene involved in ventral eye patterning, and members of both Hedgehog (Hh) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling pathways, which promote L function in the ventral eye. Interestingly, 29% of the modifiers (6 enhancers and 9 suppressors) identified either are known to interact genetically with pnr or are members of the Wingless (Wg) pathway, which acts downstream from pnr. The detailed analysis of genetic interactions revealed that pnr and L mutually antagonize each other during second instar of larval development to restrict their functional domains in the eye. This time window coincides with the emergence of pnr expression in the eye. Our results suggest that L function is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the mutual antagonism between L and dorsal genes is crucial for balanced eye growth. PMID:15976174

Singh, Amit; Chan, Jeeder; Chern, Joshua J.; Choi, Kwang-Wook

2005-01-01

486

Determinants of Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions With Regard to Genetically Modified Food – Results of a Cross-National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown consumers to be highly sceptical towards genetic modification in food production. So far, however, little research has tried to explain how consumers form attitudes and make decisions with regard to genetically modified foods. The paper presents the results of a survey which was carried out in Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom to investigate the

Lone Bredahl

2001-01-01

487

Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified foods - Results of a cross-national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Previous research has shown consumers to be highly sceptical towards genetic modification in food production. So far, however, little research has tried to explain how consumers form attitudes and make decisions with regard to genetically modified foods. 2. The paper presents the results of a survey which was carried out in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom to

Lone Bredahl

2000-01-01

488

Evaluation of Detection Methods for Genetically Modified Traits in Genotypes Resistant to European Corn Borer and Herbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of genetically modified (GM) traits in corn (Zea mays L.) is urgently needed for preservation of genetic identity and marketing GM products. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency, accuracy, and reliability of different analytical methods to detect GM traits in corn. Samples with known fractions of GM concentrations (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt], Liberty Link [LL] and stacked

B. L. MA; K. SUBEDI; L. EVENSON; G. STEWART

2005-01-01

489

PCR-based detection of genetically modified soybean and maize in raw and highly processed foodstuffs.  

PubMed

The PCR method has proved to be an invaluable tool for the specific and sensitive detection of genetically modified material (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean and Bt-176 "Maximizer" Maize) in foodstuffs. The first step in the procedure, namely the purification of nucleic acids from the sample, is often the deciding factor in the production of meaningful results. In this study, we present two procedures that enable an efficient isolation of trace amounts of genetic material from both raw and highly processed foodstuffs. We show that for optimal, PCR-ready DNA purification from highly processed foodstuffs and PCR inhibitor-rich substances--such as cocoa-containing products--adapted protocols for the QIAGEN QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit can be utilized. For complete DNA isolation from raw foodstuffs, a protocol using the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit is presented. PMID:11515380

Tengel, C; Schüssler, P; Setzke, E; Balles, J; Sprenger-Haussels, M

2001-08-01

490

Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured. PMID:23959104

Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

2013-12-01

491

Ecological risk analysis and genetically modified salmon: management in the face of uncertainty.  

PubMed

The commercialization of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon for aquaculture has become a controversial public policy issue. Concerns exist over the potential ecological effects of this biotechnology should animals escape captivity. From within an ecological risk-analysis framework, science has been sought to provide decision makers with evidence upon which to base regulatory decisions pertaining to genetically modified salmon. Here I review the available empirical information on the potential ecological and genetic effects of transgenic salmon and discuss the underlying eco-evolutionary science behind the topic. I conclude that data gaps and irreducible epistemic uncertainties limit the role of scientific inference in support of ecological risk management for transgenic salmon. I argue that predictive uncertainties are pervasive in complex eco-evolutionary systems and that it behooves those involved in the risk-analysis process to accept and communicate these limitations in the interest of timely, clear, and cautious risk-management options. PMID:25384154

Moreau, Darek T R

2014-02-01

492

Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.  

PubMed

Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types. PMID:23549345

Ismail, Roba M

2013-01-01

493

The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.  

PubMed

As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

2011-07-01

494

Grafting Genetically Modified Cells to the Damaged Brain: Restorative Effects of NGF Expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibroblasts were genetically modified to secrete nerve growth factor (NGF) by infection with a retroviral vector and then implanted into the brains of rats that had surgical lesions of the fimbria-fornix. The grafted cells survived and produced sufficient NGF to prevent the degeneration of cholinergic neurons that would die without treatment. In addition, the protected cholinergic cells sprouted axons that projected in the direction of the cellular source of NGF. These results indicate that a combination of gene transfer and intracerebral grafting may provide an effective treatment for some disorders of the central nervous system.

Rosenberg, Michael B.; Friedmann, Theodore; Robertson, Robin C.; Tuszynski, Mark; Wolff, Jon A.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Gage, Fred H.

1988-12-01

495

Determination of eight genetically modified maize events by quantitative, multiplex PCR and fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific legislation in the EU requires that foods containing more than 0.9% of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) should\\u000a be labelled. This has necessitated the development of methods for detection and quantification of such materials. Here we\\u000a present a robust, quantitative, 9-plex PCR method for event-specific detection of maize TC1507, MON863, MON810, T25, NK603,\\u000a GA21, construct specific detection of BT11, BT176

Bjarte R. Heide; Signe M. Drømtorp; Knut Rudi; Even Heir; Askild L. Holck

2008-01-01

496

Quantitative, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of eight genetically modified maize events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific legislation in the EU requires that foods containing more than 0.9% of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) should\\u000a be labelled. To this end, we have developed a robust, quantitative, sensitive, nine-plex ligation-dependent probe amplification\\u000a method, GMO-MLPA, for event-specific detection of maize TC1507, MON810, NK603, MON863, BT176, T25, GA21, construct-specific\\u000a detection of BT11, and detection of the endogenous hmga maize reference

Askild Lorentz Holck; Signe M. Drømtorp; Even Heir

2009-01-01

497

Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops.  

PubMed

The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on the market today. PMID:18781763

Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe

2008-10-01