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Sample records for genetically modified tomato

  1. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes. PMID:25743587

  2. Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on

  3. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    PubMed Central

    Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Acciarri, Nazareno; Sabatini, Emidio; Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Maestrelli, Andrea; Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Scalzo, Jessica; Mezzetti, Bruno; Spena, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM) fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM). Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82) transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH) nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC), when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment. PMID:16371162

  4. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  5. Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Miyako; Redestig, Henning; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  6. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene LAT52 used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of genetically modified tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-05-28

    One tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) gene, LAT52, has been proved to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) tomato detection in a previous study. Herein are reported the results of a collaborative ring trial for international validation of the LAT52 gene as endogenous reference gene and its analytical systems; 14 GMO detection laboratories from 8 countries were invited, and results were finally received from 13. These data confirmed the species specificity by testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, less allelic variation and stable single copy number of the LAT52 gene, among 12 different tomato cultivars. Furthermore, the limit of detection of LAT52 qualitative PCR was proved to be 0.1%, which corresponded to 11 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA, and the limit of quantification for the quantitative PCR system was about 10 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Additionally, the bias between the test and true values of 8 blind samples ranged from 1.94 to 10.64%. All of these validated results indicated that the LAT52 gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM tomato and its derivates. PMID:18442244

  7. Antioxidant compounds and their bioaccessibility in tomato fruit and puree obtained from a DETIOLATED-1 (DET-1) down-regulated genetically modified genotype.

    PubMed

    Talens, P; Mora, L; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-12-15

    The economic value, the ease of cultivation and processing, and the well-known health-promoting properties of tomato fruit, make the tomato an important target for genetic manipulation to increase its nutritional content. A transgenic variety, down-regulated in the DETIOLATED-1 (DET-1) gene, has been studied in comparison with the parental line, for antioxidant levels in fresh and hot break fruit, as well as the bioaccessibility of antioxidants from puree. Differences in the concentrations of antioxidants between the wild-type and the genetically modified raw tomatoes were confirmed, but antioxidant levels were maintained to a greater extent in the GM puree than in the parent. The bioaccessibility of the compounds, tested using an in vitro digestion model, showed an increase in the genetically modified samples. PMID:27451242

  8. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M D; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-09-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. PMID:27454737

  9. The Distribution of Genetic Variation in Cultivated Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is known to have a narrow genetic base. COSII, EST-based, and several loci related to fruit quality traits were resequenced in a diverse panel of 30 Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) tomato accessions, line TA496, and Solanum peruvianum accession G 32591...

  10. Development and optimisation of a label-free quantitative proteomic procedure and its application in the assessment of genetically modified tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Mora, Leticia; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    A key global challenge for plant biotechnology is addressing food security, whereby provision must be made to feed 9 billion people with nutritional feedstuffs by 2050. To achieve this step change in agricultural production new crop varieties are required that are tolerant to environmental stresses imposed by climate change, have better yields, are more nutritious and require less resource input. Genetic modification (GM) and marker-assisted screening will need to be fully utilised to deliver these new crop varieties. To evaluate these varieties both in terms of environmental and food safety and the rational design of traits a systems level characterisation is necessary. To link the transcriptome to the metabolome, quantitative proteomics is required. Routine quantitative proteomics is an important challenge. Gel-based densitometry and MS analysis after stable isotope labeling have been employed. In the present article, we describe the application of a label-free approach that can be used in combination with SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase chromatography to evaluate the changes in the proteome of new crop varieties. The workflow has been optimised for protein coverage, accuracy and robustness, then its application demonstrated using a GM tomato variety engineered to deliver nutrient dense fruit. PMID:23616442

  11. Tailoring of plants via genetic engineering: Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato has become a popular vegetable as it is an important source of vitamins, minerals and fibre in diets. One medium-sized tomato provides 57% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C, 25% RDA of vitamin A, and 8% RDA of iron, yet with only 35 calories. Tomato extract has been used t...

  12. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  13. DNA marker applications to molecular genetics and genomics in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is an important crop and regarded as an experimental model of the Solanaceae family and of fruiting plants in general. To enhance breeding efficiency and advance the field of genetics, tomato has been subjected to DNA marker studies as one of the earliest targets in plants. The developed DNA markers have been applied to the construction of genetic linkage maps and the resultant maps have contributed to quantitative trait locus (QTL) and gene mappings for agronomically important traits, as well as to comparative genomics of Solanaceae. The recently released whole genome sequences of tomato enable us to develop large numbers of DNA markers comparatively easily, and even promote new genotyping methods without DNA markers. In addition, databases for genomes, DNA markers, genetic linkage maps and other omics data, e.g., transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and phenome information, will provide useful information for molecular breeding in tomatoes. The use of DNA marker technologies in conjunction with new breeding techniques will promise to advance tomato breeding. PMID:23641178

  14. Genetically stable expression of functional miraculin, a new type of alternative sweetener, in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    Miraculin is a taste-modifying protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica, a shrub native to West Africa. Miraculin by itself is not sweet, but it is able to turn a sour taste into a sweet taste. This unique property has led to increasing interest in this protein. In this article, we report the high-yield production of miraculin in transgenic tomato plants. High and genetically stable expression of miraculin was confirmed by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant miraculin accumulated to high levels in leaves and fruits, up to 102.5 and 90.7 microg/g fresh weight, respectively. Purified recombinant miraculin expressed in transgenic tomato plants showed strong sweetness-inducing activity, similar to that of native miraculin. These results demonstrate that recombinant miraculin was correctly processed in transgenic tomato plants, and that this production system could be a good alternative to production from the native plant. PMID:17692073

  15. Genetic dissection of vitamin E biosynthesis in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Juliana; Quadrana, Leandro; Asís, Ramón; Setta, Nathalia; de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Otaiza, Santiago N.; Corrêa da Silva, Junia V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Rossi, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Vegetables are critical for human health as they are a source of multiple vitamins including vitamin E (VTE). In plants, the synthesis of VTE compounds, tocopherol and tocotrienol, derives from precursors of the shikimate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for α-tocopherol content in ripe fruit have previously been determined in an Solanum pennellii tomato introgression line population. In this work, variations of tocopherol isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) in ripe fruits of these lines were studied. In parallel all tomato genes structurally associated with VTE biosynthesis were identified and mapped. Previously identified VTE QTL on chromosomes 6 and 9 were confirmed whilst novel ones were identified on chromosomes 7 and 8. Integrated analysis at the metabolic, genetic and genomic levels allowed us to propose 16 candidate loci putatively affecting tocopherol content in tomato. A comparative analysis revealed polymorphisms at nucleotide and amino acid levels between Solanum lycopersicum and S. pennellii candidate alleles. Moreover, evolutionary analyses showed the presence of codons evolving under both neutral and positive selection, which may explain the phenotypic differences between species. These data represent an important step in understanding the genetic determinants of VTE natural variation in tomato fruit and as such in the ability to improve the content of this important nutriceutical. PMID:21527625

  16. Expression of modified gene encoding functional human alpha-1-antitrypsin protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Singh, Rahul; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2008-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer promising alternative for large scale, sustainable production of safe, functional, recombinant proteins of therapeutic and industrial importance. Here, we report the expression of biologically active human alpha-1-antitrypsin in transgenic tomato plants. The 1,182 bp cDNA sequence of human AAT was strategically designed, modified and synthesized to adopt codon usage pattern of dicot plants, elimination of mRNA destabilizing sequences and modifications around 5' and 3' flanking regions of the gene to achieve high-level regulated expression in dicot plants. The native signal peptide sequence was substituted with modified signal peptide sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pathogenesis related protein PR1a, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) sporamineA and with dicot-preferred native signal peptide sequence of AAT gene. A dicot preferred translation initiation context sequence, 38 bp alfalfa mosaic virus untranslated region were incorporated at 5' while an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) was incorporated at 3' end of the gene. The modified gene was synthesized by PCR based method using overlapping oligonucleotides. Tomato plants were genetically engineered by nuclear transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring three different constructs pPAK, pSAK and pNAK having modified AAT gene with different signal peptide sequences under the control of CaMV35S duplicated enhancer promoter. Promising transgenic plants expressing recombinant AAT protein upto 1.55% of total soluble leaf protein has been developed and characterized. Plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein with molecular mass of around approximately 50 kDa was biologically active, showing high specific activity and efficient inhibition of elastase activity. The enzymatic deglycosylation established proper glycosylation of the plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein in contrast to unglycosylated rAAT expressed in E. coli ( approximately 45 kDa). Our results demonstrate

  17. Genetic divergence of tomato ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Lucia; Zamorano, Alan; Fiore, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) has been detected in Chile, causing economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. A ToRSV isolate was obtained from raspberry cv Heritage (Rasp-CL) showing leaf yellowing and stunting. The complete genome of Rasp-CL was sequenced by deep sequencing. The Rasp-CL RNA1 sequence shared 97.4 % nucleotide sequence identity with divergent RNA1 of isolate Rasp1-2014, while Rasp-CL RNA2 showed high divergence from all four isolates available in the database, sharing only 63.9-72.7 % nucleotide sequence identity. This difference was mainly based on the X4 coding region, which has been reported to be a high-variability region. Moreover, based on differences in the X4 region, three Rasp-CL RNA2 variants of different length were identified in the same host. One putative recombination event was identified between the Rasp-CL and GYV-2014 X4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ToRSV isolates with currently available sequences form three distinct groups. Our results suggest that, for an accurate phylogenetic classification of ToRSV, it is necessary to obtain sequences of both RNAs. This is the first report of a complete ToRSV genome sequence from South America. PMID:26846512

  18. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity, and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rebecca L.; Zheng, Jie; Burrows, Erik; Allard, Sarah; Wang, Charles Y.; Keys, Christine E.; Melka, David C.; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Allard, Marc W.; Rideout, Steven; Brown, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a 2-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms, and leaves), irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment. PMID:25999938

  19. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt. PMID:26889116

  20. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt. PMID:26889116

  1. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  2. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  3. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

  4. Genetically modified organisms and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Diamand, E

    1999-12-01

    The genetic modification of organisms for food use has raised serious concern about the potential for adverse effects on the environment, ecosystems and on the health of humans and animals. As a relatively new technology, its impacts remain uncertain but could range from disturbances to the genetic functioning of individual organisms to a reduction in the biodiversity of farmland. As a result, the question of how to monitor for potential impacts is beset with problems. The fact that genetic modification can be used on a range of organisms for a variety of purposes means that those developing monitoring systems will need to be as imaginative as those developing GMOs. In the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food use, concern has focussed on the transfer of genes to other organisms, the potential for effects on non-target organisms, or on the health of humans and animals, and the likelihood of adverse effects on wildlife due to changes in farming practice. As with other new and unfamiliar technologies, genetic modification is also plagued by the problem of uncertainty. Novel genes are inserted randomly into the genome of the host organisms, and this leads to the possibility of unexpected effects. Unanticipated environmental disasters, such as the concentration of persistent organic pollutants in ecosystems at high latitudes, have highlighted the need for monitoring despite the obvious difficulties inherent in monitoring for unexpected effects. PMID:11529177

  5. Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome mapping and marker assisted selection are increasingly being adopted for tomato improvement. Vast amounts of technical and basic genomic information such as DNA and EST sequences, DNA markers, comparative linkage maps, introgression lines, mutant stocks, bioinformatics resources are availabl...

  6. Genetic diversity of cultivated and wild tomatoes revealed by morphological traits and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, R; Wu, Z; Cao, X; Jiang, F L

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, morphological traits and molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 29 cultivated tomatoes, 14 wild tomatoes and seven introgression lines. The three components of the principal component analysis (PCA) explained 78.54% of the total morphological variation in the 50 tomato genotypes assessed. Based on these morphological traits, a three-dimensional PCA plot separated the 50 genotypes into distinct groups, and a dendrogram divided them into six clusters. Fifteen polymorphic genomic simple- sequence repeat (genomic-SSR) and 13 polymorphic expressed sequence tag-derived SSR (EST-SSR) markers amplified 1115 and 780 clear fragments, respectively. Genomic-SSRs detected a total of 64 alleles, with a mean of 4 alleles per primer, while EST-SSRs detected 52 alleles, with a mean of 4 alleles per primer. The polymorphism information content was slightly higher in genomic-SSRs (0.49) than in EST-SSRs (0.45). The mean similarity coefficient among the wild tomatoes was lower than the mean similarity coefficient among the cultivated tomatoes. The dendrogram based on genetic distance divided the 50 tomato genotypes into eight clusters. The Mantel test between genomic-SSR and EST-SSR matrices revealed a good correlation, whereas the morphological matrices and the molecular matrices were weakly correlated. We confirm the applicability of EST-SSRs in analyzing genetic diversity among cultivated and wild tomatoes. High variability of the 50 tomato genotypes was observed at the morphological and molecular level, indicating valuable tomato germplasm, especially in the wild tomatoes, which could be used for further genetic studies. PMID:26535702

  7. Genetic diversity, host range and disease resistance to the emerging Tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its first discovery in 2013 in Mexico, Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a new tomato-infecting tobamovirus is now present in a number of countries (i.e., Brazil, China, and Israel) and several states in the U.S. There is little information available on the molecular and biological properti...

  8. Four Peroxidase Loci in Red-Fruited Tomato Species: Genetics and Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rick, Charles M.; Zobel, Richard W.; Fobes, Jon F.

    1974-01-01

    The banding patterns of certain anodal peroxidase variants of red-fruited tomato species are governed by alleles at four loci—two alleles per locus. Alleles at three loci code for modified enzyme migration patterns and are codominant in heterozygotes; those at the fourth locus code for presence or absence of a band. No evidence of linkage was detected in preliminary tests between four of the six possible combinations of loci. All variant alleles—i.e., those not represented in the standard genotype of Lycopersicon esculentum—exist in the wild L. pimpinellifolium from coastal Peru; all but Prx-3n are also known in L. esculentum from the sympatric region but are rare or absent elsewhere. Between the distributions of alleles of Prx-1 and those of Ge, the gamete-eliminator locus, a significant association exists, which probably does not owe to genetic linkage. The tendency of alleles of Prx loci, as well as those of cm, Ge, h, and Od, to be shared between wild and cultivated taxa in the sympatric region but seldom elsewhere, in addition to published correlated evidence, suggests that the wild alleles tend to substitute in cultivated forms as a result of introgression. In respect to the number of common alleles, cultivated tomatoes more closely resemble the wild L. esculentum var. cerasiforme than L. pimpinellifolium. Images PMID:16592148

  9. Genetic Diversity of Tomato Viroids in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American greenhouse tomato industry has expanded dramatically in the last couple of decades. Nearly 40% of fresh tomatoes in the U.S. supermarkets are now produced in greenhouses. The intense production practices and the protective plant growing environment resulted in a number of unique...

  10. SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

  11. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  12. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

  13. Genome-wide analysis of histone modifiers in tomato: gaining an insight into their developmental roles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) including acetylation and methylation have been recognized as playing a crucial role in epigenetic regulation of plant growth and development. Although Solanum lycopersicum is a dicot model plant as well as an important crop, systematic analysis and expression profiling of histone modifier genes (HMs) in tomato are sketchy. Results Based on recently released tomato whole-genome sequences, we identified in silico 32 histone acetyltransferases (HATs), 15 histone deacetylases (HDACs), 52 histone methytransferases (HMTs) and 26 histone demethylases (HDMs), and compared them with those detected in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs. Comprehensive analysis of the protein domain architecture and phylogeny revealed the presence of non-canonical motifs and new domain combinations, thereby suggesting for HATs the existence of a new family in plants. Due to species-specific diversification during evolutionary history tomato has fewer HMs than Arabidopsis. The transcription profiles of HMs within tomato organs revealed a broad functional role for some HMs and a more specific activity for others, suggesting key HM regulators in tomato development. Finally, we explored S. pennellii introgression lines (ILs) and integrated the map position of HMs, their expression profiles and the phenotype of ILs. We thereby proved that the strategy was useful to identify HM candidates involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruits. Conclusions In this study, we reveal the structure, phylogeny and spatial expression of members belonging to the classical families of HMs in tomato. We provide a framework for gene discovery and functional investigation of HMs in other Solanaceae species. PMID:23356725

  14. Use of activated carbon inside modified atmosphere packages to maintain tomato fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bailén, Gloria; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo

    2006-03-22

    Ethylene triggers the ripening process of tomato affecting the storage durability and shelf life (loss of quality) and inducing fruit decay. In this paper, an active packaging has been developed on the basis of the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the addition of granular-activated carbon (GAC) alone or impregnated with palladium as a catalyst (GAC-Pd). A steady-state atmosphere was 4 and 10 kPa for O2 and CO2 in control packages, while it was 8 and 7 kPa for O2 and CO2 in treated ones. The addition of GAC-Pd led to the lower ethylene accumulation inside packages, while the higher was obtained in controls. The parameters related to ripening showed that treated tomatoes exhibited a reduction in color evolution, softening, and weight loss, especially for GAC-Pd treatment. Moreover, these treatments were also effective in delaying tomato decay. After sensorial panel, tomatoes treated with GAC-Pd received the higher scores in terms of sweetness, firmness, juiciness, color, odor, and flavor. Results from the GC-MS analysis of the MAP headspace showed that 23 volatile compounds were identified in control packages, with these volatiles being significantly reduced in MAP-treated packages, which was correlated to the odor intensity detected by panelists after bag opening. PMID:16536601

  15. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  16. Genetic characterization of Italian tomato varieties and their traceability in tomato food products-Sardaro-2012-Food Science & Nutrition-Wiley Online Library

    PubMed Central

    Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Marmiroli, Marta; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Landraces of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) can contain valuable alleles not common in modern germplasms. The aim was to measure genetic diversity present in 47 most common tomato varieties grown in Italy, 35 were varieties used for processing and 12 were landraces considered “salad varieties”. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility that the variety traceability can be extended through the entire production chain. Diversity was measured using 11 microsatellite markers and 94 genotypes. Among the markers used, a total of 48 alleles were detected. A dendrogram based on total microsatellite polymorphism grouped 47 varieties into three major clusters at 0.75 similarity coefficient, differentiating the modern varieties from tomatoes landraces. The DNA markers developed confirmed the possibility to support the genotype identification all along the tomato production chain. The number of alleles and genotypes identified in the present work is the largest considering papers on food traceability. PMID:24804014

  17. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  18. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF SOLANACEOUS CROPS, VOLUME II: TOMATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world and is the dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fiber, which are important for human nutrition and health. Fresh fruits are used in salads, various culinary preparations, juices, or processed in the form of purees, concentrates, condimen...

  19. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  20. That's a Tomato? Using a Familiar Food to Explore Genetic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Chrispeels, Hanya E.; Reagan, Bryan R.; Lundy, Stacey R.; Browne, Carole L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2014-01-01

    Like the figurative apple for the teacher, the tomato is a well-known food symbol representing a variety of cuisines. We drew on current scientific research and partnerships with classroom teachers to develop a case study activity consisting of four layers to teach concepts of plant biology and genetics to middle and high school students. The goal…

  1. Tomato quality in controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and cold storage.

    PubMed

    Majidi, H; Minaei, S; Almassi, M; Mostofi, Y

    2014-09-01

    Effects of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in comparison with conventional cold storage on qualitative properties of green-mature harvested tomato were evaluated. Qualitative properties included firmness, redness value (a*), hue angle, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) content, Titratable Acidity (TA) and TSS/TA. Under CAS and MAP conditions, gas composition was 5 kPa O2 and 3 kPa CO2. Results showed that the ability of CAS and MAP to retard the ripening process was more than cold storage. With regard to maintaining texture and colour, CAS treatment was the best and MAP was better than cold storage. Although amongst storage treatments, the maximum value of TSS was observed in cold storage, its decreasing trend in CAS was slower than that in cold storage. Additionally, MAP and especially CAS slowed down the diminishing trend of TA in tomatoes. PMID:25190877

  2. Genetically engineered broad-spectrum disease resistance in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1998-01-01

    Resistance in tomato to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato requires Pto and Prf. Mutations that eliminate Prf show a loss of both Pto resistance and sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion, suggesting that Prf controls both phenotypes. Herein, we report that the overexpression of Prf leads to enhanced resistance to a number of normally virulent bacterial and viral pathogens and leads to increased sensitivity to fenthion. These plants express levels of salicylic acid comparable to plants induced for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and constitutively express pathogenesis related genes. These results suggest that the overexpression of Prf activates the Pto and Fen pathways in a pathogen-independent manner and leads to the activation of SAR. Transgene-induced SAR has implications for the generation of broad spectrum disease resistance in agricultural crop plants. PMID:9707642

  3. Genetically Engineered Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance in Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1998-08-01

    Resistance in tomato to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato requires Pto and Prf. Mutations that eliminate Prf show a loss of both Pto resistance and sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion, suggesting that Prf controls both phenotypes. Herein, we report that the overexpression of Prf leads to enhanced resistance to a number of normally virulent bacterial and viral pathogens and leads to increased sensitivity to fenthion. These plants express levels of salicylic acid comparable to plants induced for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and constitutively express pathogenesis related genes. These results suggest that the overexpression of Prf activates the Pto and Fen pathways in a pathogen-independent manner and leads to the activation of SAR. Transgene-induced SAR has implications for the generation of broad spectrum disease resistance in agricultural crop plants.

  4. Genetic and molecular regulation of fruit and plant domestication traits in tomato and pepper.

    PubMed

    Paran, Ilan; van der Knaap, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Tomato and pepper are two Solanaceous fruit crops that display an enormous diversity in fruit morphology. In this review, we will present an overview of the history of tomato and pepper and discuss key plant traits that were specifically selected during domestication of the two species. The traits discussed are fruit weight, shape, colour, ripening, pungency and plant architecture. We will review these characteristics as well as the genetic loci or genes that control these features, questioning whether mutations at orthologous loci occurred independently in these two species or whether unique plant and fruit features resulted in selection at different genes. PMID:18037678

  5. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure in the tomato-like nightshades Solanum lycopersicoides and S. sitiens

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Two closely related, wild tomato-like nightshade species, Solanum lycopersicoides and Solanum sitiens, inhabit a small area within the Atacama Desert region of Peru and Chile. Each species possesses unique traits, including abiotic and biotic stress tolerances, and can be hybridized with cultivated tomato. Conservation and utilization of these tomato relatives would benefit from an understanding of genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations. Methods Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were investigated by genotyping representative accessions of each species with a set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and allozyme markers. Key Results As expected for self-incompatible species, populations of S. lycopersicoides and S. sitiens were relatively diverse, but contained less diversity than the wild tomato Solanum chilense, a related allogamous species native to this region. Populations of S. lycopersicoides were slightly more diverse than populations of S. sitiens according to SSRs, but the opposite trend was found with allozymes. A higher coefficient of inbreeding was noted in S. sitiens. A pattern of isolation by distance was evident in both species, consistent with the highly fragmented nature of the populations in situ. The populations of each taxon showed strong geographical structure, with evidence for three major groups, corresponding to the northern, central and southern elements of their respective distributions. Conclusions This information should be useful for optimizing regeneration strategies, for sampling of the populations for genes of interest, and for guiding future in situ conservation efforts. PMID:20154348

  7. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health. PMID:25827570

  8. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  9. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

  10. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  11. Genetically modified myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Wayne

    2010-11-30

    Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

  12. Effect of genetic and phenotypic factors on the composition of commercial marmande type tomatoes studied through HRMAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, María José; García López, Jesús; Collados Luján, Juan Fernando; López Ortiz, Fernando; Bojórquez Pereznieto, Humberto; Toresano, Fernando; Camacho, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The effects of genetic, technological and environmental factors on the chemical composition of four marmande type tomato varieties have been investigated. The study is based on the analysis of (1)H HRMAS NMR spectra of tomato purée using a combination of partial least squares (PLS) and assigned signal analysis (ASA). In agreement with genetic, morphological and taste characteristics of the tomatoes studied, the analysis of the NMR data allows two groups of samples to be differentiated. The type of culture and climatic conditions can reduce the compositional differences. The extension of the compositional changes produced by climatic conditions is variety-depend. Neither grafting nor perlite affect significantly the relative content of primary metabolites. This was not the case for tomatoes grown using the pure hydroponic production system based on the recirculation of nutrient solution, New Growing System NGS®, which seems to be an effective agricultural approach to improve tomato quality. PMID:24001806

  13. Genetic variability of NaCl tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Saeed, A; Saleem, M F; Zakria, M; Anjum, S A; Shakeel, A; Saeed, N

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of crops in soils with high salt (NaCl) content can affect plant development. We examined the morphological and physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance in tomato. The responses of 72 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to salinity were compared by measuring shoot and root lengths, and fresh shoot and root weights relative to those of controls (plants grown in normal salt levels). All traits were reduced at the seedling stage when salinity levels were increased. The accession x salinity interaction was significant for all traits. Root length had higher heritability than other traits and was used as a selection criterion to identify salt-tolerant and -non-tolerant accessions. On the basis of root length, accessions LA2661, CLN2498A, CLN1621L, BL1176, 6233, and 17870 were considered to be more tolerant than accessions 17902, LO2875 and LO4360. The degree of salt tolerance was checked by analyzing K+ and Na+ concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio in tissues of plants treated with 10 and 15 dS/m salinity levels. Tolerance of these accessions to salinity was most associated with low accumulation of Na+ and higher K+/Na+ ratios. PMID:21823086

  14. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  15. [Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].

    PubMed

    Drobník, J

    2002-03-01

    Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries. PMID:12046253

  16. Measurement and Modeling of Respiration Rate of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate. PMID:26078087

  17. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

  18. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food. PMID:23009001

  19. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  20. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  1. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates. PMID:24957717

  2. Influence of modified atmosphere and varying time in storage on the irradiation sensitivity of Salmonella on sliced roma tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of tomatoes is a recurrent food safety concern. Irradiation inactivates pathogens on fresh and fresh cut produce. However, the interaction of time in refrigerated storage and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) may influence the response of pathogens to irradiation. Roma tom...

  3. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. PMID:26709962

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  5. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  6. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

  7. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  8. Influence of modified atmosphere and varying time in storage on the irradiation sensitivity of Salmonella on sliced roma tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Boyd, Glenn

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella contamination of tomatoes is a recurrent food safety concern. Irradiation inactivates pathogens on fresh and fresh cut produce. However, the interaction of time in refrigerated storage and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) may influence the response of pathogens to irradiation. Roma tomatoes were sliced and inoculated with a cocktail of outbreak strains of Salmonella. The inoculated tomatoes were packaged under one of four atmospheres: air, 10/90 O2/N2, 5/95 O2/N2 or 100% N2. The packages were kept in refrigerated storage (10 °C) for various times after inoculation, to simulate the potential time delay between packaging and irradiation treatment. Tomatoes were irradiated immediately (0 h), or after 24 or 48 h in storage. The surviving populations were recovered and enumerated. Irradiation effectively reduced Salmonella at all times. Estimated D10 value (the dose necessary for 1 log reduction) varied significantly among the combinations of time and MAP, ranging from 0.165-0.335 kGy. Tomatoes packaged in air, irradiated at 0 h, had a D10 of 0.165 kGy; all other combinations showed significantly higher D10. Reduced oxygen generally resulted in higher D10 values, with the highest D10 of 0.335 kGy obtained for 100% N2, 0 h. Time in storage pre-irradiation tended to increase D10 for air and 5/95 O2/N2, but not for 10/90 O2/N2 or 100% N2. These results suggest that time required for refrigerated holding of processed Roma tomatoes or shipment to an off-site irradiation service provider may alter the efficacy of irradiation if reduced oxygen MAP is used.

  9. Genetic variability and evolutionary analyses of the coat protein gene of Tomato mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Rangel, E A; Alfaro-Fernández, A; Font-San-Ambrosio, M I; Luis-Arteaga, M; Rubio, L

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, infects several ornamental and horticultural crops worldwide. In this study, the nucleotide sequences of the coat protein gene of worldwide ToMV isolates were analyzed to estimate the genetic structure and diversity of this virus and the involved evolutionary forces. The phylogenetic analysis showed three clades with high bootstrap support: Clade I contained three ToMV isolates from Brazil collected from pepper, Clade II comprised one Brazilian ToMV isolate from pepper, and Clade III was composed of ToMV isolates collected from different plant hosts (pepper, tomato, eggplant, lilac, camellia, dogwood, red spruce, etc.) and water (from melting ice, lakes and streams) from different countries: USA, Brazil, Korea, Germany, Spain, Denmark (Greenland), China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Iran, and Kazakhstan. With the exception of Brazil, nucleotide diversity within and between different geographic regions was very low, although statistical analyses suggested some gene flow between most of these regions. Our analyses also suggested a strong negative selection which could have contributed to the genetic stability of ToMV. PMID:21881940

  10. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

  11. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  12. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  13. Genetic diversity and silencing suppression activity of the p22 protein of Tomato chlorosis virus isolates from tomato and sweet pepper.

    PubMed

    Landeo-Ríos, Yazmín M; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Cañizares, M Carmen

    2015-10-01

    As for other bipartite criniviruses (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae), the genome of Tomato chlorosis virus encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the protein p22, in the 3'-proximal region of RNA1. This protein has been reported as having one of the longest lasting local suppressor activities when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we examined the genetic diversity of the p22 gene in ToCV isolates from tomato and sweet pepper. The p22 gene sequences clearly grouped into two separated clades. However, functional analysis of both types of p22 proteins indicated no evident differences in suppressor activity. Our findings provide experimental evidence that the presence of a "strong" silencing suppressor is a conserved feature of ToCV isolates. PMID:26334965

  14. Outcrossing potential between 11 important genetically modified crops and the Chilean vascular flora.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Cid, Pablo; Navarrete, Humberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Chacón, Gustavo; Salazar, Erika; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on biodiversity is one of the main concerns in an environmental risk assessment (ERA). The likelihood of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow from GM crops and non-GM crops are explained by the same principles and depend primarily on the biology of the species. We conducted a national-scale study of the likelihood of outcrossing between 11 GM crops and vascular plants in Chile by use of a systematized database that included cultivated, introduced and native plant species in Chile. The database included geographical distributions and key biological and agronomical characteristics for 3505 introduced, 4993 native and 257 cultivated (of which 11 were native and 246 were introduced) plant species. Out of the considered GM crops (cotton, soya bean, maize, grape, wheat, rice, sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato), only potato and tomato presented native relatives (66 species total). Introduced relative species showed that three GM groups were formed having: a) up to one introduced relative (cotton and soya bean), b) up to two (rice, grape, maize and wheat) and c) from two to seven (sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato). In particular, GM crops presenting introduced noncultivated relative species were canola (1 relative species), alfalfa (up to 4), rice (1), tomato (up to 2) and potato (up to 2). The outcrossing potential between species [OP; scaled from 'very low' (1) to 'very high' (5)] was developed, showing medium OPs (3) for GM-native relative interactions when they occurred, low (2) for GMs and introduced noncultivated and high (4) for the grape-Vitis vinifera GM-introduced cultivated interaction. This analytical tool might be useful for future ERA for unconfined GM crop release in Chile. PMID:26052925

  15. Genetic structure of the four wil tomato species in the Solanum peruvianum s.l. species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most diverse wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four separate species. However, reproductive barriers among the species are incomplete and this can lead to discrepancies regarding genetic identity of germplasm. We used genotyping by sequencing (...

  16. Genetic and molecular analysis of tomato Cf genes for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C M; Dixon, M S; Parniske, M; Golstein, C; Jones, J D

    1998-01-01

    In many plant-pathogen interactions resistance to disease is controlled by the interaction of plant-encoded resistance (R) genes and pathogen-encoded avirulence (Avr) genes. The interaction between tomato and the leaf mould pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is an ideal system to study the molecular basis of pathogen perception by plants. A total of four tomato genes for resistance to C. fulvum (Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9) have been isolated from two genetically complex chromosomal loci. Their gene products recognize specific C. fulvum-encoded avirulence gene products (Avr2, Avr4, Avr5 and Avr9) by an unknown molecular mechanism. Cf genes encode extracellular membrane-anchored glycoproteins comprised predominantly of 24 amino acid leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Cf genes from the same locus encode proteins which are more than 90% identical. Most of the amino-acid sequence differences correspond to the solvent-exposed residues within a beta-strand/beta-turn structural motif which is highly conserved in LRR proteins. Sequence variability within this motif is predicted to affect the specificity of ligand binding. Our analysis of Cf gene loci at the molecular level has shown they comprise tandemly duplicated homologous genes, and suggests a molecular mechanism for the generation of sequence diversity at these loci. Our analysis provides further insight into the molecular basis of pathogen perception by plants and the organization and evolution of R gene loci. PMID:9800204

  17. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  18. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  19. Accretion stream mapping with `genetically modified fireflies'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, C. M.; Hakala, Pasi; Cropper, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin

    2004-07-01

    We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fireflies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVRC band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find firefly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two-part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour-band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra. We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

  20. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  1. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  2. Genetic diversity of four closely related wild tomato species revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild tomato species have been exploited for many decades to develop cultivated tomato varieties that can resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The most variable wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four distinct species - Solanum peruvianum sensu stricto...

  3. High-resolution mapping and genetic characterization of the Lazy-2 gravitropic mutant of tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Mutation of the Lazy-2 (Lz-2) gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) produces a phytochrome-dependent reversal of shoot gravitropism, providing a unique genetic resource for investigating how signals from light modulate gravitropism. We mapped the Lz-2 gene using RFLPs and a PCR-based technique to assess the feasibility of positional cloning. Analysis of a 1338 plant backcross population between L. esculentum and L. pennellii placed Lz-2 within a 1.2 cM interval on chromosome 5, 0.4 cM from TG504-CT201A interval. The inabililty to resolve these markers indicates that Lz-2 resides in a centromeric region in which recombination is highly suppressed. Lazy-2 is tightly linked to but does not encode the gene for ACC4, an enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We also observed that Lz-2 is partially dominant under certain conditions and stages of development.

  4. A Quantitative Genetic Basis for Leaf Morphology in a Set of Precisely Defined Tomato Introgression Lines[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Kumar, Ravi; Headland, Lauren R.; Ranjan, Aashish; Covington, Michael F.; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Fulop, Daniel; Jiménez-Gómez, José M.; Peng, Jie; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2013-01-01

    Introgression lines (ILs), in which genetic material from wild tomato species is introgressed into a domesticated background, have been used extensively in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) improvement. Here, we genotype an IL population derived from the wild desert tomato Solanum pennellii at ultrahigh density, providing the exact gene content harbored by each line. To take advantage of this information, we determine IL phenotypes for a suite of vegetative traits, ranging from leaf complexity, shape, and size to cellular traits, such as stomatal density and epidermal cell phenotypes. Elliptical Fourier descriptors on leaflet outlines provide a global analysis of highly heritable, intricate aspects of leaf morphology. We also demonstrate constraints between leaflet size and leaf complexity, pavement cell size, and stomatal density and show independent segregation of traits previously assumed to be genetically coregulated. Meta-analysis of previously measured traits in the ILs shows an unexpected relationship between leaf morphology and fruit sugar levels, which RNA-Seq data suggest may be attributable to genetically coregulated changes in fruit morphology or the impact of leaf shape on photosynthesis. Together, our results both improve upon the utility of an important genetic resource and attest to a complex, genetic basis for differences in leaf morphology between natural populations. PMID:23872539

  5. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

  6. Influence of modified atmosphere and ethylene levels on quality attributes of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Irene; Lafuente, María T; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2016-10-15

    Controlling storage atmosphere is a key factor for delaying postharvest fruit quality loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate its influence on physico-chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality attributes of two tomato fruit cultivars (Delizia and Pitenza) that respectively have a short- and long-storage life. To that end, the effect of two types of bags with different gas permeability, combined or not with an ethylene sorbent, on tomato organoleptic and nutritional properties were compared during fruit storage at 13°C. CO2 and O2 were critical factors for controlling tomato postharvest behaviour. Weight loss, firmness, color and visual quality were only affected by bag permeability just as total sugar content and acidity for Pitenza tomatoes. (trans)-2-Hexenal also appears to be related with CO2 and O2 levels. Lycopene, total phenols (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents were also affected by the packaging form and the storage length. Ethylene removal in combination with MAP led to a higher content in TP and AA in the short-life tomato cultivar. PMID:27173554

  7. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

  8. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions. PMID:25298519

  9. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and

  10. Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Bruce A.; Yu, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include induced mutations and spontaneous or wild-derived variations captured in inbred strains. Identification of modifiers among wild-derived variants in particular should detect disease modifiers that have been shaped by selection and might therefore be compatible with high fitness and function. Here we review selected examples and argue that modifier genes derived from natural variation may provide a bias for nodes in genetic networks that have greater intrinsic plasticity and whose therapeutic manipulation may therefore be more resilient to side effects than conventional targets. PMID:22511884

  11. Genetic Resources of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. esculentum) and Wild Relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an important vegetable, with a worldwide area of 4 million hectares and a production of 108.5 million tons. Tomato area has increased by 38% and production has increased by 45% in the past ten years, with most of this increase in China, which has...

  12. Genetic diversity of non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains isolated from tomato seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaluga, Joanna; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Stragier, Pieter; Maes, Martine; De Vos, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a seed-transmitted, quarantine pathogen which causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Despite efforts to prevent seed contamination, new introductions are regularly detected, associated with new regions of tomato seed production. It seems as if the expanding diversity of Cmm also challenges the limited host range. Clavibacter-like isolates from tomato seed are phenotypically similar to Cmm in the common diagnostic semi-selective media and are identified as Cmm in the customary tests but are not pathogenic to tomato. In our first study four representatives formed a separate cluster in gyrB sequence analysis and in MALDI-TOF MS. Their presence on seed prevents clear judgment on the health status of tomato seeds. As their nature and function are unclear we aimed to investigate and compare them to Cmm. Twenty strains described as Clavibacter-like isolated from tomato seed and not pathogenic to tomato plantlets were selected. Leaf spots, wilting or cankers were not induced after local or systemic inoculation. Tomato stems were not colonized nor was there evidence of survival in tomato stems. Total DNA-DNA hybridization and sequence analysis of gyrB and dnaA proved that they belong to the Cm species but can be unambiguously separated from Cmm. Some of the genes encoding virulence determinants in Cmm strains were also detected in some of the non-pathogenic isolates. Moreover, Cmm strains formed a coherent group, while non-pathogenic Cm strains were heterogenic. The latter was confirmed by BOX-PCR. We speculate that tomato seeds likely represent a larger reservoir of unexplored Clavibacter diversity. PMID:23768656

  13. Genetically modified proteins: functional improvement and chimeragenesis

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Podvolotskaya, Anna; Rasskazov, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging role of site-specific mutagenesis and chimeragenesis for the functional improvement of proteins in areas where traditional protein engineering methods have been extensively used and practically exhausted. The novel path for the creation of the novel proteins has been created on the farther development of the new structure and sequence optimization algorithms for generating and designing the accurate structure models in result of x-ray crystallography studies of a lot of proteins and their mutant forms. Artificial genetic modifications aim to expand nature's repertoire of biomolecules. One of the most exciting potential results of mutagenesis or chimeragenesis finding could be design of effective diagnostics, bio-therapeutics and biocatalysts. A sampling of recent examples is listed below for the in vivo and in vitro genetically improvement of various binding protein and enzyme functions, with references for more in-depth study provided for the reader's benefit. PMID:26211369

  14. Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

  15. Genetic modifiers of obesity and bariatric surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Samantha; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable trait. While acute and chronic changes in body weight or obesity-related comorbidities are heavily influenced by environmental factors, there are still strong genomic modifiers that help account for inter-subject variability in baseline traits and in response to interventions. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of genetic influences on obesity, with emphasis on genetic modifiers of baseline traits and responses to intervention. We begin by reviewing how genetic variants can influence obesity. We then examine genetic modifiers of weight loss via different intervention strategies, focusing on known and potential modifiers of surgical weight loss outcomes. We will pay particular attention to the effects of patient age on outcomes, addressing the risks and benefits of adopting early intervention strategies. Finally, we will discuss how the field of bariatric surgery can leverage knowledge of genetic modifiers to adopt a personalized medicine approach for optimal outcomes across this widespread and diverse patient population. PMID:24491368

  16. Allelopathic effect of methanolic extracts of genetically modified and non-genetically modified canola on soybean.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study on the effect of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola on soybean was carried out for physiological and biochemical biosafety assessment of GM canola. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) under sterilized conditions. The extracts applied were of 3, 5, and 10% concentrations. The results showed that methanolic extracts of both GM and non-GM canola improved the germination percentage. However, germination rate index was significantly decreased with concomitant increase in mean germination time of soybean. A significant rate of decrease was observed in root fresh weight while increase in shoot length took place; when treatment of GM canola extracts were applied, however, no effect was observed in shoot fresh weight. A significant increase in protein contents, as well as phenolic, carotenoids, proline, and chlorophyll a content, was observed when different GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean; however, a significant rate of reduction in chlorophyll b content was observed by the application of GM canola treatment. Similar results were observed for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities. A significant increase in the sugar content levels was observed when GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean. PMID:24105070

  17. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  18. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  19. Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Tenbült, Petra; de Vries, Nanne K; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as less natural. The extent to which GM affects the perceived naturalness of a product partly depends on the kind of product. PMID:15896875

  20. Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene in Genetically Engineered Tomato Confers Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Early Blight

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Nyla; Chaudhary, Zubeda; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Rashid, Hamid; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study reporting the evaluation of transgenic lines of tomato harboring rice chitinase (RCG3) gene for resistance to two important fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) causing fusarium wilt and Alternaria solani causing early blight (EB). In this study, three transgenic lines TL1, TL2 and TL3 of tomato Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Riogrande genetically engineered with rice chitinase (RCG 3) gene and their R1 progeny was tested for resistance to Fol by root dip method and A. solani by detached leaf assay. All the R0 transgenic lines were highly resistant to these fungal pathogens compared to non-transgenic control plants. The pattern of segregation of three independent transformant for Fol and A. solani was also studied. Mendelian segregation was observed in transgenic lines 2 and 3 while it was not observed in transgenic line 1. It was concluded that introduction of chitinase gene in susceptible cultivar of tomato not only enhanced the resistance but was stably inherited in transgenic lines 2 and 3. PMID:26361473

  1. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and gaseous ozone treatment on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Daş, Elif; Gürakan, G Candan; Bayindirli, Alev

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of infections associated with raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have been reported. The objective of this study was to analyse the growth/survival of Salmonella Enteritidis at spot-inoculated or stem-injected cherry tomatoes during passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere (CA) and to compare the results with those of air storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. During MAP, the gas composition equilibrated to 6% O2/4% CO2. CO2 level was maintained as 5% through the term of CA storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. The results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis can survive and/or grow during the storage of tomatoes depending on the location site of the pathogen on fruit, suspension cell density and storage temperature. During MAP, CA and air storage, S. Enteritidis with initial population of 7.0 log10 cfu/tomato survived on tomato surfaces with an approximate decrease of 4.0-5.0 log10 cfu/tomato in population within the storage period; however, in the case of initial population of 3.0 log10 cfu/tomato, cells died completely on day 4 during MAP storage and on day 6 during both CA and air storage. The death rate of S. Enteritidis on the surfaces of tomatoes that were stored in MAP was faster than that of stored in air and in CA. Storage temperature was effective on the survival of S. Enteritidis for the samples stored at ambient atmosphere; cells died completely on day 6 at 7 degrees C and on day 8 at 22 degrees C. Stem scars provided protective environments for Salmonella; an approximate increase of 1.0 log10 cfu/tomato in stem-scar population was observed during MAP, CA and air storage at 22 degrees C within the period of 20 days. Cells survived with no significant change in number at 7 degrees C. During the research, the effect of ozone treatment (5-30 mg/l ozone gas for 0-20 min) was also considered for surface sanitation before storage. Gaseous ozone treatment has bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis, inoculated on

  2. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  3. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. PMID:27321680

  4. Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wen, Mengtao; Yao, Jianping

    2006-06-10

    A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels of the filters. Being different from the normal genetic algorithm, the algorithm proposed reduces the problem space of the birefringent filter design to achieve faster speed and better performance. The design of 4-, 8-, and 14-section birefringent filters with an improved sidelobe suppression ratio is realized. A 4-section birefringent filter designed with the algorithm is experimentally realized. PMID:16761031

  5. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of criniviruses associated with tomato yellows disease in Greece.

    PubMed

    Orfanidou, C G; Dimitriou, C; Papayiannis, L C; Maliogka, V I; Katis, N I

    2014-06-24

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) are two whitefly transmitted viruses which are classified in the genus Crinivirus of the family Closteroviridae. Both induce similar yellowing symptoms in tomato and are responsible for severe economic losses. ToCV is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci Gennadious, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood and Trialeurodes abutilonea Haldeman, whereas TICV is transmitted only by T. vaporariorum. An extensive study was conducted during 2009-2012 in order to identify the virus species involved in tomato yellowing disease in Greece. Samples from tomato, other crops and weeds belonging to 44 species from 26 families were collected and analyzed using molecular methods. In addition, adult whiteflies were collected and analyzed using morphological characters and DNA markers. Results showed that TICV prevailed in tomato crops (62.5%), while ToCV incidence was lower (20.5%) and confined in southern Greece. ToCV was also detected in lettuce plants showing mild yellowing symptoms for the first time in Greece. Approximately 13% of the tested weeds were found to be infected, with TICV being the predominant virus with an incidence of 10.8%, whereas ToCV was detected only in 2.2% of the analyzed samples. These results indicate that the host range of TICV and ToCV in Greece is far more extensive than previously believed. T. vaporariorum was the most widespread whitefly species in Greece (80%), followed by B. tabaci (biotypes B and Q) (20%). Sequence analysis of the CP and CPm genes from Greek tomato and weed isolates of ToCV and TICV showed that even though both viruses have very wide host ranges their populations show very low molecular divergence. PMID:24370865

  6. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated

  7. Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-12-01

    Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components. PMID:17080241

  8. ChtVis-Tomato, a genetic reporter for in vivo visualization of chitin deposition in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sobala, Lukasz F; Wang, Ying; Adler, Paul N

    2015-11-15

    Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine that is abundant and widely found in the biological world. It is an important constituent of the cuticular exoskeleton that plays a key role in the insect life cycle. To date, the study of chitin deposition during cuticle formation has been limited by the lack of a method to detect it in living organisms. To overcome this limitation, we have developed ChtVis-Tomato, an in vivo reporter for chitin in Drosophila. ChtVis-Tomato encodes a fusion protein that contains an apical secretion signal, a chitin-binding domain (CBD), a fluorescent protein and a cleavage site to release it from the plasma membrane. The chitin reporter allowed us to study chitin deposition in time lapse experiments and by using it we have identified unexpected deposits of chitin fibers in Drosophila pupae. ChtVis-Tomato should facilitate future studies on chitin in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:26395478

  9. Comparative genetics of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat resistance gene homologues in the genomes of two dicotyledons: tomato and arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Q; Liu, Y S; Budai-Hadrian, O; Sela, M; Carmel-Goren, L; Zamir, D; Fluhr, R

    2000-01-01

    The presence of a single resistance (R) gene allele can determine plant disease resistance. The protein products of such genes may act as receptors that specifically interact with pathogen-derived factors. Most functionally defined R-genes are of the nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) supergene family and are present as large multigene families. The specificity of R-gene interactions together with the robustness of plant-pathogen interactions raises the question of their gene number and diversity in the genome. Genomic sequences from tomato showing significant homology to genes conferring race-specific resistance to pathogens were identified by systematically "scanning" the genome using a variety of primer pairs based on ubiquitous NBS motifs. Over 70 sequences were isolated and 10% are putative pseudogenes. Mapping of the amplified sequences on the tomato genetic map revealed their organization as mixed clusters of R-gene homologues that showed in many cases linkage to genetically characterized tomato resistance loci. Interspecific examination within Lycopersicon showed the existence of a null allele. Consideration of the tomato and potato comparative genetic maps unveiled conserved syntenic positions of R-gene homologues. Phylogenetic clustering of R-gene homologues within tomato and other Solanaceae family members was observed but not with R-gene homologues from Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data indicate remarkably rapid evolution of R-gene homologues during diversification of plant families. PMID:10790405

  10. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  11. Resolving Distinct Genetic Regulators of Tomato Leaf Shape within a Heteroblastic and Ontogenetic Context[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Aashish; Kumar, Ravi; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Zumstein, Kristina; Headland, Lauren R.; Ostria-Gallardo, Enrique; Aguilar-Martínez, José A.; Bush, Susan; Carriedo, Leonela; Fulop, Daniel; Martinez, Ciera C.; Peng, Jie; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf shape is mutable, changing in ways modulated by both development and environment within genotypes. A complete model of leaf phenotype would incorporate the changes in leaf shape during juvenile-to-adult phase transitions and the ontogeny of each leaf. Here, we provide a morphometric description of >33,000 leaflets from a set of tomato (Solanum spp) introgression lines grown under controlled environment conditions. We first compare the shape of these leaves, arising during vegetative development, with >11,000 previously published leaflets from a field setting and >11,000 leaflets from wild tomato relatives. We then quantify the changes in shape, across ontogeny, for successive leaves in the heteroblastic series. Using principal component analysis, we then separate genetic effects modulating (1) the overall shape of all leaves versus (2) the shape of specific leaves in the series, finding the former more heritable than the latter and comparing quantitative trait loci regulating each. Our results demonstrate that phenotype is highly contextual and that unbiased assessments of phenotype, for quantitative genetic or other purposes, would ideally sample the many developmental and environmental factors that modulate it. PMID:25271240

  12. Genetic variation modifies risk for neurodegeneration based on biomarker status

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, Timothy J.; Koran, Mary Ellen I.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While a great deal of work has gone into understanding the relationship between Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, brain atrophy, and disease progression, less work has attempted to investigate how genetic variation modifies these relationships. The goal of this study was two-fold. First, we sought to identify high-risk vs. low-risk individuals based on their CSF tau and Aβ load and characterize these individuals with regard to brain atrophy in an AD-relevant region of interest. Next, we sought to identify genetic variants that modified the relationship between biomarker classification and neurodegeneration. Methods: Participants were categorized based on established cut-points for biomarker positivity. Mixed model regression was used to quantify longitudinal change in the left inferior lateral ventricle. Interaction analyses between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and biomarker group status were performed using a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the Bonferroni procedure. Results: One intergenic SNP (rs4866650) and one SNP within the SPTLC1 gene (rs7849530) modified the association between amyloid positivity and neurodegeneration. A transcript variant of WDR11-AS1 gene (rs12261764) modified the association between tau positivity and neurodegeneration. These effects were consistent across the two sub-datasets and explained approximately 3% of variance in ventricular dilation. One additional SNP (rs6887649) modified the association between amyloid positivity and baseline ventricular volume, but was not observed consistently across the sub-datasets. Conclusions: Genetic variation modifies the association between AD biomarkers and neurodegeneration. Genes that regulate the molecular response in the brain to oxidative stress may be particularly relevant to neural vulnerability to the damaging effects of amyloid-β. PMID:25140149

  13. Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Koehorst-van Putten, H J J; Sudarmonowati, E; Herman, M; Pereira-Bertram, I J; Wolters, A M A; Meima, H; de Vetten, N; Raemakers, C J J M; Visser, R G F

    2012-02-01

    The development and testing in the field of genetically modified -so called- orphan crops like cassava in tropical countries is still in its infancy, despite the fact that cassava is not only used for food and feed but is also an important industrial crop. As traditional breeding of cassava is difficult (allodiploid, vegetatively propagated, outbreeding species) it is an ideal crop for improvement through genetic modification. We here report on the results of production and field testing of genetically modified low-amylose transformants of commercial cassava variety Adira4 in Indonesia. Twenty four transformants were produced and selected in the Netherlands based on phenotypic and molecular analyses. Nodal cuttings of these plants were sent to Indonesia where they were grown under biosafety conditions. After two screenhouse tests 15 transformants remained for a field trial. The tuberous root yield of 10 transformants was not significantly different from the control. Starch from transformants in which amylose was very low or absent showed all physical and rheological properties as expected from amylose-free cassava starch. The improved functionality of the starch was shown for an adipate acetate starch which was made into a tomato sauce. This is the first account of a field trial with transgenic cassava which shows that by using genetic modification it is possible to obtain low-amylose cassava plants with commercial potential with good root yield and starch quality. PMID:21465166

  14. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  15. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  16. Genetic Dissection of Verticillium Wilt Resistance Mediated by Tomato Ve11[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fradin, Emilie F.; Zhang, Zhao; Juarez Ayala, Juan C.; Castroverde, Christian D.M.; Nazar, Ross N.; Robb, Jane; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum cause vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous species, including economically important crops. A locus responsible for resistance against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum has been cloned from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) only. This locus, known as Ve, comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, that encode cell surface receptor proteins of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein class of disease resistance proteins. Here, we show that Ve1, but not Ve2, provides resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and not against race 2 strains. Using virus-induced gene silencing in tomato, the signaling cascade downstream of Ve1 is shown to require both EDS1 and NDR1. In addition, NRC1, ACIF, MEK2, and SERK3/BAK1 also act as positive regulators of Ve1 in tomato. In conclusion, Ve1-mediated resistance signaling only partially overlaps with signaling mediated by Cf proteins, type members of the receptor-like protein class of resistance proteins. PMID:19321708

  17. Dynamics of genetic diversity of Tomato spotted wilt virus in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among known tospoviruses, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) continues to be the major viral disease affecting a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Like many other RNA viruses, TSWV is known to maintain heterogeneous and divergent popul...

  18. Genetic Composition of Pepino mosaic virus Population in North American Greenhouse Tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae. Pepino mosaic is an emerging disease in greenhouse tomato in Europe, North America and South America. Previous research in several laboratories suggests that PepMV consists of numerous sequence variants...

  19. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  20. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. PMID:26436847

  1. [Genetically modified foods. Advantages and human health risks].

    PubMed

    Filip, Lorena; Miere, Doina; Indrei, L L

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important issue with which the mankind is confronting now is related to the quantitatively as well as qualitatively assurance of the food supply necessary for human species existence. In this context, by means of genetic engineering, modified genetic organisms were obtained. In the first stage, plant crops with high productivity and resistant against diseases and pests were obtained. After that, food products having modified organoleptic properties and high nutrition values were produced. The main problem concerning the long-term consumption of these products is their toxicity, which until now was not confirmed or denied. For this reason, tests are necessary to be made in order to stipulate and prevent these effects. PMID:16004228

  2. Manufacturing genetically modified T cells for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gee, A P

    2015-03-01

    Compliance with Food and Drug Administration regulations relating to initiating early phase clinical trials of new cellular therapy products often presents a hurdle to new investigators. One of the biggest obstacles is the requirement to manufacture the therapeutic products under current Good Manufacturing Practices-a system that is usually poorly understood by both basic researchers and clinicians. This article reviews the major points that must be addressed when manufacturing genetically modified T cells for therapeutic use. PMID:25633481

  3. Controversy over genetically modified organisms: the governing laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Keatley, K L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modified. There are other concerns from some of the scientific world and some government officials and organizations such as the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to qualify GMOs as safe for long-term use. Of particular concern are the allergenic properties, a GMO may impart, possible transfer effects of antibiotic resistance (given that antibiotic resistant marker genes are used for many GMOs), the expression of previously unexpressed traits, and the drift of pollen from genetically modified crops. It has also been noted that the laws and regulations governing the biotechnology world are outdated, are not comprehensive, and span too many agencies. The primary agencies currently regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PMID:11710306

  4. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies. PMID:26035842

  5. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

    2004-09-01

    Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

  7. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  8. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

  9. The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kateřina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

  10. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient either because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard, because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds, or because they can be overcome by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code to confer metabolic dependence on nonstandard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically circumvent their biocontainment mechanisms using environmentally available compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape via mutagenesis and HGT. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

  11. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  12. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  13. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  14. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  15. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans. PMID:26380899

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China’s major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans. PMID:26380899

  17. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here. PMID:11890465

  18. Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araujo, Welington Luiz

    2003-11-01

    About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as yeasts. After the introduction of recombinant DNA techniques, the transfer of DNA between species belonging to different genera, families or kingdoms became possible. The release of transgenic plants has aroused debates about several aspects of the environmental and human risks that could result from the introduction of genetically modified crops. Less effort has been dedicated to evaluate the impact of transgenic plants on their associated microorganisms, some of which (e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic microbiota) are extremely important for the survival of the plant. Investigations have been made regarding the horizontal transfer of genetic material between transgenic plants and microorganisms and on the disturbance of useful symbiotic associations between plants and endophytic, epiphytic and rhizosphere communities. In most cases the results do no show any adverse effect of transgenic plants on autochthonous plant-associated microorganisms. Results from our laboratory show small changes caused by genetically modified endophytic bacteria on the indigenous endophytic population of the sweet orange Citrus sinensis. In tests using appropriated fungal strains preliminary results using extracts from transgenic plants indicate that these plants do not affect haploidization, mitotic crossing-over, mutation rate or chromosomal alterations. PMID:14644324

  19. Genetically Modified T-Cell Therapy for Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    DeRenzo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    T-cell immunotherapy may offer an approach to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma, who fail current therapies. In addition, it has the potential to reduce treatment-related complications for all patients. Generating tumor-specific T cells with conventional antigen presenting cells ex vivo is time consuming and often results in T-cell products with a low frequency of tumor-specific T cells. In addition, the generated T cells remain sensitive to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Genetic modification of T cells is one strategy to overcome these limitations. For example, T cells can be genetically modified to render them antigen specific, resistant to inhibitory factors, or increase their ability to home to tumor sites. Most genetic modification strategies have only been evaluated in preclinical models, however early phase clinical trials are in progress. In this chapter we review the current status of gene-modified T-cell therapy with special focus on osteosarcoma, highlighting potential antigenic targets, preclinical and clinical studies, and strategies to improve current T-cell therapy approaches. PMID:24924183

  20. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

  1. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

  2. Genetic complexity of pathogen perception by plants: The example of Rcr3, a tomato gene required specifically by Cf-2

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark S.; Golstein, Catherine; Thomas, Colwyn M.; van der Biezen, Erik A.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic analysis of plant–pathogen interactions has demonstrated that resistance to infection is often determined by the interaction of dominant plant resistance (R) genes and dominant pathogen-encoded avirulence (Avr) genes. It was postulated that R genes encode receptors for Avr determinants. A large number of R genes and their cognate Avr genes have now been analyzed at the molecular level. R gene loci are extremely polymorphic, particularly in sequences encoding amino acids of the leucine-rich repeat motif. A major challenge is to determine how Avr perception by R proteins triggers the plant defense response. Mutational analysis has identified several genes required for the function of specific R proteins. Here we report the identification of Rcr3, a tomato gene required specifically for Cf-2-mediated resistance. We propose that Avr products interact with host proteins to promote disease, and that R proteins “guard” these host components and initiate Avr-dependent plant defense responses. PMID:10922039

  3. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s...

  4. Thrips tabaci Population Genetic Structure and Polyploidy in Relation to Competency as a Vector of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Alana L.; Booth, Warren; Vargo, Edward L.; Kennedy, George G.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of population-level genetic differences can help explain variation among populations of insect vectors in their role in the epidemiology of specific viruses. Variation in competency to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that exists among populations of Thrips tabaci has been associated with the presence of cryptic species that exhibit different modes of reproduction and host ranges. However, recent findings suggest that vector competency of T. tabaci at any given location depends on the thrips and virus populations that are present. This study characterizes the population genetic structure of T. tabaci collected from four locations in North Carolina and examines the relationship between population genetic structure and variation in TSWV transmission by T. tabaci. Mitochondrial COI sequence analysis revealed the presence of two genetically distinct groups with one characterized by thelytokous, parthenogenetic reproduction and the other by arrhenotokous, sexual reproduction. Using a set of 11 microsatellite markers that we developed to investigate T. tabaci population genetic structure, we identified 17 clonal groups and found significant genetic structuring among the four NC populations that corresponded to the geographic locations where the populations were collected. Application of microsatellite markers also led to the discovery of polyploidy in this species. All four populations contained tetraploid individuals, and three contained both diploid and tetraploid individuals. Analysis of variation in transmission ofTSWV among isofemale lines initiated with individuals used in this study revealed that ‘clone assignment,’ ‘virus isolate’ and their interaction significantly influenced vector competency. These results highlight the importance of interactions between specific T. tabaci clonal types and specific TSWV isolates underlying transmission of TSWV by T. tabaci. PMID:23365671

  5. Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for Potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Owens, Robert; Baker, C Jacyn; Deahl, Kenneth; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2014-03-01

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however, one report in the literature describes the presence of viroid RNA in the xylem ring of potato tubers. In this study, a modified method based on an EDTA-mediated phloem exudation technique was applied for detection of PSTVd in the phloem of infected tomato plants. RT-PCR, nucleic acid sequencing, and Southern blot analyses of RT-PCR products verified the presence of viroid RNA in phloem exudates. In addition, the guttation fluid collected from the leaves of PSTVd-infected tomato plants was analyzed revealing the absence of viroid RNA in the xylem sap. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PSTVd RNA detection in phloem exudates obtained by the EDTA-mediated exudation technique. PMID:24388932

  6. Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

  7. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

  8. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900

  9. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

  10. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society. PMID:22267031

  11. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  12. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  13. Maximum hydrogen production from genetically modified microalgae biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Jose; Kava, Vanessa; Ordonez, Juan

    A transient mathematical model for managing microalgae derived H2 production as a source of renewable energy is developed for a well stirred photobioreactor, PBR. The model allows for the determination of microalgae and H2 mass fractions produced by the PBR in time. A Michaelis-Menten expression is proposed for modeling the rate of H2 production, which introduces an expression to calculate the resulting effect on H2 production rate after genetically modifying the microalgae. The indirect biophotolysis process was used. Therefore, an opportunity was found to optimize the aerobic to anaerobic stages time ratio of the cycle for maximum H2 production rate, i.e., the process rhythm. A system thermodynamic optimization is conducted with the model equations to find accurately the optimal system operating rhythm for maximum H2 production rate, and how wild and genetically modified species compare to each other. The maxima found are sharp, showing up to a ~60% variation in hydrogen production rate within 2 days around the optimal rhythm, which highlights the importance of system operation in such condition. Therefore, the model is expected to be useful for design, control and optimization of H2 production. Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq (project 482336/2012-9).

  14. Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.

    PubMed

    Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

    2013-06-15

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

  15. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  16. How to make foods safer--genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Moseley, B E

    2001-01-01

    It is the responsibility of companies developing genetically modified foods, and of regulatory authorities that approve their marketing, to ensure that they are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are intended to replace in the diet. This requires that any novel material introduced into the food material should not be allergenic. If the novel gene has come from an allergenic source, e.g. nuts, it is necessary to demonstrate using immunological procedures applied to the IgE fractions of pooled sera from individuals with confirmed allergies that the novel protein is non-allergenic. When the novel gene is from a non-allergenic source then it is necessary to demonstrate lack of significant amino acid sequence homology to known allergens together with sensitivity to food manufacturing and digestive processes. Consumer confidence in genetically modified foods would be significantly improved if hypoallergenic varieties of crops and food products that are currently allergenic could be developed. Techniques such as antisense technology and single site amino acid substitution have been shown to have such potential. PMID:11298012

  17. Genetic Modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Politano, Luisa; Melacini, Paola; Calore, Chiara; Polo, Angela; Vianello, Sara; Sorarù, Gianni; Semplicini, Claudio; Pantic, Boris; Taglia, Antonella; Picillo, Ester; Magri, Francesca; Gorni, Ksenija; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Vita, Giuseppe; Comi, Giacomo P.; Ermani, Mario; Calvo, Vincenzo; Angelini, Corrado; Hoffman, Eric P.; Pegoraro, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA) in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4) also modify DCM onset. Methods A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% and/or end diastolic volume > 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior); DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up. Results Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown) did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027). Conclusions We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts. PMID:26513582

  18. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

  19. Mouse Sperm Cryopreservation and Recovery of Genetically Modified Mice.

    PubMed

    Low, Benjamin E; Taft, Rob A; Wiles, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Highly definable genetically, the humble mouse is the "reagent" mammal of choice with which to probe and begin to understand the human condition in all its complexities. With the recent advance in direct genome editing via targeted nucleases, e.g., TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, the possibilities in using these sophisticated tools have increased substantially leading to a massive increase in the variety of strain numbers of genetically modified lines. With this increase comes a greater need to economically and creatively manage their numbers. Further, once characterized, lines may be of limited use but still need to be archived in a format allowing their rapid resurrection. Further, maintaining colonies on "the shelf" is financially draining and carries potential risks including natural disaster loss, disease, and strain contamination. Here we outline a simple and economic protocol to cryopreserve mouse sperm from many different genetic backgrounds, and outline its recovery via in vitro fertilization (IVF). The combined use of sperm cryopreservation and IVF now allows a freedom and versatility in mouse management facilitating rapid line close down with the option to later recover and rapidly expand as needed. PMID:27150083

  20. Identification of the carotenoid modifying gene PALE YELLOW PETAL 1 as an essential factor in xanthophyll esterification and yellow flower pigmentation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Kishimoto, Sanae; Kakami, Ryo; Maoka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yuko; Shirasawa, Kenta; Bernillon, Stephane; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Moing, Annick; Asamizu, Erika; Rothan, Christophe; Ohmiya, Akemi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Xanthophylls, the pigments responsible for yellow to red coloration, are naturally occurring carotenoid compounds in many colored tissues of plants. These pigments are esterified within the chromoplast; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying their accumulation in flower organs. In this study, we characterized two allelic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants, pale yellow petal (pyp) 1-1 and pyp1-2, that have reduced yellow color intensity in the petals and anthers due to loss-of-function mutations. Carotenoid analyses showed that the yellow flower organs of wild-type tomato contained high levels of xanthophylls that largely consisted of neoxanthin and violaxanthin esterified with myristic and/or palmitic acids. Functional disruption of PYP1 resulted in loss of xanthophyll esters, which was associated with a reduction in the total carotenoid content and disruption of normal chromoplast development. These findings suggest that xanthophyll esterification promotes the sequestration of carotenoids in the chromoplast and that accumulation of these esters is important for normal chromoplast development. Next-generation sequencing coupled with map-based positional cloning identified the mutant alleles responsible for the pyp1 phenotype. PYP1 most likely encodes a carotenoid modifying protein that plays a vital role in the production of xanthophyll esters in tomato anthers and petals. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the production of xanthophyll esters in higher plants, thereby shedding light on a longstanding mystery. PMID:24888879

  1. Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.

    PubMed

    Meriç, S; Cakır, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Arı, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

  2. PCR-free detection of genetically modified organisms using magnetic capture technology and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Chen, Wei R

    2009-01-01

    The safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has attracted much attention recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a common method used in the identification of GMOs. However, a major disadvantage of PCR is the potential amplification of non-target DNA, causing false-positive identification. Thus, there remains a need for a simple, reliable and ultrasensitive method to identify and quantify GMO in crops. This report is to introduce a magnetic bead-based PCR-free method for rapid detection of GMOs using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter commonly used in transgenic products was targeted. CaMV35S target was captured by a biotin-labeled nucleic acid probe and then purified using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-streptavidin linkage. The purified target DNA fragment was hybridized with two nucleic acid probes labeled respectively by Rhodamine Green and Cy5 dyes. Finally, FCCS was used to detect and quantify the target DNA fragment through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence emissions from the two dyes. In our study, GMOs in genetically engineered soybeans and tomatoes were detected, using the magnetic bead-based PCR-free FCCS method. A detection limit of 50 pM GMOs target was achieved and PCR-free detection of GMOs from 5 microg genomic DNA with magnetic capture technology was accomplished. Also, the accuracy of GMO determination by the FCCS method is verified by spectrophotometry at 260 nm using PCR amplified target DNA fragment from GM tomato. The new method is rapid and effective as demonstrated in our experiments and can be easily extended to high-throughput and automatic screening format. We believe that the new magnetic bead-assisted FCCS detection technique will be a useful tool for PCR-free GMOs identification and other specific nucleic acids. PMID:19956680

  3. PCR-Free Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms Using Magnetic Capture Technology and Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-01-01

    The safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has attracted much attention recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a common method used in the identification of GMOs. However, a major disadvantage of PCR is the potential amplification of non-target DNA, causing false-positive identification. Thus, there remains a need for a simple, reliable and ultrasensitive method to identify and quantify GMO in crops. This report is to introduce a magnetic bead-based PCR-free method for rapid detection of GMOs using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter commonly used in transgenic products was targeted. CaMV35S target was captured by a biotin-labeled nucleic acid probe and then purified using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-streptavidin linkage. The purified target DNA fragment was hybridized with two nucleic acid probes labeled respectively by Rhodamine Green and Cy5 dyes. Finally, FCCS was used to detect and quantify the target DNA fragment through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence emissions from the two dyes. In our study, GMOs in genetically engineered soybeans and tomatoes were detected, using the magnetic bead-based PCR-free FCCS method. A detection limit of 50 pM GMOs target was achieved and PCR-free detection of GMOs from 5 µg genomic DNA with magnetic capture technology was accomplished. Also, the accuracy of GMO determination by the FCCS method is verified by spectrophotometry at 260 nm using PCR amplified target DNA fragment from GM tomato. The new method is rapid and effective as demonstrated in our experiments and can be easily extended to high-throughput and automatic screening format. We believe that the new magnetic bead-assisted FCCS detection technique will be a useful tool for PCR-free GMOs identification and other specific nucleic acids. PMID:19956680

  4. Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Frey, Joachim

    2007-07-26

    Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment

  5. Methods to Study Metastasis in Genetically Modified Mice.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farhia; Beverly, Levi J; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Podsypanina, Katrina

    2016-02-01

    Metastasis is often modeled by xenotransplantation of cell lines in immunodeficient mice. A wealth of information about tumor cell behavior in the new environment is obtained from these efforts. Yet by design, this approach is "tumor-centric," as it focuses on cell-autonomous determinants of human tumor dissemination in mouse tissues, in effect using the animal body as a sophisticated "Petri dish" providing nutrients and support for tumor growth. Transgenic or gene knockout mouse models of cancer allow the study of tumor spread as a systemic disease and offer a complimentary approach for studying the natural history of cancer. This introduction is aimed at describing the overall methodological approach to studying metastasis in genetically modified mice, with a particular focus on using animals with regulated expression of potent human oncogenes in the breast. PMID:26832689

  6. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples. PMID:27086015

  7. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

  8. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  9. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food. PMID:16298508

  10. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  11. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods. PMID:19146501

  12. Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Here we provide the first experimental evidence that public concerns about the use of animals in research are accentuated when genetically modified (GM) animals are used. Using an online survey, we probed participant views on two uses of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without GM. We surveyed 327 animal technicians, researchers, advocates, university students and others. In both scenarios and across demographics, support dropped off when the research required the use of GM pigs or GM corn. For example, 66% of participants supported using pigs to reduce phosphorus pollution, but this declined to 49% when the pigs were fed GM corn and to 20% when the research required the creation of a new GM line of pigs. Those involved in animal research were more consistently supportive compared to those who were not or those who were vegetarians. PMID:21560543

  13. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

  14. Genetically modified foods, science, consumers and the media.

    PubMed

    Rowland, I R

    2002-02-01

    In contrast to the situation in the USA, where a wide range of genetically modified (GM) foods is available, in Europe very few GM products have been approved for marketing as foods, and there is widespread public concern about their safety and environmental impact. The marketing of a GM crop for food use in Europe falls under the EC novel foods regulations, and applications require the submission of an extensive dossier of information. The safety evaluation of GM foods presents considerable problems both in the conduct and interpretation of experimental studies, because conventional toxicity tests used in the evaluation of simple chemicals may not be appropriate for whole foods. To rationalise the safety evaluation process and to circumvent the difficulties in toxicological assessment of food materials, the concept of substantial equivalence has been developed. The concept is that if it can be demonstrated that the novel food is essentially similar to its conventional counterpart in terms of critical nutritional or anutritional components, then it is likely to be no more or less toxic than the latter. The possible introduction of unintended effects by the genetic modification process is particularly problematic for the safety evaluation process. The new genomic and post-genomic techniques are potentially valuable in the safety evaluation of GM foods, although they are as yet in their infancy. PMID:12002791

  15. Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

  16. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics. PMID:25716164

  17. Genetic and physiological analysis of tomato fruit weight and composition: influence of carbon availability on QTL detection.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Marion; Causse, Mathilde; Génard, Michel; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Bertin, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Throughout tomato domestication, a large increase in fruit size was associated with a loss of dry matter and sugar contents. This study aims to dissect the contributions of genetic variation and the physiological processes underlying the relationships between fruit growth and the accumulation of dry matter and sugars. Fruit quality traits and physiological parameters were measured on 20 introgression lines derived from the introgression of Solanum chmielewskii into S. lycopersicum, under high (HL, unpruned trusses) and low (LL, trusses pruned to one fruit) fruit load conditions. Inter- and intra-genotypic correlations among traits were estimated and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for size, composition, and physiological traits were mapped. LL increased almost all traits, but the response of sugar content was genotype-dependent, involving either dilution effects or differences in carbon allocation to sugars. Genotype x fruit load interactions were significant for most traits and only 30% of the QTL were stable under both fruit loads. Many QTL for fresh weight and cell or seed numbers co-localized. Eleven clusters of QTL for fresh weight and dry matter or sugar content were detected, eight with opposite allele effects and three with negative effects. Two genotypic antagonistic relationships, between fresh weight and dry matter content and between cell number and cell size, were significant only under HL; the second could be interpreted as a competition for carbohydrates among cells. The role of cuticular conductance, fruit transpiration or cracking in the relationship between fruit fresh weight and composition was also emphasized at the genetic and physiological levels. PMID:19179559

  18. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Shree P; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P. syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California. PMID:26966221

  19. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

  20. Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.

    PubMed

    León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-10-21

    In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

  1. Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenke

    2010-02-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems. PMID:19806453

  2. Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2005-01-01

    The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  3. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price. PMID:16834625

  4. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. PMID:26567205

  5. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended. PMID:26931607

  6. Fungal community associated with genetically modified poplar during metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Hur, Moonsuk; Lim, Young Woon; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Choi, Young Im; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Il; Yi, Hana

    2012-12-01

    Due to the increasing demand for phytoremediation, many transgenic poplars have been developed to enhance the bioremediation of heavy metals. However, structural changes to indigenous fungal communities by genetically modified organisms (GMO) presents a major ecological issue, due to the important role of fungi for plant growth in natural environments. To evaluate the effect of GM plant use on environmental fungal soil communities, extensive sequencing-based community analysis was conducted, while controlling the influence of plant clonality, plant age, soil condition, and harvesting season. The rhizosphere soils of GM and wild type (WT) poplars at a range of growth stages were sampled together with unplanted, contaminated soil, and the fungal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing the D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene. The results show that the overall structure of the rhizosphere fungal community was not significantly influenced by GM poplars. However, the presence of GM specific taxa, and faster rate of community change during poplar growth, appeared to be characteristic of the GM plant-induced effects on soil-born fungal communities. The results of this study provide additional information about the potential effects of GM poplar trees aged 1.5-3 years, on the soil fungal community. PMID:23274976

  7. Aphid–parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat

    PubMed Central

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J. F.; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore–natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid–parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited. PMID:21247941

  8. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  9. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria. PMID:12083279

  10. Genetically modified crops: success, safety assessment, and public concern.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om V; Ghai, Shivani; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-08-01

    With the emergence of transgenic technologies, new ways to improve the agronomic performance of crops for food, feed, and processing applications have been devised. In addition, ability to express foreign genes using transgenic technologies has opened up options for producing large quantities of commercially important industrial or pharmaceutical products in plants. Despite this high adoption rate and future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the environment. Potential contamination of the environment and food chains has prompted detailed consideration of how such crops and the molecules that they produce can be effectively isolated and contained. One of the reasonable steps after creating a transgenic plant is to evaluate its potential benefits and risks to the environment and these should be compared to those generated by traditional agricultural practices. The precautionary approach in risk management of GM plants may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Effective risk assessment and monitoring mechanisms are the basic prerequisites of any legal framework to adequately address the risks and watch out for new risks. Several agencies in different countries monitor the release of GM organisms or frame guidelines for the appropriate application of recombinant organisms in agro-industries so as to assure the safe use of recombinant organisms and to achieve sound overall development. We feel that it is important to establish an internationally harmonized framework for the safe handling of recombinant DNA organisms within a few years. PMID:16639559

  11. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  12. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  13. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  14. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  15. [Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sauce in the southern Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler Morales, B; Sepúlveda Bravo, O; Ruiz Fuentes, D; Denegri Coria, M

    2008-03-01

    The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modification in food was generally more important than the brand and purchase price. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished, with the most numerous (49.3%) placing the greatest importance on the presence of genetic modification (GM) in food and rejecting the transgenic product. The second group (39.4%) gave the greatest importance to the brand and preferred tomato sauce with genetically modified ingredients. The smallest segment (11.3%) placed the greatest value on price and preferred transgenic tomato sauce. The three segments prefer the national brand, reject the store brand and react positively to lower prices. The segment sensitive to the presence of GM in food comprised mainly those younger than 35 years of age, single and with no children. The absence of GM in food of vegetable origin is desirable for young consumers in the Araucanía Region, but a significant proportion accepts genetic modification in food (50.7%). PMID:18589572

  16. Silencing of the tomato sugar partitioning affecting protein (SPA) modifies sink strength through a shift in leaf sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Luisa; de Godoy, Fabiana; Baldet, Pierre; Demarco, Diego; Osorio, Sonia; Quadrana, Leandro; Almeida, Juliana; Asis, Ramón; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R; Rossi, Magdalena; Carrari, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Limitations in our understanding about the mechanisms that underlie source-sink assimilate partitioning are increasingly becoming a major hurdle for crop yield enhancement via metabolic engineering. By means of a comprehensive approach, this work reports the functional characterization of a DnaJ chaperone related-protein (named as SPA; sugar partition-affecting) that is involved in assimilate partitioning in tomato plants. SPA protein was found to be targeted to the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. SPA-RNAi tomato plants produced more and heavier fruits compared with controls, thus resulting in a considerable increment in harvest index. The transgenic plants also displayed increased pigment levels and reduced sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in leaves. Detailed metabolic and enzymatic activities analyses showed that sugar phosphate intermediates were increased while the activity of phosphoglucomutase, sugar kinases and invertases was reduced in the photosynthetic organs of the silenced plants. These changes would be anticipated to promote carbon export from foliar tissues. The combined results suggested that the tomato SPA protein plays an important role in plastid metabolism and mediates the source-sink relationships by affecting the rate of carbon translocation to fruits. PMID:24372694

  17. Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Kleter, Gijs A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

  18. A Genetic Screen Reveals Arabidopsis Stomatal and/or Apoplastic Defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiqing; Brutus, Alexandre; Kremer, James M.; Withers, John C.; Gao, Xiaoli; Jones, A. Daniel; He, Sheng Yang

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata), multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast) of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR) is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst) DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord) mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA)-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA), and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to implicate

  19. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  20. NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

  1. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

  2. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  3. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods. PMID:17468097

  4. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    PubMed

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  5. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  6. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. PMID:25903238

  7. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  8. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) website: genome-wide association analysis for genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H.; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. OBJECTIVE Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. METHODS In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. RESULTS Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. CONCLUSIONS Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/. PMID:26444025

  9. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer. PMID:27147933

  10. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer. PMID:27147933

  11. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

  12. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) germplasm collection based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zou, Q D; Qi, S Y; Wang, X F; Wu, Y Y; Liu, N; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Li, H T

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic diversity is important to assist breeders in the selection of parental materials and in the design of breeding programs. In this study, we genotyped 348 inbred tomato lines, representing vintage and contemporary fresh-market varieties, by using 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 45 of these were found to be polymorphic. The average minor allele frequency and unbiased expected heterozygosity were 0.315 and 0.356, respectively. Population structure analysis revealed that contemporary germplasm could be distinctly divided into six subpopulations representing three market classes and breeding programs (pink, green, and red). Vintage germplasm could be separated into at least two subpopulations, and more admixtures were found in vintage lines than in contemporary lines. These findings indicate that contemporary inbred lines are more diversified than vintage inbred lines. AMOVA of vintage and contemporary lines was performed. A significant difference was found (P < 0.01), which explained 17.4% of the total genetic variance. Subsequently, we constructed a core collection using 45 polymorphic SNP markers. The data showed that all alleles were captured by only 2% of lines, indicating that more alleles, as well as rare alleles, could enable more variation to be captured in the core collection. These data allow us to discard redundant inbred tomato lines and to select elite inbred lines, which will accelerate the breeding process. PMID:27525883

  14. Suppression of NGB and NAB/ERabp1 in tomato modifies root responses to potato cyst nematode infestation.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Czarny, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Anita; Fudali, Sylwia; Baranowski, Łukasz; Sobczak, Mirosław; Święcicka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Dobosz, Renata; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Filipecki, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to major crops throughout the world. The small number of genes conferring natural plant resistance and the limitations of chemical control require the development of new protective strategies. RNA interference or the inducible over-expression of nematicidal genes provides an environment-friendly approach to this problem. Candidate genes include NGB, which encodes a small GTP-binding protein, and NAB/ERabp1, which encodes an auxin-binding protein, which were identified as being up-regulated in tomato roots in a transcriptome screen of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) feeding sites. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization confirmed the localized up-regulation of these genes in syncytia and surrounding cells following nematode infection. Gene-silencing constructs were introduced into tomato, resulting in a 20%-98% decrease in transcription levels. Nematode infection tests conducted on transgenic plants showed 57%-82% reduction in the number of G. rostochiensis females in vitro and 30%-46% reduction in pot trials. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a deterioration of cytoplasm, and degraded mitochondria and plastids, in syncytia induced in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. Cytoplasm in syncytia induced in plants with low NGB expression was strongly electron translucent and contained very few ribosomes; however, mitochondria and plastids remained intact. Functional impairments in syncytial cytoplasm of silenced plants may result from NGB's role in ribosome biogenesis; this was confirmed by localization of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-labelled NGB protein in nucleoli and co-repression of NGB in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. These results demonstrate that NGB and NAB/ERabp1 play important roles in the development of nematode-induced syncytia. PMID:25131407

  15. Polyethylene mulch modifies greenhouse microclimate and reduces infection of phytophthora infestans in tomato and Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shtienberg, D; Elad, Y; Bornstein, M; Ziv, G; Grava, A; Cohen, S

    2010-01-01

    The individual and joint effects of covering the soil with polyethylene mulch before planting and fungicides commonly used by organic growers on tomato late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) were studied in three experiments conducted from 2002 to 2005. Application of fungicides resulted in inconsistent and insufficient late blight suppression (control efficacy +/- standard error of 34.5 +/- 14.3%) but the polyethylene mulch resulted in consistent, effective, and highly significant suppression (control efficacy of 83.6 +/- 5.5%) of the disease. The combined effect of the two measures was additive. In a second set of three experiments carried out between 2004 and 2006, it was found that the type of polyethylene mulch used (bicolor aluminized, clear, or black) did not affect the efficacy of late blight suppression (control efficacy of 60.1 to 95.8%) and the differences in the effects among the different polyethylene mulches used were insignificant. Next, the ability of the mulch to suppress cucumber downy mildew (caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was studied in four experiments carried out between 2006 and 2008. The mulch effectively suppressed cucumber downy mildew but the effect was less substantial (control efficacy of 34.9 +/- 4.8%) than that achieved for tomato late blight. The disease-suppressing effect of mulch appeared to come from a reduction in leaf wetness duration, because mulching led to reductions in both the frequency of nights when dew formed and the number of dew hours per night when it formed. Mulching also reduced relative humidity in the canopy, which may have reduced sporulation. PMID:19968555

  16. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed. PMID:15378169

  17. Genetic ablation of carotene oxygenases and consumption of lycopene or tomato powder diets modulate carotenoid and lipid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nikki A; Elsen, Amy C; Erdman, John W

    2013-09-01

    Carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO-I) cleaves β-carotene to form vitamin A, whereas carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (CMO-II) preferentially cleaves non-provitamin A carotenoids. Recent reports indicate that β-carotene metabolites regulate dietary lipid uptake, whereas lycopene regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression. To determine the physiologic consequences of carotenoids and their interactions with CMO-I and CMO-II, we characterized mammalian carotenoid metabolism, metabolic perturbations, and lipid metabolism in female CMO-I(-/-) and CMO-II(-/-) mice fed lycopene or tomato-containing diets for 30 days. We hypothesized that there would be significant interactions between diet and genotype on carotenoid accumulation and lipid parameters. CMO-I(-/-) mice had higher levels of leptin, insulin, and hepatic lipidosis but lower levels of serum cholesterol. CMO-II(-/-) mice had increased tissue lycopene and phytofluene accumulation, reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and cholesterol levels, but elevated liver lipids and cholesterol compared with wild-type mice. The diets did not modulate these genotypic perturbations, but lycopene and tomato powder significantly decreased serum insulin-like growth factor 1. Tomato powder also increased hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression, independent of genotype. These data point to the pleiotropic actions of CMO-I and CMO-II supporting a strong role of these proteins in regulating tissue carotenoid accumulation and the lipid metabolic phenotype as well as tomato carotenoid-independent regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:24034573

  18. Genetic ablation of carotene oxygenases and consumption of lycopene or tomato powder diets modulates carotenoid and lipid metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nikki A.; Elsen, Amy C.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO-I) cleaves β-carotene to form vitamin A while carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO-II) preferentially cleaves non-provitamin A carotenoids. Recent reports indicate that beta-carotene metabolites regulate dietary lipid uptake while lycopene regulates peroxisome-proliferated activator receptor (PPAR) expression. To determine the physiologic consequences of carotenoids and their interactions with CMO-I and CMO-II, we characterized mammalian carotenoid metabolism, metabolic perturbations and lipid metabolism in female CMO-I−/− and CMO-II−/− mice fed lycopene or tomato-containing diets for 30 days. We hypothesized that there would be significant interactions between diet and genotype on carotenoid accumulation and lipid parameters. CMO-I−/− mice had higher levels of leptin, insulin and hepatic lipidosis, but lower levels of serum cholesterol. CMO-II−/− mice had increased tissue lycopene and phytofluene accumulation, reduced IGF-1 levels and cholesterol levels, but elevated liver lipids and cholesterol compared with WT mice. The diets did not modulate these genotypic perturbations, but lycopene and tomato powder did significantly decrease serum insulin-like growth factor-I. Tomato powder also reduced hepatic PPAR expression, independent of genotype. These data point to the pleiotropic actions of CMO-I and CMO-II supporting a strong role of these proteins in regulating tissue carotenoid accumulation and the lipid metabolic phenotype, as well as tomato carotenoid-independent regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:24034573

  19. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  20. Tomato Preserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  1. Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

  2. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. PMID:25063421

  3. Combined transcriptome, genetic diversity and metabolite profiling in tomato fruit reveals the ethylene response factor SlERF6 to play an important role in ripening and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its wild relatives harbor genetic diversity that yields heritable variation in fruit chemistry that could be exploited to identify genes regulating their synthesis and accumulation. Carotenoids, for example, are essential in plant and animal nutrition and are the vi...

  4. Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy. PMID:24474888

  5. Transient Silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during Fruit Ripening Modifies Tomato Epidermal Cells and Cuticle Properties1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids. PMID:25277718

  6. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  7. Chemical and flavor profiles of genetically modified peanut varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop throughout the world. It is susceptible to many types of fungal pathogens. Genetic engineering offers great potential for developing peanut cultivars resistant to a broad spectrum of pathogens that pose a recurring threat to peanut hea...

  8. Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

  9. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  10. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  11. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  12. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

  13. Interacting proteins as genetic modifiers of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Friedman, Meyer; Li, Shihua

    2007-11-01

    Huntington disease is caused by polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin, a 350 kD protein that is ubiquitously expressed and widely distributed at the subcellular level. Recently, Kaltenbach et al. identified a large collection of novel huntingtin-interacting proteins, several of which modify mutant huntingtin toxicity in Drosophila. Thus, the interaction of mutant huntingtin with certain protein partners can influence its toxicity and therefore the severity and/or progression of Huntington disease. PMID:17961788

  14. [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].

    PubMed

    Aris, A; Paris, K

    2010-12-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. PMID:21111655

  15. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis. PMID:17300145

  16. Genetic diversity of Pepino mosaic virus in the U.S. and identification of a tomato infecting strain capable of inducing disease on potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers were once reluctant to remove Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV)-infected tomato plants because its effect on yield was considered mild. Pepino mosaic has now become an endemic disease problem on greenhouse tomatoes in the U. S. Recently, viroids (i.e., Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid - TCDVd) were...

  17. Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I

    2004-07-01

    The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process. PMID:15123387

  18. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

  19. From miracle fruit to transgenic tomato: mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Duhita, Narendra; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    The utility of plants as biofactories has progressed in recent years. Some recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical products have already reached the marketplace. However, with the exception of drugs and vaccines, a strong effort has not yet been made to bring recombinant products to market, as cost-effectiveness is critically important for commercialization. Sweet-tasting proteins and taste-modifying proteins have a great deal of potential in industry as substitutes for sugars and as artificial sweeteners. The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, functions to change the perception of a sour taste to a sweet one. This taste-modifying function can potentially be used not only as a low-calorie sweetener but also as a new seasoning that could be the basis of a new dietary lifestyle. However, miraculin is far from inexpensive, and its potential as a marketable product has not yet been fully developed. For the last several years, biotechnological production of this taste-modifying protein has progressed extensively. In this review, the characteristics of miraculin and recent advances in its production using transgenic plants are summarized, focusing on such topics as the suitability of plant species as expression hosts, the cultivation method for transgenic plants, the method of purifying miraculin and future advances required to achieve industrial use. PMID:22160133

  20. Improved genetically modified Escherichia coli strain for prescreening antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Bartus, H R; Mirabelli, C K; Auerbach, J I; Shatzman, A R; Taylor, D P; Johnson, R K; Rosenberg, M; Crooke, S T

    1984-01-01

    Clinical experience suggests that drugs that interact with and damage DNA are useful in cancer chemotherapy (H. Umezawa , p. 43-72, in V. T. DeVita , Jr., and H. Busch [ed.], Methods in Cancer Research; Cancer Drug Development, vol. XVI, 1979). Prescreening systems for antitumor agents in natural products require assays that are exquisitely sensitive, since the active components are often produced in quantities of micrograms per milliliter or less. One assay used to identify agents that interact with DNA is the biochemical induction assay, utilizing Escherichia coli BR 513 (R. K. Elespuru and R. J. White, Cancer Res. 43:2819-2830, 1983). In this paper we describe a genetic modification of strain BR 513 that displays an expanded spectrum of activity. This strain may provide an improved prescreen for detecting natural products that interact with DNA. PMID:6203484

  1. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Fang; Li, Jin-Song

    2016-07-18

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  2. 2015 Guidelines for Establishing Genetically Modified Rat Models for Cardiovascular Research

    PubMed Central

    Flister, Michael J.; Prokop, Jeremy W.; Lazar, Jozef; Shimoyama, Mary; Dwinell, Melinda; Geurts, Aron

    2015-01-01

    The rat has long been a key physiological model for cardiovascular research; most of the inbred strains having been previously selected for susceptibility or resistance to various cardiovascular diseases (CVD). These CVD rat models offer a physiologically relevant background on which candidates of human CVD can be tested in a more clinically translatable experimental setting. However, a diverse toolbox for genetically modifying the rat genome to test molecular mechanisms has only recently become available. Here, we provide a high-level description of several strategies for developing genetically modified rat models of CVD. PMID:25920443

  3. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    PubMed Central

    JIN, Li-Fang; LI, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibres enhanced with poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-02-01

    Genetically modified flax fibres, derived from transgenic flax with expression of three bacterial genes necessary for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have been analysed. These transgenic flaxes, enhanced with different amount of the PHB, have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes as well as the differences between the natural and genetically modified flax fibres. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibres.

  5. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  6. Use of genetically modified bacteria to modulate adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2009-06-01

    Infectious diseases caused by virulent bacteria are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, attenuated strains derived from pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, are highly immunogenic and can be used as vaccines to promote immunity against parental pathogenic bacteria strains. Further, they can be genetically manipulated to either express foreign antigens or deliver exogenous DNA, in order to induce immunity against other pathogens or antigens. Contrarily, specific structural modifications in attenuated Salmonella have allowed the generation of strains that can be well tolerated by the immune system and reduce inflammatory responses. It is thought that those strains could be considered as vectors to promote specific immune tolerance for certain auto-antigens or allergens and reduce unwanted or self-reactive immune responses. In addition, some structural features of Salmonella can contribute to defining the nature and type of polarization of the adaptive immune response induced after immunization, which can be considered as a tool to modulate antigen-specific immunity. In this article we discuss recent advances in the understanding of immune system modulation by molecular components of bacteria and their exploitation for the rational induction of pathogen immunity or antigen-specific tolerance. PMID:19519362

  7. Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I; Constable, A; Davies, H V; Engel, K H; Gatehouse, A M R; Kärenlampi, S; Kok, E J; Leguay, J-J; Lehesranta, S; Noteborn, H P J M; Pedersen, J; Smith, M

    2004-07-01

    The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original modification and that might impact primarily on health. The document first deals with the potential for unintended effects caused by the processes of transgene insertion (DNA rearrangements) and makes comparisons with genetic recombination events and DNA rearrangements in traditional breeding. The document then focuses on the potential value of evolving "profiling" or "omics" technologies as non-targeted, unbiased approaches, to detect unintended effects. These technologies include metabolomics (parallel analysis of a range of primary and secondary metabolites), proteomics (analysis of polypeptide complement) and transcriptomics (parallel analysis of gene expression). The technologies are described, together with their current limitations. Importantly, the significance of unintended effects on consumer health are discussed and conclusions and recommendations presented on the various approaches outlined. PMID:15123383

  8. Regulatory options for genetically modified crops in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Bhagirath; Gheysen, Godelieve; Buysse, Jeroen; van der Meer, Piet; Burssens, Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    The introduction of semi-dwarfing, high-yielding and nutrients-responsive crop varieties in the 1960s and 1970s alleviated the suffering of low crop yield, food shortages and epidemics of famine in India and other parts of the Asian continent. Two semi-dwarfing genes, Rht in wheat and Sd-1 in rice heralded the green revolution for which Dr. Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. In contrast, the revolutionary new genetics of crop improvement shamble over formidable obstacles of regulatory delays, political interferences and public misconceptions. India benefited immensely from the green revolution and is now grappling to deal with the nuances of GM crops. The development of GM mustard discontinued prematurely in 2001 and insect-resistant Bt cotton varieties were successfully approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 in an evolving nature of regulatory system. However, the moratorium on Bt brinjal by MOEF in 2010 meant a considerable detour from an objective, science-based, rigorous institutional process of regulatory approval to a more subjective, nonscience-driven, political decision-making process. This study examines what ails the regulatory system of GM crops in India and the steps that led to the regulatory logjam. Responding to the growing challenges and impediments of existing biosafety regulation, it suggests options that are critical for GM crops to take roots for a multiplier harvest. PMID:24460889

  9. Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Ben

    2006-03-16

    Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

  10. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture. PMID:26652188

  11. Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato, pepper, and eggplant: genetic resources respond to diverse strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, A; Daunay, M-C; Frary, A; Palloix, A; Wang, J-F; Dintinger, J; Chiroleu, F; Wicker, E; Prior, P

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by strains belonging to the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, inflicts severe economic losses in many crops worldwide. Host resistance remains the most effective control strategy against this disease. However, wilt resistance is often overcome due to the considerable variation among pathogen strains. To help breeders circumvent this problem, we assembled a worldwide collection of 30 accessions of tomato, eggplant and pepper (Core-TEP), most of which are commonly used as sources of resistance to R. solanacearum or for mapping quantitative trait loci. The Core-TEP lines were challenged with a core collection of 12 pathogen strains (Core-Rs2) representing the phylogenetic diversity of R. solanacearum. We observed six interaction phenotypes, from highly susceptible to highly resistant. Intermediate phenotypes resulted from the plants' ability to tolerate latent infections (i.e., bacterial colonization of vascular elements with limited or no wilting). The Core-Rs2 strains partitioned into three pathotypes on pepper accessions, five on tomato, and six on eggplant. A "pathoprofile" concept was developed to characterize the strain clusters, which displayed six virulence patterns on the whole set of Core-TEP host accessions. Neither pathotypes nor pathoprofiles were phylotype specific. Pathoprofiles with high aggressiveness were mainly found in strains from phylotypes I, IIB, and III. One pathoprofile included a strain that overcame almost all resistance sources. PMID:20795852

  12. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  13. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A.; Monteiro, G.

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  14. GENETIC MODIFIERS OF LIVER DISEASE IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jaclyn R.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Ling, Simon C.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Bell, Scott C.; Bourke, Billy; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Colombo, John L.; Debray, Dominique; Fernandez, Adriana; Lacaille, Florence; Macek, Milan; Rowland, Marion; Salvatore, Francesco; Taylor, Christopher J.; Wainwright, Claire; Wilschanski, Michael; Zemková, Dana; Hannah, William B.; Phillips, M. James; Corey, Mary; Zielenski, Julian; Dorfman, Ruslan; Wang, Yunfei; Zou, Fei; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Knowles, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Context A subset (~3–5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease (CFLD) with portal hypertension. Objective To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (SERPINA1, ACE, GSTP1, MBL2, and TGFB1) are associated with severe liver disease in CF patients. Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-stage design was used in this case–control study. CFLD subjects were enrolled from 63 U.S., 32 Canadian, and 18 CF centers outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) as the coordinating site. In the initial study, we studied 124 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/1999–12/2004) and 843 CF controls (patients without CFLD) by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously implicated as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/2005–2/2007) and 1088 CF controls. Main Outcome Measures We compared differences in distribution of genotypes in CF patients with severe liver disease versus CF patients without CFLD. Results The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 (also known as α1-antiprotease and α1-antitrypsin) Z allele (P value=3.3×10−6; odds ratio (OR) 4.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31–9.61), and with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFB1) codon 10 CC genotype (P=2.8×10−3; OR 1.53, CI 1.16–2.03). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.4×10−3; OR 3.42, CI 1.54–7.59), but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.5×10−8; OR 5.04, CI 2.88–8.83). Conclusion The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater odds (OR ~5) to develop severe liver disease with portal hypertension. PMID:19738092

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  17. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  18. Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

  19. Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekborg, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

  20. Assessing Website Quality in Context: Retrieving Information about Genetically Modified Food on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Claire R.; Bird, Nora J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET) is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of…

  1. TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

  2. Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S.; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009–2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

  3. Awareness and support of release of genetically modified "sterile" mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Kacey C; Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H

    2015-02-01

    After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009-2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement. PMID:25625795

  4. Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

  5. [Detection of genetically modified soy (Roundup-Ready) in processed food products].

    PubMed

    Hagen, M; Beneke, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the application of a qualitative and a quantitative method of analysis to detect genetically modified RR-Soy (Roundup-Ready Soy) in processed foods is described. A total of 179 various products containing soy such as baby food and diet products, soy drinks and desserts, tofu and tofu products, soy based meat substitutes, soy protein, breads, flour, granules, cereals, noodles, soy bean sprouts, fats and oils as well as condiments were investigated following the pattern of the section 35 LMBG-method L 23.01.22-1. The DNA was extracted from the samples and analysed using a soybean specific lectin gene PCR as well as a PCR, specific for the genetic modification. Additional, by means of PCR in combination with fluorescence-detection (TaqMan 5'-Nuclease Assay), suspicious samples were subjected to a real-time quantification of the percentage of genetically modified RR-Soy. The methods of analysis proved to be extremely sensitive and specific in regard to the food groups checked. The fats and oils, as well as the condiments were the exceptions in which amplifiable soy DNA could not be detected. The genetic modification of RR-Soy was detected in 34 samples. Eight of these samples contained more than 1% of RR-Soy. It is necessary to determine the percentage of transgenic soy in order to assess whether genetically modified ingredients were deliberately added, or whether they were caused by technically unavoidable contamination (for example during transportation and processing). PMID:11153227

  6. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., Associated with Spoiled Raw Tomato-Marinated Broiler Meat Strips Packaged under Modified-Atmosphere Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. Johanna; Geisen, Rolf; Schillinger, Ulrich; Weiss, Norbert; De Vos, Paul; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Korkeala, Hannu J.; Vandamme, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species. PMID:10966388

  7. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. PMID:27217243

  8. Genetic modifiers of Velo- cardio- facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that Tbx1, a T- box containing transcription factor present on the deleted region, is likely responsible for the etiology of the syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in TBX1 have been found in rare non-deleted patients. Despite having the same sized deletion, most VCFS/DGS patients exhibit significant clinical variability. Stochastic, environmental and genetic factors likely modify the phenotype of patients with the disorder. Here, we review mouse genetics studies which may help identify genetic modifiers for VCFS/DGS. PMID:18636633

  9. [Medical and biological evaluation of safety of protein concentrate from genetically-modified soybeans. Biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; Kravchenko, L V; Lashneva, N V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Sorokina, E Iu; Chernysheva, O N

    1999-01-01

    The rats were fed with albuminous concentrate from the genetically modified soybean 40-3-2 ("Monsanto Co", USA) 1.25 g/rat/day for 5 months. Their blood, urea and liver were investigated to measure total protein and glucose levels, aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, pH, relative density and creatinine level in the urea, as well as hepatic enzyme activity of the I and II phases of xenobiotic metabolism, and the whole and non-sedimentated lysosomal enzyme activities. The lasting albuminous concentrate supplementation from the genetically modified soybean to the rat's diet has been shown to modify hepatocyte membrane function and enzymatic activity within physiological standards. It was not harmful to the adaptation systems. PMID:10641273

  10. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  11. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia Tomato"; (5) "Growing Tomato…

  12. First report of tomato mottle mosaic virus infecting tomato in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus was identified in tomato in Florida, the first report of this virus in the U.S. Host range and genetic diversity were characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scien...

  13. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods. Results of a qualitative study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Bredahl, L

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this research was to gain insight into consumers> attitudes towards genetic modification in food production. With means-end chain theory as the theoretical basis, laddering interviews were conducted with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Perceived risks and benefits of genetic modification in foods were investigated using beer and yoghurt as examples. German and Danish responses revealed more complex cognitive structures than did the results from the United Kingdom and Italy. In all four countries, however, applying genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting products, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well, as were a number of other consequences that were perceived to conflict with both individual and social values. PMID:10625527

  14. Generation of Genetically Modified Mice Using the CRISPR-Cas9 Genome-Editing System.

    PubMed

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Williams, Adam; Rongvaux, Anthony; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Genetically modified mice are extremely valuable tools for studying gene function and human diseases. Although the generation of mice with specific genetic modifications through traditional methods using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells has been invaluable in the last two decades, it is an extremely costly, time-consuming, and, in some cases, uncertain technology. The recently described CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology significantly reduces the time and the cost that are required to generate genetically engineered mice, allowing scientists to test more precise and bold hypotheses in vivo. Using this revolutionary methodology we have generated more than 100 novel genetically engineered mouse strains. In the current protocol, we describe in detail the optimal conditions to generate mice carrying point mutations, chromosomal deletions, conditional alleles, fusion tags, or endogenous reporters. PMID:26832688

  15. "It just goes against the grain." Public understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alison

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of qualitative research on public understandings of food risks, focusing on lay understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK context. A range of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical literature on food, risk, and the public understanding of science are reviewed. The fieldwork methods are outlined and empirical data from a range of lay groups are presented. Major themes include: varying "technical" knowledge of science, the relationship between knowledge and acceptance of genetic modification, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge, genetic modification as inappropriate scientific intervention in "nature", the acceptability of animal and human applications of genetic modification, the appropriate boundaries of scientific innovation, the necessity for GM foods, the uncertainty of risks in GM food, fatalism about avoiding risks, and trust in "experts" to manage potential risks in GM food. Key discussion points relating to a sociological understanding of public attitudes to GM food are raised and some policy implications are highlighted. PMID:12430532

  16. Aquaculture: Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Hallerman, E.M.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outocme of risk assessment and risk management processes resulting from differences among the receiving ecosystems and sets of human values at issue. A number of countries and international institutions have begun development of policies for oversight of genetically modified aquatic organisms. In the United States, a working group commissioned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture incorporated risk assessment and risk management principles into draft performance standards for safely conducting research with genetically modified finfish and shellfish. The performance standards address research with a broad range of aquatic GMO`s and compliance is intended to be voluntary. In contrast, the Canadian policy mandates adherence to specified guidelines for experiments with transgenic aquatic organisms; establishment as national policy is expended soon.

  17. The Search for Genetic Modifiers of Disease Severity in the β-Hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Lettre, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia, two monogenic diseases caused by mutations in the β-globin gene, affect millions of individuals worldwide. These hemoglobin disorders are characterized by extreme clinical heterogeneity, complicating patient management and treatment. A better understanding of this patient-to-patient clinical variability would dramatically improve care and might also guide the development of novel therapies. Studies of the natural history of these β-hemoglobinopathies have identified fetal hemoglobin levels and concomitant α-thalassemia as important modifiers of disease severity. Several small-scale studies have attempted to identify additional genetic modifiers of SCD and β-thalassemia, without much success. Fortunately, improved knowledge of the human genome and the development of new genomic tools, such as genome-wide genotyping arrays and next-generation DNA sequencers, offer new opportunities to use genetics to better understand the causes of the many complications observed in β-hemoglobinopathy patients. Here I discuss the most important factors to consider when planning an experiment to find associations between β-hemoglobinopathy-related complications and DNA sequence variants, with a focus on how to successfully perform a genome-wide association study. I also review the literature and explain why most published findings in the field of SCD modifier genetics are likely to be false-positive reports, with the goal to draw lessons allowing investigators to design better genetic experiments. PMID:23028136

  18. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  19. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  20. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  1. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. PMID:25529662

  2. The legislation of CIS countries on the issue of genetically modified products.

    PubMed

    Mammadov, Vugar; Mustafayeva, Aytan

    2011-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a fast-moving research field that produces many achievements, including genetically modified organisms, which are used during the production of food products. Recent decades have shown that scientists, policy makers and the general public cannot reach a consensus about the benefits and hazards of genetically modified food products. Opinions are so different, and both sides are so well-grounded, that it is not easy to reach a conclusion about this scientific achievement. Nevertheless, food security is one of the main objectives of the state, which is responsible for providing safe food products to its own citizens in the marketplace. This is why states are interested in reviewing these scientific achievements, in terms of the state's national interests and the security of its citizens. This article sets forth: (1) the main advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified products; (2) the role of national legislation in the control of food security; and (3) the attitude toward genetically modified products in the national legislatures of CIS countries. Taking these points into account, the authors come to the conclusion that actual Azerbaijan law is not responding to the changes, which have taken place in recent decades, in development of the world market and technological conditions in the production of food products. This provides the basis to conclude that, in actual conditions, the rights ofAzerbaijan citizens to the safety of food products are not well protected. At the end of this article, the authors make recommendations about the necessity of amendments to the legislation in their own country, towards the goal of greater control over such products in Azerbaijan. PMID:22397180

  3. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1991-05-01

    Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and yeasts and molds on whole and chopped tomatoes were essentially unaffected by chlorine and modified atmosphere packaging treatments. Populations of L. monocytogenes inoculated into commercially processed tomato juice and sauce and held at 5 degrees C remained constant for 14 days. A gradual decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells was observed in juice and sauce held at 21 degrees C. In contrast, the organism died rapidly when suspended in commercial tomato ketchup at 5 and 21 degrees C. Unlike low-acid raw salad vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and cauliflower on which we have observed L. monocytogenes grow at refrigeration temperatures, tomatoes are not a good growth substrate for the organism. Nevertheless, L. monocytogens can remain viable on raw whole and chopped tomatoes and in commercial tomato juice and sauce for periods extending beyond their normal shelf-life expectancy. PMID:1906697

  4. Evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus

  5. Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European community.

    PubMed

    Moulin, G

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both pharmaceutical and GMO regulations. In the early stages of the process, before applications for marketing authorisation are submitted, the assessment of clinical trials and experiments in contained areas is principally the responsibility of national authorities. However, the marketing of all VMPs containing or consisting of GMOs must be authorised at European level, although the national authorities are informed and involved in the assessment process. PMID:16110880

  6. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-11-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

  7. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-01-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg−1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

  8. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  9. Identification and detection of genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus strains in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus) have been developed worldwide to resist infection from various strains of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). We found an unidentified and unauthorized GM papaya in imported processed papaya food. Transgenic vector construct that provides resistance to the PRSV strains isolated in Thailand was detected. An original and specific real-time polymerase chain reaction method was generated to qualitatively detect the PRSV-Thailand-resistant GM papaya. PMID:24172062

  10. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize. PMID:19602862

  11. Approaches for the Identification of Genetic Modifiers of Nutrient Dependent Phenotypes: Examples from Folate

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, John W. R.; MacFarlane, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    By combining the sciences of nutrition, bioinformatics, genomics, population genetics, and epidemiology, nutrigenomics is improving our understanding of how diet and nutrient intake can interact with or modify gene expression and disease risk. In this review, we explore various approaches to examine gene–nutrient interactions and the modifying role of nutrient consumption, as they relate to nutrient status and disease risk in human populations. Two common approaches include the use of SNPs in candidate genes to identify their association with nutritional status or disease outcomes, or genome-wide association studies to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with a given phenotype. Here, we examine the results of various gene–nutrient interaction studies, the association of genetic polymorphisms with disease expression, and the identification of nutritional factors that modify gene-dependent disease phenotypes. We have focused on specific examples from investigations of the interactions of folate, B-vitamin consumption, and polymorphisms in the genes of B-vitamin dependent enzymes and their association with disease risk, followed by an examination of the strengths and limitations of the methods employed. We also present suggestions for future studies, including an approach from an on-going large scale study, to examine the interaction of nutrient intake and genotypic variation and their impact on nutritional status. PMID:25988111

  12. Constrained simulations and excursion sets: understanding the risks and benefits of `genetically modified' haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porciani, Cristiano

    2016-09-01

    Constrained realisations of Gaussian random fields are used in cosmology to design special initial conditions for numerical simulations. We review this approach and its application to density peaks providing several worked-out examples. We then critically discuss the recent proposal to use constrained realisations to modify the linear density field within and around the Lagrangian patches that form dark-matter haloes. The ambitious concept is to forge `genetically modified' haloes with some desired properties after the non-linear evolution. We demonstrate that the original implementation of this method is not exact but approximate because it tacitly assumes that protohaloes sample a set of random points with a fixed mean overdensity. We show that carrying out a full genetic modification is a formidable and daunting task requiring a mathematical understanding of what determines the biased locations of protohaloes in the linear density field. We discuss approximate solutions based on educated guesses regarding the nature of protohaloes. We illustrate how the excursion-set method can be adapted to predict the non-linear evolution of the modified patches and thus fine tune the constraints that are necessary to obtain preselected halo properties. This technique allows us to explore the freedom around the original algorithm for genetic modification. We find that the quantity which is most sensitive to changes is the halo mass-accretion rate at the mass scale on which the constraints are set. Finally we discuss constraints based on the protohalo angular momenta.

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences. PMID:26525256

  14. Genetically modified mouse models for the study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Perumal; Mahesh Kumar, M Jerald; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Majundar, Subeer S; Juyal, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (1) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (2) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; to (3) cirrhosis. The animal models to study NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are extremely useful, as there are still many events to be elucidated in the pathology of NASH. The study of the established animal models has provided many clues in the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis, but these remain incompletely understood. The different mouse models can be classified in two large groups. The first one includes genetically modified (transgenic or knockout) mice that spontaneously develop liver disease, and the second one includes mice that acquire the disease after dietary or pharmacological manipulation. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, genetically modified animal models may be a key for the treatment of NAFLD. Ideal animal models for NASH should closely resemble the pathological characteristics observed in humans. To date, no single animal model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but they can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that the researchers choose the appropriate animal model. This review discusses various genetically modified animal models developed and used in research on NAFLD. PMID:22468076

  15. A case study for assessment of microbial community dynamics in genetically modified Bt cotton crop fields.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Manisha; Bhatia, Ranjana; Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2010-08-01

    Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used for growing Bt cotton is postulated to be considerably low as compared to their non-Bt counterparts. Alternatively, it is also speculated that application of a genetically modified crop may alter the bio-geochemical balance of the agriculture field(s). Microbial community composition and dynamics is an important descriptor for assessment of such alterations. In the present study, we have assessed the culturable and non-culturable microbial diversities in Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton soils to determine the ecological consequences of application of Bt cotton. The analyses of microbial community structures indicated that cropping of Bt cotton did not adversely affect the diversity of the microbial communities. PMID:20098990

  16. Dual-reporter surrogate systems for efficient enrichment of genetically modified cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chonghua; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhongtian; Shen, Juncen; Han, Furong; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-07-01

    Isolation of genetically modified cells generated by designed nucleases are challenging, since they are often phenotypically indistinguishable from their parental cells. To efficiently enrich genetically modified cells, we developed two dual-reporter surrogate systems, namely NHEJ-RPG and SSA-RPG based on NHEJ and SSA repair mechanisms, respectively. Repair and enrichment efficiencies of these two systems were compared using different nucleases. In both CRISPR-Cas9- and ZFNs-induced DSB repair studies, we found that the efficiency and sensitivity of the SSA-RPG reporter with direct repeat length more than 200 bp were much higher than the NHEJ-RPG reporter. By utilizing the SSA-RPG reporter, we achieved the enrichment for indels in several endogenous loci with 6.3- to 34.8-fold of non-selected cells. Thus, the highly sensitive SSA-RPG reporter can be used for activity validation of designed nucleases and efficient enrichment of genetically modified cells. Besides, our systems offer alternative enrichment choices either by puromycin selection or FACS. PMID:25725802

  17. Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2005-12-10

    Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

  18. N-methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles as adsorbents for solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Deng, Manchen; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Li

    2013-04-10

    N-Methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles (MIm-MPs) were prepared and applied in the solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from genetically modified soybeans. The adsorption of MIm-MPs for DNA mainly resulted from the strong electrostatic interaction between the positively charged MPs and the negatively charged DNA. The elution of DNA from MPs-DNA conjugates using phosphate buffer resulted from the stronger electrostatic interaction of phosphate ions with MPs than DNA. In the extraction procedure, no harmful reagents (e.g. phenol, chloroform and isopropanol, etc.) used, high yield (10.4 μg DNA per 30 mg sample) and high quality (A260/A280=1.82) of DNA can be realized. The as-prepared DNA was used as template for duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were analyzed by a sieving capillary electrophoresis method. Quick and high quality extraction of DNA template, and fast and high resolution detection of duplex PCR products can be realized using the developed method. No toxic reagents are used throughout the method. PMID:23522109

  19. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea maysL.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) and associated weed (Avena fatuaL.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatuaL.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. PMID:24215059

  20. A Novel Method for Optimum Global Positioning System Satellite Selection Based on a Modified Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancai; Xue, Guixiang; Kang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for selecting a navigation satellite subset for a global positioning system (GPS) based on a genetic algorithm is presented. This approach is based on minimizing the factors in the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) with an elite conservation strategy, adaptive selection, adaptive mutation, and a hybrid genetic algorithm that can select a subset of the satellites represented by specific numbers in the interval (4 ∼ n) while maintaining position accuracy. A comprehensive simulation demonstrates that the MGA-based satellite selection method effectively selects the correct number of optimal satellite subsets using receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) or fault detection and exclusion (FDE). This method is more adaptable and flexible for GPS receivers, particularly for those used in handset equipment and mobile phones. PMID:26943638

  1. Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perelló, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress. PMID:23882175

  2. A Novel Method for Optimum Global Positioning System Satellite Selection Based on a Modified Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancai; Xue, Guixiang; Kang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for selecting a navigation satellite subset for a global positioning system (GPS) based on a genetic algorithm is presented. This approach is based on minimizing the factors in the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) with an elite conservation strategy, adaptive selection, adaptive mutation, and a hybrid genetic algorithm that can select a subset of the satellites represented by specific numbers in the interval (4 ∼ n) while maintaining position accuracy. A comprehensive simulation demonstrates that the MGA-based satellite selection method effectively selects the correct number of optimal satellite subsets using receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) or fault detection and exclusion (FDE). This method is more adaptable and flexible for GPS receivers, particularly for those used in handset equipment and mobile phones. PMID:26943638

  3. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-01

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty. PMID:23414177

  4. Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean in Relation to Natural Variation in the Soybean Seed Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Joseph D.; Alexander, Danny C.; Ward, Dennis P.; Ryals, John A.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Guo, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops currently constitute a significant and growing part of agriculture. An important aspect of GM crop adoption is to demonstrate safety and equivalence with respect to conventional crops. Untargeted metabolomics has the ability to profile diverse classes of metabolites and thus could be an adjunct for GM crop substantial equivalence assessment. To account for environmental effects and introgression of GM traits into diverse genetic backgrounds, we propose that the assessment for GM crop metabolic composition should be understood within the context of the natural variation for the crop. Using a non-targeted metabolomics platform, we profiled 169 metabolites and established their dynamic ranges from the seeds of 49 conventional soybean lines representing the current commercial genetic diversity. We further demonstrated that the metabolome of a GM line had no significant deviation from natural variation within the soybean metabolome, with the exception of changes in the targeted engineered pathway. PMID:24170158

  5. The Potential of the MAGIC TOM Parental Accessions to Explore the Genetic Variability in Tomato Acclimation to Repeated Cycles of Water Deficit and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Bertin, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Episodes of water deficit (WD) during the crop cycle of tomato may negatively impact plant growth and fruit yield, but they may also improve fruit quality. Moreover, a moderate WD may induce a plant "memory effect" which is known to stimulate plant acclimation and defenses for upcoming stress episodes. The objective of this study was to analyze the positive and negative impacts of repeated episodes of WD at the plant and fruit levels. Three episodes of WD (-38, -45, and -55% of water supply) followed by three periods of recovery ("WD treatments"), were applied to the eight parents of the Multi-Parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population which offers the largest allelic variability observed in tomato. Predawn and midday water potentials, chlorophyll a fluorescence, growth and fruit quality traits [contents in sugars, acids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid (AsA)] were measured throughout the experiment. Important genotypic variations were observed both at the plant and fruit levels and variations in fruit and leaf traits were found not to be correlated. Overall, the WD treatments were at the origin of important osmotic regulations, reduction of leaf growth, acclimation of photosynthetic functioning, notably through an increase in the chlorophyll content and in the quantum yield of the electron transport flux until PSI acceptors (J 0 (RE1)/J (ABS)). The effects on fruit sugar, acid, carotenoid and AsA contents on a dry matter basis ranged from negative to positive to nil depending on genotypes and stress intensity. Three small fruit size accessions were richer in AsA on a fresh matter basis, due to concentration effects. So, fruit quality was improved under WD mainly through concentration effects. On the whole, two accessions, LA1420 and Criollo appeared as interesting genetic resources, cumulating adaptive traits both at the leaf and fruit levels. Our observations show that the complexity involved in plant responses, when considering a broad range of

  6. The Potential of the MAGIC TOM Parental Accessions to Explore the Genetic Variability in Tomato Acclimation to Repeated Cycles of Water Deficit and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Bertin, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Episodes of water deficit (WD) during the crop cycle of tomato may negatively impact plant growth and fruit yield, but they may also improve fruit quality. Moreover, a moderate WD may induce a plant “memory effect” which is known to stimulate plant acclimation and defenses for upcoming stress episodes. The objective of this study was to analyze the positive and negative impacts of repeated episodes of WD at the plant and fruit levels. Three episodes of WD (–38, –45, and –55% of water supply) followed by three periods of recovery (“WD treatments”), were applied to the eight parents of the Multi-Parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population which offers the largest allelic variability observed in tomato. Predawn and midday water potentials, chlorophyll a fluorescence, growth and fruit quality traits [contents in sugars, acids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid (AsA)] were measured throughout the experiment. Important genotypic variations were observed both at the plant and fruit levels and variations in fruit and leaf traits were found not to be correlated. Overall, the WD treatments were at the origin of important osmotic regulations, reduction of leaf growth, acclimation of photosynthetic functioning, notably through an increase in the chlorophyll content and in the quantum yield of the electron transport flux until PSI acceptors (J0RE1/JABS). The effects on fruit sugar, acid, carotenoid and AsA contents on a dry matter basis ranged from negative to positive to nil depending on genotypes and stress intensity. Three small fruit size accessions were richer in AsA on a fresh matter basis, due to concentration effects. So, fruit quality was improved under WD mainly through concentration effects. On the whole, two accessions, LA1420 and Criollo appeared as interesting genetic resources, cumulating adaptive traits both at the leaf and fruit levels. Our observations show that the complexity involved in plant responses, when considering a broad range of

  7. [Current status in the commercialization and application of genetically modified plants and their effects on human and livestock health and phytoremediation].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawano, Noriaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Nishijima, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Developments in the use of genetically modified plants for human and livestock health and phytoremediation were surveyed using information retrieved from Entrez PubMed, Chemical Abstracts Service, Google, congress abstracts and proceedings of related scientific societies, scientific journals, etc. Information obtained was classified into 8 categories according to the research objective and the usage of the transgenic plants as 1: nutraceuticals (functional foods), 2: oral vaccines, 3: edible curatives, 4: vaccine antigens, 5: therapeutic antibodies, 6: curatives, 7: diagnostic agents and reagents, and 8: phytoremediation. In total, 405 cases were collected from 2006 to 2010. The numbers of cases were 120 for nutraceuticals, 65 for oral vaccines, 25 for edible curatives, 36 for vaccine antigens, 36 for therapeutic antibodies, 76 for curatives, 15 for diagnostic agents and reagents, and 40 for phytoremediation (sum of each cases was 413 because some reports were related to several categories). Nutraceuticals, oral vaccines and curatives were predominant. The most frequently used edible crop was rice (51 cases), and tomato (28 cases), lettuce (22 cases), potato (18 cases), corn (15 cases) followed. PMID:22687699

  8. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    PubMed

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. PMID:24426015

  9. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  10. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  11. PRTFDC1 Is a Genetic Modifier of HPRT-Deficiency in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Freeman, Kimberly G.; Edwards, Gaylen L.; Weinshenker, David; Thomas, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a severe X-linked neurological disorder caused by a deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). In contrast, HPRT-deficiency in the mouse does not result in the profound phenotypes such as self-injurious behavior observed in humans, and the genetic basis for this phenotypic disparity between HPRT-deficient humans and mice is unknown. To test the hypothesis that HPRT deficiency is modified by the presence/absence of phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (PRTFDC1), a paralog of HPRT that is a functional gene in humans but an inactivated pseudogene in mice, we created transgenic mice that express human PRTFDC1 in wild-type and HPRT-deficient backgrounds. Male mice expressing PRTFDC1 on either genetic background were viable and fertile. However, the presence of PRTFDC1 in the HPRT-deficient, but not wild-type mice, increased aggression as well as sensitivity to a specific amphetamine-induced stereotypy, both of which are reminiscent of the increased aggressive and self-injurious behavior exhibited by patients with LND. These results demonstrate that PRTFDC1 is a genetic modifier of HPRT-deficiency in the mouse and could therefore have important implications for unraveling the molecular etiology of LND. PMID:21818316

  12. A Novel Lung Disease Phenotype Adjusted for Mortality Attrition for Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Modifier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Chelsea; Commander, Clayton W.; Collaco, Joseph M.; Strug, Lisa J.; Li, Weili; Wright, Fred A.; Webel, Aaron D.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Stonebraker, Jaclyn R.; Naughton, Kathleen; Dorfman, Ruslan; Sandford, Andrew; Blackman, Scott M.; Berthiaume, Yves; Paré, Peter; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Zielenski, Julian; Durie, Peter; Cutting, Garry R.; Knowles, Michael R.; Corey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic studies of lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis are hampered by the lack of a severity measure that accounts for chronic disease progression and mortality attrition. Further, combining analyses across studies requires common phenotypes that are robust to study design and patient ascertainment. Using data from the North American Cystic Fibrosis Modifier Consortium (Canadian Consortium for CF Genetic Studies, Johns Hopkins University CF Twin and Sibling Study, and University of North Carolina/Case Western Reserve University Gene Modifier Study), the authors calculated age-specific CF percentile values of FEV1 which were adjusted for CF age-specific mortality data. The phenotype was computed for 2061 patients representing the Canadian CF population, 1137 extreme phenotype patients in the UNC/Case Western study, and 1323 patients from multiple CF sib families in the CF Twin and Sibling Study. Despite differences in ascertainment and median age, our phenotype score was distributed in all three samples in a manner consistent with ascertainment differences, reflecting the lung disease severity of each individual in the underlying population. The new phenotype score was highly correlated with the previously recommended complex phenotype, but the new phenotype is more robust for shorter follow-up and for extreme ages. A disease progression and mortality adjusted phenotype reduces the need for stratification or additional covariates, increasing statistical power and avoiding possible distortions. This approach will facilitate large scale genetic and environmental epidemiological studies which will provide targeted therapeutic pathways for the clinical benefit of patients with CF. PMID:21462361

  13. a Modified Genetic Algorithm for Finding Fuzzy Shortest Paths in Uncertain Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A. A.; Delavar, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    In realistic network analysis, there are several uncertainties in the measurements and computation of the arcs and vertices. These uncertainties should also be considered in realizing the shortest path problem (SPP) due to the inherent fuzziness in the body of expert's knowledge. In this paper, we investigated the SPP under uncertainty to evaluate our modified genetic strategy. We improved the performance of genetic algorithm (GA) to investigate a class of shortest path problems on networks with vague arc weights. The solutions of the uncertain SPP with considering fuzzy path lengths are examined and compared in detail. As a robust metaheuristic, GA algorithm is modified and evaluated to tackle the fuzzy SPP (FSPP) with uncertain arcs. For this purpose, first, a dynamic operation is implemented to enrich the exploration/exploitation patterns of the conventional procedure and mitigate the premature convergence of GA technique. Then, the modified GA (MGA) strategy is used to resolve the FSPP. The attained results of the proposed strategy are compared to those of GA with regard to the cost, quality of paths and CPU times. Numerical instances are provided to demonstrate the success of the proposed MGA-FSPP strategy in comparison with GA. The simulations affirm that not only the proposed technique can outperform GA, but also the qualities of the paths are effectively improved. The results clarify that the competence of the proposed GA is preferred in view of quality quantities. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently be utilized to handle FSPP in uncertain networks.

  14. Assessment of tolerance to multistresses and in vitro cell adhesion in genetically modified Lactobacillus plantarum 590.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Tian, Hongtao; Wang, Hongxin; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) is a lactic acid bacterium that has many excellent traits that meet the needs of industrial production. Genetically modified (GM) Lp590 was obtained from Lp that was modified by the insertion of the gene nisI, which can confer resistance to nisin and play a role as a bio-preservative. Here, explorations were made to assess the safety of GM Lp590 and establish an in vitro evaluation model. The ability of Lp590 to tolerate both environmental stresses (such as temperatures ranging from 52 to 4 °C, or exposure to ethanol, oxygen, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit was assessed. Lp590 showed a tolerance to 4 °C and ethanol (20%) within a period of 240 min that was similar to Lp. Notably, Lp590 can tolerate higher temperature (52 °C) and higher levels of H(2)O(2) (2%) and NaCl (4.0 M) than Lp. In contrast, Lp590 has the same gastrointestinal transit tolerance as Lp. In addition, Lp590 can adhere to Caco-2 cells, and it has no adverse effect on the cell membrane in vitro. These results indicate that GM Lp590 has many desirable biological characteristics and has good prospects for industrial applications. A useful and comprehensive exploration has been undertaken to establish a new in vitro evaluation model for genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). PMID:21104198

  15. Hlf is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nicole A; Kearney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel genes cause several types of human epilepsies. Often, individuals with the same sodium channel mutation exhibit diverse phenotypes. This suggests that factors beyond the primary mutation influence disease severity, including genetic modifiers. Mouse epilepsy models with voltage-gated sodium channel mutations exhibit strain-dependent phenotype variability, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn2a(Q54) (Q54) mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Q54 mice on the C57BL/6J (B6) strain exhibit delayed seizure onset and improved survival compared to [B6xSJL/J]F1.Q54 mice. We previously mapped two dominant modifier loci that influence Q54 seizure susceptibility and identified Hlf (hepatic leukemia factor) as a candidate modifier gene at one locus. Hlf and other PAR bZIP transcription factors had previously been associated with spontaneous seizures in mice thought to be caused by down-regulation of the pyridoxine pathway. An Hlf targeted knockout mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of Hlf deletion on Q54 phenotype severity. Hlf(KO/KO);Q54 double mutant mice exhibited elevated frequency and reduced survival compared to Q54 controls. To determine if direct modulation of the pyridoxine pathway could alter the Q54 phenotype, mice were maintained on a pyridoxine-deficient diet for 6 weeks. Dietary pyridoxine deficiency resulted in elevated seizure frequency and decreased survival in Q54 mice compared to control diet. To determine if Hlf could modify other epilepsies, Hlf(KO/+) mice were crossed with the Scn1a(KO/+) Dravet syndrome mouse model to examine the effect on premature lethality. Hlf(KO/+);Scn1a(KO/+) offspring exhibited decreased survival compared to Scn1a(KO/+) controls. Together these results demonstrate that Hlf is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations and that modulation of the pyridoxine pathway can also influence phenotype

  16. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits. PMID:16350477

  17. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F

    2004-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition from feeding rations that contained different sources of genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multiparous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk at the beginning of the experiments. Treatments in Experiment 1 were: Bollgard cotton containing the cry1Ac gene, Bollgard II cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes, Roundup Ready cotton containing the cp4 epsps gene, and a control nongenetically modified but genetically similar cottonseed. In Experiment 2, two commercial sources, a parental control line, and the transgenic cotton containing both cry1Ac and cp4 epsps genes were used as treatments. All cows received the same total mixed ration but with different whole cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide 2.50 kg per cow daily (dry matter [DM] basis) or about 10% of the total diet DM. The ingredient composition of the total mixed ration was 32% alfalfa hay, 28% corn silage, 22% corn grain, 17% soybean meal, and 2% minerals and vitamins. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from a subset of milk samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot hybridization for small fragments of the cry1Ac transgene and an endogenous cotton gene, acp1. No sample was positive for transgenic or plant DNA fragments at the limits of detection for the assays following detailed data evaluation criteria. The DMI, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score did not differ among treatments. Cottonseed from genetically modified varieties used in these studies yielded similar performance in lactating dairy cows when compared to non-transgenic control and reference cottonseed. PMID:15453492

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tyshko, Nadezhda V; Aksyuk, Irina N; Tutelyan, Victor A

    2007-07-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by growing interest in the problems of biosafety, which are determined, on the one hand, by the wide use of novel biotechnologies and the necessity to develop the adequate precautionary measures, and, on the other hand, by the objective threat of bioterrorism. Therefore, improvement of the estimation system for genetically modified (GM) sources of food and strengthening the control of their circulation are the urgent problems of modern biology and medicine. Russia is one of the countries where the estimation system of food products obtained from the GM sources is rather efficient. The key features of this system are the complex toxicological and epidemiological examinations. One of the main parts of GM food safety assessment is based upon detection of their potentially toxic properties, which could provoke unintended effects of the genetic modification. PMID:17526054

  19. Maximizing flexure jointed hexapod vibration isolation using a modified genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhijiang; McInroy, John E.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we propose the use of the genetic algorithm (GA) as a tool to solve multi-objective optimization problems in flexure jointed hexapods. Using the concept of heuristic mutation, a modified GA-based multi-objective optimization technique is proposed and the passive parameters' optimization problems in a flexure jointed hexapod system are solved. The passive parameters found include the spring and the damping parameters in each strut of the hexapod. The results produced by this new approach are compared to those produced by other practical selection techniques, proving that this technique is more flexible. Thus, the genetic algorithm can be used as a reliable numerical optimization tool in such problems.

  20. A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Rita H

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars. PMID:23668783

  1. Modifying Behavioral Phenotypes in Fmr1 KO Mice: Genetic Background Differences Reveal Autistic-Like Responses

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Corinne M.; Alekseyenko, Olga; Hamilton, Shannon M.; Thomas, Alexia M.; Serysheva, Ekaterina; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Paylor, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in humans. In addition to cognitive impairment, patients may exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties and anxiety, and autistic-like behaviors. The degree to which patients display these behaviors varies considerably and is influenced by family history, suggesting that genetic modifiers play a role in the expression of behaviors in FXS. Several studies have examined behavior in a mouse model of FXS in which the Fmr1 gene has been ablated. Most of those studies were done in Fmr1 knockout mice on a pure C57BL/6 or FVB strain background. To gain a better understanding of the effects of genetic background on behaviors resulting from the loss of Fmr1 gene expression, we generated F1 hybrid lines from female Fmr1 heterozygous mice on a pure C57BL/6J background bred with male Fmr1 wild-type mice of various background strains (A/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, 129S1/SvImJ and CD-1). Male Fmr1 knockout and wild-type littermates from each line were examined in an extensive behavioral test battery. Results clearly indicate that multiple behavioral responses are dependent on genetic background, including autistic-like traits that are present on limited genetic backgrounds. This approach has allowed us to identify improved models for different behavioral symptoms present in FXS including autistic-like traits. PMID:21268289

  2. Grafting Genetically Modified Cells to the Damaged Brain: Restorative Effects of NGF Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Michael B.; Friedmann, Theodore; Robertson, Robin C.; Tuszynski, Mark; Wolff, Jon A.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Gage, Fred H.

    1988-12-01

    Fibroblasts were genetically modified to secrete nerve growth factor (NGF) by infection with a retroviral vector and then implanted into the brains of rats that had surgical lesions of the fimbria-fornix. The grafted cells survived and produced sufficient NGF to prevent the degeneration of cholinergic neurons that would die without treatment. In addition, the protected cholinergic cells sprouted axons that projected in the direction of the cellular source of NGF. These results indicate that a combination of gene transfer and intracerebral grafting may provide an effective treatment for some disorders of the central nervous system.

  3. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing a single Bt gene. On the basis of bioassay data available for Bt toxins alone or in combination, we argue that the current knowledge of Bt protein interactions is of limited relevance in environmental risk assessment (ERA). PMID:26032006

  4. A Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus that can Produce Gold Nanoparticles from a Metal Salt Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Love, Andrew J.; Makarov, Valentine V.; Sinitsyna, Olga V.; Shaw, Jane; Yaminsky, Igor V.; Kalinina, Natalia O.; Taliansky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    We genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to surface display a characterized peptide with potent metal ion binding and reducing capacity (MBP TMV), and demonstrate that unlike wild type TMV, this construct can lead to the formation of discrete 10–40 nm gold nanoparticles when mixed with 3 mM potassium tetrachloroaurate. Using a variety of analytical physicochemical approaches it was found that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and stable. Given that the MBP TMV can produce metal nanomaterials in the absence of chemical reductants, it may have utility in the green production of metal nanomaterials. PMID:26617624

  5. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

  6. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-01-01

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

  7. Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified crops based on cellular automata modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Rui; Yang, De-Li; Yang, Qing; Yan, Jun; He, Ming-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of ecological risk in genetically modified (GM) biological systems is critically important for decision-making and public acceptance. Cellular automata (CA) provide a potential modeling and simulation framework for representing relationships and interspecies interactions both temporally and spatially. In this paper, a simple subsystem contains only four species: crop, target pest, non-target pest and enemy insect, and a three layer arrangement of LxL stochastic cellular automata with a periodic boundary were established. The simulation of this simplified system showed abundant and sufficient complexity in population assembly and densities, suggesting a prospective application in ecological risk assessment of GM crops. PMID:19477260

  8. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices. PMID:26497875

  9. Multiple Genetic Modifiers of Bilirubin Metabolism Involvement in Significant Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Patients of Chinese Descent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Lin, Min; Zheng, Xiang-bin; Lin, Fen

    2015-01-01

    The potential for genetic variation to modulate neonatal hyperbilirubinemia risk is increasingly being recognized. A case-control study was designed to assess comprehensive contributions of the multiple genetic modifiers of bilirubin metabolism on significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese descendents. Eleven common mutations and polymorphisms across five bilirubin metabolism genes, namely those encoding UGT1A1, HMOX1, BLVRA, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3, were determined using the high resolution melt (HRM) assay or PCR-capillary electrophoresis analysis. A total of 129 hyperbilirubinemic infants and 108 control subjects were evaluated. Breastfeeding and the presence of the minor A allele of rs4148323 (UGTA*6) were correlated with an increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia (OR=2.17, P=0.02 for breastfeeding; OR=9.776, P=0.000 for UGTA*6 homozygote; OR=3.151, P=0.000 for UGTA*6 heterozygote); whereas, increasing gestational age and the presence of –TA7 repeat variant of UGT1A1 decreased the risk (OR=0.721, P=0.003 for gestational age; OR=0.313, P=0.002 for heterozygote TA6/TA7). In addition, the SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms also contributed to an increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia. This detailed analysis revealed the impact of multiple genetic modifiers on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This may support the use of genetic tests for clinical risk assessment. Furthermore, the established HRM assay can serve as an effective method for large-scale investigation. PMID:26146841

  10. Sleep duration does not mediate or modify association of common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Archana; Lane, Jacqueline M.; Cade, Brian E.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Gharib, Sina A.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Redline, Susan; Saxena, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Short and long sleep duration are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether genetic variants for fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes associate with short or long sleep duration and whether sleep duration modifies the association of genetic variants with these traits. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported habitual sleep duration and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in individuals of European descent participating in five studies included in the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe), totalling 1,474 cases and 8,323 controls. We tested for association of 16 fasting glucose-associated variants, 27 type 2 diabetes-associated variants and aggregate genetic risk scores with continuous and dichotomised (≤5 h or ≥9 h) sleep duration using regression models adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Finally, we tested whether a gene × behaviour interaction of variants with sleep duration had an impact on fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes risk. Results Short sleep duration was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in CARe (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.08, 1.61; p = 0.008). Variants previously associated with fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and genetic risk scores were not associated with sleep duration. Furthermore, no study-wide significant interaction was observed between sleep duration and these variants on glycaemic traits. Nominal interactions were observed for sleep duration and PPARG rs1801282, CRY2 rs7943320 and HNF1B rs4430796 in influencing risk of type 2 diabetes (p < 0.05). Conclusions/interpretation Our findings suggest that differences in habitual sleep duration do not mediate or modify the relationship between common variants underlying glycaemic traits (including in circadian rhythm genes) and diabetes. PMID:24280871

  11. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%. PMID:22397265

  12. No evidence for a genetic modifier for renal cell cancer risk in HLRCC syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vahteristo, Pia; Koski, Taru A; Näätsaari, Laura; Kiuru, Maija; Karhu, Auli; Herva, Riitta; Sallinen, Satu-Leena; Vierimaa, Outi; Björck, Erik; Richard, Stéphane; Gardie, Betty; Bessis, Didier; Van Glabeke, Emmanuel; Blanco, Ignacio; Houlston, Richard; Senter, Leigha; Hietala, Marja; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Launonen, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a tumor predisposition syndrome caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas are the most common clinical manifestations of HLRCC, whereas only approximately 20% of the families display renal cell cancer (RCC). The number of RCC cases in these families varies from one to five. Interestingly, families with multiple RCC cases are mainly found in Finland and the USA. Such aggregation of RCC in only some families and populations has led to the hypothesis that besides FH mutations also other inherited genetic and/or environmental factors may contribute to the malignant kidney tumor formation. To search for such a genetic modifier we have performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in two and an identical by descent analysis in four Finnish HLRCC families with several RCC patients. Additional Finnish and French families were used in fine-mapping and haplotype analyses. The only region compatible with linkage was the locus surrounding the FH gene itself in chromosome 1q43. The genes in the putative candidate region were screened, but no potentially pathogenic alterations were observed. Although these data do not rule out the existence of a genetic modifier, they emphasize the contribution of the FH genotype in HLRCC related RCC. Therefore, as all FH mutation carriers may have an increased risk for developing renal cancer, counseling and genetic testing should be offered for all HLRCC family members and clinical follow-up should be organized for the mutation carriers. PMID:20091131

  13. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate—or more abundant and more nutritional—biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds—somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants—as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  14. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate-or more abundant and more nutritional-biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds-somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants-as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  15. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    PubMed

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-01

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed. PMID:19902949

  16. Explaining public resistance to genetically modified corn: an analysis of the distribution of benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2004-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have met with widespread approval among scientists and policy makers in the United States, but public approval of GM crops, both domestically and abroad, is progressing much more slowly. An underlying cause of public wariness may be that both nations and individual consumers do not perceive significant benefits to themselves from GM crops, while fearing the risks they may incur. In this study, an economic analysis is conducted to determine whether the benefits of one type of GM corn, Bt corn (genetically modified to resist damage from the ECB and Southwestern corn borer), outweigh the potential risks; and who the "winners" and "losers" are among stakeholder groups that may be affected by Bt corn. It is found that Bt corn growers, consumers, and industry all benefit from Bt corn adoption, though the purported health and environmental benefits of reducing chemical pesticide usage through Bt corn are negligible. Though the aggregated public benefit is large, the welfare gain to individual consumers is small and may not make up for perceived risks. While environmental and health risks of Bt corn are unlikely, the potential market risks-impacting both the organic corn market and total U.S. corn exports-are found to be significant. Currently, distributional analysis is not a part of regulatory decision making of Bt corn in the United States; yet it may help to explain why decision makers at both the government and individual-consumer levels have failed to embrace Bt corn and other GM crops. PMID:15209940

  17. Endpoint Visual Detection of Three Genetically Modified Rice Events by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaofu; Jin, Nuo; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Sainan; Miao, Qingmei; Zhu, Qing; Xu, Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice KMD1, TT51-1, and KF6 are three of the most well known transgenic Bt rice lines in China. A rapid and sensitive molecular assay for risk assessment of GM rice is needed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), currently the most common method for detecting genetically modified organisms, requires temperature cycling and relatively complex procedures. Here we developed a visual and rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify three GM rice event-specific junction sequences. Target DNA was amplified and visualized by two indicators (SYBR green or hydroxy naphthol blue [HNB]) within 60 min at an isothermal temperature of 63 °C. Different kinds of plants were selected to ensure the specificity of detection and the results of the non-target samples were negative, indicating that the primer sets for the three GM rice varieties had good levels of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP, with detection limits at low concentration levels (0.01%–0.005% GM), was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. Additionally, the LAMP assay coupled with an indicator (SYBR green or HNB) facilitated analysis. These findings revealed that the rapid detection method was suitable as a simple field-based test to determine the status of GM crops. PMID:23203072

  18. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles. PMID:12597493

  19. Detection of airborne genetically modified maize pollen by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Folloni, Silvia; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Rajcevic, Bojan; Guimarães, Nilson C C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Valicente, Fernando H; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

    2012-09-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised numerous concerns in the European Union and other parts of the world about their environmental and economic impact. Especially outcrossing of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was from the beginning a critical issue as airborne pollen has been considered an important way of GMO dispersal. Here, we investigate the use of airborne pollen sampling combined with microscopic analysis and molecular PCR analysis as an approach to monitor GM maize cultivations in a specific area. Field trial experiments in the European Union and South America demonstrated the applicability of the approach under different climate conditions, in rural and semi-urban environment, even at very low levels of airborne pollen. The study documents in detail the sampling of GM pollen, sample DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis. Our results suggest that this 'GM pollen monitoring by bioaerosol sampling and PCR screening' approach might represent an useful aid in the surveillance of GM-free areas, centres of origin and natural reserves. PMID:22805239

  20. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds. PMID:24915369

  1. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs. PMID:27199295

  2. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use. PMID:26507568

  3. Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?

    PubMed

    Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades. PMID:21865874

  4. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM) plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set. PMID:21324199

  5. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use. PMID:26507568

  6. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  7. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs. PMID:19399482

  8. Chemometric discrimination of genetically modified Coffea arabica cultivars using spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ivanira; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2013-03-30

    Multivariate statistical design and principal component analysis (PCA) applied to RP-HPLC-DAD and FTIR spectroscopic data were performed to investigate the fingerprints of four coffee cultivars, traditional red bourbon and three genetically modified cultivars. The design and response surface results showed that extraction dependence on solvent composition of one of the genetically modified cultivars, IAPAR 59, was very similar to that found for the red bourbon standard. PCA of the FTIR spectra obtained from all the simplex centroid design mixtures indicated that the 1:1 binary ethanol-dichloromethane solution resulted in the best separation of the four cultivars. The IPR 108 cultivar has more intense vibrational bands in the 3200-3,600 cm(-1) and 1100-1,600 cm(-1) regions indicating higher acid and fat levels than those of the other cultivars. The UV absorptions close to 275 nm of the RP-HPLC-DAD spectra are correlated with the strengths of the infrared absorptions between 3400 and 3,460 cm(-1) and can be explained by varying caffeine concentrations in the four cultivars. PMID:23598243

  9. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  10. Unveiling the roles of the glutathione redox system in vivo by analyzing genetically modified mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Junichi; Ito, Jun-itsu; Zhang, Xuhong; Kurahashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Redox status affects various cellular activities, such as proliferation, differentiation, and death. Recent studies suggest pivotal roles of reactive oxygen species not only in pathogenesis under oxidative insult but also in intracellular signal transduction. Glutathione is present in several millimolar concentrations in the cytoplasm and has multiple roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Two enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, constitute the de novo synthesis machinery, while glutathione reductase is involved in the recycling of oxidized glutathione. Multidrug resistant proteins and some other transporters are responsible for exporting oxidized glutathione, glutathione conjugates, and S-nitrosoglutathione. In addition to antioxidation, glutathione is more positively involved in cellular activity via its sulfhydryl moiety of a molecule. Animals in which genes responsible for glutathione metabolism are genetically modified can be used as beneficial and reliable models to elucidate roles of glutathione in vivo. This review article overviews recent progress in works related to genetically modified rodents and advances in the elucidation of glutathione-mediated reactions. PMID:21980221

  11. Intravitreal Implantation of Genetically Modified Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Retinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher J; Sanders, Douglas N; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Jensen, Cheryl A; Castaner, Leilani J; Kirk, Mark D; Katz, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    A number of retinal degenerative diseases may be amenable to treatment with continuous intraocular delivery of therapeutic agents that cannot be delivered effectively to the retina via systemic or topical administration. Among these disorders are lysosomal storage diseases resulting from deficiencies in soluble lysosomal enzymes. Most cells, including those of the retina, are able to take up these enzymes and incorporate them in active form into their lysosomes. In theory, therefore, continuous intraocular administration of a normal form of a soluble lysosomal enzyme should be able to cure the molecular defect in the retinas of subjects lacking this enzyme. Experiments were conducted to determine whether genetically modified bone marrow-derived stem cells implanted into the vitreous could be used as -vehicles for continuous delivery of such enzymes to the retina. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from normal mice were implanted into the vitreous of mice undergoing retinal degeneration as a result of a mutation in the PPT1 gene. The implanted cells appeared to survive indefinitely in the vitreous without proliferating or invading the retina. This indicates that intravitreal implantation of MSCs is likely a safe means of long-term delivery of proteins synthesized by the implanted cells. Experiments have been initiated to test the efficacy of using genetically modified autologous MSCs to inhibit retinal degeneration in a canine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26427461

  12. Intravitreal Implantation of Genetically Modified Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Retinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Christopher J.; Sanders, Douglas N.; Bryan, Jeffrey N.; Jensen, Cheryl A.; Castaner, Leilani J.; Kirk, Mark D.; Katz, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    A number of retinal degenerative diseases may be amenable to treatment with continuous intraocular delivery of therapeutic agents that cannot be delivered effectively to the retina via systemic or topical administration. Among these disorders are lysosomal storage diseases resulting from deficiencies in soluble lysosomal enzymes. Most cells, including those of the retina, are able to take up these enzymes and incorporate them in active form into their lysosomes. In theory, therefore, continuous intraocular administration of a normal form of a soluble lysosomal enzyme should be able to cure the molecular defect in the retinas of subjects lacking this enzyme. Experiments were conducted to determine whether genetically modified bone marrow-derived stem cells implanted into the vitreous could be used as vehicles for continuous delivery of such enzymes to the retina. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from normal mice were implanted into the vitreous of mice undergoing retinal degeneration as a result of a mutation in the PPT1 gene. The implanted cells appeared to survive indefinitely in the vitreous without proliferating or invading the retina. This indicates that intravitreal implantation of MSCs is likely a safe means of long-term delivery of proteins synthesized by the implanted cells. Experiments have been initiated to test the efficacy of using genetically modified autologous MSCs to inhibit retinal degeneration in a canine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26427461

  13. Pharmacological profiling of zebrafish behavior using chemical and genetic classification of sleep-wake modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-wake states are impaired in various neurological disorders. Impairment of sleep-wake states can be an early condition that exacerbates these disorders. Therefore, treating sleep-wake dysfunction may prevent or slow the development of these diseases. Although many gene products are likely to be involved in the sleep-wake disturbance, hypnotics and psychostimulants clinically used are limited in terms of their mode of action and are not without side effects. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing new hypnotics and psychostimulants with high efficacy and few side effects. Toward this end, animal models are indispensable for use in genetic and chemical screens to identify sleep-wake modifiers. As a proof-of-concept study, we performed behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with chemical and genetic sleep-wake modifiers. We were able to demonstrate that behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with hypnotics or psychostimulants from 9 to 10 days post-fertilization was sufficient to identify drugs with specific modes of action. We were also able to identify behavioral endpoints distinguishing GABA-A modulators and hypocretin (hcrt) receptor antagonists and between sympathomimetic and non-sympathomimetic psychostimulants. This behavioral profiling can serve to identify genes related to sleep-wake disturbance associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases and novel therapeutic compounds for insomnia and excessive daytime sleep with fewer adverse side effects. PMID:26578964

  14. Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.

    PubMed

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. PMID:22333321

  15. Development and Validation of a P-35S, T-nos, T-35S and P-FMV Tetraplex Real-time PCR Screening Method to Detect Regulatory Genes of Genetically Modified Organisms in Food.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Albert; Murmann, Petra; Kaenzig, Andre; Breitenmoser, Alda

    2014-10-01

    In routine analysis screening methods based on real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) are most commonly used for the detection of genetically modified (GM) plant material in food and feed. Screening tests are based on sequences frequently used for GM development, allowing the detection of a large number of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Here, we describe the development and validation of a tetraplex real-time PCR screening assay comprising detection systems for the regulatory genes Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nos terminator, Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S terminator and Figwort Mosaic Virus 34S promoter. Three of the four primer and probe combinations have already been published elsewhere, whereas primers and probe for the 35S terminator have been developed in-house. Adjustment of primer and probe concentrations revealed a high PCR sensitivity with insignificant physical cross-talk between the four detection channels. The sensitivity of each PCR-system is sufficient to detect a GMO concentration as low as 0.05% of the containing respective element. The specificity of the described tetraplex is high when tested on DNA from GM maize, soy, rapeseed and tomato. We also demonstrate the robustness of the system by inter-laboratory tests. In conclusion, this method provides a sensitive and reliable screening procedure for the detection of the most frequently used regulatory elements present in GM crops either authorised or unauthorised for food. PMID:25437161

  16. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a

  17. Genomics of fungal disease resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Panthee, Dilip R; Chen, Feng

    2010-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  18. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  19. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-11-15

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  20. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Katherine A.; Tabuloc, Christine A.; Cervantes, Kevin R.; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest. PMID:26931800

  1. Role of genetic modifiers in an orthologous rat model of ARPKD

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Caitlin C.; Hoffman, Matthew; Sweeney, William E.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Xiao, Bing; Jacob, Howard J.; Avner, Ellis D.

    2012-01-01

    Human data and animal models of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) suggest that genetic factors modulate the onset and severity of the disease. We report here for the first time that ARPKD susceptibility is attenuated by introgressing the mutated Pkhd1 disease allele from the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat onto the FHH (Fawn-Hooded Hypertensive) genetic background. Compared with PCK, the FHH.Pkhd1 strain had significantly decreased renal cyst formation that coincided with a threefold reduction in mean kidney weights. Further analysis revealed that the FHH. Pkhd1 is protected from increased blood pressure as well as elevated plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. On the other hand, liver weight and biliary cystogenesis revealed no differences between PCK and FHH.Pkdh1, indicating that genes within the FHH genetic background prevent the development of renal, but not hepatic, manifestations of ARPKD. Microarray expression analysis of kidneys from 30-day-old PCK rats revealed increased expression of genes previously identified in PKD renal expression profiles, such as inflammatory response, extracellular matrix synthesis, and cell proliferation genes among others, whereas the FHH.Pkhd1 did not show activation of these common markers of disease. This newly developed strain can serve as a tool to map modifier genes for renal disease in ARPKD and provides further insight into disease variability and pathophysiology. PMID:22669842

  2. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights. PMID:22892687

  3. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Katherine A; Tabuloc, Christine A; Cervantes, Kevin R; Chiu, Joanna C

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest. PMID:26931800

  4. Selective enhancement of autotrophic acetate production with genetically modified Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Straub, Melanie; Demler, Martin; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Dürre, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Great interest has emerged in the recent past towards the potential of autotrophic acetogenic bacteria for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. This group of microorganisms possesses an ancient pathway for the fixation of carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen, making them highly attractive for the utilization of gas mixtures as a cheap and abundant carbon and energy source. As more and more genome sequence data of acetogens becomes available, the genetic tools are being developed concomitantly. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the genetic modification of the well-characterized acetogen Acetobacterium woodii. This microorganism selectively produces acetate under autotrophic conditions, but seems to be limited at high acetate concentrations. To increase the carbon flow through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and therefore increase the efficiency of CO2 fixation, genes of enzyme groups of this pathway were selectively overexpressed (the four THF-dependent enzymes for the processing of formate as well as phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase to enhance an ATP-generation step). Acetate production with genetically modified strains was increased in a batch process under pH-controlled reaction conditions in a stirred-tank reactor with continuous sparging of H2 and CO2. Final acetate concentrations of more than 50gL(-1) acetate were thus measured with the recombinant strains at low cell concentrations of 1.5-2gL(-1) dry cell mass in less than four days under autotrophic conditions. PMID:24637370

  5. Shared changes in gene expression in frontal cortex of four genetically modified mouse models of depression.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, D; Juhasz, G; Aso, E; Chase, D; del Rio, J; Fabre, V; Hamon, M; Lanfumey, L; Lesch, K-P; Maldonado, R; Serra, M-A; Sharp, T; Tordera, R; Toro, C; Deakin, J F W

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify whether genetic manipulation of four systems implicated in the pathogenesis of depression converge on shared molecular processes underpinning depression-like behaviour in mice. Altered 5HT function was modelled using the 5-HT transporter knock out mouse, impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function using an antisense-induced knock down mouse, disrupted glutamate function using a heterozygous KO of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 gene, and impaired cannabinoid signalling using the cannabinoid 1 receptor KO mouse. All 4 four genetically modified mice were previously shown to show exaggerated helpless behaviour compared to wild-type controls and variable degrees of anxiety and anhedonic behaviour. mRNA was extracted from frontal cortex and hybridised to Illumina microarrays. Combined contrast analysis was used to identify genes showing different patterns of up- and down-regulation across the 4 models. 1823 genes were differentially regulated. They were over-represented in gene ontology categories of metabolism, protein handling and synapse. In each model compared to wild-type mice of the same genetic background, a number of genes showed increased expression changes of >10%, other genes showed decreases in each model. Most of the genes showed mixed effects. Several previous array findings were replicated. The results point to cellular stress and changes in post-synaptic remodelling as final common mechanisms of depression and resilience. PMID:21030216

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

  7. Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, K J; Rather, P N; Hare, R S; Miller, G H

    1993-01-01

    The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. Dissemination of these genes is aided by a variety of genetic elements including integrons, transposons, and broad-host-range plasmids. As knowledge of the molecular structure of these enzymes increases, progress can be made in our understanding of how resistance to new aminoglycosides emerges. Images PMID:8385262

  8. Genetic diversity and distribution of a distinct strain of Chili leaf curl virus and associated betasatellite infecting tomato and pepper in Oman.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Zaidi, Amal M; Singh, Achuit K; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-10-01

    Tomato and pepper are widely grown in Oman for local consumption. A countrywide survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to collect samples and assess the diversity of begomoviruses associated with leaf curl disease of tomato and pepper. A virus previously only identified on the Indian subcontinent, chili leaf curl virus (ChLCV), was found associated with tomato and pepper diseases in all vegetable grown areas of Oman. Some of the infected plant samples were also found to contain a betasatellite. A total of 19 potentially full-length begomovirus and eight betasatellite clones were sequenced. The begomovirus clones showed >96% nucleotide sequence identity, showing them to represent a single species. Comparisons to sequences available in the databases showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (88.0-91.1%) to isolates of the "Pakistan" strain of ChLCV (ChLCV-PK), indicating the virus from Oman to be a distinct strain, for which the name Oman strain (ChLCV-OM) is proposed. An analysis for recombination showed ChLCV-OM likely to have originated by recombination between ChLCV-PK (the major parent), pepper leaf curl Lahore virus and a third strain of ChLCV. The betasatellite sequences obtained were shown to have high levels of identity to isolates of tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB) previous shown to be present in Oman. For the disease in tomato Koch's postulates were satisfied by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of virus and betasatellites clones. This showed the symptoms induced by the virus in the presence of the betasatellite to be enhanced, although viral DNA levels were not affected. ChLCV-OM is the fourth begomovirus identified in tomato in Oman and the first in Capsicum. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:23911631

  9. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status. PMID:24279355

  10. The HSP terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana induces a high level of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kurokawa, Natsuko; Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Kato, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-28

    High-level accumulation of the target recombinant protein is a significant issue in heterologous protein expression using transgenic plants. Miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, was accumulated in transgenic tomatoes using an expression cassette in which the miraculin gene was expressed by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the heat shock protein (HSP) terminator (MIR-HSP). The HSP terminator was derived from heat shock protein 18.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana . Using this HSP-containing cassette, the miraculin concentration in T0 transgenic tomato lines was 1.4-13.9% of the total soluble protein (TSP), and that in the T1 transgenic tomato line homozygous for the miraculin gene reached 17.1% of the TSP. The accumulation level of the target protein was comparable to levels observed with chloroplast transformation. The high-level accumulation of miraculin in T0 transgenic tomato lines achieved by the HSP terminator was maintained in the successive T1 generation, demonstrating the genetic stability of this accumulation system. PMID:21861502

  11. The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their first commercialization, the diversity of taxa and the genetic composition of transgene sequences in genetically modified plants (GMOs) are constantly increasing. To date, the detection of GMOs and derived products is commonly performed by PCR-based methods targeting specific DNA sequences introduced into the host genome. Information available regarding the GMOs’ molecular characterization is dispersed and not appropriately organized. For this reason, GMO testing is very challenging and requires more complex screening strategies and decision making schemes, demanding in return the use of efficient bioinformatics tools relying on reliable information. Description The GMOseek matrix was built as a comprehensive, online open-access tabulated database which provides a reliable, comprehensive and user-friendly overview of 328 GMO events and 247 different genetic elements (status: 18/07/2013). The GMOseek matrix is aiming to facilitate GMO detection from plant origin at different phases of the analysis. It assists in selecting the targets for a screening analysis, interpreting the screening results, checking the occurrence of a screening element in a group of selected GMOs, identifying gaps in the available pool of GMO detection methods, and designing a decision tree. The GMOseek matrix is an independent database with effective functionalities in a format facilitating transferability to other platforms. Data were collected from all available sources and experimentally tested where detection methods and certified reference materials (CRMs) were available. Conclusions The GMOseek matrix is currently a unique and very valuable tool with reliable information on GMOs from plant origin and their present genetic elements that enables further development of appropriate strategies for GMO detection. It is flexible enough to be further updated with new information and integrated in different applications and platforms. PMID:23965170

  12. Bite-sized tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-five tomato varieties were planted at Lane, OK in 2007 to determine what varieties were most suited for cherry and grape tomato production. Tomatoes were of red, brown, yellow, or orange fruit color and ranged in size from currant (1 g) to large cherry (30 g). Productivity was reduced due t...

  13. Development of a qualitative real-time PCR method to detect 19 targets for identification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaofu; Wei, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops. Furthermore, most assays showed a very sensitive detection, reaching the limit of ten copies. The 19 assays are the most frequently used genetic elements present in GM crops and theoretically enable the screening of the known GMO described in Chinese markets. Easy to use, fast and cost efficient, this method approach fits the purpose of GMO testing laboratories. PMID:27386337

  14. Application of whole genome shotgun sequencing for detection and characterization of genetically modified organisms and derived products.

    PubMed

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Arulandhu, Alfred J; Kok, Esther; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of high-throughput, massive or next-generation sequencing technologies has created a completely new foundation for molecular analyses. Various selective enrichment processes are commonly applied to facilitate detection of predefined (known) targets. Such approaches, however, inevitably introduce a bias and are prone to miss unknown targets. Here we review the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and the preparation of fit-for-purpose whole genome shotgun sequencing libraries for the detection and characterization of genetically modified and derived products. The potential impact of these new sequencing technologies for the characterization, breeding selection, risk assessment, and traceability of genetically modified organisms and genetically modified products is yet to be fully acknowledged. The published literature is reviewed, and the prospects for future developments and use of the new sequencing technologies for these purposes are discussed. PMID:27100228

  15. Statistical framework for detection of genetically modified organisms based on Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Sander; Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Deforce, Dieter; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; De Loose, Marc; Ruttink, Tom; Herman, Philippe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Roosens, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Because the number and diversity of genetically modified (GM) crops has significantly increased, their analysis based on real-time PCR (qPCR) methods is becoming increasingly complex and laborious. While several pioneers already investigated Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as an alternative to qPCR, its practical use has not been assessed for routine analysis. In this study a statistical framework was developed to predict the number of NGS reads needed to detect transgene sequences, to prove their integration into the host genome and to identify the specific transgene event in a sample with known composition. This framework was validated by applying it to experimental data from food matrices composed of pure GM rice, processed GM rice (noodles) or a 10% GM/non-GM rice mixture, revealing some influential factors. Finally, feasibility of NGS for routine analysis of GM crops was investigated by applying the framework to samples commonly encountered in routine analysis of GM crops. PMID:26304412

  16. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  17. Biosynthetic preparation of selectively deuterated phosphatidylcholine in genetically modified Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Selma; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Schiller, Jürgen; Marek, Magdalena; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Arleth, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes and one of the most commonly used phospholipids for reconstitution of membrane proteins into carrier systems such as lipid vesicles, micelles and nanodiscs. Selectively deuterated versions of this lipid have many applications, especially in structural studies using techniques such as NMR, neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering. Here we present a comprehensive study of selective deuteration of phosphatidylcholine through biosynthesis in a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli. By carefully tuning the deuteration level in E. coli growth media and varying the deuteration of supplemented carbon sources, we show that it is possible to achieve a controlled deuteration for three distinct parts of the PC lipid molecule, namely the (a) lipid head group, (b) glycerol backbone and (c) fatty acyl tail. This biosynthetic approach paves the way for the synthesis of specifically deuterated, physiologically relevant phospholipid species which remain difficult to obtain through standard chemical synthesis. PMID:25301578

  18. Recommendations from a meeting on health implications of genetically modified organism (GMO).

    PubMed

    Amofah, George

    2014-06-01

    The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs. PMID:25667561

  19. An electrochemiluminescence non-PCR method for the detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin

    2006-09-01

    An electrochemiluminescence non-PCR method has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops. Genomic DNA of GMOs was digested with two restriction endonucleases (FOK I and BsrD I), and hybridized with three Ru(bpy) 3 2+ (TBR)-labeled and one biotinylated probes. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL non-PCR method will provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  20. Insect-resistant genetically modified rice in China: from research to commercialization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony; Ye, Gong-yin

    2011-01-01

    From the first insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) rice transformation in 1989 in China to October 2009 when the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture issued biosafety certificates for commercial production of two cry1Ab/Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) lines, China made a great leap forward from IRGM rice basic research to potential commercialization of the world's first IRGM rice. Research has been conducted on developing IRGM rice, assessing its environmental and food safety impacts, and evaluating its socioeconomic consequences. Laboratory and field tests have confirmed that these two Bt rice lines can provide effective and economic control of the lepidopteran complex on rice with less risk to the environment than present practices. Commercializing these Bt plants, while developing other GM plants that address the broader complex of insects and other pests, will need to be done within a comprehensive integrated pest management program to ensure the food security of China and the world. PMID:20868281

  1. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248

  2. A modified decision tree algorithm based on genetic algorithm for mobile user classification problem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity. PMID:24688389

  3. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. PMID:27006240

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, L; Cisterna, B; Malatesta, M; Martin, T E; Biggiogera, M

    2004-01-01

    We have considered the possible effects of a diet containing genetically modified (GM) soybean on mouse testis. This organ, in fact, is a well known bioindicator and it has already been utilized, for instance, to monitor pollution by heavy metals. In this preliminary study, we have focussed our attention on Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes by means of immunoelectron microscopy. Our results point out that the immunolabelling for Sm antigen, hnRNPs, SC35 and RNA Polymerase II is decreased in 2 and 5 month-old GM-fed mice, and is restored to normal at 8 months. In GM-fed mice of all ages considered, the number of perichromatin granules is higher and the nuclear pore density lower. Moreover, we found enlargements in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in GM-fed mice Sertoli cells. A possible role played by traces of the herbicide to which the soybean is resistant is discussed. PMID:15718213

  5. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-01

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research. PMID:23899040

  6. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights. PMID:21670890

  7. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety. PMID:21487714

  8. A Modified Decision Tree Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm for Mobile User Classification Problem

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity. PMID:24688389

  9. Genetically Modified Vibrio harveyi Strains as Potential Bioindicators of Mutagenic Pollution of Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Czyż, Agata; Jasiecki, Jacek; Bogdan, Adam; Szpilewska, Hanna; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2000-01-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. We found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, we developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. We constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, we consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments. PMID:10653723

  10. Safety assessment and public concerns for genetically modified food products: the Japanese experience.

    PubMed

    Hino, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    The recombinant DNA (rDNA) technique is expected to bring about great progress in the improvement of breeding technology and the development of new plant varieties showing high quality and high yield, such as those with excellent pest and disease resistance, those with environmental stress tolerance, and so forth. In the United States and Canada, many genetically modified (GM) crop plants were commercialized as early as 1994. In Japan, 35 transgenic crop plants, such as herbicide tolerant soybean, cotton, and canola, and insect-resistant corn, cotton, and potatos, were authorized and considered marketable until April 2001. The general public, however, is not familiar with rDNA technology, and some people seem to feel uncomfortable with biotechnology, frequently because of the difficulty of the technology and lacking of sufficient information. New labeling systems were initiated in April 2001 in Japan to provide information regarding the use of GM crops as raw material. PMID:11890464

  11. Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?

    PubMed

    Kok, Esther J; Pedersen, Jan; Onori, Roberta; Sowa, Slawomir; Schauzu, Marianna; De Schrijver, Adinda; Teeri, Teemu H

    2014-02-01

    The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One of these differences relates to the so-called 'stacked GM events', that is, GMOs, plants so far, where new traits are combined by conventional crossing of different GM plants. This paper advocates rethinking the current food/feed safety assessment of stacked GM events in Europe based on an analysis of different aspects that currently form the rationale for the safety assessment of stacked GM events. PMID:24418332

  12. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  13. Modifying the Mechanical Properties of Silk Fiber by Genetically Disrupting the Ionic Environment for Silk Formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Ping; Li, Yi; Yi, Qiying; Ma, Sanyuan; Xie, Kang; Chen, Huifang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-10-12

    Silks are widely used biomaterials, but there are still weaknesses in their mechanical properties. Here we report a method for improving the silk fiber mechanical properties by genetic disruption of the ionic environment for silk fiber formation. An anterior silk gland (ASG) specific promoter was identified and used for overexpressing ion-transporting protein in the ASG of silkworm. After isolation of the transgenic silkworms, we found that the metal ion content, conformation and mechanical properties of transgenic silk fibers changed accordingly. Notably, overexpressing endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in ASG decreased the calcium content of silks. As a consequence, silk fibers had more α-helix and β-sheet conformations, and their tenacity and extension increased significantly. These findings represent the in vivo demonstration of a correlation between metal ion content in the spinning duct and the mechanical properties of silk fibers, thus providing a novel method for modifying silk fiber properties. PMID:26302212

  14. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  15. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

  16. Evaluating the 2008 consensus conference on genetically modified foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Genetically modified foods have become one of the most popular topics for deliberative exercises involving ordinary citizens worldwide. This paper examines the Taiwanese consensus conference on GM foods held in June 2008, and the implications and limitations of the public deliberations. The consensus conference facilitated multiparty dialogues and enhanced citizens' knowledge, and affected their attitudes. This study demonstrates the ways contextual factors have influenced the outcome of the citizens' deliberative practices, including the government's conventional technocratic decision-making style, the strong influence of the U.S. government, the political and technological culture, the government's framing of economic development concerns, and a lack of pressure from civil society to compel the government to formally respond to their concerns. The consensus conference had a limited effect on policy decision-making, and seemed to serve as a socio-political experiment. PMID:24068183

  17. DTREEv2, a computer-based support system for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Pertry, Ine; Nothegger, Clemens; Sweet, Jeremy; Kuiper, Harry; Davies, Howard; Iserentant, Dirk; Hull, Roger; Mezzetti, Bruno; Messens, Kathy; De Loose, Marc; de Oliveira, Dulce; Burssens, Sylvia; Gheysen, Godelieve; Tzotzos, George

    2014-03-25

    Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems that can facilitate the risk assessment process. In this paper we describe DTREEv2, a computer-based decision support system for the identification of hazards related to the introduction of GM-crops into the environment. DTREEv2 structures hazard identification and evaluation by means of an Event-Tree type of analysis. The system produces an output flagging identified hazards and potential risks. It is intended to be used for the preparation and evaluation of biosafety dossiers and, as such, its usefulness extends to researchers, risk assessors and regulators in government and industry. PMID:24308933

  18. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized. PMID:26456807

  19. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common. PMID:24047092

  20. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    PubMed

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security. PMID:22985799

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of genetically modified plants by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfeng; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng; Liu, Jinfeng

    2006-09-01

    In this study, a novel method for the direct detection of GMP without amplified by the general method of PCR is firstly presented and proved by experiments. In our method, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, cleaving nucleic acid by restriction endonuclease and two nucleic acid probe hybridization techniques are combined to distinguish the caulifiower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and determine whether samples contain genetically modified components. The detection principle is as follows: firstly two restriction endonucleases FOKI and BsrDlare used to cleave the genomic DNA and the 169bp fragments of CaMV 35S promoter are retrieved; secondly, two nucleic acid probes labeled by Rhodamine Green and y5 dyes respectively hybridize with cleaved 169bp fragments of CaMV 35S promoter; thirdly, the hybridization products simultaneously with two dye-labeled probes are detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and GMP is distinguished. As the detection and analysis by FCS can be performed at the level of single molecule, there is no need for any type of amplification. Genetically modified tobaccos are measured by this method. The results indicate this method can detect CaMV 35S promoter of GMP exactly and the sensitivity can be down to 3.47X10 -10M. Because no any type of amplification is involved, this method can avoid the non-specffic amplification and false-positive problems of PCR, Due to its high-sensitivity, simplicity, reliability and little need for sample amounts, this method promises to be a highly effective detection method for GMP.

  2. Variable phenotypic presentation of iron overload in H63D homozygotes: are genetic modifiers the cause?

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Martinez, P; Bismuth, M; Picot, M; Thelcide, C; Pageaux, G; Blanc, F; Blanc, P; Schved, J; Larrey, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—First considered as a polymorphism of the HFE gene, the H63D mutation is now widely recognised as a haemochromatosis associated allele. But few H63D homozygotes with clinical manifestations of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) have been reported. Concurrently, an increasing number of genes have been shown to interact with HFE in iron metabolism.
AIMS—To describe the clinical expression of iron overload (IO) associated with H63D homozygosity, and search for potential genetic modifiers (within the HFE or other genes) that could explain the variability of the phenotypes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—We retrospectively analysed the clinical phenotype of 56 H63D homozygotes referred for a personal or family history of IO. For each subject we examined intragenic HFE haplotypes and transferrin receptor (TfR) gene polymorphisms and searched for the Y250X mutation on the TFR2 gene. Additionally, we sequenced the HFE gene of H63D homozygotes with HH.
RESULTS—Fifty of 56 subjects had biological and/or clinical abnormalities of iron metabolism. Up to two thirds of patients (n=34) had no acquired cause of IO. Among these, 12 had a phenotypic diagnosis of HH. In the iron loaded group there was a strong prevalence of male patients. No correlation was found between the potential genetic modifiers and phenotypes. No additional mutation of HFE was identified.
CONCLUSION—The variable phenotypes associated with H63D homozygosity do not appear to be linked to other HFE mutations, to the TFR2 Y250X mutation, or to HFE or TfR gene intragenic polymorphisms. The exact role of H63D homozygosity in IO and HH needs to be further investigated in unselected populations.


Keywords: haemochromatosis; H63D homozygotes; phenotypic variability; HFE haplotypes; transferrin receptor gene PMID:11358905

  3. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/. PMID:26424080

  4. ETHICAL ISSUES IN FIELD TRIALS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED DISEASE-RESISTANT MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23279283

  5. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/ PMID:26424080

  6. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    PubMed

    König, A; Cockburn, A; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Grafstroem, R; Hammerling, U; Kimber, I; Knudsen, I; Kuiper, H A; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Penninks, A H; Poulsen, M; Schauzu, M; Wal, J M

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative. PMID:15123382

  7. Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa; Hallerman, Eric M; Wu, Kongming

    2014-04-01

    As a developing country with relatively limited arable land, China is making great efforts for development and use of genetically modified (GM) crops to boost agricultural productivity. Many GM crop varieties have been developed in China in recent years; in particular, China is playing a leading role in development of insect-resistant GM rice lines. To ensure the safe use of GM crops, biosafety risk assessments are required as an important part of the regulatory oversight of such products. With over 20 years of nationwide promotion of agricultural biotechnology, a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of GM plants has been developed that establishes a firm basis for safe use of GM crops. So far, a total of seven GM crops involving ten events have been approved for commercial planting, and 5 GM crops with a total of 37 events have been approved for import as processing material in China. However, currently only insect-resistant Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have been commercially planted on a large scale. The planting of Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have provided efficient protection against cotton bollworms and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), respectively. As a consequence, chemical application to these crops has been significantly reduced, enhancing farm income while reducing human and non-target organism exposure to toxic chemicals. This article provides useful information for the colleagues, in particular for them whose mother tongue is not Chinese, to clearly understand the biosafety regulation and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China. PMID:24493253

  8. Ethical issues in field trials of genetically modified disease-resistant mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23279283

  9. Perceptions and attitudes of Riyadh university students towards products derived from genetically modified crops in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Jebreen, Dalal Hamad

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn't know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products. PMID:20415150

  10. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    This article is referred to research article entitled "Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method" (Nakamura et al., 2016) [1]. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method) was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976). Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided. PMID:27408919

  11. Genetically modified laboratory animals in the name of the 3Rs?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Arianna

    2006-01-01

    Although the introduction of GM animal models at first was viewed as a potent way to enhance experimental biology in the name of the 3Rs by its proponents, over the years, the number of animals used has greatly increased and concerns about the suffering of these animals have emerged in the debate. The purpose of this contribution is to show the need and the urgency for a systematic evaluation of genetically modified laboratory animals (GM animals) according to the 3Rs principle. This evaluation presents various difficulties due to the special features of the genetic modifications of animals, the variety of scientific purposes connected with the use of these animals, the lack of coherent statistical data about this use and the difficulties related to the welfare assessment of these animals. In this article I discuss the significance of the procedures involving GM animals for each of the 3R principles. On this basis, I offer an answer to the question of whether these procedures are compatible with the spirit of the 3Rs. PMID:17186113

  12. Genetic mapping of a mouse modifier gene that can prevent ALS onset.

    PubMed

    Kunst, C B; Messer, L; Gordon, J; Haines, J; Patterson, D

    2000-12-01

    Mutations in the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene on human chromosome 21q22.1 cause 10-20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. The expression of the ALS phenotype in mice carrying the murine G86R SOD1 mutation is highly dependent upon the mouse genetic background. This is similar to the phenotypic variation observed in ALS patients containing identical SOD1 mutations. In the FVB/N background, mice expressing mG86R SOD1 develop an ALS phenotype at approximately 100 days. However, when these mice were bred into a mixed background of C57Bl6/129Sv, the onset of the ALS phenotype was delayed (143 days to >2 years). Using 129 polymorphic autosomal markers in a whole genome scan, we have identified a major genetic modifier locus with a maximum lod score of 5.07 on mouse chromosome 13 between D13mit36 and D13mit76. This 5- to 8-cM interval contains the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-associated gene Smn (survival motor neuron) and seven copies of Naip (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein), suggesting a potential link between SMA and ALS. PMID:11112346

  13. Allergenicity assessment of genetically-modified tobacco expressing salt tolerance cbl gene.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Tuteja, Narendra; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-09-01

    It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there was no significant sequence homology with known allergens. Also, no difference between the protein digestibility profiles of GM and WT tobacco was found. Rapid digestion of CBL protein (Mol Wt 35 kDa) by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated reduced chances of this protein to induce allergenicity. In addition, BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of WT and GM tobacco protein showed comparable levels of clinical score, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine level, similar effect on different organs as well as IgE binding proteins. These findings indicate that insertion of cbl gene in tobacco did not cause any additional allergic risk to consumer and the GM and native tobacco proteins behave similarly in both in vitro and in vivo situations even after genetic modification. PMID:25106468

  14. Psychological determinants of willingness to taste and purchase genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ellen; Campbell, Scott

    2004-10-01

    Decreasing acceptance of biotechnologies over time has been reported in Europe. Studies claim that attitudes are negative, even hostile, and that people are very worried about genetic engineering in food and medicine. However, such studies are mostly based on surveys and these have significant methodological problems, such as low response rates, which may indicate that only those with strong views respond, thus biasing the sample. Here an alternative method, involving "topic-blind" recruitment of participants and a behavioral measure (food tasting), was used. We show that in a topic-blind sample of 100 individuals, 93% willingly tasted and ate what they believed to be genetically modified (GM) food in an experimental setting, and 48% said they would buy GM food in the future, results that are surprising in the context of other reports about attitudes and intentions toward GM food. Purchasers and nonpurchasers differed in their attitudes toward GM food on key risk-related scales (particularly on a dread-not dread scale--a measure of integral affect--and an ethical-unethical scale). Despite these differences, however, and despite their negative attitude, most nonpurchasers (85.7%) still tasted the GM apple. Incidental affect (state stress and trait worry) was not found to influence risk-related judgments about GM food. Integral affect (dread of GM plants and animals used for food) and concerns about the future risks of GM animals in food were found to be key predictors of willingness to purchase GM food. PMID:15563302

  15. Genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharifnia, Tanaz; Rusu, Victor; Piccioni, Federica; Bagul, Mukta; Imielinski, Marcin; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Wong, Bang; Wilson, Frederick H.; Garraway, Levi A.; Altshuler, David; Golub, Todd R.; Root, David E.; Subramanian, Aravind; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represent a common molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. EGFR mutations predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thus represent a dependency in NSCLCs harboring these alterations, but the genetic basis of EGFR dependence is not fully understood. Here, we applied an unbiased, ORF-based screen to identify genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. This approach identified 18 kinase and kinase-related genes whose overexpression can substitute for EGFR in EGFR-dependent PC9 cells, and these genes include seven of nine Src family kinase genes, FGFR1, FGFR2, ITK, NTRK1, NTRK2, MOS, MST1R, and RAF1. A subset of these genes can complement loss of EGFR activity across multiple EGFR-dependent models. Unbiased gene-expression profiling of cells overexpressing EGFR bypass genes, together with targeted validation studies, reveals EGFR-independent activation of the MEK-ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways. Combined inhibition of PI3K-mTOR and MEK restores EGFR dependence in cells expressing each of the 18 EGFR bypass genes. Together, these data uncover a broad spectrum of kinases capable of overcoming dependence on EGFR and underscore their convergence on the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK signaling axes in sustaining EGFR-independent survival. PMID:25512530

  16. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties. PMID:25603722

  17. The influence of biocomposites containing genetically modified flax fibers on gene expression in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Dominiak, Marzena; Gedrange, Tomasz; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2010-12-01

    In many studies, natural flax fibers have been proven to be resistant and surgically suitable. Genetically modified flax fibers, derived from transgenic flax expressing three bacterial genes for the synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have better mechanical properties than unmodified flax fibers. The aim of this study was to examine the biocompatibility of composites containing flax fibers from transgenic polyhydroxybutyrate producing (M50) and control (wt-NIKE) plants in a polylactide (PLA) matrix in rat Musculus latissimus dorsi. For this purpose, effects of biocomposites on the expression of growth factors and osteogenic differentiation, in particular the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin like growth factor 1, insulin like growth factor 2, collagen-1, collagen-2 and myostatin, were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. The biocomposites did not show any inflammation response after subcutaneous insertion. The results following subcutaneous insertion of PLA alone and PLA-M50 showed no significant changes on the gene expression of all tested genes, whereas PLA-wt-NIKE reduced the mRNA amount of myostatin, VEGFA and IGF2, respectively. It can be asserted that modified flax membranes with PHB and other organic substances have a good biocompatibility to the muscle and they do not disrupt the muscle function. Furthermore, composites from transgenic flax plants producing PHB did not differ from composites of non-transgenic flax plants. PMID:20973615

  18. The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wiesinger, Christoph; Eichler, Florian S; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD). A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs. PMID:25999754

  19. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation. PMID:17956000

  20. Genetically modified haloes: towards controlled experiments in ΛCDM galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nina; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to generate `genetically modified' (GM) initial conditions for high-resolution simulations of galaxy formation in a cosmological context. Building on the Hoffman-Ribak algorithm, we start from a reference simulation with fully random initial conditions, then make controlled changes to specific properties of a single halo (such as its mass and merger history). The algorithm demonstrably makes minimal changes to other properties of the halo and its environment, allowing us to isolate the impact of a given modification. As a significant improvement over previous work, we are able to calculate the abundance of the resulting objects relative to the reference simulation. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of cosmic structures and epochs; here we study two problems as a proof of concept. First, we investigate the change in density profile and concentration as the collapse times of three individual haloes are varied at fixed final mass, showing good agreement with previous statistical studies using large simulation suites. Secondly, we modify the z = 0 mass of haloes to show that our theoretical abundance calculations correctly recover the halo mass function. The results demonstrate that the technique is robust, opening the way to controlled experiments in galaxy formation using hydrodynamic zoom simulations.

  1. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Gress, Steeve; Defarge, Nicolas; Malatesta, Manuela; Hennequin, Didier; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2012-11-01

    The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2-3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5-5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3-2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences. PMID:22999595

  2. Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. PMID:24662477

  3. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    PubMed

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. PMID:23205714

  4. A Screen for Modifiers of Cilia Phenotypes Reveals Novel MKS Alleles and Uncovers a Specific Genetic Interaction between osm-3 and nphp-4.

    PubMed

    Masyukova, Svetlana V; Landis, Dawn E; Henke, Scott J; Williams, Corey L; Pieczynski, Jay N; Roszczynialski, Kelly N; Covington, Jannese E; Malarkey, Erik B; Yoder, Bradley K

    2016-02-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a ciliopathy in which genetic modifiers may underlie the variable penetrance of clinical features. To identify modifiers, a screen was conducted on C. elegans nphp-4(tm925) mutants. Mutations in ten loci exacerbating nphp-4(tm925) ciliary defects were obtained. Four loci have been identified, three of which are established ciliopathy genes mks-1, mks-2, and mks-5. The fourth allele (yhw66) is a missense mutation (S316F) in OSM-3, a kinesin required for cilia distal segment assembly. While osm-3(yhw66) mutants alone have no overt cilia phenotype, nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants lack distal segments and are dye-filling (Dyf) and osmotic avoidance (Osm) defective, similar to osm-3(mn357) null mutants. In osm-3(yhw66) mutants anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) velocity is reduced. Furthermore, expression of OSM-3(S316F)::GFP reduced IFT velocities in nphp-4(tm925) mutants, but not in wild type animals. In silico analysis indicates the S316F mutation may affect a phosphorylation site. Putative phospho-null OSM-3(S316F) and phospho-mimetic OSM-3(S316D) proteins accumulate at the cilia base and tip respectively. FRAP analysis indicates that the cilia entry rate of OSM-3(S316F) is slower than OSM-3 and that in the presence of OSM-3(S316F), OSM-3 and OSM-3(S316D) rates decrease. In the presence OSM-3::GFP or OSM-3(S316D)::GFP, OSM-3(S316F)::tdTomato redistributes along the cilium and accumulates in the cilia tip. OSM-3(S316F) and OSM-3(S316D) are functional as they restore cilia distal segment formation in osm-3(mn357) null mutants; however, only OSM-3(S316F) rescues the osm-3(mn357) null Dyf phenotype. Despite rescue of cilia length in osm-3(mn357) null mutants, neither OSM-3(S316F) nor OSM-3(S316D) restores ciliary defects in nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants. Thus, these OSM-3 mutations cause NPHP-4 dependent and independent phenotypes. These data indicate that in addition to regulating cilia protein entry or exit

  5. A Screen for Modifiers of Cilia Phenotypes Reveals Novel MKS Alleles and Uncovers a Specific Genetic Interaction between osm-3 and nphp-4

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corey L.; Pieczynski, Jay N.; Roszczynialski, Kelly N.; Covington, Jannese E.; Malarkey, Erik B.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a ciliopathy in which genetic modifiers may underlie the variable penetrance of clinical features. To identify modifiers, a screen was conducted on C. elegans nphp-4(tm925) mutants. Mutations in ten loci exacerbating nphp-4(tm925) ciliary defects were obtained. Four loci have been identified, three of which are established ciliopathy genes mks-1, mks-2, and mks-5. The fourth allele (yhw66) is a missense mutation (S316F) in OSM-3, a kinesin required for cilia distal segment assembly. While osm-3(yhw66) mutants alone have no overt cilia phenotype, nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants lack distal segments and are dye-filling (Dyf) and osmotic avoidance (Osm) defective, similar to osm-3(mn357) null mutants. In osm-3(yhw66) mutants anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) velocity is reduced. Furthermore, expression of OSM-3(S316F)::GFP reduced IFT velocities in nphp-4(tm925) mutants, but not in wild type animals. In silico analysis indicates the S316F mutation may affect a phosphorylation site. Putative phospho-null OSM-3(S316F) and phospho-mimetic OSM-3(S316D) proteins accumulate at the cilia base and tip respectively. FRAP analysis indicates that the cilia entry rate of OSM-3(S316F) is slower than OSM-3 and that in the presence of OSM-3(S316F), OSM-3 and OSM-3(S316D) rates decrease. In the presence OSM-3::GFP or OSM-3(S316D)::GFP, OSM-3(S316F)::tdTomato redistributes along the cilium and accumulates in the cilia tip. OSM-3(S316F) and OSM-3(S316D) are functional as they restore cilia distal segment formation in osm-3(mn357) null mutants; however, only OSM-3(S316F) rescues the osm-3(mn357) null Dyf phenotype. Despite rescue of cilia length in osm-3(mn357) null mutants, neither OSM-3(S316F) nor OSM-3(S316D) restores ciliary defects in nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants. Thus, these OSM-3 mutations cause NPHP-4 dependent and independent phenotypes. These data indicate that in addition to regulating cilia protein entry or exit

  6. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. PMID:25213972

  7. Mapping genetic modifiers of survival in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison R.; Hawkins, Nicole A.; McCollom, Clint E.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for several monogenic epilepsy syndromes. More than 800 mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A have been reported in patients with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and Dravet syndrome. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A result in Dravet syndrome, a severe infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by intractable seizures, developmental delays and increased mortality. A common feature of monogenic epilepsies is variable expressivity among individuals with the same mutation, suggesting that genetic modifiers may influence clinical severity. Mice with heterozygous deletion of Scn1a (Scn1a+/−) model a number of Dravet syndrome features, including spontaneous seizures and premature lethality. Phenotype severity in Scn1a+/− mice is strongly dependent on strain background. On the 129S6/SvEvTac strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit no overt phenotype, while on the (C57BL/6J × 129S6/SvEvTac)F1 strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit spontaneous seizures and early lethality. To systematically identify loci that influence premature lethality in Scn1a+/− mice, we performed genome scans on reciprocal backcrosses. QTL mapping revealed modifier loci on mouse chromosomes 5, 7, 8 and 11. RNA-seq analysis of strain-dependent gene expression, regulation and coding sequence variation provided a list of potential functional candidate genes at each locus. Identification of modifier genes that influence survival in Scn1a+/− mice will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of human patients. PMID:24152123

  8. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. PMID:27039064

  9. METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE QUESTIONS:

    -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants?

    -How can it be measured?

    -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities?



    RESEARCH:

    The objectives ...

  10. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  11. Quantitative analysis of cefalexin based on artificial neural networks combined with modified genetic algorithm using short near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Yanfu; Feng, Guodong; Wang, Bin; Ren, Yulin; Fei, Qiang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a novel chemometric method was developed for rapid, accurate, and quantitative analysis of cefalexin in samples. The experiments were carried out by using the short near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with artificial neural networks. In order to enhancing the predictive ability of artificial neural networks model, a modified genetic algorithm was used to select fixed number of wavelength.

  12. Genetic modifiers of sickle cell anemia in the BABY HUG cohort: influence on laboratory and clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Vivien A; Luo, Zhaoyu; Flanagan, Jonathan M; Howard, Thad A; Thompson, Bruce W; Wang, Winfred C; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ware, Russell E

    2013-07-01

    The recently completed BABY HUG trial investigated the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in infants with sickle cell anemia (SCA). To investigate the effects of known genetic modifiers, genomic DNA on 190 randomized subjects were analyzed for alpha thalassemia, beta-globin haplotype, polymorphisms affecting endogenous fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (XmnI, BCL11A, and HBS1L-MYB), UGT1A1 promoter polymorphisms, and the common G6PD A(-) mutation. At study entry, infants with alpha thalassemia trait had significantly lower mean corpuscular volume, total bilirubin, and absolute reticulocyte count. Beta-globin haplotypes associated with milder disease had significantly higher hemoglobin and %HbF. BCL11A and XmnI polymorphisms had significant effects on baseline HbF, while UGT1A1 promoter polymorphisms significantly influenced baseline serum bilirubin. At study exit, subjects randomized to placebo still exhibited laboratory effects of alpha thalassemia and other modifiers, while those assigned hydroxyurea had treatment effects that exceeded most genetic influences. The pain phenotype was influenced by HbF modifiers in both treatment groups. These data document that genetic polymorphisms do modify laboratory and clinical phenotypes even in very young patients with SCA. The hydroxyurea effects are more potent, however, indicating that treatment criteria should not be limited to certain genetic subsets, and supporting the use of hydroxyurea for all young patients with SCA. PMID:23606168

  13. Expanding the Repertoire of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Based Vaccine Vectors via Genetic Complementation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Garber, David A.; O'Mara, Leigh A.; Zhao, Jun; Gangadhara, Sailaja; An, InChul; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a safe, highly attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a recombinant vaccine vector for immunization against a number of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the expression by MVA vectors of large numbers of poxvirus antigens, which display immunodominance over vectored antigens-of-interest for the priming of T cell responses, and the induction of vector-neutralizing antibodies, which curtail the efficacy of subsequent booster immunizations, remain as significant impediments to the overall utility of such vaccines. Thus, genetic approaches that enable the derivation of MVA vectors that are antigenically less complex may allow for rational improvement of MVA-based vaccines. Principal Findings We have developed a genetic complementation system that enables the deletion of essential viral genes from the MVA genome, thereby allowing us to generate MVA vaccine vectors that are antigenically less complex. Using this system, we deleted the essential uracil-DNA-glycosylase (udg) gene from MVA and propagated this otherwise replication-defective variant on a complementing cell line that constitutively expresses the poxvirus udg gene and that was derived from a newly identified continuous cell line that is permissive for growth of wild type MVA. The resulting virus, MVAΔudg, does not replicate its DNA genome or express late viral gene products during infection of non-complementing cells in culture. As proof-of-concept for immunological ‘focusing’, we demonstrate that immunization of mice with MVAΔudg elicits CD8+ T cell responses that are directed against a restricted repertoire of vector antigens, as compared to immunization with parental MVA. Immunization of rhesus macaques with MVAΔudg-gag, a udg− recombinant virus that expresses an HIV subtype-B consensus gag transgene, elicited significantly higher frequencies of Gag-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells following both primary (2–4-fold) and booster (2

  14. Effect on soil chemistry of genetically modified (GM) vs. non-GM maize.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Kang, Lingsheng; Gao, Hongjun; Clarke, Nicholas J; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2010-01-01

    The effects of genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Fa2 protein (Bt) and phosphinothricin or glyphosate herbicide tolerance on soil chemistry (organic matter, N, P, K and pH), compared with non-GM controls, were assessed in field and pot experiments. In the field experiment, NH(4)(+) was significantly higher in soil under the crop modified for herbicide tolerance compared to the control (mean values of 11 and 9.6 mg N/kg respectively) while P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 6.9 and 6.4 dg P/kg, respectively). No significant differences were found as a result of growing Bt/herbicide tolerant maize. In the pot experiment, using soils from three sites (Gongzhuling, Dehui and Huadian), significant effects of using Bt maize instead of conventional maize were found for all three soils. In the Gongzhuling soil, P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 4.8 and 4.0 dg P/kg, respectively). For the Dehui soil, the pH was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values for {H(+)} of 1.1 and 2.4 μM for the control and the GM crop respectively). In the Huadian soil, organic matter and total N were both higher in soil under the GM crop than under the control. For organic matter, the mean values were 3.0 and 2.9% for the GM crop and the control, respectively, while for total nitrogen the mean values were 2.02 and 1.96% for the GM crop and the control respectively. Our results indicate that growing GM crops instead of conventional crops may alter soil chemistry, but not greatly, and that effects will vary with both the specific genetic modification and the soil. PMID:21844670

  15. New trends in bioanalytical tools for the detection of genetically modified organisms: an update.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Elisa; Simoni, Patrizia; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Roda, Aldo

    2008-10-01

    Despite the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the production of GM crops is increasing, especially in developing countries. Thanks to new technologies involving genetic engineering and unprecedented access to genomic resources, the next decade will certainly see exponential growth in GMO production. Indeed, EU regulations based on the precautionary principle require any food containing more than 0.9% GM content to be labeled as such. The implementation of these regulations necessitates sampling protocols, the availability of certified reference materials and analytical methodologies that allow the accurate determination of the content of GMOs. In order to qualify for the validation process, a method should fulfil some criteria, defined as "acceptance criteria" by the European Network of GMO Laboratories (ENGL). Several methods have recently been developed for GMO detection and quantitation, mostly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. PCR (including its different formats, e.g., double competitive PCR and real-time PCR) remains the technique of choice, thanks to its ability to detect even small amounts of transgenes in raw materials and processed foods. Other approaches relying on DNA detection are based on quartz crystal microbalance piezoelectric biosensors, dry reagent dipstick-type sensors and surface plasmon resonance sensors. The application of visible/near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy or mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics techniques has also been envisaged as a powerful GMO detection tool. Furthermore, in order to cope with the multiplicity of GMOs released onto the market, the new challenge is the development of routine detection systems for the simultaneous detection of numerous GMOs, including unknown GMOs. PMID:18537027

  16. The use of genetically modified mice in cancer risk assessment: Challenges and limitations*

    PubMed Central

    Eastmond, David A.; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V.; French, John E.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) mice to assess carcinogenicity is playing an increasingly important role in the safety evaluation of chemicals. While progress has been made in developing and evaluating mouse models such as the Trp53+/−, Tg.AC and the rasH2, the suitability of these models as replacements for the conventional rodent cancer bioassay and for assessing human health risks remains uncertain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of accelerated cancer bioassays with GM mice for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic agents. We compared the published results from the GM bioassays to those obtained in the National Toxicology Program’s conventional chronic mouse bioassay for their potential use in risk assessment. Our analysis indicates that the GM models are less efficient in detecting carcinogenic agents but more consistent in identifying non-carcinogenic agents. We identified several issues of concern related to the design of the accelerated bioassays (e.g., sample size, study duration, genetic stability and reproducibility) as well as pathway-dependency of effects, and different carcinogenic mechanisms operable in GM and non-GM mice. The use of the GM models for dose-response assessment is particularly problematic as these models are, at times, much more or less sensitive than the conventional rodent cancer bioassays. Thus, the existing GM mouse models may be useful for hazard identification, but will be of limited use for dose-response assessment. Hence, caution should be exercised when using GM mouse models to assess the carcinogenic risks of chemicals. PMID:23985072

  17. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  18. 20 Years of hypertension research using genetically modified animals: no clinically promising approaches in sight.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Lavinia; Völkel, Manfred; Lindl, Toni

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of essential or primary hypertension is increasing, especially in the northern hemisphere, but although the disease displays clear symptoms, its aetiology appears very complex, and thus no causal treatment is available yet. In the 1990's, genetically modified animals (GMO) were considered to be the key to solving this problem of high complexity. However, until now, although a few approaches have shown that old, well-known drugs have a positive effect (decrease of blood pressure) on such animal models of hypertension, no approach has appeared in the literature of this area of research which might indicate a direct connection between GMO and a therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent this type of hypertension in humans. Instead, criticism of the GMO approach has accumulated in the last years, arguing that it is misleading as this disease does not have a monogenic cause and so complementary regulatory mechanisms could prevent the true identification of the function of the modified genes. Furthermore, the technology is best developed in mice, whose physiology of blood pressure is different from that of humans. Because of species specificity, it is not easy to extrapolate the results from animal models of hypertension to human hypertension. Also, in the years 2000 to 2004 a reorientation of the technology and the aims of this kind of research took place. Therefore, although these approaches are without exception deemed "very promising" in the literature, it cannot be expected that research on GMO will make any contribution to a new therapeutic strategy in the near future. PMID:19326032

  19. PCR technology for screening and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Rønning, Sissel B; Løvseth, Astrid; Berdal, Knut G

    2003-04-01

    Although PCR technology has obvious limitations, the potentially high degree of sensitivity and specificity explains why it has been the first choice of most analytical laboratories interested in detection of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) and derived materials. Because the products that laboratories receive for analysis are often processed and refined, the quality and quantity of target analyte (e.g. protein or DNA) frequently challenges the sensitivity of any detection method. Among the currently available methods, PCR methods are generally accepted as the most sensitive and reliable methods for detection of GM-derived material in routine applications. The choice of target sequence motif is the single most important factor controlling the specificity of the PCR method. The target sequence is normally a part of the modified gene construct, for example a promoter, a terminator, a gene, or a junction between two of these elements. However, the elements may originate from wildtype organisms, they may be present in more than one GMO, and their copy number may also vary from one GMO to another. They may even be combined in a similar way in more than one GMO. Thus, the choice of method should fit the purpose. Recent developments include event-specific methods, particularly useful for identification and quantification of GM content. Thresholds for labelling are now in place in many countries including those in the European Union. The success of the labelling schemes is dependent upon the efficiency with which GM-derived material can be detected. We will present an overview of currently available PCR methods for screening and quantification of GM-derived DNA, and discuss their applicability and limitations. In addition, we will discuss some of the major challenges related to determination of the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), and to validation of methods. PMID:12733008

  20. Polymorphism among EST-based markers in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) has a narrow genetic base. This is in part due to population genetic processes such as founder events, genetic bottlenecks, and natural and artificial selection during domestication. We characterize the nucleotide polymorphism in 26 EST-based markers...

  1. Perceptions and recommendations by scientists for a potential release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases has been proposed in malaria-endemic countries, such as Nigeria, which has the largest burden in Africa. Scientists are major stakeholders whose opinions and perceptions can adversely affect the success of the trials of GMMs if they are not involved early. Unfortunately, information on the awareness of Nigerians scientists and their overall perception of the GMMs is practically non-existent in the literature. Therefore, this study aimed at understanding how receptive Nigerian scientists are to a potential release of GMMs for the control of malaria. Methods The sample consisted of 164 scientists selected from academic and research institutions in Nigeria. Data were collected from participants using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Questions were asked about the cause and prevention of malaria, genetic modification and biotechnology. Specific questions on perception and acceptable conditions for the potential release of GM mosquitoes in Nigeria were also covered. Results All participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria and used various methods for household control of mosquitoes. The main concerns expressed by the scientists were that GMMs can spread in an uncontrolled way beyond their release sites (89%) and will mate with other mosquito species to produce hybrids with unknown consequences (94.5%). Most participants (92.7%) agreed that it was important that before approving the release of GMMs in Nigeria, there had to be evidence of contingency measures available to remove the GMMs should a hazard become evident during the course of the release. In general, a majority (83.5%) of scientists who participated in this study were sceptical about a potential release in Nigeria, while 16.5% of the participants were in support. Conclusions Although a majority of the participants are sceptical about GMMs generally

  2. The history of tomato: from domestication to biopharming.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Imported from the Andean region to Europe in the 16th century, today tomato is widespread throughout the world and represents the most economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Tomato is not only traded in the fresh market but is also used in the processing industry in soups, as paste, concentrate, juice, and ketchup. It is an incredible source of important nutrients such as lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin C, which all have positive impacts on human health. Its production and consumption is increasing with population growth. In this review, we report how tomato was already domesticated by the ancient Incan and Aztec civilizations, and how it came to Europe, where its breeding history started. The development of genetic, molecular biology and plant biotechnology have opened the doors towards the modern genetic engineering of tomato. The different goals of tomato genetic engineering are presented, as well as examples of successfully engineered tomatoes in terms of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and fruit quality. The development of GM tomato for biopharming is also described. PMID:24211472

  3. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  4. Detection of six genetically modified maize lines using optical thin-film biosensor chips.

    PubMed

    Bai, Sulan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shucheng; Chen, Haodong; Terzaghi, William; Zhang, Xin; Chi, Xiurong; Tian, Jin; Luo, Hongxia; Huang, Wensheng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yaochuan

    2010-08-11

    As more and more genetically modified organisms (GMO) are commercialized, efficient and inexpensive assays are required for their quick detection. An event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific sequences of integration junctions is useful because of its high specificity. This study developed a system for detecting six GM maize lines (Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, NK603, and T25) using optical silicon thin-film biosensor chips. Aldehyde-labeled probes were arrayed and covalently attached to a hydrazine-derivatized chip surface. Biotinylated PCR amplicons were then hybridized with the probes. After washing and brief incubation with an anti-biotin IgG horseradish peroxidase conjugate and a precipitable horseradish peroxidase substrate, biotinylated PCR amplicons perfectly matched with the probes can be visualized by the color change on the chip surface (gold to blue/purple). This assay is extremely robust, exhibits high sensitivity and specificity, and is flexible from low through moderate to high throughput. PMID:20614904

  5. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%. PMID:22843069

  6. Detection and identification of multiple genetically modified events using DNA insert fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Philippe; Gendron, Louis; Khalf, Moustafa; Paul, Sylvianne; Dibley, Kim L; Bhat, Somanath; Xie, Vicki R D; Partis, Lina; Moreau, Marie-Eve; Dollard, Cheryl; Coté, Marie-José; Laberge, Serge; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-03-01

    Current screening and event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection and identification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in samples of unknown composition or for the detection of non-regulated GMOs have limitations, and alternative approaches are required. A transgenic DNA fingerprinting methodology using restriction enzyme digestion, adaptor ligation, and nested PCR was developed where individual GMOs are distinguished by the characteristic fingerprint pattern of the fragments generated. The inter-laboratory reproducibility of the amplified fragment sizes using different capillary electrophoresis platforms was compared, and reproducible patterns were obtained with an average difference in fragment size of 2.4 bp. DNA insert fingerprints for 12 different maize events, including two maize hybrids and one soy event, were generated that reflected the composition of the transgenic DNA constructs. Once produced, the fingerprint profiles were added to a database which can be readily exchanged and shared between laboratories. This approach should facilitate the process of GMO identification and characterization. PMID:19943159

  7. A microarray-based detection system for genetically modified (GM) food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Leimanis, Serge; Hernández, Marta; Fernández, Sophie; Boyer, Francine; Burns, Malcolm; Bruderer, Shirin; Glouden, Thomas; Harris, Neil; Kaeppeli, Othmar; Philipp, Patrick; Pla, Maria; Puigdomènech, Pere; Vaitilingom, Marc; Bertheau, Yves; Remacle, José

    2006-05-01

    A multiplex DNA microarray chip was developed for simultaneous identification of nine genetically modified organisms (GMOs), five plant species and three GMO screening elements, i.e. the 35S promoter, the nos terminator and the nptII gene. The chips also include several controls, such as that for the possible presence of CaMV. The on-chip detection was performed directly with PCR amplified products. Particular emphasis was placed on the reduction of the number of PCR reactions required and on the number of primers present per amplification tube. The targets were biotin labelled and the arrays were detected using a colorimetric methodology. Specificity was provided by specific capture probes designed for each GMO and for the common screening elements. The sensitivity of the assay was tested by experiments carried out in five different laboratories. The limit of detection was lower than 0.3% GMO for all tests and in general around 0.1% for most GMOs. The chip detection system complies with the requirements of current EU regulations and other countries where thresholds are established for the labelling of GMO. PMID:16786296

  8. The role of risk assessments in the governance of genetically modified organisms in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Strand, R

    2001-09-14

    Controversy abounds in the governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for use in agriculture, partly due to ideological differences. Technological optimism and the "shallow" and the "deep" ecology movements are three influential ideologies that are seen to differ both on value commitments and factual beliefs with respect to GMOs. Factual matters are clarified but not resolved by science, since the scientific community faces uncertainty and apparent contradiction between different research perspectives, notably molecular biology, ecology and the social sciences. Scientific advice plays a key role in the governance of GMOs and ought to be construed so as not to exclude legitimate arguments from ideological perspectives present in the process of governance. This paper analyses the role and use of risk assessments and argues that they be replaced by forms of advice that consider a broader spectrum of scientific evidence and insights, e.g. impact assessments and evaluations of inherent sources of uncertainty and ignorance. A few practical measures to that effect are discussed. PMID:11532366

  9. Detection of glycoalkaloids using disposable biosensors based on genetically modified enzymes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Michelle Arredondo; Istamboulie, Georges; Chira, Ana; Noguer, Thierry; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-15

    In this work we present a rapid, selective, and highly sensitive detection of α-solanine and α-chaconine using cholinesterase-based sensors. The high sensitivity of the devices is brought by the use of a genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE), combined with a one-step detection method based on the measurement of inhibition slope. The selectivity was obtained by using butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme able to detect these two toxins with differential inhibition kinetics. The enzymes were immobilized via entrapment in PVA-AWP polymer directly on the working electrode surface. The analysis of the resulting inhibition slope was performed employing linear regression function included in Matlab. The high toxicity of α-chaconine compared to α-solanine due to a better affinity to the active site was proved. The inhibition of glycoalkaloids (GAs) mixture was performed over AChE enzyme wild-type AChE and BChE biosensors resulting in the detection of synergism effect. The developed method allows the detection of (GAs) at 50 ppb in potato matrix. PMID:24747413

  10. A Novel Reference Plasmid for the Qualitative Detection of Genetically Modified Rice in Food and Feed

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS), the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S), the ubiquitin gene (Ubi), the bar gene, and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (Hpt), that are commonly present in GM rice. Therefore, we constructed a novel plasmid (pBJGMM001) that contains fragments of these elements and two endogenous reference genes (the sucrose phosphate synthase gene, SPS, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene, PEPC). pBJGMM001 can serve as a standard for detecting 96% of GM rice lines in China. The primers, amplicons, reaction mixture, and PCR program were developed based on Chinese National Standards. The protocol was validated and determined to be suitable for practical use in monitoring and identifying GM rice. PMID:26495318

  11. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops. PMID:26296738

  12. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  13. Genetically modified flax expressing NAP-SsGT1 transgene: examination of anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  14. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    PubMed Central

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  15. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice.

    PubMed

    Thon, R; Vondeling, H; Lassen, J; Hansen, A K; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2009-07-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed. The results were extracted using content analysis by theme. The investigation confirmed that few animals were systematically phenotyped and an observational approach was found to be widespread. The primary interest of the interviewees was phenotyping for impaired animal welfare. The concept of phenotyping was widely understood and perceived as a scientific advantage. The comprehensiveness of the protocols and the resources required for phenotyping were seen as problematic. All participants addressed this issue, be it regarding lack of time, money or expertise. Also, among the negative statements were worries about the capability of the available protocols to produce the information needed by the individual scientist. Phenotyping was predicted to become much more widespread in the future and its success was expected to depend on the development of reliable, fast and inexpensive methods. The study identified different aims of phenotyping and the suitability of the published protocols for these purposes was discussed. The contradiction between the limited use of characterization and its advantages was also discussed and proposals for the improvement of future phenotyping strategies are formulated. PMID:19237456

  16. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Yang, Yange; Shi, Zhaopeng; Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM) milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health. PMID:27438026

  17. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin

    2010-11-30

    The potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops on income, poverty and nutrition in developing countries continue to be the subject of public controversy. Here, a review of the evidence is given. As an example of a first-generation GM technology, the effects of insect-resistant Bt cotton are analysed. Bt cotton has already been adopted by millions of small-scale farmers, in India, China, and South Africa among others. On average, farmers benefit from insecticide savings, higher effective yields and sizeable income gains. Insights from India suggest that Bt cotton is employment generating and poverty reducing. As an example of a second-generation technology, the likely impacts of beta-carotene-rich Golden Rice are analysed from an ex ante perspective. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious nutritional problem, causing multiple adverse health outcomes. Simulations for India show that Golden Rice could reduce related health problems significantly, preventing up to 40,000 child deaths every year. These examples clearly demonstrate that GM crops can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries. To realise such social benefits on a larger scale requires more public support for research targeted to the poor, as well as more efficient regulatory and technology delivery systems. PMID:20643233

  18. Biodiesel development: New markets for conventional and genetically modified agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, J.; Shapouri, H.; Graboski, M.; McCormick, R.; Wilson, R.

    1998-09-01

    With environmental and energy source concerns on the rise, using agricultural fats and oils as fuel in diesel engines has captured increasing attention. Substituting petroleum diesel with biodiesel may reduce air emissions, increase the domestic supply of fuel, and create new markets for farmers. US agricultural fats and oils could support a large amount of biodiesel, but high production costs and competing uses of biodiesel feedstocks will likely prevent mass adoption of biodiesel fuel. Higher-priced niche markets could develop for biodiesels as a result of environmental regulations. Biodiesel has many environmental advantages relative to petroleum diesel, such as lower CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, and particulate matter emissions. Enhancing fuel properties by genetically modifying oil crops could improve NO{sub x} emissions, cold flow, and oxidative stability, which have been identified as potential problems for biodiesel. Research activities need to be directed toward cost reduction, improving fuel properties, and analyzing the economic effects of biodiesel development on US agriculture.

  19. A simplified and accurate detection of the genetically modified wheat MON71800 with one calibrator plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Sunghoon; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, unauthorized GMO releases into the food market have increased dramatically, and many countries have developed detection tools for them. This study described the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of unauthorized the GM wheat MON71800 with a reference plasmid (pGEM-M71800). The wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acc) gene was used as the endogenous gene. The plasmid pGEM-M71800, which contains both the acc gene and the event-specific target MON71800, was constructed as a positive control for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The limit of detection in the qualitative PCR assay was approximately 10 copies. In the quantitative PCR assay, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation repeatability values ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 and from 0.23% to 1.12%, respectively. This study supplies a powerful and very simple but accurate detection strategy for unauthorized GM wheat MON71800 that utilizes a single calibrator plasmid. PMID:25624198

  20. Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescent detection for highly sensitive assay of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Yang, Huanghao; Qiu, Bin; Xiao, Xueyang; Xue, Linlin; Kim, Donghwan; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    A capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescent detection system (CE-ECL) was developed for the detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons. The ECL luminophore, tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(phen)(3)(2+)), was labeled to the PCR primers before amplification. Ru(phen)(3)(2+) was then introduced to PCR amplicons by PCR amplification. Eventually, the PCR amplicons were separated and detected by the homemade CE-ECL system. The detection of a typical genetically modified organism (GMO), Roundup Ready Soy (RRS), was shown as an example to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed approach. Four pairs of primers were amplified by multiple PCR (MPCR) simultaneously, three of which were targeted on the specific sequence of exogenous genes of RRS, and another was targeted on the endogenous reference gene of soybean. Both the conditions for PCR amplification and CE-ECL separation and detection were investigated in detail. Results showed that, under the optimal conditions, the proposed method can accurately identifying RRS. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was below 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. PMID:19902925

  1. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent. PMID:27396727

  2. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system. PMID:11383153

  3. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology. PMID:26751159

  4. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food. PMID:27626052

  5. Schwann cells genetically modified to express neurotrophins promote spiral ganglion neuron survival in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pettingill, Lisa N.; Minter, Ricki L.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The intracochlear infusion of neurotrophic factors via a mini-osmotic pump has been shown to prevent deafness-induced spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration; however, the use of pumps may increase the incidence of infection within the cochlea, making this technique unsuitable for neurotrophin administration in a clinical setting. Cell- and gene-based therapies are potential therapeutic options. This study investigated whether Schwann cells which were genetically modified to over-express the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin 3 (Ntf3, formerly NT-3) could support SGN survival in an in vitro model of deafness. Co-culture of either BDNF over-expressing Schwann cells or Ntf3 over-expressing Schwann cells with SGNs from early postnatal rats significantly enhanced neuronal survival in comparison to both control Schwann cells and conventional recombinant neurotrophin proteins. Transplantation of neurotrophin over-expressing Schwann cells into the cochlea may provide an alternative means of delivering neurotrophic factors to the deaf cochlea for therapeutic purposes. PMID:18304740

  6. Genetic modifiers of hypertension in soluble guanylate cyclase α1–deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Emmanuel S.; Raher, Michael J.; Kirby, Andrew; Mohd, Shahid; Baron, David M.; Hayton, Sarah R.; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Sips, Patrick Y.; Rauwerdink, Kristen M.; Yan, Qingshang; Tainsh, Robert E.T.; Shakartzi, Hannah R.; Stevens, Christine; Decaluwé, Kelly; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Gloria; Malhotra, Rajeev; Van de Voorde, Johan; Wang, Tong; Brouckaert, Peter; Daly, Mark J.; Bloch, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an essential role in regulating hypertension and blood flow by inducing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Male mice deficient in a NO receptor component, the α1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCα1), are prone to hypertension in some, but not all, mouse strains, suggesting that additional genetic factors contribute to the onset of hypertension. Using linkage analyses, we discovered a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 1 that was linked to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the context of sGCα1 deficiency. This region is syntenic with previously identified blood pressure–related QTLs in the human and rat genome and contains the genes coding for renin. Hypertension was associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Further, we found that RAAS inhibition normalized MAP and improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in sGCα1-deficient mice. These data identify the RAAS as a blood pressure–modifying mechanism in a setting of impaired NO/cGMP signaling. PMID:22565307

  7. Genetically Modified Flax Expressing NAP-SsGT1 Transgene: Examination of Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  8. Improved Lower Bounds of DNA Tags Based on a Modified Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Wei, Xiaopeng; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The well-known massively parallel sequencing method is efficient and it can obtain sequence data from multiple individual samples. In order to ensure that sequencing, replication, and oligonucleotide synthesis errors do not result in tags (or barcodes) that are unrecoverable or confused, the tag sequences should be abundant and sufficiently different. Recently, many design methods have been proposed for correcting errors in data using error-correcting codes. The existing tag sets contain small tag sequences, so we used a modified genetic algorithm to improve the lower bound of the tag sets in this study. Compared with previous research, our algorithm is effective for designing sets of DNA tags. Moreover, the GC content determined by existing methods includes an imprecise range. Thus, we improved the GC content determination method to obtain tag sets that control the GC content in a more precise range. Finally, previous studies have only considered perfect self-complementarity. Thus, we considered the crossover between different tags and introduced an improved constraint into the design of tag sets. PMID:25693135

  9. Antitumor cell-complex vaccines employing genetically modified tumor cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-02-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  10. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. PMID:25873489

  11. Sensitive and rapid detection of genetic modified soybean (Roundup Ready) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Luo, Yan; Tao, Ran; He, Ru; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Baojie; Wang, Lei

    2009-11-01

    Using the LAMP method, a highly specific and sensitive detection system for genetically modified soybean (Roundup Ready) was designed. In this detection system, a set of four primers was designed by targeting the exogenous 35S epsps gene. Target DNA was amplified and visualized on agarose gel within 45 min under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C. Without gel electrophoresis, the LAMP amplicon was visualized directly in the reaction tube by the addition of SYBR Green I for naked-eye inspection. The detection sensitivity of LAMP was 10-fold higher than the nested PCR established in our laboratory. Moreover, the LAMP method was much quicker, taking only 70 min, as compared with 300 min for nested PCR to complete the analysis of the GM soybean. Compared with traditional PCR approaches, the LAMP procedure is faster and more sensitive, and there is no need for a special PCR machine or electrophoresis equipment. Hence, this method can be a very useful tool for GMO detection and is particularly convenient for fast screening. PMID:19897926

  12. Suggestions for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Spök, Armin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Laffer, Sylvia; Pauli, Gabrielle; Saito, Hirohisa; Sampson, Hugh; Sibanda, Elopy; Thomas, Wayne; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing continuously and, accordingly, there is a great desire to evaluate the allergenic potential of components in our daily environment (e.g., food). Although there is almost no scientific evidence that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) exhibit increased allergenicity compared with the corresponding wild type significant concerns have been raised regarding this matter. In principle, it is possible that the allergenic potential of GMOs may be increased due to the introduction of potential foreign allergens, to potentially upregulated expression of allergenic components caused by the modification of the wild type organism or to different means of exposure. According to the current practice, the proteins to be introduced into a GMO are evaluated for their physiochemical properties, sequence homology with known allergens and occasionally regarding their allergenic activity. We discuss why these current rules and procedures cannot predict or exclude the allergenicity of a given GMO with certainty. As an alternative we suggest to improve the current evaluation by an experimental comparison of the wild-type organism with the whole GMO regarding their potential to elicit reactions in allergic individuals and to induce de novo sensitizations. We also recommend that the suggested assessment procedures be equally applied to GMOs as well as to natural cultivars in order to establish effective measures for allergy prevention. PMID:15947472

  13. Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M; Kitterlin, Miranda; Jahangiry, Sheida; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Van Passel, Steven; Azadi, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled the use of this practice on a large scale in many areas, including Iran. It stands to reason that a greater understanding of this practice could be formed after a review of the existing expert opinions surrounding GM crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the predictors that influence agricultural experts' attitudes toward the development of and policies related to GM crops. Using a descriptive correlational research method, questionnaire data was collected from 65 experts from the Agricultural Organization in the Gotvand district in Southwest Iran. Results indicated that agricultural experts were aware of the environmental benefits and possible risks associated with GM crops. The majority of participants agreed that GM crops could improve food security and accelerate rural development, and were proponents of labeling practices for GM crops. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the perception of benefits and attitudes towards GM crops. PMID:26045394

  14. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countries. The most significant advantages of GM crops include being independent to farm size, environment protection, improvement of occupational health issues, and the potential of bio-fortified crops to reduce malnutrition. Challenges faced by small-scale farmers for adoption of GM crops comprise availability and accessibility of GM crop seeds, seed dissemination and price, and the lack of adequate information. In addition, R&D and production costs in using GM crops make it difficult for these farmers to adopt the use of these crops. Moreover, intellectual property right regulations may deprive resource poor farmers from the advantages of GM technology. Finally, concerns on socio-economic and environment safety issues are also addressed in this paper. PMID:25566797

  15. Genome editing revolutionize the creation of genetically modified pigs for modeling human diseases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    Pigs have anatomical, physiological and genomic characteristics that make them highly suitable for modeling human diseases. Genetically modified (GM) pig models of human diseases are critical for studying pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. The emergence of nuclease-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully employed for engineering of the pig genome, which has revolutionize the creation of GM pig models with highly complex pathophysiologies and comorbidities. In this review, we summarize the progress of recently developed genome editing technologies, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), which enable highly efficient and precise introduction of genome modifications into pigs, and tailored disease models that have been generated in various disciplines via genome editing technology. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated by conventional transgenic strategies. Additionally, perspectives regarding the application of GM pigs in biomedical research are discussed. PMID:27432159

  16. Ocular surface mucins and local inflammation-studies in genetically modified mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kumi; Saika, Shizuya

    2015-01-01

    Mucins locate to the apical surfaces of all wet-surfaced epithelia including ocular surface. The functions of the mucins include anti-adhesive, lubrication, water retention, allergens and pathogen barrier function. Ocular surface pathologies, i.e. dry eye syndrome or allergic conjunctivitis, are reportedly associated with alteration of expression pattern of mucin components. Recent investigations indicated anti-bacterial adhesion or anti-inflammatory effects of members of mucins in non-ocular tissues, i.e., gastrointestinal tracts or airway tissues, by using genetically modified mouse lines that lacks an expression of a mucin member. However, examination of ocular phenotypes of each of mucin gene-ablated mouse lines has not yet fully performed. Muc16-dficient mouse is associated with spontaneous subclinical inflammation in conjunctiva. The article reviews the roles of mucin members in modulation of local inflammation in mucous membrane tissues and phenotype of mouse lines with the loss of a mucin gene. Analysis of ocular surface of mucin-gene related mutant mouse lines are to be further performed. PMID:26818460

  17. A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

  18. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  19. Awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy genetically modified foods in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang; Bai, Junfei; Pray, Carl

    2006-03-01

    There is concern about the extent to which consumers will accept genetically modified (GM) foods if they are commercialized in China. The evidence from the existing literature is mixed and sometimes confusing. The objective of this study is to conduct a large in-depth face-to-face in-house survey that examines the consumers' awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy GM foods in China. To achieve this objective, a well-designed consumer survey was conducted in 11 cities of five provinces in Eastern China in 2002 and 2003. The results indicate that despite much less information on GM foods available publicly in China, more than two thirds of consumers in urban areas have heard of GM foods. But their knowledge on biotechnology was limited. Chinese consumers' acceptance of and willingness to buy GM foods was much higher than in other countries. Chinese consumers also demonstrated great variance in their acceptance of different GM foods. Information and prices of GM foods were two important factors affecting consumers' attitudes toward GM foods. Based on the findings of this study and given that our sample is in the more developed eastern Urban China, we conclude that the commercialization of GM foods is not likely to receive great resistance from the consumers in China. PMID:16469414

  20. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  1. High-resolution raster scan optoacoustic mesoscopy of genetically modified drosophila pupae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Gateau, Jérôme; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-03-01

    Optoacoutic mesoscopy aims to bridge the gap between optoacoustic microscopy and optoacoustic tomography. We have developed a setup for optoacoustic mesoscopy where we use a high frequency, high numerical aperture spherically focused ultrasound transducer, with a wide bandwidth of 25-125 MHz. The excitation is performed using a diode laser capable of >500 μJ/pulse, 1.8ns pulse width, 1.4 kHz pulse repetition rate, at 515 nm. The system is capable to penetrate more than 5 mm with a resolution of 7 μm axially and 30 μm transversally. Using high-speed stages and scanning the transducer in a quasi-continuous mode, a field of view of 2×2 mm2 is scanned in less than 2 minutes. The system is suitable for imaging biological samples that have a diameter of 1-5 mm; zebrafish, drosophila melanogaster, and thin biological samples such as the mouse ear and mouse extremities. We have used our mesoscopic setup to generate 3- dimensional images of genetically modified drosophila fly, and drosophila pupae expressing GFP from the wings, high resolution images were generated in both cases, in the fly we can see the wings, the legs, the eyes, and the shape of the body. In the pupae the outline of the pupae, the spiracles at both ends and a strong signal corresponding to the location of the future wings are observed.

  2. Genetically Modified α-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  3. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:23549349

  4. Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified oilseed rape growing along a Japanese roadside: 3-year observations.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Aono, Mitsuko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring for escape of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) during transport can be performed by means of roadside evaluations in areas where cultivation of this GM crop is not conducted, such as in Japan. We performed a survey of oilseed rape plants growing along a 20-km section of Japan's Route 51, one of the main land transportation routes in central Japan for imports of GM oilseed rape from the Port of Kashima into Keiyo District. Oilseed rape plants were found each year, but the number of plants varied substantially during the three years of our study: 2162 plants in 2005, 4066 in 2006, and only 278 in 2007. The low number in 2007 was probably caused by roadwork. Herbicide-resistant individuals were detected in the three consecutive years (26, 8, and 5 individuals with glyphosate resistance), but glufosinate-resistant plants (9 individuals) were detected only in 2005. The roadside plants occurred mainly along the inbound lane from Kashima to Narita. These plants are likely to have their origin in seeds spilled during transportation of cargo from the port, since there are no potential natural seed source plants for B. napus near Route 51. This is the first detailed report on the transition and distribution of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants following loss and spillage along Japanese roads. PMID:19419652

  5. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yange; Shi, Zhaopeng; Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM) milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health. PMID:27438026

  6. Genetically modified α-amylase inhibitor peas are not specifically allergenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E; Higgins, T J V; Epstein, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  7. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  8. Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2016-08-01

    In this review, I recount my personal history. My drive to study host-pathogen interactions was to find alternatives for agrochemicals, which was triggered after reading the book "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson. I reflect on my research at the Laboratory of Phytopathology at Wageningen University, where I have worked for my entire career on the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum and tomato, and related gene-for-gene pathosystems. I describe different methods used to identify and sequence avirulence (Avr) genes from the pathogen and resistance (R) genes from the host. The major genes involved in classical gene-for-gene interactions have now been identified, and breeders can produce plants with multiple R genes providing durable and environmentally safe protection against pathogens. In some cases, this might require the use of genetically modified plants when R genes cannot be introduced by classical breeding. PMID:27215970

  9. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  10. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  11. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs. PMID:23181490

  12. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  13. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. Methods The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Results The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated

  14. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  15. Genes that influence yield in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Yield is the most important breeding trait of crops. For fruit-bearing plants such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), fruit formation directly affects yield. The final fruit size depends on the number and volume of cell layers in the pericarp of the fruit, which is determined by the degree of cell division and expansion in the fertilized ovaries. Thus, fruit yield in tomato is predominantly determined by the efficiency of fruit set and the final cell number and size of the fruits. Through domestication, tomato fruit yield has been markedly increased as a result of mutations associated with fruit size and genetic studies have identified the genes that influence the cell cycle, carpel number and fruit set. Additionally, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that plant hormones control fruit set and size through the delicate regulation of genes that trigger physiological responses associated with fruit expansion. In this review, we introduce the key genes involved in tomato breeding and describe how they affect the physiological processes that contribute to tomato yield. PMID:23641176

  16. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  17. Individual detection of genetically modified maize varieties in non-identity-preserved maize samples.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Kondo, Kazunari; Tanaka, Asako; Liu, Ming S; Oguchi, Taichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2008-03-26

    In many countries, the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. The GMO content in a maize sample containing the combined-trait (stacked) GM maize as determined by the currently available methodology is likely to be overestimated. However, there has been little information in the literature on the mixing level and varieties of stacked GM maize in real sample grains. For the first time, the GMO content of non-identity-preserved (non-IP) maize samples imported from the United States has been successfully determined by using a previously developed individual kernel detection system coupled to a multiplex qualitative PCR method followed by multichannel capillary gel electrophoresis system analysis. To clarify the GMO content in the maize samples imported from the United States, determine how many stacked GM traits are contained therein, and which GM trait varieties frequently appeared in 2005, the GMO content (percent) on a kernel basis and the varieties of the GM kernels in the non-IP maize samples imported from the United States were investigated using the individual kernel analysis system. The average (+/-standard deviation) of the GMO contents on a kernel basis in five non-IP sample lots was determined to be 51.0+/-21.6%, the percentage of a single GM trait grains was 39%, and the percentage of the stacked GM trait grains was 12%. The MON810 grains and NK603 grains were the most frequent varieties in the single GM traits. The most frequent stacked GM traits were the MON810xNK603 grains. In addition, the present study would provide the answer and impact for the quantification of GM maize content in the GM maize kernels on labeling regulation. PMID:18298063

  18. Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants used for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Caprioara-Buda, M; Meyer, W; Jeynov, B; Corbisier, P; Trapmann, S; Emons, H

    2012-07-01

    The reliable quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by real-time PCR requires, besides thoroughly validated quantitative detection methods, sustainable calibration systems. The latter establishes the anchor points for the measured value and the measurement unit, respectively. In this paper, the suitability of two types of DNA calibrants, i.e. plasmid DNA and genomic DNA extracted from plant leaves, for the certification of the GMO content in reference materials as copy number ratio between two targeted DNA sequences was investigated. The PCR efficiencies and coefficients of determination of the calibration curves as well as the measured copy number ratios for three powder certified reference materials (CRMs), namely ERM-BF415e (NK603 maize), ERM-BF425c (356043 soya), and ERM-BF427c (98140 maize), originally certified for their mass fraction of GMO, were compared for both types of calibrants. In all three systems investigated, the PCR efficiencies of plasmid DNA were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the genomic DNA extracted from seed powders rather than those of the genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although the mean DNA copy number ratios for each CRM overlapped within their uncertainties, the DNA copy number ratios were significantly different using the two types of calibrants. Based on these observations, both plasmid and leaf genomic DNA calibrants would be technically suitable as anchor points for the calibration of the real-time PCR methods applied in this study. However, the most suitable approach to establish a sustainable traceability chain is to fix a reference system based on plasmid DNA. PMID:22638881

  19. Control of electrostatic interactions between F-actin and genetically modified lysozyme in aqueous media

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Lori K.; Xian, Wujing; Guáqueta, Camilo; Strohman, Michael J.; Vrasich, Chuck R.; Luijten, Erik; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin–lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin–lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin–lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity. PMID:17911256

  20. Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of