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Sample records for genic male sterile

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Deyi; Sun, Li; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Lirong; Zhao, Yuanming; Lv, Shuping; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Li, Wu; Hou, Jianan; Duan, Zhengzheng; Yu, Yuebo; Yang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding. PMID:26382878

  2. Inactivation of the UGPase1 gene causes genic male sterility and endosperm chalkiness in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Mi-Ok; Ham, Tae-Ho; Ji, Hyeon-So; Choi, Min-Seon; Jiang, Wenzhu; Chu, Sang-Ho; Piao, Rihua; Chin, Joong-Hyoun; Kim, Jung-A; Park, Bong Soo; Seo, Hak Soo; Jwa, Nam-Soo; McCouch, Susan; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2008-01-01

    A rice genic male-sterility gene ms-h is recessive and has a pleiotropic effect on the chalky endosperm. After fine mapping, nucleotide sequencing analysis of the ms-h gene revealed a single nucleotide substitution at the 3′-splice junction of the 14th intron of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 1 (UGPase1; EC2.7.7.9) gene, which causes the expression of two mature transcripts with abnormal sizes caused by the aberrant splicing. An in vitro functional assay showed that both proteins encoded by the two abnormal transcripts have no UGPase activity. The suppression of UGPase by the introduction of a UGPase1-RNAi construct in wild-type plants nearly eliminated seed set because of the male defect, with developmental retardation similar to the ms-h mutant phenotype, whereas overexpression of UGPase1 in ms-h mutant plants restored male fertility and the transformants produced T1 seeds that segregated into normal and chalky endosperms. In addition, both phenotypes were co-segregated with the UGPase1 transgene in segregating T1 plants, which demonstrates that UGPase1 has functional roles in both male sterility and the development of a chalky endosperm. Our results suggest that UGPase1 plays a key role in pollen development as well as seed carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:18182026

  3. Analysis of gene expression profile in pollen development of recessive genic male sterile Brassica napus L. line S45A.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuning; Lei, Shaolin; Zhou, Zhengfu; Zeng, Fangqin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2009-09-01

    Male sterility in a near-isogenic line S45AB after 25 generations of subcrossing is controlled by two pairs of duplicate genes. The genotype of S45A is Bnms1Bnms1Bnms2Bnms2, and that of S45B is BnMs1Bnms1Bnms2Bnms2, respectively. Histological observations revealed that abnormal anther development appeared in the tapetum and pollen exine during the tetrad stage. This male sterility was characterized by hypertrophy of the tapetal cells at the tetrad stage and a complete lack of microspore exine after the release of microspores from the tetrads. To elucidate the mechanism of this recessive genic male sterility, the flower bud expression profiles of the S45A and S45B lines were analyzed using an Arabidopsis thaliana ATH1 oligonucleotide array. When compared with the S45B line, 69 genes were significantly downregulated, and 46 genes were significantly upregulated in the S45A line. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was then used to verify the results of the microarray analysis, and the majority of the downregulated genes in the S45A line were abundantly and specifically expressed in the anther. The results of the real-time PCR suggest that Bnms1 might be involved in the metabolism of lipid/fatty acids, and the homologous mutation of Bnms1 may either block the biosynthesis of sporopollenin or block sporopollenin from being deposited on the microspore surface, thus, preventing pollen exine formation. The role of Bnms1 in the regulatory network of exine formation is also discussed as well. PMID:19562345

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of Genic Male Sterility-Related Genes in Brassica rapa Using a Newly Developed Br300K Oligomeric Chip

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiangshu; Feng, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, Yeon Ki; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun; Park, Young Doo; Ma, Hong; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-01-01

    To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS) that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis), floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K). Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility. PMID:24039743

  5. Rice UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase1 Is Essential for Pollen Callose Deposition and Its Cosuppression Results in a New Type of Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterility[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongzhi; Zhao, Xiao; Shao, Zhe; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Lili; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Mengxiang; He, Ruifeng; He, Guangcun

    2007-01-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) catalyzes the reversible production of glucose-1-phosphate and UTP to UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate. The rice (Oryza sativa) genome contains two homologous UGPase genes, Ugp1 and Ugp2. We report a functional characterization of rice Ugp1, which is expressed throughout the plant, with highest expression in florets, especially in pollen during anther development. Ugp1 silencing by RNA interference or cosuppression results in male sterility. Expressing a double-stranded RNA interference construct in Ugp1-RI plants resulted in complete suppression of both Ugp1 and Ugp2, together with various pleiotropic developmental abnormalities, suggesting that UGPase plays critical roles in plant growth and development. More importantly, Ugp1-cosuppressing plants contained unprocessed intron-containing primary transcripts derived from transcription of the overexpression construct. These aberrant transcripts undergo temperature-sensitive splicing in florets, leading to a novel thermosensitive genic male sterility. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) of Ugp1-silenced plants appeared normal before meiosis, but during meiosis, normal callose deposition was disrupted. Consequently, the PMCs began to degenerate at the early meiosis stage, eventually resulting in complete pollen collapse. In addition, the degeneration of the tapetum and middle layer was inhibited. These results demonstrate that rice Ugp1 is required for callose deposition during PMC meiosis and bridges the apoplastic unloading pathway and pollen development. PMID:17400897

  6. Fine mapping and candidate gene prediction of the photoperiod and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene pms1(t) in rice* #

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan-fei; Zhang, Xian-yin; Xue, Qing-zhong

    2011-01-01

    Pei′ai64S, an indica sterile variety with photoperiod and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) genes, has been widely exploited for commercial seed production for “two-line” hybrid rice in China. One PTGMS gene from Pei′ai64S, pms1(t), was mapped by a strategy of bulked-extreme and recessive-class approach with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insert and deletion (In-Del) markers. Using linkage analysis for the F2 mapping population consisting of 320 completely male sterile individuals derived from a cross between Pei′ai64S and 93-11 (indica restorer) lines, the pms1(t) gene was delimited to the region between the RM21242 (0.2 cM) and YF11 (0.2 cM) markers on the short arm of chromosome 7. The interval containing the pms1(t) locus, which was co-segregated with RM6776, is a 101.1 kb region based on the Nipponbare rice genome. Fourteen predicted loci were found in this region by the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) Genomic Annotation. Based on the function of the locus LOC_Os07g12130 by bioinformatics analysis, it is predicted to encode a protein containing a Myb-like DNA-binding domain, and may process the transcript with thermosensory response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results revealed that the mRNA levels of LOC_Os07g12130 were altered in different photoperiod and temperature treatments. Thus, the LOC_Os07g12130 locus is the most likely candidate gene for pms1(t). These results may facilitate not only using the molecular marker assisted selection of PTGMS genes, but also cloning of the pms1(t) gene itself. PMID:21634036

  7. Exploiting comparative mapping among Brassica species to accelerate the physical delimitation of a genic male-sterile locus (BnRf) in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanzhou; Dong, Faming; Hong, Dengfeng; Wan, Lili; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2012-07-01

    The recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line 9012AB has been used as an important pollination control system for rapeseed hybrid production in China. Here, we report our study on physical mapping of one male-sterile locus (BnRf) in 9012AB by exploiting the comparative genomics among Brassica species. The genetic maps around BnRf from previous reports were integrated and enriched with markers from the Brassica A7 chromosome. Subsequent collinearity analysis of these markers contributed to the identification of a novel ancestral karyotype block F that possibly encompasses BnRf. Fourteen insertion/deletion markers were further developed from this conserved block and genotyped in three large backcross populations, leading to the construction of high-resolution local genetic maps where the BnRf locus was restricted to a less than 0.1-cM region. Moreover, it was observed that the target region in Brassica napus shares a high collinearity relationship with a region from the Brassica rapa A7 chromosome. A BnRf-cosegregated marker (AT3G23870) was then used to screen a B. napus bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. From the resulting 16 positive BAC clones, one (JBnB089D05) was identified to most possibly contain the BnRf (c) allele. With the assistance of the genome sequence from the Brassica rapa homolog, the 13.8-kb DNA fragment covering both closest flanking markers from the BAC clone was isolated. Gene annotation based on the comparison of microcollinear regions among Brassica napus, B. rapa and Arabidopsis showed that five potential open reading frames reside in this fragment. These results provide a foundation for the characterization of the BnRf locus and allow a better understanding of the chromosome evolution around BnRf. PMID:22382487

  8. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  9. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  10. Evidence for Complex Genic Interactions between Conspecific Chromosomes Underlying Hybrid Female Sterility in the Drosophila Simulans Clade

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. W.; Noonburg, E. G.; Wu, C. I.

    1994-01-01

    F(1) hybrid females between the sibling species Drosophila simulans, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia are completely fertile. However, we have found that female sterility can be observed in F(2) backcross females who are homozygous for D. simulans X chromosomes and homozygous for autosomal regions from either D. mauritiana or D. sechellia. Our results indicate that neither D. mauritiana autosome (2 or 3) can cause complete female sterility in a D. simulans background. The simultaneous presence of homozygous regions from both the second and third chromosomes of D. mauritiana, however, causes nearly complete female sterility which cannot be accounted for by their individual effects. The two autosomes of D. sechellia may show a similar pattern. From the same crosses, we also obtained evidence against a role for cytoplasmic or maternal effects in causing hybrid male sterility between these species. Taken with the results presented elsewhere, these observations suggest that epistatic interactions between conspecific genes in a hybrid background may be the prevalent mode of hybrid sterility between recently diverged species. PMID:8056310

  11. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  12. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Development of male-sterile lines for breeding hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a self-pollinated crop that depends on male-sterility for F1 hybrid seed production. As an alternative to accessing existing male-sterile lines from other hybrid breeding programs, the program in Arkansas has created its own novel male-sterile sources. These were developed out of germplasm...

  14. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  15. Characterization of a new male sterility-related gene Camf1 in Capsicum annum L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang Ming; Hao, Xue Feng; Chen, Guo Ju; Cao, Bi Hao; Chen, Qing Hua; Liu, Shao Qun; Lei, Jian Jun

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of screening novel genes related to the male sterility in chili pepper for studying the molecular mechanism of plant male sterility, the gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annum L., and a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments were detected in fertile or sterility material. Camf1, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in fertile line flower buds was further investigated. The Camf1 has 1,854 bp in length with no introns containing a 1,707-bp open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of Camf1 shares higher similarity to some members from a glyoxal oxidase-related protein family, and has a glyoxal oxidase conserved domain at the N-terminus and a domain of unknown function (DUF1929) at C-terminal end. Expression analysis showed that Camf1 expressed only in stage 3-7 flower buds of male fertile of C. annum L. 114AB, and no detection in all organs of male sterility. The peak of expression level of Camf1 appeared at stage 4 flower buds of fertile line. Furthermore, expression analysis of different organs revealed that Camf1 expressed only in anthers of male fertile material and there were no expression in sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves and open flowers. These results suggested that Camf1 was an anther-specific gene and might be essential for the fertility of C. annum L. PMID:21559833

  16. Molecular Mapping of D₁, D₂ and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D₂ and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Ott, Alina; Yang, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Madan; Horner, Harry T; Palmer, Reid G; Sandhu, Devinder

    2013-01-01

    In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the "stay-green" cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D₁ and D₂. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D₁ and D₂ loci, and to determine if any of the d₁ or d₂ mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D₁ locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG) D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D₂ loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d₂ mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean. PMID:27137386

  17. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  18. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  20. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  1. Mitochondrially-targeted expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause male sterility or semi-sterility, while some do not. Little is currently known about how mitochondrial factor regulates the expression of the nuclear genes involved in male sterility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological function of a candidate CMS-associated orf220 gene, newly isolated from cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard, and show how mitochondrial retrograde regulated nuclear gene expression is related to male sterility. Results It was shown that the ORF220 protein can be guided to the mitochondria using the mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the β subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic stem mustard plants expressed the chimeric gene containing the orf220 gene and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the β subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic plants were male-sterile, most being unable to produce pollen while some could only produce non-vigorous pollen. The transgenic stem mustard plants also showed aberrant floral development identical to that observed in the CMS stem mustard phenotype. Results obtained from oligooarray analysis showed that some genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism were down-regulated, indicating a weakening of mitochondrial function in transgenic stem mustard. Some genes related to pollen development were shown to be down-regulated in transgenic stem mustard and the expression of some transcription factor genes was also altered. Conclusion The work presented furthers our understanding of how the mitochondrially-targeted expression of CMS-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility through

  2. Inbreeding effect on male and female fertility and inheritance of male sterility in Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nadilia N; Shaw, Ruth G

    2006-05-01

    Models of the evolution of gynodioecy assume that inbreeding affects male and female fertility equally and ignore quantitative variation in sex expression. The objectives of this study were to assess inbreeding effects, genetic background, and plant maturity on male and female fertility and the mechanism of male sterility inheritance for Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae). Frequency of male-sterile flowers, number of anthers and ovules, and percentage of viable pollen were measured on plants from different pedigrees and five inbreeding levels (F = 0, 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). Quantitative variation in male sterility was evident. As inbreeding increased, anther and ovule number decreased; the effect on anther number was greater than on ovule number. Pedigrees varied in number of male-sterile flowers and inbreeding effects. Frequency of male-sterile flowers was greatest among first flowers. No trade-off between male and female fertility was detected. A model attributing male sterility to a cytoplasmic locus and restoration to male fertility to a nuclear locus accounted for the distribution of complete sterility and hermaphroditism over the pedigrees. This study suggests that models of the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy should allow for quantitative variation in male and female fertility components due to inbreeding, pedigree, and plant maturity. PMID:21642137

  3. Study of male sterility in Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, S-H; Chung, N-J; Wang, Y-N; Lee, C-L; Lee, Y-L; Tsai, P-F

    2006-08-01

    A study of male sterility over a period of three consecutive years on a conifer species endemic to Taiwan, Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae), was done for this article. With the aids of fluorescence and electron microscopic observations, the ontogenic processes in the fertile and sterile microsporangia are compared, using samples collected from Chitou Experimental Forest and Yeou-Shoei-Keng Clonal Orchard of the National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan. The development of male strobili occurred from August to the end of March. Microsporogenesis starts with the formation of the archesporium and ends with the maturation of 2-celled pollen grains within the dehiscing microsporangium. Before meiosis, there was no significant difference in ultrastructure between the fertile and sterile microsporangia. Asynchronous pollen development with various tetrad forms may occur in the same microsporangium of either fertile or sterile strobili. However, a callose wall was observable in the fertile dyad and tetrad, but not in the sterile one. After dissolution of the callose wall, the fertile microspores were released into the locule, while some sterile microspores still retained as tetrads or dyads with intertwining of exine walls in the proximal faces. As a result, there was no well developed lamellated endexine and no granulate ectexine or intine in the sterile microspores. Eventually, the intracellular structures in sterile microspores were dramatically collapsed before anthesis. The present study shows that the abortion in pollen development is possibly attributed to the absence of the callose wall. The importance of this structure to the male sterility of T. cryptomerioides is discussed. PMID:16937067

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  6. Metabolically engineered male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Engelke, Thomas; Hirsche, J; Roitsch, T

    2011-01-01

    Male sterility is of special interest as a mechanism allowing hybrid breeding, especially in important crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus). Male sterile plants are also suggested to be used as a biological safety method to prevent the spread of transgenes, a risk that is high in the case of rapeseed due to the mode of pollination, out-crossing by wind or insects, and the presence of related, cross-pollinating species in the surrounding ecosystem in Europe. Different natural occurring male sterilities and alloplasmic forms have been tried to be used in rapeseed with more or less success. Due to the difficulties and limitations with these systems, we present a biotechnological alternative: a metabolically engineered male sterility caused by interference with anther-specific cell wall-bound invertase. This is an essential enzyme for carbohydrate supply of the symplastically isolated pollen. The activity of this enzyme is reduced either by antisense interference or by expressing an invertase inhibitor under control of the anther-specific promoter of the invertase with the consequence of a strong decrease of pollen germination ability. PMID:20821307

  7. Evaluation of sterility and fertility of male sterile lines in the USPB farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice has proven to have a yield advantage of 15–20% over the best inbred cultivars at the commercial scale worldwide. At present, two methods have been successfully commercialized; the three-line and two-line systems. The three-line system consists of the male sterile (MS), maintainer and res...

  8. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  9. Progress in development of male sterile germplasm for hybrid rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there are two types of male sterility mainly commercialized in hybrid rice production, three-line type or cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and two-line type or environmental male sterility (EMS). The great majority belongs to the CMS and there are four strategies that have been proven suc...

  10. Age-dependent variation in mating success of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): implications for sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. To counter this deficiency, SIT programs rely upon the production and release of large numbers of sterile males to achieve high overflooding (sterile:wild male) ratios. To ensure a high release volume, emergence facilities release adult males at a young age (2 d old in some cases). The primary objective of this study was to describe age-dependent variation in the mating propensity and competitiveness of sterile males of C. capitata. Males that were 2 or 3 d old had lower mating propensity than males that were > or =4 d old, and 3-d-old males had lower mating competitiveness than males that were > or =4 d old. Given these results, we measured the effect of a longer holding period on male mortality in storage boxes. With delayed food placement, males held in storage boxes for 4 d after emergence showed no higher mortality than males held for only 2 d (the standard interval). Using large field enclosures, we compared the levels of egg sterility attained via releases of 2- versus 4-d-old sterile males at two overflooding ratios (5:1 and 100:1). At the lower ratio, the proportion of unhatched eggs observed for trials involving 2-d-old sterile males was not, on average, significantly higher than that observed for matings between wild flies (33 versus 25%, respectively), whereas the level of egg sterility observed for releases of 4 d old sterile males was 62%. At the 100:1 overflooding ratio, the proportion of unhatched eggs associated with the 2-d-old sterile males was 58%, a level not significantly different from that induced by 4-d-old sterile males at the 5:1 ratio and significantly lower than the level (79%) observed for 4-d-old sterile males at 100:1 overflooding ratio

  11. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  12. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5∶1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  13. Effect of day and night temperature on the expression of male sterility of nuclear male-sterile (ms8ms8) soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], an environmentally stable male-sterility system is one of the requirements to produce large quantities of hybrid seed. Observations of the nuclear male-sterile, female-fertile mutant ms8ms8 in different environments suggested that environmental conditions affect...

  14. Male sterility and enhanced radiation sensitivity in TLS(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, M; Sok, J; Webb, L; Baechtold, H; Urano, F; Yin, Y; Chung, P; de Rooij, D G; Akhmedov, A; Ashley, T; Ron, D

    2000-02-01

    TLS (also known as FUS) is an RNA-binding protein that contributes the N-terminal half of fusion oncoproteins implicated in the development of human liposarcomas and leukemias. Here we report that male mice homozygous for an induced mutation in TLS are sterile with a marked increase in the number of unpaired and mispaired chromosomal axes in pre-meiotic spermatocytes. Nuclear extracts from TLS(-/-) testes lack an activity capable of promoting pairing between homologous DNA sequences in vitro, and TLS(-/-) mice and embryonic fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to ionizing irradiation. These results are consistent with a role for TLS in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. PMID:10654943

  15. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  16. All Male Strains and Chemical Stimulants: Two Ways to Boost Sterile Males in SIT Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  17. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  18. Specific expression in reproductive tissues and fate of a mitochondrial sterility-associated protein in cytoplasmic male-sterile bean.

    PubMed Central

    Abad, A R; Mehrtens, B J; Mackenzie, S A

    1995-01-01

    In common bean, cytoplasmic male sterility has been associated with a unique sequence found in the mitochondrial genome, designated pvs (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence). Within the pvs sequence, two open reading frames are encoded, ORF98 and ORF239. We have raised rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Pvs-ORF239 to evaluate the role of this putative male sterility-associated protein. Histological investigation of pollen development revealed that in the male-sterile bean line, callose deposition was abnormal and microspores remained as tetrads as previously reported. Pvs-ORF239 was found to be localized within the reproductive tissues of the male-sterile bean line, in contrast to all other cytoplasmic male sterility systems studied to date. This protein was associated with mitochondria, the callose layer, and developing primary cell walls during microsporogenesis. Expression of pvs-orf239 was not detected in fertile plants containing restorer gene Fr2. These observations, together with previous reports, suggest that nuclear restorer gene Fr2 interferes with expression of the pvs region post-transcriptionally. PMID:7734962

  19. Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

  20. Effects of male sterility on female remating in the mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Chapman, Tracey

    2004-05-01

    Mating-induced reductions in female receptivity are common in insects. These responses are of interest because of their utility in insect pest control. In addition, the control of receptivity is likely to be the subject of sexual conflict over remating frequency. We investigated the specific effect of male sterility on female receptivity in an important pest species, the Mediterranean fruitfly (medfly), in which sterile males are often used for population suppression. Sterile males performed less courtship, obtained significantly fewer first and second matings than fertile males, and reduced female receptivity significantly less effectively than did fertile males. We modelled the likelihood of fertile matings and show that the low mating success of sterile males represents a significant problem for medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. PMID:15252986

  1. Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes

    SciTech Connect

    Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

    1987-04-14

    An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of a crop which is capable of undergoing both self-pollination and cross-pollination. This process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit tolerance to at least one herbicide attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes, and male fertile plants which are capable of pollinating the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the herbicide tolerance because the presence of homozygous recessive nuclear genes for such trait. The cytoplasmic male sterile plants and the male fertile plants are pollinated with pollen derived from the male fertile plants. Seed is formed on the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and on the male fertile plants. Harvesting in bulk the seed is formed on the plants of the first planting area.

  2. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  3. Diverse germplasm to devleop male-sterile lines for hybrid breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...

  4. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  5. Role of no scalpel vasectomy in male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, K; Ali, Ilias; Barua, S J

    2012-08-01

    No Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV) is a modern method of delivery, ligation and excision of vas deference without use of a knife. It provides a permanent sterilization option for male. It is a safe, effective method of vasectomy with low complication and greater patient compliance. To evaluate effectiveness and its acceptance of the procedure data were collected on men who accepted NSV between Jan'2008 to Mar'09. Demographic information, motivating factors, educational status and surgical complications were recorded. The cases were done in rural hospitals & Primary health centers as camp procedure. A total of 649 vasectomies performed using NSV method from Jan'08 to Mar'09. The mean age of the acceptors was 35 years with 4 numbers of children on average. Complications included bleeding during surgery in 4 cases (0.6%), haematoma in one case (0.2%), and superficial wound infection occurred in two cases (0.3%) and scrotal pain in 4 cases (0.6%). NSV is an effective, minimal access method of vas delivery, ligation and excision. It provides safe and effective contraceptive option to male population with minimal complications. Doctors, health workers along with the simplicity of procedure and early return to work are great motivating factors. It is easily performed as camp procedure in a simple medical setup. Doctors can be effectively trained hands on during the camp procedure. PMID:23904714

  6. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei'ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  7. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  8. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; P<0.01), suggesting that a high level of plant water availability is needed for the expression of fertility-restoring genes of revertants. These data show that the fertility-restoring genes for the 9E cytoplasm are dominant in conditions of high water availability and recessive in drought conditions; reversions to male fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of

  9. Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

    2011-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

  10. Molecular mapping of a new induced gene for nuclear male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new NMS line, NMS HA89-872, induced by mitomycin C and streptomycin carries a single recessive male-sterile gene ms6. An F2 population of 88 plants was obtained from a cross between nuclear male-sterile mutant NMS HA89-872 (msms) and male-fertile line RHA271 (MsMs). 225 SSR primers and 9 RFLP-deri...

  11. A novel molecular approach to assess mating success of sterile Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) males in sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    San Andrés, V; Urbaneja, A; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Castañera, P

    2007-08-01

    Areawide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs against Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), are increasingly implemented worldwide. A key issue in SIT is to assess mating success of released sterile males, which could be currently estimated by egg hatchability and by stored sperm head measurements. We report here on a novel molecular approach that would allow detecting the presence of Mediterranean fruit fly sterile male sperm in the female spermathecae under field conditions, as a precise marker to assess mating performance. The simplicity (only two polymerase chain reactions) and reliability of this method, jointly with the capability to detect Vienna sperm in wild Mediterranean fruit fly maintained in monitoring traps for 7 d under field conditions, suggest that it could be an efficient tool when coupled with areawide SIT programs. PMID:17849900

  12. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Mimulus hybrids has pleiotropic effects on corolla and pistil traits

    PubMed Central

    Barr, C M; Fishman, L

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying genetic associations have important consequences for evolutionary outcomes, but distinguishing linkage from pleiotropy is often difficult. Here, we use a fine mapping approach to determine the genetic basis of association between cytonuclear male sterility and other floral traits in Mimulus hybrids. Previous work has shown that male sterility in hybrids between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus is due to interactions between a mitochondrial gene from M. guttatus and two tightly linked nuclear restorer alleles on Linkage Group 7, and that male sterility is associated with reduced corolla size. In the present study, we generated a set of nearly isogenic lines segregating for the restorer region and male sterility, but with unique flanking introgressions. Male-sterile flowers had significantly smaller corollas, longer styles and greater stigmatic exsertion than fertile flowers. Because these effects were significant regardless of the genotypic composition of introgressions flanking the restorer region, they suggest that these floral differences are a direct byproduct of the genetic incompatibility causing anther abortion. In addition, we found a non-significant but intriguing trend for male-sterile plants to produce more seeds per flower than fertile siblings after supplemental pollination. Such pleiotropic effects may underlie the corolla dimorphism frequently observed in gynodioecious taxa and may affect selection on cytoplasmic male sterility genes when they initially arise. PMID:21245895

  13. X-ray-induced sterility in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and male longevity following irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Parker, A G; Oliva, C F; Balestrino, F; Gilles, J R L

    2014-07-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses > 40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility. PMID:25118413

  14. Husband-Wife Communication, Wife's Employment, and the Decision for Male or Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Frank D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of marital communication and the choice of male or female sterilization in 313 couples. The wife's perception of marital communication was negatively related to the tendency for the couple to choose female sterilization, conditional on female labor force participation. Communication questions are…

  15. Genetic basis of X-Y chromosome dissociation and male sterility in interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Y; Hirobe, T; Chapman, V M

    1991-01-01

    A high frequency of X-Y chromosome dissociation (95%) was found at first meiotic metaphase (MI) in spermatocytes of interspecific hybrids between laboratory mice, C57BL/6J (BL/6) and Mus spretus, compared with an X-Y dissociation frequency of only 3-4% in parental mice. The X-Y dissociation in F1 hybrids occurred before diakinesis rather than as a precocious dissociation at MI. The high X-Y dissociation was accompanied by spermatogenic breakdown after MI, resulting in male sterility. All F1 males were sterile and approximately half of the backcross males from fertile F1 females crossed with either BL/6 or M. spretus males were sterile. Male sterility was highly correlated with X-Y dissociation in both backcrosses. All of the mice with high X-Y dissociation were sterile and all of the males with low X-Y dissociation were fertile or subfertile. This correlation suggested that genetic divergence of the X-Y pairing region could contribute to the male sterile phenotype such that the BL/6 X chromosome would not pair with the M. spretus Y chromosome. The segregation of species-type alleles of amelogenin (Amelb and Amels), a distal X chromosome locus adjacent to the X-Y pairing region, was followed in backcross males that were analyzed for X-Y dissociation and sterility (we have used Amel as the designation for the mouse amelogenin locus; the current designation for this locus is Amg). A 95% concordance between Amelb with fertility and Amels with sterility was observed in backcrosses with BL/6, whereas the converse was observed in the backcross to M. spretus. These results imply that X-Y pairing plays an important role in male fertility and suggest that genetic divergence in X-Y pairing region between Mus species can contribute to the reproductive barriers between species and the process of speciation. Images PMID:2052565

  16. Segregation and Heritability of Male Sterility in Populations Derived from Progeny of Satsuma Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shingo; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kita, Masayuki; Hamada, Hiroko; Shimizu, Tokurou

    2016-01-01

    Male sterility derived from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) has been used in Japanese citrus breeding programs to obtain seedless cultivars, which is a desirable trait for consumers. Male sterility has often been evaluated by anther development or pollen fertility; however, the inheritance and heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of inheritance and broad-sense heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma. Initially, we evaluated the total number of pollen grains per anther and apparent pollen fertility, as indicated by lactophenol blue staining, in 15 citrus cultivars and selections to understand the male sterility of Satsuma. The results indicated that male sterility was primarily caused by decreased number of pollen grains per anther in progeny of Satsuma. We also evaluated these traits in three F1 populations (hyuganatsu × 'Okitsu No. 56', 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara'), of which the parents are derived from Satsuma. Individuals in these populations showed strong segregation for number of pollen grains per anther. The apparent fertility of pollen also showed segregation but was almost constant at 70%-90%. The estimated broad-sense heritability for the number of pollen grains per anther was as high as 0.898 in the 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' populations. These results indicated that the number of pollen grains per anther primarily determined male sterility among progeny of Satsuma, and this trait was inherited by the progeny. Development of DNA markers closely linked to male sterility using the F1 populations of 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' is expected to contribute to the breeding of novel seedless citrus cultivars. PMID:27589237

  17. Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Ajay Pal S; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2007-02-01

    Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

  18. Pilot field trials with Aedes albopictus irradiated sterile males in Italian urban areas.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Medici, A; Puggioli, A; Balestrino, F; Carrieri, M

    2013-03-01

    The pilot field studies here presented are part of a long-term research program aimed to develop a cost-effective sterile insect technique (SIT) methodology to suppress Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. Aedes albopictus is a mosquito species mainly developing in man-made containers and with an island-like urban and suburban distribution. These two features make the application of the sterile insect technique a possible control strategy. Five trials have been performed in three small towns from 2005 to 2009 (Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy). Reared male pupae, sexed by a sieving technique allowing the recovery of approximately 26-29% of males, were exposed to gamma rays and immediately released in the field. Adult population density was estimated based on a weekly monitoring of egg density in the ovitraps, whereas induced sterility was estimated by measuring the hatching percentage of weekly collected eggs in SIT and control areas. Results showed that sterile males released at the rate of 896-1,590 males/ha/wk induced a significant sterility level in the local population. In addition, when the sterility level achieved values in the range of 70-80%, a similar reduction also was found for the egg density in the ovitraps. We could estimate that the minimum egg sterility value of 81% should be maintained to obtain suppression of the local population. Immigration of mated females was not a main issue in the small villages where trials have been run. PMID:23540120

  19. Molecular mapping of three male-sterile, female-fertile mutants and generation of a comprehensive map of all known male sterility genes in soybean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Speth, Benjamin D; Boonyoo, Napatsakorn; Baumert, Eric; Atkinson, Taylor R; Palmer, Reid G; Sandhu, Devinder

    2014-03-01

    In soybean, an environmentally stable male sterility system is vital for making hybrid seed production commercially viable. Eleven male-sterile, female-fertile mutants (ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, ms6, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been identified in soybean. Of these, eight (ms2, ms3, ms5, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been mapped to soybean chromosomes. The objectives of this study were to (i) locate the ms1, ms4, and ms6 genes to soybean chromosomes; (ii) generate genetic linkage maps of the regions containing these genes; and (iii) develop a comprehensive map of all known male-sterile, female-fertile genes in soybean. The bulked segregant analysis technique was used to locate genes to soybean chromosomes. Microsatellite markers from the corresponding chromosomes were used on F2 populations to generate genetic linkage maps. The ms1 and ms6 genes were located on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F) and ms4 was present on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b). Molecular analyses revealed markers Satt516, BARCSOYSSR_02_1539, and AW186493 were located closest to ms1, ms4, and ms6, respectively. The ms1 and ms6 genes, although present on the same chromosome, were independently assorting with a genetic distance of 73.7 cM. Using information from this study and compiled information from previously published male sterility genes in soybean, a comprehensive genetic linkage map was generated. Eleven male sterility genes were present on seven soybean chromosomes. Four genes were present in two regions on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b) and two genes were present on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F). PMID:24814801

  20. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi Wei; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance. PMID:23630327

  1. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed. PMID:26274926

  2. Downy mildew incidence of pearl millet hybrids with different male-sterility inducing cytoplasms.

    PubMed

    Yadav, O P

    1996-02-01

    The use of different sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid seed production of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is advocated to avoid possible disease epidemics occurring due to cytoplasmic uniformity. The effects of commercially unexploited, but potentially exploitable, sources of CMS, like A2, A3 and A4, on downy mildew [Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet] incidence were studied by using the disease incidence of isonuclear hybrids with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm. The mean downy mildew incidence of hybrids carrying different male-sterile cytoplasm was similar to that of hybrids retaining the fertile cytoplasm. The cytoplasm accounted for only 0.6% of the total variation and its effect was non-significant; pollinators could explain most of the variation in determining the disease incidence of hybrids. This suggested that these male-sterile cytoplasms are not linked to downy mildew susceptibility and thus can be exploited commercially to broaden the cytoplasmic base of the male-sterile lines and, ultimately, of hybrids. PMID:24166178

  3. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed. PMID:26274926

  4. Release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged populations of Aedes aegypti: life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

    2014-04-01

    Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037

  5. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  6. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  7. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  8. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiping; Singer, Stacy D; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-04-01

    The potential for pollen-mediated transgene flow into wild or closely related species has provoked unease in terms of transgenic modification of agricultural plant species. One approach to remedy this situation in species whose seeds and fruits are not of particular value is to engineer male sterility into the transgenic lines. In this study, three meiosis-critical genes, namely AHP2, AtRAD51C and SWITCH1 (SWI), were chosen as silencing targets to test the feasibility of incorporating sterility into plants using an RNAi-based approach. Our results indicated that the silencing of each of these genes via hairpin RNA (termed AHPi, RAD51Ci and SWIi lines) in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded a proportion of transgenic plants exhibiting a similar 'partially sterile' phenotype in which less than 50% of pollen was viable. In addition, a 'sterile' phenotype was also evident in a minority of RAD51Ci and SWIi, but not AHPi, lines in which plants yielded no seeds and either produced inviable pollen (RAD51Ci lines) or displayed a complete absence of pollen (SWIi lines). This suggests that AtRAD51C and SWI may function at distinct stages of meiosis. Further analyses of SWIi lines demonstrated that the 'sterile' phenotype was associated with a substantial reduction in the level of targeted gene transcript in floral tissues and resulted from sterility of the male, but not female gametes. This work demonstrates that generating male sterility through the silencing of key genes involved in the regulation of meiosis is feasible, and its advantages and potential applications for transgene containment are discussed. PMID:22120011

  9. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2015-08-01

    Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47 bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In

  10. Research progress on mechanisms of male sterility in plants based on high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yongming, Liu; Ling, Zhang; Tao, Qiu; Zhuofan, Zhao; Moju, Cao

    2016-08-01

    Male sterility is defined as failing to produce functional pollen during stamen development in plants, and it plays a crucial role in plant reproductive research and hybrid seed production in utilization of crop heterosis. High throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been used widely in the study of different fields of life science, as it readily detects all the mRNA and non-coding RNA in cells. Recently, RNA-seq has been reported to be applied in different species and kinds of pollen abortion types in plants, which has contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism and metabolic networks of male sterility at the transcription level. In this review, we summarize research progress on the mechanisms of male sterility in plants, focusing on RNA-seq analysis encompassing strategies of RNA library construction, differentially expressed genes and functional characteristics of noncoding RNAs involved in stamen abortion. Furthermore, we also discuss application of transcriptome sequencing technology to elucidate pollen abortion mechanisms and map fertility-related genes. We hope to provide references to the study of male sterility in plants. PMID:27531606

  11. All male strains and chemical stimulants: Two ways to boost sterile mailes in SIT programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several spe...

  12. The Male Sterility Locus ms3 is Present in a Fertility Controlling Gene Cluster in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a self-pollinated plant. Manual cross-pollination is used to produce limited quantities of hybrid seed. To produce large quantities of hybrid seed, insect-mediated cross-pollination is necessary. An efficient nuclear male-sterile system for hybrid seed producti...

  13. Identification of fertiity restores for S male-sterile maize: beyond PPRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear genes are essential for expression of the mitochondrial genome and for the function of mitochondrial protein complexes. Interaction of the plant mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems is exemplified by mitochondrial-encoded cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) under the control of nuclear fe...

  14. Genetics of Male Sterility in Gynodioecious Plantago Coronopus. II. Nuclear Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, H. P.; Van-Damme, JMM.

    1995-01-01

    Inheritance of male sterility was studied in the gynodioecious species Plantago coronopus using five plants and their descendants from an area of ~50 m(2) from each of four locations. In each location, crosses between these five plants yielded the entire array of possible sex phenotypes. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes were involved. Emphasis is placed on the nuclear (restorer) genetics of two cytoplasmic types. For both types, multiple interacting nuclear genes were demonstrated. These genes carried either dominant or recessive restorer alleles. The exact number of genes involved could not be determined, because different genetic models could be proposed for each location and no common genetic solution could be given. At least five genes, three with dominant and two with recessive restorer allele action, were involved with both cytoplasmic types. Segregation patterns of partially male sterile plants suggested that they are due to incomplete dominance at restorer loci. Restorer genes interact in different ways. In most instances models with independent restorer gene action were sufficient to explain the crossing results. However, for one case we propose a model with epistatic restorer gene action. There was a consistent difference in the segregation of male sterility between plants from the two cytoplasmic types. Hermaphrodites of cytoplasmic type 2 hardly segregated male steriles, in contrast to plants with cytoplasmic type 1. PMID:7789776

  15. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  16. Molecular mapping of two environmentally sensitive male-sterile mutants in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], manual cross-pollination to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time consuming. Identification of an environmentally stable male-sterility system could make hybrid seed production commercially valuable. In soybean, two environmentally sensi...

  17. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile line and its maintainer in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice is advantageous over the traditional one on food production, which is important to support the increasing world’s population, especially in the developing countries. Three-line system that has played a major role since the 1970s in rice includes male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B l...

  18. Targeted expression of cystatin restores fertility in cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pawan; Subhashini, Mranu; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Ahmed, Israr; Trishla, Shalibhadra; Kirti, P B

    2016-05-01

    Fertility restoration in male sterile plants is an essential requirement for their utilization in hybrid seed production. In an earlier investigation, we have demonstrated that the targeted expression of a cysteine protease in tapetal cell layer resulted in complete male sterility in tobacco transgenic plants. In the present investigation, we have used a cystatin gene, which encodes for a cysteine protease inhibitor, from a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi and developed a plant gene based restoration system for cysteine protease induced male sterile transgenic tobacco plants. We confirmed the interaction between the cysteine protease and a cystatin of the wild peanut, A. diogoi through in silico modeling and yeast two-hybrid assay. Pollen from primary transgenic tobacco plants expressing cystatin gene under the tapetum specific promoter- TA29 restored fertility on cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants developed earlier. This has confirmed the in vivo interaction of cysteine protease and cystatin in the tapetal cells, and the inactivation of cysteine protease and modulation of its negative effects on pollen fertility. Both the cysteine protease and cystatin genes are of plant origin in contrast to the analogous barnase-barstar system that deploys genes of prokaryotic origin. Because of the deployment of genes of plant origin, this system might not face biosafety problems in developing hybrids in food crops. PMID:26993235

  19. Effects of x-ray irradiation on male navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on mating, fecundity, fertility, and inherited sterility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, were irradiated using a laboratory x-ray emitter to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited egg sterility of F1 generation. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in a series of two experime...

  20. Genetic architecture of autosome-mediated hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, I.

    1996-04-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors` interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. 48 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  2. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  3. Data for proteomic profiling of Anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-09-01

    Cotton is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To study the male sterile mechanisms of CCRI9106, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed. This data article contains data related to the research article titled iTRAQ-Facilitated Proteomic Profiling of Anthers From a Photosensitive Male Sterile Mutant and Wild-type Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)[1]. This research article describes the iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analysis of the wild-type and a photosensitive male sterile mutant in cotton. The report indicated that exine formation defect is the key reason for male sterility in mutant plant. The information presented here represents the tables and figures that detail the processing of the raw data obtained from iTRAQ analysis. PMID:26958592

  4. Single-layer tungsten oxide as intelligent photo-responsive nanoagents for permanent male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xianjun; Ran, Xiang; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    Permanent male sterilization has been recognized as useful tools for the development of neuter experimental animals and fattening livestock, as well as efficient control of pet overpopulation. Traditional routes such as surgical ways, chemical injections, and anti-fertility vaccines have addressed these crucial problems with idea outcomes. However, these routes usually bring out serious pain and infection towards animals, as well as induce long-term adverse reaction and immune suppression. Thus, a convenient, but non-surgical strategy for male sterilization under a mild manner is highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a novel platform for male sterilization by using single-layer WO2.72 nanosheets as smart photo-responsive sterilants. Upon a 980 nm irradiation, these nanoagents can possess intrinsic NIR-induced hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen due to the cooperation of photothermal and photodynamic effects. Mechanism of cellular injury can be attributed to the denaturation of protein and apoptosis-related death. Moreover, long-term toxicity and possible metabolism route after testicular injection are discussed, indicating the neglectable systemic toxicity and high bio-compatibility of our nanoagents. Overall, our strategy can extremely overcome the shortcomings in various routine routes and suggest the new biological application of nanomaterials. PMID:26280950

  5. Genetic Architecture of Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila: Analysis of Intraspecies Variation for Interspecies Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Markow, Therese A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. Methodology/Principal Findings Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F1 sons when females are crossed to D. arizonae males. We took advantage of the intraspecific polymorphism, in a novel design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses directly on F1 hybrid male sterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid male sterility (HMS) in the F1 is complex, involving multiple QTL, epistasis, and cytoplasmic effects. Conclusions/Significance The role of extensive intraspecific polymorphism, multiple QTL, and epistatic interactions in HMS in this young species pair shows that HMS is arising as a complex trait in this system. Directional selection alone would be unlikely to maintain polymorphism at multiple loci, thus we hypothesize that directional selection is unlikely to be the only evolutionary force influencing postzygotic isolation. PMID:18728782

  6. Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility, cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance, and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes

    SciTech Connect

    Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

    1987-04-14

    An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of crop which is capable of undergoing self-pollination and cross-pollination. The process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide which is attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes and male fertile plants which are homozygous recessive maintainer plants for the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide attributable solely to the homozygous dominant nuclear genes.

  7. Recovery of male fertility after sterilization by nuclear radiation.

    PubMed

    Macleod, J; Hotchkiss, R S; Sitterson, B W

    1964-02-29

    The potential fertility of 6 of 8 men accidentally exposed to radiation on June 16, 1958, was studied over a 3 1/2-year period. It is clear that, as measured by semen quality, evidence of recovery of spermatogenesis may be expected within 21 months, although the sperm counts at this time will probably not be consonant with a reasonable level of fertility. A satisfactory level of fertility will be reached by 30 months and a normal level by 41 months. Review of the male fertility data on the recorded cases of less than lethal nuclear radiation accidents shows that relatively small amounts of radiation will produce pronounced effects on the testes, including disturbances in the morphology of the few spermatozoa present in the ejaculate, but that ultimate recovery of some degree of fertility is possible in most cases. PMID:12255104

  8. Molecular diversity of male sterility inducing and male-fertile cytoplasms in the genus Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Horn, R.

    2002-03-01

    The organisation of mtDNA was investigated for 28 sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and a fertile line (normal cytoplasm) of Helianthus annuus by Southern hybridisation. In addition to nine known mitochondrial genes ( atp6, atp9, cob, coxI, coxII, coxIII, 18S, 5S and nd5) three probes for the open reading frames in the rearranged area of PET1, orfH522, orfH708 and orfH873, were used. Genetic similarities of the investigat-ed cytoplasms varied between 0.3 and 1. Cluster analyses using the UPGMA method allowed the distinction of ten mitochondrial (mt) types between the 29 investigated cytoplasms. Most mitochondrial types comprise two or more CMS sources, which could not be further separated, like the PET1-like CMS sources (with the exception of ANO1 and PRR1), or ANN1/ANN2/ANN3, ANN4/ ANN5, ARG3/RIG1, BOL1/EXI1/PEF1/PEP1 and GIG1/ PET2. ANL1, ANL2 and the fertile cytoplasms are also regarded as one mitochondrial type. Unique banding patterns were only observed for ANT1 ( atp6), MAX1 ( atp6, orfH522 and orfH708) and PRR1 ( coxII). However, four of the mitochondrial types showed unique hybridisation signals: ANN4/ANN5 had characteristic bands for atp6 and orfH708, PEF1/PEP1/EXI1/BOL1 for atp6and coxII, and PET2/GIG1 for atp9. The PET1-like cytoplasms all shared the same patterns for orfH522, orfH708and cob (except ANO1). It could be demonstrated that CMS sources, like, e.g., PET2 and PEF1, are different from PET1 in mtDNA organisation and the CMS mechanism. Therefore, these CMS sources represent interesting candidates for the development of new hybrid breeding systems based on new CMS mechanisms. PMID:12582659

  9. Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Re-Examination of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Gene in Boro-Taichung-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genome substitutions between subspecies can lead to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) through incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Boro-Taichung (BT)-type CMS rice was obtained by substituting the nuclear genome of Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar Chinsurah Boro II with that of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cultivar Taichung 65. In BT-type CMS rice, the mitochondrial gene orf79 is associated with male sterility. A complete sequence of the Boro-type mitochondrial genome responsible for BT-type CMS has not been determined to date. Here, we used pyrosequencing to construct the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. The contiguous sequences were assembled into five circular DNA molecules, four of which could be connected into a single circle. The two resulting subgenomic circles were unable to form a reliable master circle, as recombination between them was scarcely detected. We also found an unequal abundance of DNA molecules for the two loci of atp6. These results indicate the presence of multi-partite DNA molecules in the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. Expression patterns were investigated for Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, which were not found in the mitochondria from the standard japonica cultivar Nipponbare. Restorer of fertility 1 (RF1)-dependent RNA processing has been observed in orf79-containing RNA but was not detected in other Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, supporting the conclusion that orf79 is a unique CMS-associated gene in Boro-type mitochondria. PMID:27414645

  10. Expression of ogu cytoplasmic male sterility in cybrids of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Gourret, J P; Delourme, R; Renard, M

    1992-03-01

    A light and electron microscopic investigation revealed that ogu cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in cybrids of Brassica napus is primarily a deficiency of the tapetum and clearly time and site specific. Three patterns of ogu CMS were found, and specific conclusions drawn. First, the partially male fertile cybrid 23 was highly variable. It sometimes produced heterogeneous stamens with an endothecium formed exclusively around the fertile locules, thus delineating each microsporangium as a functional unit. The second type, including cybrids 27, 58 and 85, on the contrary, was stable and completely male sterile. In the four locules of normal length, microspores were observed to die at the vacuolate polarized stage while the tapetum disappeared prematurely through excessive vacuolization by the end of meiosis followed by a rapid autolysis during the tetrad or early free microspore stage. The subepidermal layer of the locule wall failed to form characteristic thickenings. The male-sterile stamens were completely indehiscent. At the time of anthesis they contained only collapsed empty exines adhering to each other. These cybrids, 27, 58 and 85, were closest to the ogu CMS trait of radish and seemed to be the best suited for further use in plant breeding. The third pattern was found in cybrids 77 and 118, which besides showing abortion of the microsporangia also showed a feminization of the stamens. We suggest that this feminization might be due to an alloplasmic situation associating Brassica napus nuclear genes with the mitochondrial DNA of radish. PMID:24202671

  11. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  12. Creating Completely Both Male and Female Sterile Plants by Specifically Ablating Microspore and Megaspore Mother Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) plants have improved commercially important traits, such as biomass and biofuel production, digestibility, bioremediation, ornamental value, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, there remain economic, political, or social concerns over potential ecological effects of transgene flow from GM plants. The current solution for preventing transgene flow from GM plants is genetically engineering sterility; however, approaches to generating both male and female sterility are limited. In addition, existing strategies for creating sterility lead to loss or modifications of entire flowers or floral organs. Here, we demonstrate that instead of the 1.5-kb promoter, the entire SOLO DANCERS (SDS) gene is required for its meiocyte-specific expression. We then developed an efficient method to specifically ablate microspore and megaspore mother cells using the SDS and BARNASE fusion gene, which resulted in complete sterility in both male and female reproductive organs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), but did not affect plant growth or development, including the formation of all flower organs. Therefore, our research provides a general and effective tool to prevent transgene flow in GM plants. PMID:26870055

  13. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of

  14. Xenotransplantation exposes the etiology of azoospermia factor (AZF) induced male sterility.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justinn; Gordon, Daniel; Schedl, Paul; Deshpande, Girish

    2015-03-01

    Ramathal et al. have employed an elegant xenotransplantation technique to study the fate of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from fertile males and from males carrying Y chromosome deletions of the azoospermia factor (AZF) region. When placed in a mouse testis niche, hiPSCs from fertile males differentiate into germ cell-like cells (GCLCs). Highlighting the crucial role of cell autonomous factors in male sterility, hiPSCs derived from azoospermic males prove to be less successful under similar circumstances. Their studies argue that the agametic "Sertoli cell only" phenotype of two of the AZF deletions likely arises from a defect in the maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs) rather than from a defect in their specification. These observations underscore the importance of the dialogue between the somatic niche and its inhabitant stem cells, and open up interesting questions concerning the functioning of the somatic niche and how it communicates to the GSCs. PMID:25524208

  15. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can

  16. Fine mapping of a male sterility gene MS-cd1 in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinmei; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yuan; Guo, Aiguang; Wang, Xiaowu

    2011-07-01

    A dominant male sterility (DGMS) line 79-399-3, developed from a spontaneous mutation in Brassica oleracea var. capitata, has been widely used in production of hybrid cultivars in China. In this line, male sterility is controlled by a dominant gene Ms-cd1. In the present study, fine mapping of Ms-cd1 was conducted by screening a segregating population Ms79-07 with 2,028 individuals developed by four times backcrossing using a male sterile Brassica oleracea var. italica line harboring Ms-cd1 as donor and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra as the recipient. Bulked segregation analysis (BSA) was performed for the BC(4) population Ms79-07 using 26,417 SRAP primer SRAPs and 1,300 SSRs regarding of male sterility and fertility. A high-resolution map surrounding Ms-cd1 was constructed with 14 SRAPs and one SSR. The SSR marker 8C0909 was closely linked to the MS-cd1 gene with a distance of 2.06 cM. Fourteen SRAPs closely linked to the target gene were identified; the closest ones on each side were 0.18 cM and 2.16 cM from Ms-cd1. Three of these SRAPs were successfully converted to dominant SCAR markers with a distance to the Ms-cd1 gene of 0.18, 0.39 and 4.23 cM, respectively. BLAST analysis with these SCAR marker sequences identified a collinear genomic region about 600 kb in scaffold 000010 on chromosomeA10 in B. rapa and on chromosome 5 in A. thaliana. These results provide additional information for map-based cloning of the Ms-cd1 gene and will be helpful for marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:21538103

  17. Sterility and Gene Expression in Hybrid Males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    PubMed Central

    Malone, John H.; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Michalak, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    Background Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus) and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri). Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri) were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly contribute to growing

  18. Suppression of cytoplasmic male sterility by nuclear genes alters expression of a novel mitochondrial gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M; Brown, G G

    1991-01-01

    To identify regions of the mitochondrial genome that potentially could specify the "Polima" (pol) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of Brassica napus, transcripts of 14 mitochondrial genes from nap (male fertile), pol (male sterile), and nuclear fertility-restored pol cytoplasm plants were analyzed. Transcriptional differences among these plants were detected only with the ATPase subunit 6 (atp6) gene. Structural analysis of the atp6 gene regions of pol and nap mitochondrial DNAs showed that rearrangements in the pol mitochondrial genome occurring upstream of atp6 have generated a chimeric 224-codon open reading frame, designated orf224, that is cotranscribed with atp6. In CMS plants, most transcripts of this region are dicistronic, comprising both orf224 and atp6 sequences. Nuclear restorer genes at either of two distinct loci appear to specifically alter this transcript pattern such that monocistronic atp6 transcripts predominate. The differences in expression of this region appear to result, in part, from differential processing of a tRNA-like element comprising a tRNA pseudogene present immediately upstream of atp6 in both the sterile and fertile mitochondrial DNAs. Possible mechanisms by which expression of the orf224/atp6 locus and the Polima CMS trait may be specifically related are considered. PMID:1840901

  19. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

  20. Sex Ratio Meiotic Drive as a Plausible Evolutionary Mechanism for Hybrid Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linbin; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome – two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  1. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

  2. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence. PMID:23427657

  3. Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a “directional transfer program” was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identified through test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

  4. Development of photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility rice expressing transgene Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jiwen; Zhang, Cuicui; Wang, Liangchao; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Zengrong; Tu, Jumin

    2015-01-01

    Stem borers and leaffolders are the main pests that cause severe damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. We developed the first photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility (PTSMS) rice 208S with the cry1Ab/1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene, through sexual crossing with Huahui 1 (elite line with the cry1Ab/1Ac gene). The novel 208S and its hybrids presented high and stable resistance to stem borers and leaffolders, and the content of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in chlorophyllous tissues achieved the identical level as donor and showed little accumulation in non-chlorophyllous tissue. No dominant dosage effect in the Bt gene was observed in 208S and its derived hybrids. An analysis of fertility transition traits indicated that 208S was completely sterile under long day length/high temperature, but partially fertile under short day length/low temperature. With fine grain quality and favorable combining ability, 208S had no observed negative effects on fertility and agronomic traits from Bt (cry1Ab/1Ac). Additionally, 208S as a male sterile line showed no fertility decrease caused by Bt transgenic process, as it is the case in Huahui 1. Thus, 208S has great application value in two-line hybrid production for insect resistance, and can also be used as a bridge material in rice Bt transgenic breeding. PMID:26366116

  5. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Mireille D.; Fall, Assane Gueye; Diouf, Thérèse A. R.; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Takac, Peter; Sidibé, Issa; Parker, Andrew G.; Mutika, Gratian N.; Bouyer, Jérémy; Gimonneau, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. Conclusions/Significance The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:26562521

  6. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  7. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  8. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  9. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  10. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  11. Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-01-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10 35) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10 35 encodes a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10 35 gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10 35 mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10 35 regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10 35 plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. PMID:25262227

  12. A Complex Genetic Basis to X-Linked Hybrid Male Sterility Between Two Species of House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Good, Jeffrey M.; Dean, Matthew D.; Nachman, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The X chromosome plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies have examined the genetic basis of X-linked incompatibilities during the early stages of speciation. We report the results of a large experiment focused on the reciprocal introgression of the X chromosome between two species of house mice, Mus musculus and M. domesticus. Introgression of the M. musculus X chromosome into a wild-derived M. domesticus genetic background produced male-limited sterility, qualitatively consistent with previous experiments using classic inbred strains to represent M. domesticus. The genetic basis of sterility involved a minimum of four X-linked factors. The phenotypic effects of major sterility QTL were largely additive and resulted in complete sterility when combined. No sterility factors were uncovered on the M. domesticus X chromosome. Overall, these results revealed a complex and asymmetric genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in mice. Combined with data from previous studies, we identify one relatively narrow interval on the M. musculus X chromosome involved in hybrid male sterility. Only a handful of spermatogenic genes are within this region, including one of the most rapidly evolving genes on the mouse X chromosome. PMID:18689897

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Sua-type cytoplasmic male sterility of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Li, Fengxia; Yang, Aiguo; Lv, Jing; Gong, Daping; Sun, Yuhe

    2016-07-01

    To uncover the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-associated mitochondrial genes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of Sua-CMS mitochondrial genome. The Sua-CMS mtDNA sequence is 522,731 bp in length and contains 34 protein-coding genes, 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The nucleotide sequence data of 34 protein-coding genes of 14 mitochondrial genomes were used for constructing the phylogenetic tree. The results showed that Nicotiana tabacum Sua-CMS exhibits most close relationship with other solanaceae species. PMID:27158790

  14. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454

  15. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least four years to classify cytoplasms as normal (N) male-fertile or male-sterile (S). Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytopla...

  16. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

  17. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  18. Ectopic expression of mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrase 2 causes male sterility by anther indehiscence.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Fernando; Martín, Victoria; Colaneri, Alejandro; González-Schain, Nahuel; Perales, Mariano; Martín, Mariana; Lombardo, Cristina; Braun, Hans-Peter; Bartoli, Carlos; Zabaleta, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    Plant mitochondria include gamma-type carbonic anhydrases (gammaCAs) of unknown function. In Arabidopsis, the gammaCAs form a gene family of five members which all are attached to the NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) of the respiratory chain. Here we report a functional analysis of gamma carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2). The gene encoding CA2 is constitutively expressed in all plant organs investigated but it is ten fold induced in flowers, particularly in tapetal tissue. Ectopic expression of CA2 in Arabidopsis causes male sterility in transgenic plants. In normal anther development, secondary thickenings of the endothecial cell wall cause anthers to open upon dehydration. Histological analyses revealed that abnormal secondary thickening prevents anther opening in 35S::CA2 transgenic plants. CA2 abundance in transgenic plants is increased 2-3 fold compared to wild-type plants as revealed by Western blotting analyses. Moreover, abundance of other members of the CA family, termed CA3 and CAL2, is increased in transgenic plants. Oxygen uptake measurements revealed that respiration in transgenic plants is mainly based on NADH reduction by the alternative NADH dehydrogenases present in plant mitochondria. Furthermore, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is very low in transgenic plants. We propose that reduction in ROS inhibits H(2)O(2) dependent lignin polymerization in CA2 over-expressing plants, thereby causing male sterility. PMID:19326245

  19. Somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, H; Glimelius, K

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and a male-sterile radish line MS-Gensuke ( Raphanus sativus) with the Ogura cytoplasm. Forty-one shoots were differentiated from the regenerated calli and established as shoot cultures in vitro. About 20 of these shoots were judged to be hybrids based on growth characteristics and morphology. Molecular analyses of 11 shoots were performed, confirming the hybrid features. Of these 11 shoots, eight were established as rooted plants in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the nuclear genomes of all analyzed shoots and plants confirmed that they contained hybrid DNA patterns. Their chromosome numbers also supported the hybrid nature of the plants. Investigations of the organelles in the hybrids revealed that the chloroplast (cp) genome was exclusively represented by radish cpDNA, while the mitochondrial DNA configuration showed a combination of both parental genomes as well as fragments unique to the hybrids. Hybrid plants that flowered were male-sterile independent of the presence of the Ogura CMS-gene orf138. PMID:12827437

  20. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. Progress report, April 15, 1990--April 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  1. Comparative sequence and expression analysis of tapetum specific male sterility related genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Shao, L H; Zheng, X W; Yi, D X; Li, C

    2016-01-01

    Heterosis, or enhancement through outbreeding, is one of the most promising approaches for increasing crop yield. Male sterility (MS), which promotes heterosis, has been widely applied in hybrid crop production. Medicago truncatula is a model legume species and is closely related to M. sativa, an important legume forage plant. Although the molecular mechanisms of MS in M. truncatula and M. sativa remain unclear, several studies of MS have been conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous research has shown that MS is associated with the destruction of tapetal cell layers. Disruption of tapetum developmental processes may result in pollen abortion. In an effort to identify genes useful for breeding in M. sativa, we identified MS related genes in M. truncatula using BLAST and homology to A. thaliana genes. In this study, we identified 63 tapetum specific male sterility (TSMS) related genes. The length of TSMS genes varied from 225 to 3747 bp. We identified 15 conserved domains and 8 cis-elements associated with TSMS related genes. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among these genes allowed them to be classified into three groups, MtTsms A, MtTsms B, and MtTsms C. Expression analyses revealed that these genes may be involved in developmental processes and response to abiotic stress. PMID:27421020

  2. Single gene restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in wheat and its implications in the breeding of restorer lines.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W G; Bodden, J J

    1977-05-01

    Cultivars of T. aestivum crossed onto two lines with male sterility induced by the cytoplasm of T. timopheevi gave a high level of restoration in the F1 generation. The ratio of fertile to sterile plants segregating in the F2 generation was consistent with that expected for a single dominant restorer gene. The possible association between this gene and mildew resistance or some other desirable character derived from 'CI 12633', a common ancestor of the cultivars used, is discussed. PMID:24407610

  3. Male-sterility induction in transgenic tobacco plants with an unedited atp9 mitochondrial gene from wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Hernould, M; Suharsono, S; Litvak, S; Araya, A; Mouras, A

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We have proposed that a nuclear-encoded chimeric peptide formed by mitochondrial sequences when imported into the mitochondria may impair organelle function and induce male sterility in plants. A model developed to test this hypothesis is reported here. Assuming that the editing process in higher plant mitochondria reflects a requirement for producing active proteins, we have used edited and unedited coding sequences of wheat ATP synthase subunit 9 (atp9) fused to the coding sequence of a yeast coxIV transit peptide. Transgenic plants containing unedited atp9 exhibited either fertile, semifertile, or male-sterile phenotypes; controls containing edited atp9 or only the selectable marker gave fertile plants. Pollen fertility ranged from 31% to 75% in fertile plants, 10% to 20% in semifertile plants, and < 2% in male-sterile plants. Genetic and molecular data showed that the chimeric plasmid containing the transgene is inherited as a Mendelian trait. The transgenic protein is imported into the mitochondria. The production and frequency of semifertile or male-sterile transgenic plants conform to the proposed hypothesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7681593

  4. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world’s most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1–induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  5. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qidi; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  6. Effects of X-Ray Irradiation on Male Navel Orangeworm Moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Mating, Fecundity, Fertility, and Inherited Sterility.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Ovchinnikova, Inna; Jackson, Eric S; Haff, Ronald P

    2015-10-01

    Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were irradiated using a laboratory scale x-ray irradiation unit to determine the required dose for complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited sterility of F1 and F2 generations. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in two separate experiments at 100-300 Gy and 50-175 Gy. Mating frequency, fecundity, and fertility of normal females crossed with irradiated parental males was compared with the mating of nonirradiated moths. Mating frequency was 100% for females crossed with nonirradiated control males. At male treatment doses of ≥150 Gy the percentage of females found unmated increased, while multiple-mated females decreased. Female fecundity was not affected while fertility was affected in a dose-dependent relationship to exposure of parental males to x-ray irradiation. Embryonic development of eggs to the prehatch stage and egg eclosion did not occur at radiation doses ≥125 Gy. Emergence of F1 adults was low and occurred only for progeny of parental males exposed to doses ≤100 Gy, with no emergence at ≥125 Gy. Though fecundity appeared similar for control and irradiated F1 females, no F2 eggs hatched for the test exposures of 50-100 Gy. Based on our results, a dose of ≥125 Gy had efficacy in inducing both primary parental sterility in treated male moths and inherited sterility in F1 male and female moths. Results suggest that A. transitella might be considered a candidate for the sterile insect technique using adults irradiated at these relatively low x-ray exposure doses. PMID:26453709

  7. Biochemical and molecular dissection of thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L).

    PubMed

    Sekhar, L; Khadi, B M; Patil, Rajesh S; Katageri, I S; Mukri, Ganapati

    2016-07-01

    Diploid cotton, due to its inherent problem of stamen brittleness, its found unsuitable for traditional method of hybrid seed production which involves hand emasculation followed by pollination. Due to shortfall in other methods viz., Genetic Male Sterility (GMS), as well as, Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility (CGMS), hybrid seed production in diploid cotton becomes costly and thereby, covers less area among the total cotton grown area. Thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility, which overcomes the drawbacks of both GMS and CGMS can be an effective tool in coming years for hybrid cotton research. Understanding fertility and sterility variations, their relation with biochemical changes in plant is important before its application in plant breeding. Hence, the available TGMS line, Ga TGMS-3 obtained at Cotton Research Centre, UAS, Dharwad was studied for callase activity and markers associated with TGMS. The line Ga TGMS-3 had fertile anthers and showed less callase enzyme activity at pre-meiosis stage, high enzyme activity at tetrad releasing microspore stage and no callase activity during other stages. The counterpart TGMS sterile anthers displayed little higher callase activity at pre-meiosis stage, high activity at tetrad stage, but poor activity at tetrad releasing microspore stage. During tetrad stage, TGMS sterile anthers showed high callase enzyme activity giving every chance for early release of poorly developed microspores as compared to fertile anthers. At tetrad releasing microspores stage during which fertile anthers had strong callase enzyme activity led to microspores being released normally and developed normal pollen grains as compared to sterile anthers. The present investigation revealed that NAU2176, NAU2096 and BNL1227 primers can be used as tightly linked markers for TGMS trait, as evident from their differential expression in fertile and sterile anthers. PMID:27498504

  8. Engineered selective plant male sterility through pollen-specific expression of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Millwood, Reginald J; Moon, Hong S; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Rice, John Hollis; Abercrombie, Jason M; Abercrombie, Laura L; Green, William Derek; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-05-01

    Unintended gene flow from transgenic plants via pollen, seed and vegetative propagation is a regulatory concern because of potential admixture in food and crop systems, as well as hybridization and introgression to wild and weedy relatives. Bioconfinement of transgenic pollen would help address some of these concerns and enable transgenic plant production for several crops where gene flow is an issue. Here, we demonstrate the expression of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under the control of the tomato pollen-specific LAT52 promoter is an effective method for generating selective male sterility in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Of nine transgenic events recovered, four events had very high bioconfinement with tightly controlled EcoRI expression in pollen and negligible-to-no expression other plant tissues. Transgenic plants had normal morphology wherein vegetative growth and reproductivity were similar to nontransgenic controls. In glasshouse experiments, transgenic lines were hand-crossed to both male-sterile and emasculated nontransgenic tobacco varieties. Progeny analysis of 16 000-40 000 seeds per transgenic line demonstrated five lines approached (>99.7%) or attained 100% bioconfinement for one or more generations. Bioconfinement was again demonstrated at or near 100% under field conditions where four transgenic lines were grown in close proximity to male-sterile tobacco, and 900-2100 seeds per male-sterile line were analysed for transgenes. Based upon these results, we conclude EcoRI-driven selective male sterility holds practical potential as a safe and reliable transgene bioconfinement strategy. Given the mechanism of male sterility, this method could be applicable to any plant species. PMID:26503160

  9. A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis. PMID:1498602

  10. Cytochemical Analysis of Pollen Development in Wild-Type Arabidopsis and a Male-Sterile Mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, SM; Moffatt, BA

    1990-01-01

    Microsporogenesis has been examined in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the nuclear male-sterile mutant BM3 by cytochemical staining. The mutant lacks adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, an enzyme of the purine salvage pathway that converts adenine to AMP. Pollen development in the mutant began to diverge from wild type just after meiosis, as the tetrads of microspores were released from their callose walls. The first indication of abnormal pollen development in the mutant was a darker staining of the microspore wall due to an incomplete synthesis of the intine. Vacuole formation was delayed and irregular in the mutant, and the majority of the mutant microspores failed to undergo mitotic divisions. Enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and esterases decreased in the mutant soon after meiosis and were undetectable in mature pollen grains of the mutant. RNA accumulation was also diminished. These results are discussed in relation to the possible role(s) of adenine salvage in pollen development. PMID:12354970

  11. A syndrome of functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and sterility in a male with elevated serum estradiol.

    PubMed

    Valenta, L J

    1977-08-01

    A 36-year-old male complaining of impotence was examined. He was a genotypic male. Phenotypically, he exhibited signs of long-standing estrogen excess, such as feminine body build, gynecomastia, and varicose veins. His testes were soft and borderline small, and his prostate was small and soft. However, he had a normal-sized penis, normal male hair distribution, normal sense of smell, and normal intelligence. The laboratory data were compatible with mild hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were consistently elevated. The patient had azoospermia and a decreased semen volume. Inappropriately low levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone responded normally to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and clomiphene citrate. Levels of both testosterone (T) and E2 increased dramatically after prolonged clomiphene medication and in response to human chorionic gonadotropin. There was no change in either T or E2 levels in response to manipulations of the pituitary-adrenal axis. It is concluded that the elevated E2 level was responsible for suppression of gonadotropins which, in turn, caused mild hypogonadism and sterility in this patient. According to the stimulation tests, the source of the elevated E2 levels was testicular. PMID:69556

  12. Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjie; Pandeya, Devendra; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Liu, Wing Yee; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2013-04-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants. PMID:23274393

  13. [Genetic and cytological analyses of the male sterility mutation induced in a sorghum tissue culture with streptomycin].

    PubMed

    El'konin, L A; Tsvetova, M I

    2008-05-01

    Treatment of sorghum callus cultures with 500-1000 mg/l streptomycin led to a high regeneration frequency of plants with complete or partial male sterility (MS), up to 100% of all green regenerants. The induced MS mutation (ms-str) was preserved in the F1 and BC1 progenies and was genetically unstable: many families produced semisterile and fertile revertants, whose progenies again contained semisterile and sterile mutants. The ms-str mutation was maintained through eight generations via selection and self-pollination of semisterile plants. The mutation was inherited as a recessive nuclear mutation in tester crosses of sterile plants segregated in the progenies of fertile and semisterile revertants and was expressed only in single cases in a test cross for ms-str transfer through pollen of hybrids with restored male fertility. Recessive nuclear mutations determining a low plant height (dwarfness) and the lack of waxy bloom on the stem and leaves (bloomless) were found in male-sterile plants with the ms-str mutation. Cytological analysis of sterile plants reveal multiple alterations of various pollen development stages and tapetal cells: cytomyxis, defects of chromosome conjugation, distorted cytokinesis in meiotic division II, a lack of tetrad separation, a defective formation of the microspore coat, generation of microspores with two to four nuclei, and the formation of micronuclei and large vacuoles in tapetal cells. A possible transfer of the induced cytoplasmic MS mutation into the nuclear genome and the causes of the high genetic instability are discussed. PMID:18672800

  14. Prerelease exposure to methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian orchard.

    PubMed

    McInnis, D; Kurashima, R; Shelly, T; Komatsu, J; Edu, J; Pahio, E

    2011-12-01

    Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME), and recent work demonstrated that ingestion of this chemical enhances male mating success, apparently owing its role as a precursor in the synthesis of the male sex pheromone. The current study expanded upon earlier laboratory and field-cage experiments by assessing whether prerelease exposure to ME increased the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in Hawaiian orchards. Releases of sterile males from a pupal color-based sexing strain were made weekly in two fruit orchards over 8 mo, with the sterile males at one site given ME for 24 h before release (treated) and the sterile males at the other site given no ME before release (control). Fruits were collected periodically during the study period, and eggs were dissected and incubated to score hatch rate. At both sites, releases of sterile males increased the proportion of unhatched eggs well above prerelease levels, but the incidence of egg sterility was consistently, and statistically, greater in the orchard receiving ME-exposed males. Computed over the entire release period, the average value of Fried's competitive index (that characterizes the mating success of sterile males relative to their wild counterparts) for ME-treated males was 3.5 times greater than that for control males, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, when computed over the period during which egg sterility values were elevated and stable, presumably when females inseminated before the releases were rare or absent, the competitive indices were significantly higher for ME-treated sterile males. The implications of these results for implementing the Sterile Insect Technique against this species are discussed. PMID:22299359

  15. Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, C.A.; Heinrich, J.W.; Genovese, J.H.; Hanson, L.H.; McDonald, R.B.; Slade, J.W.; Swink, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

  16. Tapetum-specific expression of a cytoplasmic orf507 gene causes semi-male sterility in transgenic peppers

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jiao-Jiao; Huang, Wei; Li, Zheng; Chai, Wei-Guo; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Though cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in peppers is associated with the orf507 gene, definitive and direct evidence that it directly causes male sterility is still lacking. In this study, differences in histochemical localization of anther cytochrome c oxidase between the pepper CMS line and maintainer line were observed mainly in the tapetal cells and tapetal membrane. Inducible and specific expression of the orf507 gene in the pepper maintainer line found that transformants were morphologically similar to untransformed and transformed control plants, but had shrunken anthers that showed little dehiscence and fewer pollen grains with lower germination rate and higher naturally damaged rate. These characters were different from those of CMS line which does not produce any pollen grains. Meanwhile a pollination test using transformants as the male parent set few fruit and there were few seeds in the limited number of fruits. At the tetrad stage, ablation of the tapetal cell induced by premature programmed cell death (PCD) occurred in the transformants and the microspores were distorted and degraded at the mononuclear stage. Stable transmission of induced semi-male sterility was confirmed by a test cross. In addition, expression of orf507 in the maintainer lines seemed to inhibit expression of atp6-2 to a certain extent, and lead to the increase of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and the ATP hydrolysis of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase. These results introduce the premature PCD caused by orf507 gene in tapetal cells and semi-male sterility, but not complete male sterility. PMID:25954296

  17. Effects of surgical and chemical sterilization on the behavior of free-roaming male dogs in Puerto Natales, Chile.

    PubMed

    Garde, E; Pérez, G E; Vanderstichel, R; Dalla Villa, P F; Serpell, J A

    2016-01-01

    Population management of free-roaming domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) is of interest due to the threat these animals pose to people, other animals and the environment. Current sterilization procedures for male dogs include surgical and chemical methods. However, little is known about how these procedures affect their behavior. The primary objective of this study was to investigate changes in selected behaviors following chemical and surgical sterilization in a male free-roaming dog (FRD) population in southern Chile. We also examined the association between serum testosterone levels and behaviors thought to be influenced by circulating androgens. A total of 174 dogs were randomly assigned to either a surgical or chemical sterilization group, or a control group. At the onset of the intervention period, 119 dogs remained and 102 dogs successfully completed the study. Each dog was monitored pre- and post-intervention using video recordings, GPS collars, and blood samples for the measurement of testosterone. Analysis of behavior revealed that surgically castrated dogs showed no reduction of sexual activity or aggression when compared to their pre-intervention behavior. Chemically sterilized dogs showed a statistically significant increase in dog-directed aggression, but no change in sexual activity. There was no change in home range size in any groups between the pre- and post-intervention measurement. We found no consistent association between levels of serum testosterone concentration and behavioral changes in any of the groups. This study presents the first detailed behavioral observations following surgical and chemical sterilization in male FRDs. The information generated is highly relevant to communities struggling with the control of FRDs. Complementary studies to further our understanding of the effects of male sterilization on the behavioral and reproductive dynamics of FRD populations are needed. PMID:26657528

  18. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  19. Tribenuron-Methyl Induces Male Sterility through Anther-Specific Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase Leading to Autophagic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lun; Jing, Xue; Chen, Li; Liu, Yingjun; Su, Yanan; Liu, Tingting; Gao, Changbin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2015-12-01

    Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely used for hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report greater TM accumulation and subsequent stronger ALS inhibition and BCAA starvation in anthers than in leaves and stems after TM application. Constitutive or anther-specific expression of csr1-1D (a CSR1 mutant) eliminated anther-selective ALS inhibition and reversed the TM-induced male sterile phenotype in both rapeseed and Arabidopsis. The results of TM daub-stem experiments, combined with the observations of little TM accumulation in anthers and reversion of TM-induced male sterility by targeted expression of the TM metabolism gene Bel in either the mesophyll or phloem, suggested that foliar-sprayed TM was polar-transported to anthers mainly through the mesophyll and phloem. Microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that autophagy, a bulk degradation process induced during cell death, was elevated in TM-induced male sterile anthers and by anther-specific knockdown of ALS. Moreover, TM-induced pollen abortion was significantly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. These data suggested that TM was polar-transported to anthers, resulting in BCAA starvation via anther-specific ALS inhibition and, ultimately, autophagic cell death in anthers. PMID:26362932

  20. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of an Rf gene from Helianthus angustifolius for a new cytoplasmic male-sterile line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and the corresponding fertility restoration genes (Rf) is a critical tool in large-scale hybrid seed production of sunflower. A new CMS line 514A, derived from H. tuberosus / 7718B, was obtained from a scientific exchange with the Liaoning Academy of...

  1. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  2. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-10-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  3. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility i...

  4. Registration of N614, A3N615, N616, and N617 Shattercane Genetic Stocks with cytoplasmic or nuclear male-sterility and juicy or dry midribs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four shattercane [Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan] genetic stocks, N614, A3N615, N616, N617 (Reg. No. XXX, PI 665683 to 665686), with A3 cytoplasmic male-sterility or nuclear male-sterility gene ms3 containing either juicy (dd) or dry (DD) culms were developed joint...

  5. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  6. Seed-Set Evaluation of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soyban Lines Using Alfalfa Leaf-Cutter Bees and Honey Bees as Pollinators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male-sterile, female-fertile plants have been used to produce hybrid soybean seed. Manual cross-pollination using male-sterile plants to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time-consuming, because of the low success rate in cross-pollination. Insect pllinators may be suitable ...

  7. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Que; Ma, Li-Juan; Niu, Jin; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expressed in microsporocytes, tetrads and tapetal cells in the anther. Over-expression lines of AtTTP (AtTTP-OE line) exhibited reduced male fertility. CalS5 expression was tremendously reduced and the tetrad callose wall became much thinner in the AtTTP-OE line. Northern blotting hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that miR160 was decreased, while the expression of ARF17 was increased in the AtTTP-OE line. Based on these results, we propose that AtTTP associates with miR160 in order to regulate the ARF17 expression needed for callose synthesis and pollen wall formation. PMID:25822980

  8. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations. PMID:16334318

  9. Medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) genetic sexing: large-scale field comparison of males-only and bisexual sterile fly releases in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rendón, P; McInnis, D; Lance, D; Stewart, J

    2004-10-01

    The effect of releases of bisexual (males and female) and unisexual (male only) sterilized medflies was compared in three large field evaluations over a 3-yr period (1995-1997) in southwestern Guatemala. The two strains tested were a genetic sexing strain, Vienna-4/Tol-94, carrying the temperature sensitive tsl gene to eliminate females in the egg stage, and the standard bisexual Petapa strain. Flies were mass-reared, sterilized by irradiation as pupae, shipped to a field center, and released by air as young adults over 2 km by 2 km core areas in the centers of separate 6 km by 6 km test plots. Strain performance was monitored weekly by trapping sterile and wild male adults in core and buffer areas and by collecting eggs from coffee berries to determine induced sterility. Results indicated a several-fold advantage for the males-only strain as measured by the level of induced sterility, especially at the very high release ratios of 100:1 recorded in 1997. During that final test year, sterile-fly release rates were increased to provide high sterile:wild (S:W) fly ratios in the field, and egg sterility reached levels in excess of 70% in plots were the male-only strain was used. However, in the plots where the bisexual strain was released, induced sterility only reached 12% despite S:W ratios above 1,000:1. PMID:15568342

  10. Transposon Tagging of a Male-Sterility, Female-Sterility Gene, St8, Revealed that the Meiotic MER3 DNA Helicase Activity Is Essential for Fertility in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Jordan; Pudake, Ramesh N.; Johnson, Callie; Kleinhans, Kaylin; Ollhoff, Alexandrea; Palmer, Reid G.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder

    2016-01-01

    The W4 locus in soybean encodes a dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR2) that regulates pigmentation patterns in flowers and hypocotyl. The mutable w4-m allele that governs variegated flowers has arisen through insertion of a CACTA-type transposable element, Tgm9, in DFR2. In the w4-m line, reversion from variegated to purple flower indicates excision of Tgm9, and its insertion at a new locus. Previously, we have identified a male-sterile, female-sterile mutant among the selfed progenies of a revertant plant carrying only purple flowers. Co-segregation between Tgm9 and the sterility phenotype suggested that the mutant was generated by insertion of Tgm9 at the St8 locus. The transposon was localized to exon 10 of Glyma.16G072300 that shows high identity to the MER3 DNA helicase involved in crossing over. Molecular analysis of fertile branches from two independent revertant plants confirmed precise excision of Tgm9 from the st8 allele, which restored fertility. In soybean, the gene is expressed in flower-buds, trifoliate leaves and stem. Phylogenetic analysis placed St8 in a clade with the Arabidopsis and rice MER3 suggesting that St8 is most likely the orthologous MER3 soybean gene. This study established the utility of Tgm9 in gene identification as well as in forward and reverse genetics studies. PMID:26930200

  11. The effect of the radio-protective agents ethanol, trimethylglycine, and beer on survival of X-ray-sterilized male Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successfully implemented to control, and in some cases, eradicate, dipteran insect populations. SIT has great potential as a mosquito control method. Different sterilization methods have been used on mosquitoes ranging from chemosterilization to genetically modified sterile male mosquito strains; however, sterilization with ionizing radiation is the method of choice for effective sterilization of male insects for most species. The lack of gentle radiation methods has resulted in significant complications when SIT has been applied to mosquitoes. Several studies report that irradiating mosquitoes resulted in a decrease in longevity and mating success compared to unirradiated males. The present study explored new protocols for mosquito sterilization with ionizing radiation that minimized detrimental effects on the longevity of irradiated males. Methods We tested three compounds that have been shown to act as radioprotectors in the mouse model system - ethanol, trimethylglycine, and beer. Male Aedes aegypti were treated with one of three chosen potential radioprotectors and were subsequently irradiated with identical doses of long-wavelength X-rays. We evaluated the effect of these radioprotectors on the longevity of male mosquito after irradiation. Results We found that X-ray irradiation with an absorbed dose of 1.17 gy confers complete sterility. Irradiation with this dose significantly shortened the lifespan of male mosquitoes and all three radioprotectors tested significantly enhanced the lifespan of irradiated mosquito males. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment with ethanol, beer, or trimethylglycine before irradiation can be used to enhance longevity in mosquitoes. PMID:23866939

  12. Pre-release consumption of methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in large field enclosures.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1-4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  13. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  14. Transcriptome de novo assembly and analysis of differentially expressed genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jiao-Jiao; Jia, Xue-Fang; Jia, Si-Qi

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait producing abnormal pollen during anther development. To identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying mechanisms, cabbage anthers at different developmental stages were cytologically examined and the transcriptomes were analyzed in CMS line and its maintainer line using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Microscopy showed that anther development in the CMS line was abnormal in the tetrad stage and failed to produce fertile pollen. We obtained 55,663,594 and 54,801,384 raw transcriptome reads from the sterile and maintainer lines, respectively, and assembled these reads into 68,851 unigenes with an average size of 1028 bp. By using the fragments assigned per kilobase of target per million mapped reads (FPKM) method, 5592 differentially expressed genes were identified, consisting of 3403 up- and 2089 down-regulated genes. Furthermore, there were 1011 and 45 genes specifically expressed in the maintainer or sterile line, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways were performed to map and analyze the candidate genes that may be involved in male sterility. Expression of eighteen genes was examined using qRT-PCR and their expression patterns were found to be same as the sequencing data. A clear cytological difference exists between the sterile and maintainer lines. The differentially expressed genes are associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolisms, or encode transcription factors, heat shock proteins and other stress proteins. Identification of these candidate genes provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying CMS in cabbage. PMID:27116370

  15. Transgenic male-sterile plant induced by an unedited atp9 gene is restored to fertility by inhibiting its expression with antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zabaleta, E; Mouras, A; Hernould, M; Suharsono; Araya, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that the expression of an unedited atp9 chimeric gene correlated with male-sterile phenotype in transgenic tobacco plant. To study the relationship between the expression of chimeric gene and the male-sterile trait, hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tobacco lines expressing the antisense atp9 RNA were constructed. The antisense producing plants were crossed with a homozygous male-sterile line, and the F1 progeny was analyzed. The offspring from crosses between homozygous lines produced only male-fertile plants, suggesting that the expression antisense atp9 RNA abolishes the effect of the unedited chimeric gene. In fact, the plants restored to male fertility showed a dramatic reduction of the unedited atp9 transcript levels, resulting in normal flower development and seed production. These results support our previous observation that the expression of unedited atp9 gene can induce male sterility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855343

  16. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (<1 ng/mL), testosterone remained unchanged in 66% of the chemically sterilized dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it remained low for 22% of dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it was unchanged at t+4m but low at t+6m in 9% of dogs; and, it was low at t+4m but reverted back to unchanged at t+6m in one dog (3%). Incidentally, testosterone in chemically sterilized dogs increased dramatically within 1 hour of treatment (t0), more than doubling (131%) the concentration of control dogs at the time of treatment (t0), likely because of severe necrosis of

  17. Characterization of a Novel Thermosensitive Restorer of Fertility for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Gabay-Laughnan, Susan; Kuzmin, Evgeny V.; Monroe, Jessica; Roark, Leah; Newton, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) in maize is associated with high levels of a 1.6-kb RNA in mitochondria. This RNA contains two chimeric open reading frames (ORFs), orf355 and orf77. The previously described nuclear restorer-of-fertility allele Rf3 causes the processing of all transcripts that contain these chimeric ORFs. The Lancaster Surecrop-derived inbred line A619 carries a restorer that is distinct from Rf3 in that it selectively reduces only the CMS-S-specific 1.6-kb RNA. We have found that 10 additional Lancaster lines carry a single restoring allele traceable to either of two inbred lines, C103 and Oh40B. The C103 and Oh40B restorers are allelic to each other, but not to Rf3. Thus, this restoring allele, designated Rf9, represents a second naturally occurring CMS-S restorer in maize. Rf9 is a less effective restorer of fertility than is Rf3; its expression is influenced by both inbred nuclear background and temperature. Rf9 acts to reduce the amounts of orf355/orf77-containing linear mitochondrial subgenomes, which are generated by recombination of circular subgenomes with CMS-S-specific linear plasmids. The 1.6-kb RNA, which is transcribed only from linear ends, is correspondingly reduced. PMID:19255365

  18. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes. PMID:11123616

  19. Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Raduan, Norzahira; Kwee Wee, Lim; Hong Ming, Wong; Guat Ney, Teoh; Rahidah A.A., Siti; Salman, Sawaluddin; Subramaniam, Selvi; Nordin, Oreenaiza; Hanum A.T., Norhaida; Angamuthu, Chandru; Marlina Mansor, Suria; Lees, Rosemary S.; Naish, Neil; Scaife, Sarah; Gray, Pam; Labbé, Geneviève; Beech, Camilla; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Han Lim, Lee; Wasi A., Nazni; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered ‘genetically sterile’ (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains. PMID:22970102

  20. Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianchun; Lan, Yanping; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for exploiting heterosis in crop plants and also serves as a model for investigating nuclear–cytoplasmic interaction. The molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration was investigated in several important economic crops but remains poorly understood in the Welsh onion. Therefore, we compared the differences between the CMS line 64-2 and its maintainer line 64-1 using transcriptome sequencing with the aim of determining critical genes and pathways associated with male sterility. This study combined two years of RNA-seq data; there were 1504 unigenes (in May 2013) and 2928 unigenes (in May 2014) that were differentially expressed between the CMS and cytoplasmic male maintainer Welsh onion varieties. Known CMS-related genes were found in the set of differentially expressed genes and checked by qPCR. These genes included F-type ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that the CMS regulatory genes and pathways may be associated with the mitochondria and nucleus in the Welsh onion. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will accelerate the research on CMS gene clones and other functional genomics research on A. fistulosum L. PMID:27376286

  1. Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianchun; Lan, Yanping; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for exploiting heterosis in crop plants and also serves as a model for investigating nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. The molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration was investigated in several important economic crops but remains poorly understood in the Welsh onion. Therefore, we compared the differences between the CMS line 64-2 and its maintainer line 64-1 using transcriptome sequencing with the aim of determining critical genes and pathways associated with male sterility. This study combined two years of RNA-seq data; there were 1504 unigenes (in May 2013) and 2928 unigenes (in May 2014) that were differentially expressed between the CMS and cytoplasmic male maintainer Welsh onion varieties. Known CMS-related genes were found in the set of differentially expressed genes and checked by qPCR. These genes included F-type ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that the CMS regulatory genes and pathways may be associated with the mitochondria and nucleus in the Welsh onion. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will accelerate the research on CMS gene clones and other functional genomics research on A. fistulosum L. PMID:27376286

  2. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

  3. Dominant male sterility in sorghum: effect of nuclear background on inheritance of tissue-culture-induced mutation.

    PubMed

    Elkonin, Lev A

    2005-11-01

    Occurrence of genetic instability and formation of stable mutations are basic genetic processes. This study demonstrates that nuclear background may influence the formation of stable dominant nuclear gene of male sterility (MS) on the basis of unstable mutation, which was induced in tissue culture of the sorghum haploid (cv. Milo-145). The mutants with complete or partial MS segregated in variable ratios in the progenies of diploid regenerants were obtained from different experiments on cultivation of haploid tissues. In the Milo-145 genetic background the mutation demonstrated somatic instability and was gradually eliminated by self-pollination of partially sterile plants. Hybridization of the MS-plants with the sorghum line SK-723, a fertility-restorer of the cytoplasmic MS A1 (milo) type, maintained the induced mutation. By repeated backcrossing of MS-plants with SK-723, the male-sterile versions of this line (SK-723- Ms(tc)) have been created. In BC-generations, fertile, partially and completely sterile plants were observed. The MS-plants from BC-generations are proposed to contain a dominant gene Ms(tc) while fertile plants were ms(tc)/ms(tc) homozygotes. Crossing the original MS-plants with SK-723 was a key factor in stabilization of the Ms(tc) gene. Dominant expression of the Ms(tc) was observed in male-sterile versions of other sorghum lines created by backcrossing to SK-723- Ms(tc). The lines fertility-restorers for this mutation have been revealed. In the crosses of restored F1 hybrids with emasculated plants of the non-restoring line, the Ms(tc) has been transferred through the pollen and manifested in the F1 generation. The possibility of the Ms(tc) originating as a result of interaction of an unstable allele of the Milo-145 with the SK-723 genome is discussed. PMID:16205908

  4. MutS HOMOLOG1 silencing mediates ORF220 substoichiometric shifting and causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Xinyue; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A.; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has consistently been associated with the expression of mitochondrial open reading frames (ORFs) that arise from genomic rearrangements. Spontaneous fertility reversion in CMS has been observed in several cases, but a clear understanding of fertility reversion controlled by nuclear genetic influences has been lacking. Here, we identified spontaneous fertile revertant lines for Brassica juncea CMS cytoplasm in which the mitochondrial genome has undergone substoichiometric shifting (SSS) to suppress ORF220 copy number. We placed ORF220, with or without a mitochondrial targeting presequence, under the control of the CaMV35S and AP3 promoters in Arabidopsis to confirm that ORF220 causes male sterility when mitochondrially localized. We found that copy number of the ORF220 gene was altered under conditions that suppress MSH1, a nuclear gene that controls illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. MSH1-RNAi lines with increased ORF220 copy number were male sterile compared with wild type. We found that a wide range of genes involved in anther development were up- and down-regulated in revertant and MSH1-RNAi lines, respectively. The system that we have developed offers valuable future insight into the interplay of MSH1 and SSS in CMS induction and fertility reversion as a mediator of nuclear–mitochondrial crosstalk. PMID:26516127

  5. Mitochondrial ORF79 levels determine pollen abortion in cytoplasmic male sterile rice.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Itabashi, Etsuko; Fujii, Shinya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important agricultural trait characterized by lack of functional pollen, and caused by ectopic and defective mitochondrial gene expression. The pollen function in CMS plants is restored by the presence of nuclear-encoded restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Previously, we cloned Rf2, which restores the fertility of Lead Rice (LD)-type CMS rice. However, neither the function of Rf2 nor the identity of the mitochondrial gene causing CMS has been determined in LD-CMS rice. Here, we show that the mitochondrial gene orf79 acts as a CMS-associated gene in LD-CMS rice, similar to its role in BT-CMS rice originating from Chinsurah Boro II, and Rf2 weakly restores fertility in BT-CMS rice. We also show that RF2 promotes degradation of atp6-orf79 RNA in a different manner from that of RF1, which is the Rf gene product in BT-CMS rice. The amount of ORF79 protein in LD-CMS rice was one-twentieth of the amount in BT-CMS rice. The difference in ORF79 protein levels probably accounts for the mild and severe pollen defects in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. In the presence of Rf2, accumulation of ORF79 was reduced to almost zero and 25% in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively, which probably accounts for the complete and weak fertility restoration abilities of Rf2 in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. These observations indicate that the amount of ORF79 influences the pollen fertility in two strains of rice in which CMS is induced by orf79. PMID:26850149

  6. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  7. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  8. Hybrid sterility and evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila: differential gene and allele-specific expression analysis of backcross males.

    PubMed

    Brill, E; Kang, L; Michalak, K; Michalak, P; Price, D K

    2016-08-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are an iconic example of sequential colonization, adaptive radiation and speciation on islands. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of closely related species pairs that exhibit incomplete reproductive isolation can provide insights into the mechanisms of speciation. Drosophila silvestris from Hawai'i Island and Drosophila planitibia from Maui are two closely related allopatric Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila that produce sterile F1 males but fertile F1 females, a pattern consistent with Haldane's rule. Backcrossing F1 hybrid females between these two species to parental species gives rise to recombinant males with three distinct sperm phenotypes despite a similar genomic background: motile sperm, no sperm (sterile), and immotile sperm. We found that these three reproductive morphologies of backcross hybrid males produce divergent gene expression profiles in testes, as measured with RNA sequencing. There were a total of 71 genes significantly differentially expressed between backcross males with no sperm compared with those backcross males with motile sperm and immotile sperm, but no significant differential gene expression between backcross males with motile sperm and backcross males with immotile sperm. All of these genes were underexpressed in males with no sperm, including a number of genes with previously known activities in adult testis. An allele-specific expression analysis showed overwhelmingly more cis-divergent than trans-divergent genes, with no significant difference in the ratio of cis- and trans-divergent genes among the sperm phenotypes. Overall, the results indicate that the regulation of gene expression involved in sperm production likely diverged relatively rapidly between these two closely related species. PMID:27220308

  9. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  10. Pentatricopeptide-repeat family protein RF6 functions with hexokinase 6 to rescue rice cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchao; Yu, Changchun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lili; Dan, Zhiwu; Zhou, Wei; He, Chunlan; Zeng, Yafei; Yao, Guoxin; Qi, Jianzhao; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhu, Renshan; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been extensively used for hybrid seed production in many major crops. Honglian CMS (HL-CMS) is one of the three major types of CMS in rice and has contributed greatly to food security worldwide. The HL-CMS trait is associated with an aberrant chimeric mitochondrial transcript, atp6-orfH79, which causes pollen sterility and can be rescued by two nonallelic restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, Rf5 or Rf6. Here, we report the identification of Rf6, which encodes a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family protein with a characteristic duplication of PPR motifs 3-5. RF6 is targeted to mitochondria, where it physically associates with hexokinase 6 (OsHXK6) and promotes the processing of the aberrant CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79 at nucleotide 1238, which ensures normal pollen development and restores fertility. The duplicated motif 3 of RF6 is essential for RF6-OsHXK6 interactions, processing of the aberrant transcript, and restoration of fertility. Furthermore, reductions in the level of OsHXK6 result in atp6-orfH79 transcript accumulation and male sterility. Together these results reveal a novel mechanism for CMS restoration by which RF6 functions with OsHXK6 to restore HL-CMS fertility. The present study also provides insight into the function of hexokinase 6 in regulating mitochondrial RNA metabolism and may facilitate further exploitation of heterosis in rice. PMID:26578814

  11. Pentatricopeptide-repeat family protein RF6 functions with hexokinase 6 to rescue rice cytoplasmic male sterility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenchao; Yu, Changchun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lili; Dan, Zhiwu; Zhou, Wei; He, Chunlan; Zeng, Yafei; Yao, Guoxin; Qi, Jianzhao; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhu, Renshan; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been extensively used for hybrid seed production in many major crops. Honglian CMS (HL-CMS) is one of the three major types of CMS in rice and has contributed greatly to food security worldwide. The HL-CMS trait is associated with an aberrant chimeric mitochondrial transcript, atp6-orfH79, which causes pollen sterility and can be rescued by two nonallelic restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, Rf5 or Rf6. Here, we report the identification of Rf6, which encodes a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family protein with a characteristic duplication of PPR motifs 3–5. RF6 is targeted to mitochondria, where it physically associates with hexokinase 6 (OsHXK6) and promotes the processing of the aberrant CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79 at nucleotide 1238, which ensures normal pollen development and restores fertility. The duplicated motif 3 of RF6 is essential for RF6-OsHXK6 interactions, processing of the aberrant transcript, and restoration of fertility. Furthermore, reductions in the level of OsHXK6 result in atp6-orfH79 transcript accumulation and male sterility. Together these results reveal a novel mechanism for CMS restoration by which RF6 functions with OsHXK6 to restore HL-CMS fertility. The present study also provides insight into the function of hexokinase 6 in regulating mitochondrial RNA metabolism and may facilitate further exploitation of heterosis in rice. PMID:26578814

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Weining; Zhang, Chunling; Cao, Zhe; Bao, Manzhu; He, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS) and male fertile (MF) two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter). Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176) were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database) and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation. PMID:26939127

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Weining; Zhang, Chunling; Cao, Zhe; Bao, Manzhu; He, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS) and male fertile (MF) two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter). Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176) were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database) and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation. PMID:26939127

  14. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-09-15

    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P<0.05), but not between the sterile and control groups within each sampling time (P>0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  15. High-density mapping suggests cytoplasmic male sterility with two restorer genes in almond × peach progenies

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, José Manuel; Eduardo, Iban; Picañol, Roger; Batlle, Ignasi; Howad, Werner; Aranzana, María José; Arús, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) and almond (Prunus dulcis) are two sexually compatible species that produce fertile offspring. Almond, a highly polymorphic species, is a potential source of new genes for peach that has a strongly eroded gene pool. Here we describe the genetics of a male sterile phenotype that segregated in two almond (‘Texas’) × peach (‘Earlygold’) progenies: an F2 (T×E) and a backcross one (T1E) to the ‘Earlygold’ parent. High-density maps were developed using a 9k peach SNP chip and 135 simple-sequence repeats. Three highly syntenic and collinear maps were obtained: one for the F2 (T×E) and two for the backcross, T1E (for the hybrid) and E (for ‘Earlygold’). A major reduction of recombination was observed in the interspecific maps (T×E and T1E) compared to the intraspecific parent (E). The E map also had extensive monomorphic genomic regions suggesting the presence of large DNA fragments identical by descent. Our data for the male sterility character were consistent with the existence of cytoplasmic male sterility, where individuals having the almond cytoplasm required the almond allele in at least one of two independent restorer genes, Rf1 and Rf2, to be fertile. The restorer genes were located in a 3.4 Mbp fragment of linkage group 2 (Rf1) and 1.4 Mbp of linkage group 6 (Rf2). Both fragments contained several genes coding for pentatricopeptide proteins, demonstrated to be responsible for restoring fertility in other species. The implications of these results for using almond as a source of novel variability in peach are discussed. PMID:26504569

  16. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering sterile traits in plants through the tissue-specific expression of a cytotoxic gene provides an effective way for containing transgene flow; however, the microbial origin of cytotoxic genes has raised concerns. In an attempt to develop a safe alternative, we have chosen the meiosis-crit...

  17. Cytological attributes of sperm bundles unique to F1 progeny of irradiated male lepidoptera: Relevance to sterile insect technique programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited F1 sterility in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods also provide advantages for the use of inherited sterility instead of full sterility in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program. Lepidopteran females generally can be completely sterilized ...

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  19. Impact of Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus Infection on the Mating Success of Male Glossina pallidipes: Consequences for the Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mutika, Gratian N.; Marin, Carmen; Parker, Andrew G.; Boucias, Drion G.; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus (GpSGHV) that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). Female Glossina pallidipes (Austen) with SGH symptoms (SGH+) have reduced fecundity and SGH+ male G. pallidipes are unable to inseminate female flies. Consequently, G. pallidipes laboratory colonies with a high prevalence of SGH have been difficult to maintain and have collapsed on several occasions. To assess the potential impact of the release of SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes on the efficacy of an integrated control programme with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, we examined the mating efficiency and behaviour of male G. pallidipes in field cages in relation to SGH prevalence. The results showed in a field cage setting a significantly reduced mating frequency of 19% for a male G. pallidipes population with a high prevalence of SGH (83%) compared to 38% for a male population with a low prevalence of SGH (7%). Premating period and mating duration did not vary significantly with SGH status. A high percentage (>80%) of females that had mated with SGH+ males had empty spermathecae. The remating frequency of female G. pallidipes was very low irrespective of the SGH status of the males in the first mating. These results indicate that a high prevalence of SGH+ in G. pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme. PMID:22912687

  20. Identification of aberrant chromosomes on the basis of morphometry of synaptonemal complexes in the sterile male mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinskaya, E.I.; Chepyzhov, V.V.; Bogdanov, Yu.F.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) of spermatocytes of sterile males of the house mouse from the progeny of parents subjected to the action of a mutagen are presented in this study. A nonreciprocal translocation was readily identified by the configuration of the SCs. The translocation was observed at pachytene in 100% of cells; at diakinesis-metaphase I, in 58% of cells. A different pattern of association of the X chromosome with the rearrangement region was found in pachytene spermatocytes. Computer analysis of the relative lengths of the synaptonemal complex during the pachytene stage permitted the determination that the translocation took place from the 4th autosome to the 16th. The translocated segment was 66-75% of chromosome 4. In chromosome 16 the point of rupture is close to the distal end, and it was not possible to find the broken-off telomeric fragment of this chromosome in the male under study.

  1. Reduced expression of CDP-DAG synthase changes lipid composition and leads to male sterility in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Laurinyecz, Barbara; Péter, Mária; Vedelek, Viktor; Kovács, Attila L.; Juhász, Gábor; Maróy, Péter; Vígh, László; Balogh, Gábor; Sinka, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila spermatogenesis is an ideal system to study the effects of changes in lipid composition, because spermatid elongation and individualization requires extensive membrane biosynthesis and remodelling. The bulk of transcriptional activity is completed with the entry of cysts into meiotic division, which makes post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis very sensitive to even a small reduction in gene products. In this study, we describe the effect of changes in lipid composition during spermatogenesis using a hypomorphic male sterile allele of the Drosophila CDP-DAG synthase (CdsA) gene. We find that the CdsA mutant shows defects in spermatid individualization and enlargement of mitochondria and the axonemal sheath of the spermatids. Furthermore, we could genetically rescue the male sterile phenotype by overexpressing Phosphatidylinositol synthase (dPIS) in a CdsA mutant background. The results of lipidomic and genetic analyses of the CdsA mutant highlight the importance of correct lipid composition during sperm development and show that phosphatidic acid levels are crucial in late stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:26791243

  2. Cytological Characterization and Allelism Testing of Anther Developmental Mutants Identified in a Screen of Maize Male Sterile Lines

    PubMed Central

    Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Skibbe, David S.; Lee, Sidae; Golubovskaya, Inna; Wang, Rachel; Harper, Lisa; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

    2013-01-01

    Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses. PMID:23390600

  3. Sterilization for Women and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... are rare. Can sterilization be reversed? Sterilization is permanent birth control and is not meant to be reversible. Before ... that can fertilize a female egg. Sterilization: A permanent method of birth control. Testes: Two male organs that produce sperm and ...

  4. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    PubMed

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars. PMID:24433209

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization of a novel pepper gene NADP-ICDH and its effect on cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Deng, M H; Wen, J F; Huo, J L; Zhu, H S; Dai, X Z; Zhang, Z Q; Zhou, H; Zou, X X

    2012-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) is an important enzyme involved in energy metabolism. The complete coding sequence of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) NADP-ICDH gene was amplified using a reverse transcriptase PCR based on the conserved sequence information of the tomato and other Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene encodes a protein of 415 amino acids that has high homology with the proteins of seven species, Solanum tuberosum (100%), Citrus limon (98%), Daucus carota (98%), Nicotiana tabacum (98%), Vitis vinifera (99%), Arabidopsis thaliana (97%), and Oryza sativa (98%). Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene is over expressed in flower, pericarp and seed, moderately in placenta, weakly in stem and leaf, hardly expressed in root. At the abortion stages, activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH in anthers of a sterile line were strongly reduced, while those in an F(1) hybrid remained normal. Activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH were too low to maintain balanced energy metabolism in the sterile line, which indicated that stable transcripts of NADP-ICDH are necessary to maintain energy metabolism at a normal level. When the restorer gene was transferred to the cytoplasmic male sterile line, activities and expression level of NADP-ICDH were regulated by the restorer gene and became stable. The restorer gene likely plays an important role in keeping the balance of the energy metabolism within normal levels during microspore development. PMID:22653649

  6. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  7. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Guan, J-Z; Wang, J-J; Cheng, Z-H; Liu, Y; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers. PMID:22290472

  8. Linkage analysis between the partial restoration (pr) and the restorer-of-fertility (Rf) loci in pepper cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jundae; Yoon, Jae Bok; Park, Hyo Guen

    2008-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in chili pepper is restored by one major dominant nuclear gene, restorer-of-fertility (Rf), together with some modifier genes and is also affected by temperature. As a result, male fertility was identified as having several phenotypes. That identified and used in the present study allowed partial restoration of fertility, producing plants that simultaneously produce normal and aborted pollen grains, with most grains stuck to the anther wall, even after dehiscence, resulting in low seed set per fruit. The trait was visible only in the presence of Paterson's sterile cytoplasm and was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene, partial restoration (pr). A CAPS marker, PR-CAPS, closely linked to the trait, has been developed by Lee et al. (2008). In this study, linkage analysis was performed in 205 F(2) individuals derived from the 'Buja' Korean commercial F(1) chili pepper variety using the PR-CAPS marker and the three Rf-linked markers (OPP13-CAPS, AFRF8-CAPS, and CRF-SCAR) previously reported. Consequently, we found that these four markers were tightly linked. This result means that the pr gene might be tightly linked to the Rf locus or the third allele of Rf locus. The sequence diversity of the pr- and Rf-linked markers was also analyzed. The internal sequences of OPP13-CAPS (1,180 bp) and PR-CAPS (640 bp) markers in 91 Korean inbred lines were clearly divided into three haplotypes. According to the sequencing results, a new PR-CAPS (MseI or SphI digestion) marker was designed to distinguish the three haplotypes. This marker will be useful for marker-assisted selection to develop new maintainers and restorers in commercial hybrid pepper breeding using CMS. PMID:18465115

  9. Specific down-regulation of spermatogenesis genes targeted by 22G RNAs in hybrid sterile males associated with an X-Chromosome introgression.

    PubMed

    Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Bi, Yu; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Young, Amanda; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long; Sarkies, Peter; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid incompatibility (HI) prevents gene flow between species, thus lying at the heart of speciation genetics. One of the most common HIs is male sterility. Two superficially contradictory observations exist for hybrid male sterility. First, an introgression on the X Chromosome is more likely to produce male sterility than on autosome (so-called large-X theory); second, spermatogenesis genes are enriched on the autosomes but depleted on the X Chromosome (demasculinization of X Chromosome). Analysis of gene expression in Drosophila hybrids suggests a genetic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes that is essential for male fertility. However, the prevalence of such an interaction and its underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we examine the interaction in nematode species by contrasting the expression of both coding genes and transposable elements (TEs) between hybrid sterile males and its parental nematode males. We use two lines of hybrid sterile males, each carrying an independent introgression fragment from Caenorhabditis briggsae X Chromosome in an otherwise Caenorhabditis nigoni background, which demonstrate similar defects in spermatogenesis. We observe a similar pattern of down-regulated genes that are specific for spermatogenesis between the two hybrids. Importantly, the down-regulated genes caused by the X Chromosome introgressions show a significant enrichment on the autosomes, supporting an epistatic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes. We investigate the underlying mechanism of the interaction by measuring small RNAs and find that a subset of 22G RNAs specifically targeting the down-regulated spermatogenesis genes is significantly up-regulated in hybrids, suggesting that perturbation of small RNA-mediated regulation may contribute to the X-autosome interaction. PMID:27197225

  10. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C.

    2007-03-15

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a

  11. Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-08-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  12. Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3−5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  13. A Scale-Corrected Comparison of Linkage Disequilibrium Levels between Genic and Non-Genic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Swetlana; Schlather, Martin; de los Campos, Gustavo; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Erbe, Malena; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of non-random association between loci, termed linkage disequilibrium (LD), plays a central role in genomic research. Since causal mutations are generally not included in genomic marker data, LD between those and available markers is essential for capturing the effects of causal loci on localizing genes responsible for traits. Thus, the interpretation of association studies requires a detailed knowledge of LD patterns. It is well known that most LD measures depend on minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the considered loci and the magnitude of LD is influenced by the physical distances between loci. In the present study, a procedure to compare the LD structure between genomic regions comprising several markers each is suggested. The approach accounts for different scaling factors, namely the distribution of MAF, the distribution of pair-wise differences in MAF, and the physical extent of compared regions, reflected by the distribution of pair-wise physical distances. In the first step, genomic regions are matched based on similarity in these scaling factors. In the second step, chromosome- and genome-wide significance tests for differences in medians of LD measures in each pair are performed. The proposed framework was applied to test the hypothesis that the average LD is different in genic and non-genic regions. This was tested with a genome-wide approach with data sets for humans (Homo sapiens), a highly selected chicken line (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In all three data sets we found a significantly higher level of LD in genic regions compared to non-genic regions. About 31% more LD was detected genome-wide in genic compared to non-genic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana, followed by 13.6% in human and 6% chicken. Chromosome-wide comparison discovered significant differences on all 5 chromosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and on one third of the human and of the chicken chromosomes. PMID:26517830

  14. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis revealed alterations of carbohydrate metabolism pathways and mitochondrial proteins in a male sterile cybrid pummelo.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei-Bei; Fang, Yan-Ni; Pan, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Li; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Grosser, Jude W; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2014-06-01

    Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic information on citrus floral bud is significant for understanding male sterility of the cybrid pummelo (G1+HBP) with nuclear genome of HBP and foreign mitochondrial genome of G1. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in G1+HBP was severely defective with a lack of exine and sporopollenin formation. Proteomic analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins between male sterile G1+HBP and fertile type (HBP) with the aim to clarify their potential roles in anther development and male sterility. On the basis of iTRAQ quantitative proteomics, we identified 2235 high-confidence protein groups, 666 of which showed differentially expressed profiles in one or more stages. Proteins up- or down-regulated in G1+HBP were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and malate dehydrogenase), nucleotide binding (RNA-binding proteins), protein synthesis and degradation (e.g., ribosome proteins and proteasome subunits). Additionally, the proteins located in mitochondria also showed changed expression patterns. These findings provide a valuable inventory of proteins involved in floral bud development and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in the cybrid pummelo. PMID:24824475

  15. A 610 KB YAC CLONE HARBORS 7 CM OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) DNA THAT INCLUDES THE MALE STERILE 14 GENE AND A HOTSPOT FOR RECOMBINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen development requires both sporophytic and gametophytic gene expression. We are using a map-based cloning technique to isolate sporophytic genes which, when mutant, cause pollen abortion and a male sterile (ms) phenotype in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We have genetically characterized on...

  16. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  17. Improving panicle exsertion of rice cytoplasmic male sterile line by combination of artificial microRNA and artificial target mimic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-04-01

    The adoption of hybrid rice caused the second leap in rice yield after the 'green revolution' and contributes substantially to food security of China and the world. However, almost all cytoplasmic male sterile lines (A lines) as females of hybrid rice have a natural deficiency of 'panicle enclosure', which blocks pollination between the A line and the fertility restorer line as the male (R line) of hybrid rice and decreases seed yield. In hybrid rice seed production, exogenous '920' (the active ingredient is gibberellin A3 ) must be applied to eliminate or alleviate panicle enclosure of the A line; however, this not only increases production cost and pollutes the environment, it also decreases seed quality. In this study, we designed a transgenic approach to improve plant height and panicle exsertion of the A line to facilitate hybrid rice production and maintain the semi-dwarf plant type of the hybrid. This approach comprising two components-artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and artificial target mimicry-can manipulate the differential expression of the endogenous Eui1 gene that is associated with rice internode elongation in the A line and the hybrid. amiRNA is a recently developed gene silencing method with high specificity, while target mimicry is a natural mechanism inhibiting the miRNA function that was also recently characterized. This approach provides a paradigm to tune the expression of endogenous genes to achieve the desired phenotype by combining amiRNA and artificial target mimicry technologies. PMID:23164055

  18. Genetic dissection of hybrid incompatibilities between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. I. Differential accumulation of hybrid male sterility effects on the X and autosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yun; Chen, Sining; Hartl, Daniel L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2003-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid incompatibility in crosses between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans was investigated to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms of speciation. In this study, segments of the D. mauritiana third chromosome were introgressed into a D. simulans genetic background and tested as homozygotes for viability, male fertility, and female fertility. The entire third chromosome was covered with partially overlapping segments. Many segments were male sterile, while none were female sterile or lethal, confirming previous reports of the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility (HMS). A statistical model was developed to quantify the HMS accumulation. In comparison with previous work on the X chromosome, we estimate that the X has approximately 2.5 times the density of HMS factors as the autosomes. We also estimate that the whole genome contains approximately 15 HMS "equivalents"-i.e., 15 times the minimum number of incompatibility factors necessary to cause complete sterility. Although some caveats for the quantitative estimate of a 2.5-fold density difference are described, this study supports the notion that the X chromosome plays a special role in the evolution of reproductive isolation. Possible mechanisms of a "large X" effect include selective fixation of new mutations that are recessive or partially recessive and the evolution of sex-ratio distortion systems. PMID:12930747

  19. Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sterile males exposed to ginger root oil in prerelease storage boxes display increased mating competitiveness in field-cage trials.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Pahio, Elaine; Edu, James

    2004-06-01

    Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). Several sterile male release programs use plastic adult rearing containers (so-called PARC boxes; hereafter termed storage boxes; 0.48 by 0.60 by 0.33 m) to hold mature pupae and newly emerged adults before release (approximately = 36,000 flies per box). The objective of the current study was to determine whether the application of ginger root oil to individual storage boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males. Irradiated pupae were placed in storage boxes 2 d before adult emergence, and in the initial experiment (adult exposure) ginger root oil was applied 5 d later (i.e., 3 d after peak adult emergence) for 24 h at doses of 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml. In a second experiment (pupal-adult exposure), ginger root oil was applied to storage boxes immediately after pupal placement and left for 6 d (i.e., 4 d after peak adult emergence) at doses of 0.25 and 1.0 ml. Using field cages, we conducted mating trials in which ginger root oil-exposed (treated) or nonexposed (control) sterile males competed against wild-like males for copulations with wild-like females. After adult exposure, treated males had significantly higher mating success than control males for all doses of ginger root oil, except 2.0 ml. After pupal-adult exposure, treated males had a significantly higher mating success than control males for the 1.0-ml but not the 0.25-ml dose of ginger root oil. The results suggest that ginger root oil can be used in conjunction with prerelease, storage boxes to increase the effectiveness of sterile insect release programs. PMID:15279263

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of the male sterility-related CtYABBY1 gene in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Zhang, L G

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the YABBY gene family in the abaxial surface of lateral plant organs determines abaxial destiny of cells, enhances growth and expansion of lateral organs, and plays an important role in polar establishment of lateral organs. However, the YABBY gene has not been studied in male sterility and fertility restoration. We homologously cloned the CtYABBY1 gene of male-sterile TC1 in Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis; its expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. A 937-bp sequence was cloned from TC1 and named CtYABBY1. The ORF of this gene has 702 bp, contains a "C2C2 zinc finger" motif at the N-terminal end, and a "YABBY" structural domain at the C-terminal end. This gene had the highest homology with DBC43-3-2 gene in B. campetris ssp pekinensis. Expression of CtYABBY1 gene has a wide range of functions. It is involved in growth and development of lateral organs, such as leaves and flowers, enhancing expansion of the area and volume of young organs. CtYABBY1 is a gene that promotes thermo-sensitive fertility restoration. At room temperature, expression level of this gene was found to be lower in the stamens of sterile flowers. After treating TC1 at a low temperature of 2°-6°C for 20 days, expression of this gene was upregulated in the stamen of fertile flowers. We conclude that male sterility in TC1 is negatively regulated by this gene, which facilitates transition from male sterility to fertility. PMID:25036178

  3. Effects of Carthamus tinctorius on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels in Partially Sterile Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Zahra; Panjehshahin, Mohamad Reza; Hoballah, Hassan; Kassas, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Traditional herbal medicine is just one of the many different approaches using plants in the remedy of diseases. Carthamus tinctorius (CT) or safflower is a popular plant that is used for coloring and flavoring in food industries. The effect of CT on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters has been reported in traditional medicine but has not yet been confirmed scientifically. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of CT on spermatogenesis and the male reproductive system in an animal model. Materials and Methods Sixty male rats were divided into five groups. Four groups were injected with 5 mg/kg of busulfan as a model of partial infertility. Then, the experimental groups were treated with 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of CT extract for 35 days. The control was treated with busulfan (infertile control) or distilled water only. After this period, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken for hormonal assay. The semen was collected from the epididymis and the reproductive organs were assessed. Sperm count and motility were measured and smears were prepared for assessment of the other parameters. Results The results indicated that the percentage of sperm with good morphology, motility, and count increased significantly in the group treated with 10 mg/kg CT (p=0.002, p=0.03, and p=0.00001, respectively). The effects on hormonal changes and genital organ weights were also positive. Conclusions It is probable that the CT extract affects spermatogenesis and as a result sperm quality. Further studies are needed. PMID:23136631

  4. POLYPRENOL REDUCTASE2 Deficiency Is Lethal in Arabidopsis Due to Male Sterility[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowska, Malgorzata; Buczkowska, Anna; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Nowakowska, Julita

    2015-01-01

    Dolichol is a required cofactor for protein glycosylation, the most common posttranslational modification modulating the stability and biological activity of proteins in all eukaryotic cells. We have identified and characterized two genes, PPRD1 and -2, which are orthologous to human SRD5A3 (steroid 5α reductase type 3) and encode polyprenol reductases responsible for conversion of polyprenol to dolichol in Arabidopsis thaliana. PPRD1 and -2 play dedicated roles in plant metabolism. PPRD2 is essential for plant viability; its deficiency results in aberrant development of the male gametophyte and sporophyte. Impaired protein glycosylation seems to be the major factor underlying these defects although disturbances in other cellular dolichol-dependent processes could also contribute. Shortage of dolichol in PPRD2-deficient cells is partially rescued by PPRD1 overexpression or by supplementation with dolichol. The latter has been discussed as a method to compensate for deficiency in protein glycosylation. Supplementation of the human diet with dolichol-enriched plant tissues could allow new therapeutic interventions in glycosylation disorders. This identification of PPRD1 and -2 elucidates the factors mediating the key step of the dolichol cycle in plant cells which makes manipulation of dolichol content in plant tissues feasible. PMID:26628744

  5. The binding of host-selective toxin analogs to mitochondria from normal and ;texas' male sterile cytoplasm maize.

    PubMed

    Frantzen, K A; Daly, J M; Knoche, H W

    1987-04-01

    Tritium-labeled toxin analogs were prepared by reduction with NaB(3)H(4) of either the toxin from Helminthosporium maydis race T or a toxin component from Phyllosticta maydis. These reduced analogs had high radiochemical specific activities, high biological activities, and plant specificities identical to the native toxins. A filtration assay was developed to test the binding of these labeled analogs to isolated mitochondria. Binding was not energy dependent nor was there measurable matrical uptake. The analogs were shown to be lipophilic, a characteristic which gave rise to considerable nondisplaceable binding. Under conditions limiting nondisplaceable binding, the displaceable binding was shown to be linear with respect to toxin concentration and unsaturable. No significant differences were observed in the binding characteristics between the mitochondria from normal and male-sterile (Texas) cytoplasm maize. The findings suggest that, at physiologically relevant concentrations, these toxin analogs permeate the membranes of susceptible and resistant mitochondria alike. The lack of demonstrable specific binding does not rule out the involvement of a classical receptor site but does indicate that other kinds of molecular interactions may be involved in the mechanisms for toxicity and specificity. PMID:16665353

  6. Binding of host-selective toxin analogs to mitochondria from normal and Texas male sterile cytoplasm maize

    SciTech Connect

    Frantzen, K.A.; Daly, J.M.; Knoche, H.W.

    1987-04-01

    Tritium-labeled toxin analogs were prepared by reduction with NaB/sup 3/H/sub 4/ of either the toxin from Helminthosporium maydis race T or a toxin component from Phyllosticta maydis. These reduced analogs had high radiochemical specific activities, high biological activities, and plant specificities identical to the native toxins. A filtration assay was developed to test the binding of these labeled analogs to isolated mitochondria. Binding was not energy dependent nor was there measurable matrical uptake. The analogs were shown to be lipophilic, a characteristic which gave rise to considerable nondisplaceable binding. Under conditions limiting nondisplaceable binding, the displaceable binding was shown to be linear with respect to toxin concentration and unsaturable. No significant differences were observed in the binding characteristics between the mitochondria from normal and male-sterile (Texas) cytoplasm maize. The findings suggest that, at physiologically relevant concentrations, these toxin analogs permeate the membranes of susceptible and resistant mitochondria alike. The lack of demonstrable specific binding does not rule out the involvement of a classical receptor site but does indicate that other kinds of molecular interactions may be involved in the mechanisms for toxicity and specificity.

  7. Developmental defects and male sterility in mice lacking the ubiquitin-like DNA repair gene mHR23B.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jessica M Y; Vrieling, Harry; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Ooms, Marja P; Grootegoed, J Anton; Vreeburg, Jan T M; Visser, Pim; Beems, Rudolph B; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Hanaoka, Fumio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J

    2002-02-01

    mHR23B encodes one of the two mammalian homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23, a ubiquitin-like fusion protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Part of mHR23B is complexed with the XPC protein, and this heterodimer functions as the main damage detector and initiator of global genome NER. While XPC defects exist in humans and mice, mutations for mHR23A and mHR23B are not known. Here, we present a mouse model for mHR23B. Unlike XPC-deficient cells, mHR23B(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts are not UV sensitive and retain the repair characteristics of wild-type cells. In agreement with the results of in vitro repair studies, this indicates that mHR23A can functionally replace mHR23B in NER. Unexpectedly, mHR23B(-/-) mice show impaired embryonic development and a high rate (90%) of intrauterine or neonatal death. Surviving animals display a variety of abnormalities, including retarded growth, facial dysmorphology, and male sterility. Such abnormalities are not observed in XPC and other NER-deficient mouse mutants and point to a separate function of mHR23B in development. This function may involve regulation of protein stability via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and is not or only in part compensated for by mHR23A. PMID:11809813

  8. Transgenic mice with inactive alleles for procollagen N-proteinase (ADAMTS-2) develop fragile skin and male sterility.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S W; Arita, M; Fertala, A; Bao, Y; Kopen, G C; Långsjö, T K; Hyttinen, M M; Helminen, H J; Prockop, D J

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic mice were prepared with inactive alleles for procollagen N-proteinase (ADAMTS-2; where ADAMTS stands for a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeats). Homozygous mice were grossly normal at birth, but after 1-2 months they developed thin skin that tore after gentle handling. Although the gene was inactivated, a large fraction of the N-propeptides of type I procollagen in skin and the N-propeptides of type II procollagen in cartilage were cleaved. Therefore the results suggested the tissues contained one or more additional enzymes that slowly process the proteins. Electron microscopy did not reveal any defects in the morphology of collagen fibrils in newborn mice. However, in two-month-old mice, the collagen fibrils in skin were seen as bizarre curls in cross-section and the mean diameters of the fibrils were approx. half of the controls. Although a portion of the N-propeptides of type II procollagen in cartilage were not cleaved, no defects in the morphology of the fibrils were seen by electron microscopy or by polarized-light microscopy. Female homozygous mice were fertile, but male mice were sterile with a marked decrease in testicular sperm. Therefore the results indicated that ADAMTS-2 plays an essential role in the maturation of spermatogonia. PMID:11284712

  9. Sterilization: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Isley, Michelle M

    2015-12-01

    Sterilization is a frequently used method of contraception. Female sterilization is performed 3 times more frequently than male sterilization, and it can be performed immediately postpartum or as an interval procedure. Methods include mechanical occlusion, coagulation, or tubal excision. Female sterilization can be performed using an abdominal approach, or via laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. When an abdominal approach or laparoscopy is used, sterilization occurs immediately. When hysteroscopy is used, tubal occlusion occurs over time, and additional testing is needed to confirm tubal occlusion. Comprehensive counseling about sterilization should include discussion about male sterilization (vasectomy) and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. PMID:26598311

  10. Development of a novel recessive genetic male sterility system for hybrid seed production in maize and other cross-pollinating crops.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongzhong; Fox, Tim W; Trimnell, Mary R; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Rui-Ji; Cigan, A Mark; Huffman, Gary A; Garnaat, Carl W; Hershey, Howard; Albertsen, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel hybridization platform that utilizes nuclear male sterility to produce hybrids in maize and other cross-pollinating crops. A key component of this platform is a process termed Seed Production Technology (SPT). This process incorporates a transgenic SPT maintainer line capable of propagating nontransgenic nuclear male-sterile lines for use as female parents in hybrid production. The maize SPT maintainer line is a homozygous recessive male sterile transformed with a SPT construct containing (i) a complementary wild-type male fertility gene to restore fertility, (ii) an α-amylase gene to disrupt pollination and (iii) a seed colour marker gene. The sporophytic wild-type allele complements the recessive mutation, enabling the development of pollen grains, all of which carry the recessive allele but with only half carrying the SPT transgenes. Pollen grains with the SPT transgenes exhibit starch depletion resulting from expression of α-amylase and are unable to germinate. Pollen grains that do not carry the SPT transgenes are nontransgenic and are able to fertilize homozygous mutant plants, resulting in nontransgenic male-sterile progeny for use as female parents. Because transgenic SPT maintainer seeds express a red fluorescent protein, they can be detected and efficiently separated from seeds that do not contain the SPT transgenes by mechanical colour sorting. The SPT process has the potential to replace current approaches to pollen control in commercial maize hybrid seed production. It also has important applications for other cross-pollinating crops where it can unlock the potential for greater hybrid productivity through expanding the parental germplasm pool. PMID:26442654

  11. Comparative Transcript Profiling of a Male Sterile Cybrid Pummelo and Its Fertile Type Revealed Altered Gene Expression Related to Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Ge, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Grosser, Jude W.; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel). To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI) was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3) coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted ‘perfect targets’ for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo. PMID:22952758

  12. Identification of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Markers Tightly Associated with Drought Stress Gene in Male Sterile and Fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuejin; Guo, Lijun; Shu, Zhiming; Sun, Yiyue; Chen, Yuanyuan; Liang, Zongsuo; Guo, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    Consistent grain yield in drought environment has attracted wide attention due to global climate change. However, the important drought-related traits/genes in crops have been rarely reported. Many near-isogenic lines (NILs) of male sterile and fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza have been obtained in our previous work through testcross and backcross in continuous field experiments conducted in 2006–2009. Both segregating sterile and fertile populations were subjected to bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with 384 and 170 primer combinations, respectively. One out of 14 AFLP markers (E9/M3246) was identified in treated fertile population as tightly linked to the drought stress gene with a recombination frequency of 6.98% and at a distance of 7.02 cM. One of 15 other markers (E2/M5357) was identified in a treated sterile population that is closely associated with the drought stress gene. It had a recombination frequency of 4.65% and at a distance of 4.66 cM. Interestingly, the E9/M3246 fragment was found to be identical to another AFLP fragment E11/M4208 that was tightly linked to the male sterile gene of S. miltiorrhiza with 95% identity and e-value 4 × 10−93. Blastn analysis suggested that the drought stress gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1–5. PMID:23525049

  13. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. PMID:26031622

  14. Male Sterile2 Encodes a Plastid-Localized Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Required for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Shanklin, J.; Yu, X.-H.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Zhang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Male Sterile2 (MS2) is predicted to encode a fatty acid reductase required for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transient expression of MS2 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves resulted in the accumulation of significant levels of C16 and C18 fatty alcohols. Expression of MS2 fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that an amino-terminal transit peptide targets the MS2 to plastids. The plastidial localization of MS2 is biologically important because genetic complementation of MS2 in ms2 homozygous plants was dependent on the presence of its amino-terminal transit peptide or that of the Rubisco small subunit protein amino-terminal transit peptide. In addition, two domains, NAD(P)H-binding domain and sterile domain, conserved in MS2 and its homologs were also shown to be essential for MS2 function in pollen exine development by genetic complementation testing. Direct biochemical analysis revealed that purified recombinant MS2 enzyme is able to convert palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein to the corresponding C16:0 alcohol with NAD(P)H as the preferred electron donor. Using optimized reaction conditions (i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30 C), MS2 exhibits a K{sub m} for 16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein of 23.3 {+-} 4.0 {mu}m, a V{sub max} of 38.3 {+-} 4.5 nmol mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency/K{sub m} of 1,873 m{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Based on the high homology of MS2 to other characterized fatty acid reductases, it was surprising that MS2 showed no activity against palmitoyl- or other acyl-coenzyme A; however, this is consistent with its plastidial localization. In summary, genetic and biochemical evidence demonstrate an MS2-mediated conserved plastidial pathway for the production of fatty alcohols that are essential for pollen wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  15. Toward a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Spermatogenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster: Characterization of Male-Sterile Mutants Generated by Single P Element Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Castrillon, D. H.; Gonczy, P.; Alexander, S.; Rawson, R.; Eberhart, C. G.; Viswanathan, S.; DiNardo, S.; Wasserman, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe 83 recessive autosomal male-sterile mutations, generated by single P element mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Each mutation has been localized to a lettered subdivision of the polytene map. Reversion analyses, as well as complementation tests using available chromosomal deficiencies, indicate that the insertions are responsible for the mutant phenotypes. These mutations represent 63 complementation groups, 58 of which are required for spermatogenesis. Phenotypes of the spermatogenesis mutants were analyzed by light microscopy. Mutations in 12 loci affect germline proliferation, spermatocyte growth, or meiosis. Mutations in 46 other loci disrupt differentiation and maturation of spermatids into motile sperm. This collection of male-sterile mutants provides the basis for a molecular genetic analysis of spermatogenesis. PMID:8244010

  16. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations. tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility. a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis. b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later). c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  17. Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

  18. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  19. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  20. Is elytral color polymorphism in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae) a visible marker for sterile insect technique? Comparison of male mating behavior.

    PubMed

    Shiromoto, Keiko; Kumano, Norikuni; Kuriwada, Takashi; Haraguchi, Dai

    2011-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. In the eradication programs using the SIT, a large number of sterile insects are marked and released in the field. In Japan, Cylas fonnrmicarius (F.) group (Coleoptera: Brentidae) weevils are marked with a fluorescent powder dye to monitor the progress of such programs. However, this monitoring technique is not fully effective because of the disappearance or contamination of the dye. Therefore, an alternative marking method is required. Currently, a rare color morph such as piceous elytra (PE) is used for visible marking of C. formicarius group weevils. A PE-monomorphic strain has previously been established by artificial selection from a small locally distributed population; this can lead to reduced survival and genetic changes in behavioral traits due to inbreeding depression. In this study, we evaluated the survival rate and mating behavior of PE males of C. formicarius group. The characteristics of the PE males were similar to those of the wild strain (WS) males. Thus, we considered that PE males were suitable for visible marking in the eradication programs using the SIT. PMID:21510188

  1. DNA Methylation and Transcriptomic Changes in Response to Different Lights and Stresses in 7B-1 Male-Sterile Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Vahid; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Rutgers), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (B) signaling leading to B-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assay, a number of genes were identified, which were differentially methylated between 7B-1 and its wild type (WT) seedlings in white (W), blue (B), red (R) lights and dark (D) or in response to exogenous ABA and mannitol-induced stresses. The genomic methylation level was almost similar in different lights between 7B-1 and WT seedlings, while significant differences were observed in response to stresses in D, but not B. Using a cDNA-AFLP assay, several transcripts were identified, which were differentially regulated between 7B-1 and WT by B or D or in response to stresses. Blue light receptors cryptochrome 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2) and phototropin 1 and 2 (PHOT1 and PHOT2) were not affected by the 7B-1 mutation at the transcriptional level, instead the mutation had likely affected downstream components of the light signaling pathway. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) induced DNA hypomethylation, inhibited stem elongation and differentially regulated the expression of a number of genes in 7B-1. In addition, it was shown that mir167 and mir390 were tightly linked to auxin signaling pathway in 5-azaC-treated 7B-1 seedlings via the regulation of auxin-response factor (ARF) transcripts. Our data showed that DNA methylation remodeling is an active epigenetic response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 and WT, and highlighted the differences in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of light and stress responses between 7B-1 and WT. Furthermore, it shed lights on the crosstalk between DNA hypomethylation and miRNA regulation of ARFs expression. This information could also be used as a benchmark for future studies of male-sterility in other crops. PMID:25849771

  2. Variations in the structure and transcription of the mitochondrial atp and cox genes in wild Solanum species that induce male sterility in eggplant (S. melongena).

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, M; Kitamura, Y; Isshiki, S; Saito, T; Yasumoto, K; Terachi, T; Yamagishi, H

    2013-07-01

    In order to determine the molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in alloplasmic lines of eggplant, the genomic structures and transcription patterns of mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit (atp) and cytochrome oxidase subunit (cox) genes were studied for wild and cultivated eggplants. Alloplasmic eggplant lines with cytoplasms of wild Solanum species showing either anther indehiscent type of CMS or non-pollen production type of CMS were studied with the cultivated eggplant Solanum melongena, used as a control. Southern hybridization of the mitochondrial genes indicated the difference between the two types of CMS and showed complete identity within each type. The cytoplasmic patterns of all wild species differed from that of the cultivated eggplant. Thus, the cytoplasm of the six wild eggplants and the one cultivated eggplant was classified into three groups. Male sterile plants of both types of CMS showed novel transcription patterns of atp1, whereas a different transcription pattern of cox2 was observed only in the anther indehiscent type. Based on these differences, we determined the DNA sequences of about a 4 kbp segment in the atp1 region. Although the coding and 3' flanking regions were almost identical among the cytoplasms, the 5' flanking region was completely different and novel open reading frames (orfs) were found for each of the CMS types and the cultivated eggplant. The cytoplasm of Solanum kurzii inducing the anther indehiscent type CMS had orf312, and those of Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum grandifolium of non-pollen production type CMS had orf218. The correspondence between the transcription patterns of these orfs and phenotypic expression of male sterility strongly suggests that these orfs are causal genes for each type of CMS. PMID:23604528

  3. High-density genetic maps for loci involved in nuclear male sterility (NMS1) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (S-locus) in chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gonthier, Lucy; Blassiau, Christelle; Mörchen, Monika; Cadalen, Thierry; Poiret, Matthieu; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    High-density genetic maps were constructed for loci involved in nuclear male sterility (NMS1-locus) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (S-locus) in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The mapping population consisted of 389 F1' individuals derived from a cross between two plants, K28 (male-sterile) and K59 (pollen-fertile), both heterozygous at the S-locus. This F1' mapping population segregated for both male sterility (MS) and strong self-incompatibility (SI) phenotypes. Phenotyping F1' individuals for MS allowed us to map the NMS1-locus to linkage group (LG) 5, while controlled diallel and factorial crosses to identify compatible/incompatible phenotypes mapped the S-locus to LG2. To increase the density of markers around these loci, bulked segregant analysis was used. Bulks and parental plants K28 and K59 were screened using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, with a complete set of 256 primer combinations of EcoRI-ANN and MseI-CNN. A total of 31,000 fragments were generated, of which 2,350 showed polymorphism between K59 and K28. Thirteen AFLP markers were identified close to the NMS1-locus and six in the vicinity of the S-locus. From these AFLP markers, eight were transformed into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers and of these five showed co-dominant polymorphism. The chromosomal regions containing the NMS1-locus and the S-locus were each confined to a region of 0.8 cM. In addition, we mapped genes encoding proteins similar to S-receptor kinase, the female determinant of sporophytic SI in the Brasicaceae, and also markers in the vicinity of the putative S-locus of sunflower, but none of these genes or markers mapped close to the chicory S-locus. PMID:23689744

  4. Loss of function of OsMADS3 via the insertion of a novel retrotransposon leads to recessive male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Mao, Donghai; Xing, Feng; Bai, Xufeng; Zhao, Hu; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Yongzhong

    2015-09-01

    Natural mutation is the source of natural variation, which is the fundamental basis for the genetic improvement of crops. During the process of developing a recombinant inbred line (RI), a spontaneous mutagenesis in RI127 led to the production of the recessive male-sterile line RI127S. Via a map-based cloning approach, the gene controlling the male sterility was identified as OsMADS3, which was previously reported to be associated with floral organ development and male sterility. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR isolated one 1633-bp insertion in OsMADS3 in RI127S, which damaged its function due to failed transcription. The 1633-bp insertion was derived from a fragment flanked by retrotransposon genes on chromosome 5. Seven haplotypes of OsMADS3 were observed among 529 cultivars and 107 wild rice accessions, and 98% of the investigated genotypes carried the same H2 haplotype, indicating that OsMADS3 is highly conserved. RI127S has the combined genome constitution of its parents, indica rice Teqing and japonica 02428, and carries the widely compatible S5 gene donated by 02428. RI127 exhibits good performance in regard to its agronomic traits and has a wide compatibility. Therefore, RI127S would be an elite mediator for recurrent breeding in cases requiring a tedious hand-crossing-based inter-crossing phase. RI127S can be crossed not only with indica rice but also with japonica rice, thus providing breeders with flexible arrangements in recurrent breeding programs. PMID:26259187

  5. Pollen Semi-Sterility1 Encodes a Kinesin-1–Like Protein Important for Male Meiosis, Anther Dehiscence, and Fertility in Rice[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shirong; Wang, Yang; Li, Wanchang; Zhao, Zhigang; Ren, Yulong; Wang, Yong; Gu, Suhai; Lin, Qibing; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Ling; Su, Ning; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Linglong; Cheng, Zhijun; Lei, Cailin; Wang, Jiulin; Guo, Xiuping; Wu, Fuqing; Ikehashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, male meiosis produces four microspores, which develop into pollen grains and are released by anther dehiscence to pollinate female gametophytes. The molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating male meiosis in rice (Oryza sativa) remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a rice pollen semi-sterility1 (pss1) mutant, which displays reduced spikelet fertility (~40%) primarily caused by reduced pollen viability (~50% viable), and defective anther dehiscence. Map-based molecular cloning revealed that PSS1 encodes a kinesin-1–like protein. PSS1 is broadly expressed in various organs, with highest expression in panicles. Furthermore, PSS1 expression is significantly upregulated during anther development and peaks during male meiosis. The PSS1–green fluorescent protein fusion is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of rice protoplasts. Substitution of a conserved Arg (Arg-289) to His in the PSS1 motor domain nearly abolishes its microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity. Consistent with this, lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges were found at anaphase I and anaphase II of male meiosis in the pss1 mutant. Together, our results suggest that PSS1 defines a novel member of the kinesin-1 family essential for male meiotic chromosomal dynamics, male gametogenesis, and anther dehiscence in rice. PMID:21282525

  6. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... sterilization. In tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are closed off or removed. Tubal sterilization prevents the egg ... through the incision. The tubes are cut and closed with special thread or removed completely. The incision ...

  7. A gain-of-function mutation of transcriptional factor PTL results in curly leaves, dwarfism and male sterility by affecting auxin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Qin, Genji; Chen, Zhangliang; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2008-02-01

    GT factors are plant-specific trihelix DNA-binding transcription factors, which are involved in light responses and other developmental processes in plant. We identified a gain-of-function mutant of a GT-2 factor gene, PETAL LOSS (PTL), which displayed pleiotropic phenotypes including dwarfism, curly leaves, retarded growth and male sterility. We found that constitutive and ectopic over-expression of PTL driven by the CaMV 35S promoter could not recapitulate the phenotypes of the 35S enhancer-driven mutant ptl-D, and was lethal in some of the transgenic plants at the cotyledon developmental stage, suggesting that accurate temporal and spatial expression of PTL is essential for its proper functional implementation during plant development. Further analysis showed that ptl-D was defective in auxin action and that the alteration of auxin distribution corresponded to the curly leaf phenotype. The fact that degeneration of septum cells and subsequent breakage along the stomium was not observed in ptl-D anthers suggests that defective anther dehiscence was the cause for male sterility. Identification and characterization of the gain-of-function mutant ptl-D will improve our understanding of the diverse functions of GT factors during plant development. PMID:18080804

  8. Down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused semi-male sterility, resulting in reduction of grain yield in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Song, Qian; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Chunchao; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    OsSPX1, a rice SPX domain gene, involved in the phosphate (Pi)-sensing mechanism plays an essential role in the Pi-signalling network through interaction with OsPHR2. In this study, we focused on the potential function of OsSPX1 during rice reproductive phase. Based on investigation of OsSPX1 antisense and sense transgenic rice lines in the paddy fields, we discovered that the down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused reduction of seed-setting rate and filled grain number. Through examination of anthers and pollens of the transgenic and wild-type plants by microscopy, we found that the antisense of OsSPX1 gene led to semi-male sterility, with lacking of mature pollen grains and phenotypes with a disordered surface of anthers and pollens. We further conducted rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis to elucidate the possible molecular mechanism underlying why the down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused deficiencies in anthers and pollens and lower seed-setting rate in rice. The down-regulation of OsSPX1 significantly affected expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar transport, anther development, cell cycle, etc. These genes may be related to pollen fertility and male gametophyte development. Our study demonstrated that down-regulation of OsSPX1 disrupted rice normal anther and pollen development by affecting carbohydrate metabolism and sugar transport, leading to semi-male sterility, and ultimately resulted in low seed-setting rate and grain yield. PMID:26806409

  9. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  10. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  11. Could sterile males be used to vector a microbiological control agent? The case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Llácer, E; Santiago-Álvarez, C; Jacas, J A

    2013-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8 ± 5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. PMID:23034248

  12. Spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  13. A Combined Classical Genetic and High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Approach to the Assessment of the Number of Genes Affecting Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila Simulans and Drosophila Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, L. W.; Singh, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have attempted to estimate the number of genes involved in postzygotic reproductive isolation between two closely related species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia, by a novel approach that involves the use of high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to examine testis proteins in parents, hybrids and fertile and sterile backcross progenies. The important results that have emerged from this study are as follows: (1) about 8% of about 1000 proteins examined showed divergence (presence/absence) between the two species; (2) by tracing individual proteins in parental, hybrid and backcross males, we were able to associate the divergent proteins with different chromosomes and found that most divergent proteins are associated with autosomes and very few with X chromosome, Y chromosome and cytoplasm; (3) when proteins showing both quantitative and qualitative differences between the two species were examined in F(1) hybrid males, most (97.4%) proteins were expressed at levels between the two parents and no sign of large scale changes in spot density was observed. All the proteins observed in the two parental species were present in F(1) hybrid males except two species-specific proteins that may be encoded (or regulated) by sex chromosomes; (4) when different fertile and sterile backcross male testes were compared, a few D. sechellia-specific proteins were identified to be consistently associated with male sterility. These results along with the observation that a large proportion (23.6%) of first generation backcross males were fertile show that hybrid male sterility between D. simulans and D. sechellia involves a relatively small number of genes. Role of large scale genetic changes due to general genome incompatibility is not supported. The results also suggest that the large effect of X chromosome on hybrid male sterility is not due to higher divergence of X chromosome than autosomes. PMID:8224814

  14. Effect of probiotic adult diets on fitness components of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field cage conditions.

    PubMed

    Niyazi, Nuri; Lauzon, Carol R; Shelly, Todd E

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of probiotic adult diets, i.e., adult diets containing viable symbiotic intestinal bacteria, on the pheromone-calling activity, mating success, life expectancy, and survival of mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), as an avenue for improving the field performance of sterile males in release programs to eradicate, suppress, or prevent spread of wild populations. The effect of inoculation of two standard adult diets (sugar-yeast granulate [SY] and sugar agar [s]) and two experimental formulations (yeast-reduced granulate [Sy] and yeast-enhanced sugar agar [sy]) with Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae (typically occurring in the gut of wild flies) on the different fitness components was assessed in the laboratory and on field-caged host trees. We found that, in the laboratory, males reared on the probiotic yeast-enhanced agar, sy, had a significant mating advantage over competitors fed the standard s agar (probiotic and control) or noninoculated sy agar; no effect of probiotic enrichment (or lowering the yeast content) was found with the granular diets. Mating test results obtained in the field were inconsistent with laboratory data in that no differences in the numbers of matings were observed between males reared on any of the probiotic and control agar diets (or the SY granulate), whereas males feeding on the probiotic modified granulate, Sy, scored significantly more matings than their control competitors. The pheromone-calling activity of males maintained on the granular diets was not affected by probiotic enrichment on any of the seven observation days. Agar-fed males, however, "called" more frequently on days 6 and 7 (but not on days 1-5) when their diet contained the probiotic load. Laboratory survival of granulate-fed males was found to be significantly prolonged with probiotic inoculation and lowering the yeast content of the standard SY granulate

  15. TinII intron, an enhancer to affect the function of the cytoplasmic male sterility related gene T in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Jin, ZhuPing; Wu, LingLing; Cao, JiaShu; Chen, ZhuJun; Pei, YanXi

    2013-12-01

    The T gene, which was cloned from the mitochondria of tumorous stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida), is a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-related gene that can produce two transcripts, T1170 and T1243. The latter is transcribed with the uncleaved intron TinII. In our previous study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing the T1243 transcript (OE-T1243) showed a severe male-sterile phenotype, whereas OE-T1170 plants did not. However, the functional mechanism of the T gene in B. Juncea remained unknown. In this study, microscopic analyses of paraffin sections of anthers confirmed that OE-T1243 plants did not produce normal pollen, whereas OE-T1170 plants did. We analyzed the transcription of 15 anther development-related genes and found that transcript levels of nozzle/sporocyteless and barely any meristem 1 and 2 were markedly lower in OE-T1243 plants than those in wild type, while the transcript levels of these genes in OE-T1170 plants were unchanged. To investigate the potential roles of TinII, we inserted the TinII sequence upstream of a minimal region (-60) of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter fused to the 5' end of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of the transgenic plants suggested that TinII acted as an enhancer to significantly increase GUS expression. The potential action mechanism is that the TinII intron acts as an enhancer to affect the function of the CMS-related gene T. PMID:24302291

  16. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  17. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  18. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...

  19. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  20. Sterile technique

    MedlinePlus

    Sterile gloves ... water and soap A sterile kit or pad Gloves (sometimes these are in your kit) A clean, ... border around it. Throw the wrapper away. Your gloves may be separate or inside the kit. To ...

  1. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  2. A triallelic genetic male sterility locus in Brassica napus: an integrative strategy for its physical mapping and possible local chromosome evolution around it

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Jun; Xin, Qiang; Wan, Lili; Hong, Dengfeng; Yang, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Spontaneous male sterility is an advantageous trait for both constructing efficient pollination control systems and for understanding the developmental process of the male reproductive unit in many crops. A triallelic genetic male-sterile locus (BnMs5) has been identified in Brassica napus; however, its complicated genome structure has greatly hampered the isolation of this locus. The aim of this study was to physically map BnMs5 through an integrated map-based cloning strategy and analyse the local chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. Methods A large F2 population was used to integrate the existing genetic maps around BnMs5. A map-based cloning strategy in combination with comparative mapping among B. napus, Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea was employed to facilitate the identification of a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone covering the BnMs5 locus. The genomic sequences from the Brassica species were analysed to reveal the regional chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. Key Results BnMs5 was finally delimited to a 0·3-cM genetic fragment from an integrated local genetic map, and was anchored on the B. napus A8 chromosome. Screening of a B. napus BAC clone library and identification of the positive clones validated that JBnB034L06 was the target BAC clone. The closest flanking markers restrict BnMs5 to a 21-kb region on JBnB034L06 containing six predicted functional genes. Good collinearity relationship around BnMs5 between several Brassica species was observed, while violent chromosomal evolutionary events including insertions/deletions, duplications and single nucleotide mutations were also found to have extensively occurred during their divergence. Conclusions This work represents major progress towards the molecular cloning of BnMs5, as well as presenting a powerful, integrative method to mapping loci in plants with complex genomic architecture, such as the amphidiploid B. napus. PMID:23243189

  3. Combining mapping of physiological quantitative trait loci and transcriptome for cold tolerance for counteracting male sterility induced by low temperatures during reproductive stage in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Abe, Akira; Aoki, Naohiro; Koumoto, Takemasa; Sato, Masahiro; Yokoi, Shuji; Kuroda, Eiki; Endo, Takashi; Saeki, Ken-Ich; Nagano, Kuniaki

    2016-06-01

    Male sterility induced by low temperatures (LTs) during the reproductive stage is a major constraint for temperate zone rice. To detect physiological quantitative trait loci (QTLs), we modeled genotypic variation in the physiological processes involved in low temperature spikelet sterility on the basis of anther length (AL), a proxy for microspore and pollen grain number per anther. The model accounted for 83% of the genotypic variation in potential AL at normal temperature and the ability to maintain AL at LT. We tested the model on 208 recombinant inbred lines of cold-tolerant 'Tohoku-PL3' (PL3) × cold-sensitive 'Akihikari' (AH) for 2 years. QTLs for spikelet fertility (FRT) at LT were detected on chromosomes 5 (QTL for Cold Tolerance at Reproductive stage, qCTR5) and 12 (qCTR12). qCTR12 was annotated with the ability to maintain AL under LTs. qCTR5 was in a region shared with QTLs for culm length and heading date. Genome-wide expression analysis showed 798 genes differentially expressed in the spikelets between the parents at LTs. Of these, 12 were near qCTR5 and 23 were near qCTR12. Gene expression analysis confirmed two candidate genes for qCTR5 (O-methyltransferase ZRP4, Os05g0515600; beta-1,3-glucanase-like protein, Os05g0535100) and one for qCTR12 (conserved hypothetical protein, Os12g0550600). Nucleotide polymorphisms (21 deletions, 2 insertions and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms) in PL3 were found near the candidate conserved hypothetical protein (Os12g0550600) and upstream in PL3, but not in AH. Haplotype analysis revealed that this gene came from 'Kuchum'. The combination of mapping physiological QTLs with gene expression analysis can be extended to identify other genes for abiotic stress response in cereals. PMID:26607766

  4. Evolutionary patterns of genic DNA methylation vary across land plants.

    PubMed

    Takuno, Shohei; Ran, Jin-Hua; Gaut, Brandon S

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about patterns of genic DNA methylation across the plant kingdom or about the evolutionary processes that shape them. To characterize gene-body methylation (gbM) within exons, we have gathered single-base resolution methylome data that span the phylogenetic breadth of land plants. We find that a basal land plant, Marchantia polymorpha, lacks any evident signal of gbM within exons, but conifers have high levels of both CG and CHG (where H is A, C or T) methylation in expressed genes. To begin to understand the evolutionary forces that shape gbM, we first tested for correlations in methylation levels across orthologues(1,2). Genic CG methylation levels, but not CHG or CHH levels, are correlated across orthologues for species as distantly related as ferns and angiosperms. Hence, relative levels of CG methylation are a consistent property across genes, even for species that diverged ∼400 million years ago(3,4). In contrast, genic CHG methylation correlates with genome size, suggesting that the host epigenetic response to transposable elements also affects genes. Altogether, our data indicate that the evolutionary forces acting on DNA methylation vary substantially across species, genes and methylation contexts. PMID:27249194

  5. Mouse autosomal homolog of DAZ, a candidate male sterility gene in humans, is expressed in male germ cells before and after puberty

    SciTech Connect

    Reijo, R.; Seligman, J.; Jaffe, T.

    1996-07-15

    Deletion of the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) region of the human Y chromosome results in spermatogenic failure. While the identity of the critical missing gene has yet to be established, a strong candidate is the putative RNA-binding protein DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia). Here we describe the mouse homolog of DAZ. Unlike human DAZ, which is Y-linked, in mouse the Dazh (DAZ homolog) gene maps to chromosome 17. Nonetheless, the predicted amino acid sequences of the gene products are quite similar, especially in their RNP/RRM (putative RNA-binding) domains, and both genes are transcribed predominantly in testes; the mouse gene is transcribed at a lower level in ovaries. Dazh transcripts were not detected in testes of mice that lack germ cells. In testes of wildtype mice, Dazh transcription is detectable 1 day after birth (when the only germ cells are prospermatogonia), increases steadily as spermatogonial stem cells appear, plateaus as the first wave of spermatogenic cells enters meiosis (10 days after birth), and is sustained at this level thereafter. This unique pattern of expression suggests the Dazh participates in differentiation, proliferation, or maintenance of germ cell founder populations before, during, and after the pubertal onset of spermatogenesis. Such functions could readily account for the diverse spermatogenic defects observed in human males with AZF deletion. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays. Results Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate. PMID:24655547

  7. Nectar and flower traits of different onion male sterile lines related to pollination efficiency and seed yield of F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Soto, Verónica C; Maldonado, Irma B; Gil, Raúl A; Peralta, Iris E; Silva, María F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2013-06-01

    Honey bees are the main pollinators of onion crops for seed production, but owing to low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Pollination problems result in low seed yields. This problem is accentuated when male sterile lines (MSL) are used to produce hybrid onion seeds. In this study, the effect of floral attributes and nectar composition on the preference of honey bees of four MSLs and one onion open pollinated cultivar were assessed. The chemical composition of nectar was described through the analysis of sugars, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, and phenol compounds. The samples studied showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the analyzed traits of flowers and nectar among the different lines. Furthermore, field observations showed a great difference on the number of bee visits and seed yield among the onion lines analyzed. For the first time, this study demonstrates that there are marked differences in the chemical composition of nectar and floral morphology between open pollinated and MSLs and also within MSLs. In addition, these differences were correlated with the number of visits and seed yield. Therefore, it would be possible to select indirectly the most promising productive MSL using simple determinations of chemical compounds or floral morphological characters. PMID:23865206

  8. Interspecific Y chromosome variation is sufficient to rescue hybrid male sterility and is influenced by the grandparental origin of the chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Araripe, L O; Tao, Y; Lemos, B

    2016-06-01

    Y chromosomes display population variation within and between species. Co-evolution within populations is expected to produce adaptive interactions between Y chromosomes and the rest of the genome. One consequence is that Y chromosomes from disparate populations could disrupt harmonious interactions between co-evolved genetic elements and result in reduced male fertility, sterility or inviability. Here we address the contribution of 'heterospecific Y chromosomes' to fertility in hybrid males carrying a homozygous region of Drosophila mauritiana introgressed in the Drosophila simulans background. In order to detect Y chromosome-autosome interactions, which may go unnoticed in a single-species background of autosomes, we constructed hybrid genotypes involving three sister species: Drosophila simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia. These engineered strains varied due to: (i) species origin of the Y chromosome (D. simulans or D. sechellia); (ii) location of the introgressed D. mauritiana segment on the D. simulans third chromosome, and (iii) grandparental genomic background (three genotypes of D. simulans). We find complex interactions between the species origin of the Y chromosome, the identity of the D. mauritiana segment and the grandparental genetic background donating the chromosomes. Unexpectedly, the interaction of the Y chromosome and one segment of D. mauritiana drastically reduced fertility in the presence of Ysim, whereas the fertility is partially rescued by the Y chromosome of D. sechellia when it descends from a specific grandparental genotype. The restoration of fertility occurs in spite of an autosomal and X-linked genome that is mostly of D. simulans origin. These results illustrate the multifactorial basis of genetic interactions involving the Y chromosome. Our study supports the hypothesis that the Y chromosome can contribute significantly to the evolution of reproductive isolation and highlights the conditional manifestation of infertility in

  9. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition. PMID:24397242

  10. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  11. The Use of Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives and the Relationship between Discontinuation Rates due to Menopause and to Female and Male Sterilizations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jessica Mayra; Monteiro, Ilza; Castro, Sara; Villarroel, Marina; Silveira, Carolina; Bahamondes, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Women require effective contraception until they reach menopause. The long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) and the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera®, Pfizer, Puurs, Belgium) are great options and can replace possible sterilizations. Purpose To assess the relationship between the use of LARCs and DMPA and terminations ascribed to menopause and sterilizations in a Brazilian clinic. Methods We reviewed the records of women between 12 and 50 years of age attending the clinic that chose to use a LARC method or DMPA. Cumulative termination rates due to sterilization or because the woman had reached menopause were computed using single decrement life-table analysis over 32 years. We also examined all records of surgical sterilization at our hospital between the years 1980-2012. Results Three hundred thirty-two women had continuously used the same contraceptive until menopause, and 555 women had discontinued the method because they or their partners underwent sterilization. From year 20 to year 30 of use, levonorgestrel intrauterine-releasing system (LNG-IUS - Mirena®, Bayer Oy, Turku, Finland; available since 1980), copper intrauterine device (IUD - available since 1980) and DMPA users showed a trend of cumulative higher discontinuation rates due to menopause when compared with the discontinuation rates due to sterilization. Over the study period, a steep decline in the use of sterilization occurred. Conclusion Over the past 15 years of research we have observed a trend: women usually preferred to continue using LARC methods or DMPA until menopause rather than decide for sterilization, be it their own, or their partners'. The annual number of sterilizations dropped in the same period. The use of LARC methods and DMPA until menopause is an important option to avoid sterilization, which requires a surgical procedure with potential complications. PMID:27187927

  12. The CMS-associated 16 kDa protein encoded by orfH522 in the PET1 cytoplasm is also present in other male-sterile cytoplasms of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Horn, R; Hustedt, J E; Horstmeyer, A; Hahnen, J; Zetsche, K; Friedt, W

    1996-02-01

    In sunflower plants carrying the PET1 cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) is associated with a new open reading frame (orfH522) in the 3'-flanking region of the atpA gene and an additional 16 kDa protein. Twenty-seven male-sterile cytoplasms of different origin were studied for the expression of the 16 kDa protein. In addition to the PET1 cytoplasm nine other male-sterile cytoplasms express the CMS-associated protein. These CMS sources originate from different interspecific crosses, from spontaneously occurring male-sterile plants in wild sunflower and from induced mutagenesis. Polyclonal antisera were raised against fusion proteins which contain 421 bp of the 3'-coding region of orfH522 to verify by immunological methods the identity of the other CMS cytoplasms. The anti-ORFH522 antiserum showed a positive reaction in the immunoblot with all CMS cytoplasms which expressing the 16 kDa protein. Investigations of the mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that all ten CMS cytoplasms which express the 16 kDa protein have the same organization at the atpA locus. OrfH522 as probes gave the same transcript pattern for the investigated CMS cytoplasms, just as for PET1. The MAX1 cytoplasm has an orfH522-related sequence but does not synthesize the 16 kDa protein. Using the sodium carbonate treatment the 16 kDa protein proved to be membrane-bound. Computer analyses predict that the hydrophobic N-terminal region of ORFH522 may form a transmembrane helix functioning as membrane anchor. PMID:8605303

  13. The roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in S-Type male-sterile maize. Progress report, April 1, 1985--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1995-03-01

    This is a progress report/renewal request for work of the roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in s-type male sterile maize. Information is included for the following major catagories of research on this project: molecular basis for nuclear reversion; molecular characterization of cytoplasmic revertants; nuclear control over cytoplasmic reversion and over replication of S1 and S2; developmental studies; transposition of nuclear restorer elements.

  14. Bisexual Hybrid Sterility in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, D. J.; Angus, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of hybrid sterility was investigated in D. melanogaster . Matings between strain 27 males from Para Wirra, South Australia, and Canton-S females produce 70–80% fully sterile male and female progeny. Strain 27 males produce sterile progeny when crossed to females of other geographic origins, but produce fertile progeny when crossed to a second sympatric strain. The sterility is avoided by lower rearing temperatures. Heat shock and tetracycline produce no improvement in the fertility of the hybrids. Normal flies produce sterile progeny when injected with, or fed, homogenates of sterile flies. A combination of maternal and paternal factors may interact to produce sterile hybrids by inhibiting gonad development. PMID:17248832

  15. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Cigang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Ming; Wang, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow. PMID:26975052

  16. Development of molecular markers specific to petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yapei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Zhenning; Chen, Zhujun; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-02-01

    To establish a simple and rapid method for isolating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Brassica vegetables, the effects of different factors on mtDNA extraction were investigated firstly. A new protocol includes five steps: organelle isolation, deoxyribonuclease treatment, lysis, RNase treatment, and deproteinization. Results indicate that a 15 min-lysis time can achieve higher mtDNA yields from etiolated seedlings. Moreover, it is found that the inflorescence of the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line is unfit for the isolation of mtDNA. The mtDNA isolated using this method is intact and pure, and can be used for further molecular analysis. Subsequently, the genomic and transcriptional differences of atps and coxs genes on the mitochondria between the petaloid-type CMS line and its maintainer line have been identified. RFLP analysis revealed that out of the five atps and three coxs genes, except of atp4 and cox3, the others mtDNA protein coding genes exhibited polymorphisms, respectively. This results suggest that atps and coxs genes are located in a long mtDNA fragment, and the mtDNA evolves rapidly in structure between the CMS line and its maintainer line in tuber muster. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression level of these genes in flower bud is higher than that of leaf and flower, and that, alternative splicing have been found among the atp6, atp8 and cox3 genes, respectively. Our results modified a efficient protocol for isolating the mtDNA, and provided some novel molecular markers indicating the CMS trait in tuber mustard. The comparative analysis presented in this study allows a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism on CMS in Brassica crops. PMID:24385295

  17. Expression levels of meristem identity and homeotic genes are modified by nuclear-mitochondrial interactions in alloplasmic male-sterile lines of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Farbos, Isabelle; Glimelius, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    Homeotic conversions of anthers were found in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) plants of Brassica napus derived from somatic hybrids of B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. CMS line flowers displayed petals reduced in size and width and stamens replaced by carpelloid structures. In order to investigate when these developmental aberrations appeared, flower development was analysed histologically, ultrastructurally and molecularly. Disorganized cell divisions were detected in the floral meristems of the CMS lines at stage 4. As CMS is associated with mitochondrial aberrations, ultrastructural analysis of the mitochondria in the floral meristems was performed. Two mitochondrial populations were found in the CMS lines. One type had disrupted cristae, while the other resembled mitochondria typical of B. napus. Furthermore, expression patterns of genes expressed in particular floral whorls were determined. In spite of the aberrant development of the third whorl organs, BnAP3 was expressed as in B. napus during the first six stages of development. However, the levels of BnPI were reduced. At later developmental stages, the expression of both BnAP3 and BnPI was strongly reduced. Interestingly the expression levels of genes responsible for AP3 and PI activation such as LFY, UFO and ASK1 were higher in the CMS lines, which indicates that activation of B-genes in the CMS lines does not occur as in B. napus. Disrupted and dysfunctional mitochondria seem to be one of the first aberrations manifested in CMS which result in a retrograde influence of the expression levels of genes responsible for the second and third whorl organ differentiation. PMID:15918886

  18. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Cigang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Ming; Wang, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow. PMID:26975052

  19. Comparative analysis of alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and the expression of the two KIN genes from cytoplasmic male sterility cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Huang, Xiaoyun; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Zhong, Xinmin

    2014-06-01

    The KIN genes are crucial members of the cold-regulated gene family. They play exclusive roles during the developmental processes of many organs and respond to various abiotic stresses in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of KIN gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). We carried out a genome-wide analysis to identify the KIN genes in the CMS cabbage. Two non-redundant KIN genes, named BoKIN1 (Bol021262) and BoKIN2 (Bol030498), were identified. Reverse transcriptase PCR detected alternative splicing (AS) products of BoKIN1 (four AS products) and BoKIN2 (three AS products). In addition, alternative polyadenylation (APA) was observed for BoKIN1 and BoKIN2 in the CMS cabbage, resulting in variable 3'UTRs in their transcripts. Furthermore, the transcription levels of BoKIN1-0 and BoKIN2-0, the introns of which were spliced completely, were analyzed in various organs and young leaves treated by abiotic stresses. Our data indicated that BoKIN1-0 is highly expressed in various organs, whereas BoKIN2-0 is expressed exclusively in the stamen. Our study also suggested that BoKIN1-0 was upregulated significantly in young leaves of plants exposed to abscisic acid treatment, and cold and heat stress. BoKIN1 and BoKIN2 had differential AS and APA patterns in pre-mRNA processing, and showed differences in their expression patterns and transcript levels. BoKIN1 participates widely in organ development and responds to diverse abiotic stresses, whereas BoKIN2 plays a main role in stamen development in the CMS cabbage. PMID:24488150

  20. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  1. Sterile technique

    MedlinePlus

    ... kit) A clean, dry surface Clean paper towels Wash your hands well and keep all work surfaces ... To open a sterile pad or kit: Wash your hands with soap and running ... palms, fingers, and between your fingers thoroughly. Wash ...

  2. Tubal Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... you feel after the operation depends on your general health, the type of procedure and your tolerance to ... to work after sterilization? That depends on your general health, your attitude, your job and the type of ...

  3. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  4. Expression in yeast of the T-urf13 protein from Texas male-sterile maize mitochondria confers sensitivity to methomyl and to Texas-cytoplasm-specific fungal toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Lee, S H; Lin, C; Medici, R; Hack, E; Myers, A M

    1990-01-01

    The mitochondrial gene T-urf13 from maize (Zea mays L.) with Texas male-sterile (T) cytoplasm codes for a unique 13 kd polypeptide, T-URF13, which is implicated in cytoplasmic male sterility and sensitivity to the insecticide methomyl and to host-specific fungal toxins produced by Helminthosporium maydis race T (HmT toxin) and Phyllosticta maydis (Pm toxin). A chimeric gene coding for T-URF13 fused to the mitochondrial targeting peptide from the Neurospora crassa ATP synthase subunit 9 precursor was constructed. Expression of this gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded a polypeptide that was translocated into the membrane fraction of mitochondria and processed to give a protein the same size as maize T-URF13. Methomyl, HmT toxin and Pm toxin inhibited growth of yeast cells expressing the gene fusion on medium containing glycerol as sole carbon source and stimulated respiration with NADH as substrate by isolated mitochondria from these cells. These effects were not observed in yeast cells expressing T-URF13 without a targeting peptide. The results show that T-URF13 is sufficient to confer sensitivity to methomyl and the fungal toxins in a heterologous eukaryotic system, and suggest that mitochondrial localization of T-URF13 is critical for these functions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2303028

  5. SynGenics Optimization System (SynOptSys)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventresca, Carol; McMilan, Michelle L.; Globus, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The SynGenics Optimization System (SynOptSys) software application optimizes a product with respect to multiple, competing criteria using statistical Design of Experiments, Response-Surface Methodology, and the Desirability Optimization Methodology. The user is not required to be skilled in the underlying math; thus, SynOptSys can help designers and product developers overcome the barriers that prevent them from using powerful techniques to develop better pro ducts in a less costly manner. SynOpt-Sys is applicable to the design of any product or process with multiple criteria to meet, and at least two factors that influence achievement of those criteria. The user begins with a selected solution principle or system concept and a set of criteria that needs to be satisfied. The criteria may be expressed in terms of documented desirements or defined responses that the future system needs to achieve. Documented desirements can be imported into SynOptSys or created and documented directly within SynOptSys. Subsequent steps include identifying factors, specifying model order for each response, designing the experiment, running the experiment and gathering the data, analyzing the results, and determining the specifications for the optimized system. The user may also enter textual information as the project progresses. Data is easily edited within SynOptSys, and the software design enables full traceability within any step in the process, and facilitates reporting as needed. SynOptSys is unique in the way responses are defined and the nuances of the goodness associated with changes in response values for each of the responses of interest. The Desirability Optimization Methodology provides the basis of this novel feature. Moreover, this is a complete, guided design and optimization process tool with embedded math that can remain invisible to the user. It is not a standalone statistical program; it is a design and optimization system.

  6. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  7. Development of polymorphic genic-SSR markers by cDNA library sequencing in boxwood, Buxus spp. (Buxaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genic microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (genic-SSR) markers were developed in boxwood (Buxus taxa) for genetic diversity analysis, identification of taxa, and to facilitate breeding. cDNA libraries were developed from mRNA extracted from leaves of Buxus sempervirens ‘Vardar Valley’ and seque...

  8. Genic SSRs for European and North American Hop (Humulua lupulus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight genic SSR loci were evaluated for genetic diversity assessment and genotype identification in Humulus lupulus L. from Europe and North America. Genetic diversity, as measured by three diversity indices, was significantly lower in European cultivars than in North American wild accessions. Neigh...

  9. Establishment of a satellite rearing facility to support the release of sterile Aedes albopictus males. I. Optimization of mass rearing parameters.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Mert; Gunay, Filiz; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Oncu, Ceren; Alten, Bulent; Bellini, Romeo

    2016-07-01

    The vector species Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was recorded in Turkey for the first time, near the Greek border, in 2011 and a high risk of expansion towards Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey was estimated. A preliminary study was planned to evaluate the possibility of creating a satellite mass rearing facility for this species and manage a larval rearing procedure by using the new mass-rearing technology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For this purpose, the effects of different larval densities (1, 2, 3 and 4 larvae per ml) on the preimaginal development were evaluated by observing pupal, adult and male productivity using life cycle trials. Geometric morphometric analyses were also performed to define all phenotypic differences that occurred on the wing size and shape morphology of adult stage at the four different rearing conditions tested. A high pupation productivity was obtained with a larval density of 2 larvae/ml while adult emergence ratio was not affected by the densities tested. No significant difference was observed in shape of the wings among different densities in males and females. Nevertheless, a significant difference in female's centroid sizes was observed between the treatment groups 1-2 and 3-4 larvae/ml and in males centroid size reared at 1 larvae/ml versus the other densities. PMID:27021270

  10. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  11. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  12. [Sterility in medieval noblemen].

    PubMed

    van Eickels, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The social competence of the medieval nobleman was closely associated with his male sense of honour. One essential aspect of his masculinity was the ability to produce progeny. The childlessness of a good ruler needed special justification, the childlessness of a bad ruler was seen as God's punishment. In terms of canon law, the inability to procreate was irrelevant as long as the marriage could be consummated. Considering the importance of the procreative capacity and its symbolic significance one must ask to what extent it was possible to ascertain sterility in the Middle Ages. In the case of noblemen one can assume that they could obtain certainty about their fertility through their premarital and extramarital intercourse. This might explain why some rulers and nobles accepted a childless marriage without deeming it necessary to take another wife (or plan their itinerary in a way that enabled them to produce progeny). PMID:20506725

  13. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  14. The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity. PMID:22424262

  15. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm

  16. Mapping Eight Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Soybean Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean, mutations in genes involved in meiosis can lead to altered chromosome pairing and result in non-functional gametes.Mutability of the w4 flower color locus in soybean is due to an unstable allele designated w4-m (mutable). Several germinal revertant studies using the w4-m system resulted ...

  17. Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Chater, Caspar C; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Cuming, Andrew C; Wellman, Charles H; Beerling, David J; Fleming, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The early evolution of plants required the acquisition of a number of key adaptations to overcome physiological difficulties associated with survival on land. One of these was a tough sporopollenin wall that enclosed reproductive propagules and provided protection from desiccation and UV-B radiation. All land plants possess such walled spores (or their derived homologue, pollen). We took a reverse genetics approach, consisting of knock-out and complementation experiments to test the functional conservation of the sporopollenin-associated gene MALE STERILTY 2 (which is essential for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana) in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Knock-outs of a putative moss homologue of the A. thaliana MS2 gene, which is highly expressed in the moss sporophyte, led to spores with highly defective walls comparable to that observed in the A. thaliana ms2 mutant, and extremely compromised germination. Conversely, the moss MS2 gene could not rescue the A. thaliana ms2 phenotype. The results presented here suggest that a core component of the biochemical and developmental pathway required for angiosperm pollen wall development was recruited early in land plant evolution but the continued increase in pollen wall complexity observed in angiosperms has been accompanied by divergence in MS2 gene function. PMID:25195943

  18. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  19. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  20. Enhanced stability of Mcl1, a prosurvival Bcl2 relative, blunts stress-induced apoptosis, causes male sterility, and promotes tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Toru; Coultas, Leigh; Metcalf, Donald; van Delft, Mark F; Glaser, Stefan P; Takiguchi, Megumi; Strasser, Andreas; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M; Huang, David C S

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) relative Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl1) is essential for cell survival during development and for tissue homeostasis throughout life. Unlike Bcl2, Mcl1 turns over rapidly, but the physiological significance of its turnover has been unclear. We have gained insight into the roles of Mcl1 turnover in vivo by analyzing mice harboring a modified allele of Mcl1 that serendipitously proved to encode an abnormally stabilized form of Mcl1 due to a 13-aa N-terminal extension. Although the mice developed normally and appeared unremarkable, the homozygous males unexpectedly proved infertile due to defective spermatogenesis, which was evoked by enhanced Mcl1 prosurvival activity. Under unstressed conditions, the modified Mcl1 is present at levels comparable to the native protein, but it is markedly stabilized in cells subjected to stresses, such as protein synthesis inhibition or UV irradiation. Strikingly, the modified Mcl1 allele could genetically complement the loss of Bcl2, because introduction of even a single allele significantly ameliorated the severe polycystic kidney disease and consequent runting caused by Bcl2 loss. Significantly, the development of c-MYC-induced acute myeloid leukemia was also accelerated in mice harboring that Mcl1 allele. Our collective findings reveal that, under certain circumstances, the N terminus of Mcl1 regulates its degradation; that some cell types require degradation of Mcl1 to induce apoptosis; and, most importantly, that rapid turnover of Mcl1 can serve as a tumor-suppressive mechanism. PMID:24363325

  1. Enhanced stability of Mcl1, a prosurvival Bcl2 relative, blunts stress-induced apoptosis, causes male sterility, and promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Toru; Coultas, Leigh; Metcalf, Donald; van Delft, Mark F.; Glaser, Stefan P.; Takiguchi, Megumi; Strasser, Andreas; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M.; Huang, David C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) relative Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl1) is essential for cell survival during development and for tissue homeostasis throughout life. Unlike Bcl2, Mcl1 turns over rapidly, but the physiological significance of its turnover has been unclear. We have gained insight into the roles of Mcl1 turnover in vivo by analyzing mice harboring a modified allele of Mcl1 that serendipitously proved to encode an abnormally stabilized form of Mcl1 due to a 13-aa N-terminal extension. Although the mice developed normally and appeared unremarkable, the homozygous males unexpectedly proved infertile due to defective spermatogenesis, which was evoked by enhanced Mcl1 prosurvival activity. Under unstressed conditions, the modified Mcl1 is present at levels comparable to the native protein, but it is markedly stabilized in cells subjected to stresses, such as protein synthesis inhibition or UV irradiation. Strikingly, the modified Mcl1 allele could genetically complement the loss of Bcl2, because introduction of even a single allele significantly ameliorated the severe polycystic kidney disease and consequent runting caused by Bcl2 loss. Significantly, the development of c-MYC–induced acute myeloid leukemia was also accelerated in mice harboring that Mcl1 allele. Our collective findings reveal that, under certain circumstances, the N terminus of Mcl1 regulates its degradation; that some cell types require degradation of Mcl1 to induce apoptosis; and, most importantly, that rapid turnover of Mcl1 can serve as a tumor-suppressive mechanism. PMID:24363325

  2. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, "Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification" 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization — Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches" 3. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch" li]4. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits."

  3. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose

    2007-08-01

    Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females. PMID:17849864

  4. Prospects for vector control through sterilization procedures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carroll N.

    1963-01-01

    Interest in sterilization as a possible method for controlling insects of public health importance can be said to have arisen first in the mid-fifties, when the screw-worm fly was successfully eradicated from the island of Curaçao by the release over the entire island of large numbers of male flies sterilized by gamma-radiation. Since then, many studies on the sterilization of various insect vectors of disease have been carried out. This paper reviews these studies and discusses the present position regarding vector control by sterilization procedures, with special reference to the use of chemosterilants. These compounds have certain advantages over radiation since they can be used not only as a substitute for X-rays or gamma-rays in the sterilization of insects specially reared for release in large numbers, but also as a means of inducing sterility in natural populations of insects. The author emphasizes that chemosterilants cannot at present be recommended as a practical control or eradication procedure for any vector species of insect, but considers that this extension of the sterilization method holds great promise and merits intensive investigation. PMID:20604181

  5. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities. PMID:25195442

  6. Identification of miRNAs and their targets using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis in cytoplasmic male-sterile and its maintainer fertile lines of brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulatory network of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence is still largely unknown in plants, although numerous researches have been attempted to isolate genes involved in CMS. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis to identify microRNAs and their targets using high-throughput sequencing in CMS and its maintainer fertile (MF) lines of Brassica juncea. Results We identified 197 known and 78 new candidate microRNAs during reproductive development of B. juncea. A total of 47 differentially expressed microRNAs between CMS and its MF lines were discovered, according to their sequencing reads number. Different expression levels of selected microRNAs were confirmed by using real-time quantitative PCR between CMS and MF lines. Furthermore, we observed that the transcriptional patterns of these microRNAs could be mimicked by artificially inhibiting mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase activity and its function in MF line by using treatment with oligomycin. Targeted genes of the microRNAs were identified by high-throughput sequencing and degradome approaches, including auxin response factor, NAC (No Apical Meristem) domain transcription factor, GRAS family transcription factor, MYB transcription factor, squamosa promoter binding protein, AP2-type transcription factor, homeobox/homeobox-leucine zipper family and TCP family transcription factors, which were observed to be differentially expressed between CMS and MF. Conclusion Taken together, from these findings we suggested microRNA might participate in the regulatory network of CMS by tuning fork in gene expressions in CMS B. juncea. The differential expression of miRNAs observed between CMS and MF lines suggested that biogenesis of miRNAs could be influenced in the CMS. PMID:23324572

  7. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line ‘WA’ and its maintainer line ‘WB’ by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  8. Male-sterile maize plants produced by targeted mutagenesis of the cytochrome P450-like gene (MS26) using a re-designed I-CreI homing endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Djukanovic, Vesna; Smith, Jeff; Lowe, Keith; Yang, Meizhu; Gao, Huirong; Jones, Spencer; Nicholson, Michael G; West, Ande; Lape, Janel; Bidney, Dennis; Carl Falco, Saverio; Jantz, Derek; Alexander Lyznik, Leszek

    2013-12-01

    The I-CreI homing endonuclease from Chlamydomonas reinhardti has been used as a molecular tool for creating DNA double-strand breaks and enhancing DNA recombination reactions in maize cells. The DNA-binding properties of this protein were re-designed to recognize a 22 bp target sequence in the 5th exon of MS26, a maize fertility gene. Three versions of a single-chain endonuclease, called Ems26, Ems26+ and Ems26++, cleaved their intended DNA site within the context of a reporter assay in a mammalian cell line. When the Ems26++ version was delivered to maize Black Mexican Sweet cells by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the cleavage resulted in mutations at a co-delivered extra-chromosomal ms26-site in up to 8.9% of the recovered clones. Delivery of the same version of Ems26 to immature embryos resulted in mutations at the predicted genomic ms26-site in 5.8% of transgenic T(0) plants. This targeted mutagenesis procedure yielded small deletions and insertions at the Ems26 target site consistent with products of double-strand break repair generated by non-homologous end joining. One of 21 mutagenized T(0) plants carried two mutated alleles of the MS26 gene. As expected, the bi-allelic mutant T(0) plant and the T(1) progeny homozygous for the ms26 mutant alleles were male-sterile. This paper described the second maize chromosomal locus (liguless-1 being the first one) mutagenized by a re-designed I-CreI-based endonuclease, demonstrating the general utility of these molecules for targeted mutagenesis in plants. PMID:24112765

  9. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  10. (Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We have determined the actual RNA sequence of four mitochondrial genes: pcf, nad3, rps12, and coxII. Because plant mitochondrial proteins cannot be predicted from DNA sequences, the actual primary structures of the encoded proteins were unknown. We have gained information concerning the process of RNA editing. Editing can occur before splicing. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that RNA editing is not simultaneous with transcription. Unlike other systems, the process of editing in plant does not exhibit a discernable direction. As a result of our RNA editing studies, we have produced a number of clones of the proper coding regions tube used for incorporating these mitochondrial genes into the nucleus. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Female Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Timothy C.; Pabuccu, Recai

    1986-01-01

    Tubal ligation has become the second most popular method of contraception in Canada, after oral contraception. Refinement of techniques has resulted in sterilization procedures which have minimal potential for failure and high potential for reversibility. Laparoscopic and minilaparatomy techniques allow outpatient “Band-Aid” sterilizations with less risk of complications than more destructive procedures. Laparoscopic application of tubal clips or rings is highly effective, with minimal tubal destruction. Tubal ligation following a pregnancy is more often regretted than is interval sterilization. The search continues for a satisfactory transcervical sterilization procedure. PMID:21267115

  12. Surgical sterilization: an underutilized procedure for evaluating the merits of induced sterility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennelly, James J.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite more than 4 decades of effort, development of effective wildlife damage control programs based on sterilization of target species has met with limited success. This is partly due to the fact that investigators have assumed, rather than empirically tested, whether the reproductive strategies of the target populations were vulnerable to the planned treatment. Equally important, methods selected to include sterility usually involve a chemical agent that can affect sociosexual behaviors of the nuisance population. In this report, we illustrate how surgically induced sterility circumvents both problems--how the concept without the potentially confounding secondary effects of a chemical. We assessed the merits of initiating research to develop a male chemosterilant for Norway rats, red-winged blackbirds, beaver, and Canada geese by inducing sterility surgically. The infidelity of many red-winged females to their polygynous territorial male was surprising and argued against searching for a male sterilant. On the other hand, beaver and Canada goose studies confirmed previous reports that both form par-bonds and are monogamous. Both should be vulnerable to a male chemosterilant approach, and research toward this goal is justified.

  13. Social and psychological perspectives on voluntary sterilization: a review.

    PubMed

    Philliber, S G; Philliber, W W

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews social science research on the antecedents and consequences of voluntary sterilization. The major conclusions are that socioeconomic status has little impact on the decision to be sterilized and that sterilizations are rare among those without sons and among male non-whites. Significant others are important sources of encouragement and information, and good marital relations increase the likelihood of having the procedure performed. Most acceptors experience no change in sexual activity, quality of marital relationships, or work-related behavior, and few regret their choice. Negative consequences are more likely among those in India, those coerced into having a sterilization, those who did not understand the consequences of the procedure, those with health complications after sterilization, and those couples who have unstable marriages or who disagree about sterilization. PMID:3983979

  14. Development and characterization of genic-SSR markers from different Asia lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) types by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X F; You, Y N; Diao, Y; Zheng, X W; Xie, K Q; Zhou, M Q; Hu, Z L; Wang, Y W

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera is an important economic vegetable and traditional medicine, but available genetic resources remain limited. Next generation sequencing has proven to be a rapid and effective means of identifying genic simple sequence repeat (genic-SSR) markers. This study developed genic-SSRs for N. nucifera using Illumina sequencing technology to assess diversity across cultivated and wild lotus. A total of 105,834 uni-contigs were produced with an average read length of 722 bp. Exactly 11,178 genic-SSR loci were identified in 9523 uni-contigs. Di-nucleotide (64.5%) was the most abundant SSR, followed by tri-nucleotide (23%), tetra-nucleotide (8.9%), penta-nucleotide (2.5%), and hexa-nucleotide (1%) repeat types. The most common di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were AG/CT (51%) and AAG/CTT (8%), respectively. Based on these SSRs sequences, 6568 primer pairs were designed, of which 72 primers were randomly selected for synthesis and validation, and 38 in-silico polymorphic primers were obtained using in-house perl scripts. A total of 110 primers were screened in the lotus samples and the results showed that 101 primers yielded amplification products, of which 80 were polymorphs. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 and the PIC (polymorphism information content) ranged from 0.19 to 0.87 with a mean value of 0.55. An Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients showed that the correlation between geographical source and genotype was low. This study describes the distribution of genic-SSRs in the expressed portion of the lotus genome. These genic-SSRs have an important role to play in molecular mapping, diversity analysis, and marker-assisted selection strategies in Nelumbo. PMID:26400348

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of species of genus Arachis based on genic sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Guohao; Barkley, Noelle A; Zhao, Yongli; Yuan, Mei; Prakash, C S

    2014-06-01

    The genus Arachis (Fabaceae), which originated in South America, consists of 80 species. Based on morphological traits and cross-compatibility among the species, the genus is divided into nine taxonomic sections. Arachis is the largest section including the economically valuable cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea). Seven genic sequences were utilized to better understand the phylogenetic relationships between species of genus Arachis. Our study displayed four clades of species of Arachis. Arachis triseminata was genetically isolated from all other species of Arachis studied, and it formed the basal clade with A. retusa and A. dardani from the most ancient sections Extranervosae and Heteranthae, respectively. Species of section Arachis formed a separated single clade from all other species, within which species having B and D genome clustered in one subgroup and three species characterized with an A genome grouped together in another subgroup. A divergent clade including species from five sections was sister to the clade of section Arachis. Between the sister clades and the basal clade there was a clade containing species from the more advanced sections. Phylogenetic relationships of all the species of Arachis using multiple genic sequences were similar to the phylogenies produced with single-copy genes. PMID:25211395

  16. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties. PMID:22164927

  17. Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of hybrid-onion seed depends on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS). The most commonly used CMS in onion requires the presence of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and recessive alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Male-sterile lines are seed propagated using maintain...

  18. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2016 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  19. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  20. Sterilization by Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep-like state to prevent pain during surgery. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Hysteroscopic Sterilization: ...

  1. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Seck, Momar Talla; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Sall, Baba; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Sidibé, Issa; Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. Conclusions/Significance This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs. PMID:26901049

  2. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  3. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations, which has been improved for larval pests by development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we de...

  4. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  5. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. The procedures involves non-surgical placement of permanent microinserts into both fallopian tubes. Patients must use alternative contraception for at least 3 months postprocedure until tubal occlusion is confirmed. Compared to tubal ligation, potential advantages of the hysteroscopic procedure are that it can be performed in 10 minutes in an office setting without the use of general or even local anesthesia. Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization compared with tubal ligation for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2008, until December 11, 2012. Review Methods Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up were examined. Outcomes included failure/pregnancy rates, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Results No RCTs were identified. Two systematic reviews covered 22 observational studies of hysteroscopic sterilization. Only 1 (N = 93) of these 22 studies compared hysteroscopic sterilization to laparoscopic tubal ligation. Two other noncomparative case series not included in the systematic reviews were also identified. In the absence of comparative studies, data on tubal ligation were derived for this analysis from the CREST study, a large, multicentre, prospective, noncomparative observational study in the United States (GRADE low). Overall, hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with lower pregnancy rates and lower complication rates compared to tubal ligation. No deaths have been reported for hysteroscopic sterilization. Limitations A lack of long-term follow-up for hysteroscopic sterilization and a paucity of studies that directly

  6. Assessing the patterns of linkage disequilibrium in genic regions of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wang, Xing; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Tang, Guoping; Guo, Xiaodan; Meng, Xianwen; Zhang, Haikun; Zhang, Ruimin

    2011-10-01

    We used the genotyping data generated by the International HapMap Project to study the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human genic regions. LD patterns for 11,998 genes from 11 HapMap populations were identified by analyzing the distribution of haplotype blocks. The genes were prioritized using LD levels. The results showed that there were significant differences in the degree of LD between genes. Genes with high or low LD (the upper and lower quartiles of the LD levels) fell into different Gene Ontology functional categories. The high LD genes clustered preferentially in the metabolic process, macromolecule localization and cell-cycle categories, whereas the low LD genes clustered in the developmental process, ion transport, and immune and regulation system categories. Furthermore, we subdivided the genic region into 3'-UTR, 5'-UTR and CDS (coding region), and compared the different LD patterns in these subregions. We found that the LD patterns in low LD genes had a more interspersed block structure compared with the high LD genes. This was especially true in the CDS and 5'-UTR. The extent of LD was somewhat higher in 5'-UTRs compared with 3'-UTRs for both high and low LD genes. In addition, we assessed the overlap for the intragenic LD regions and found that the LD regions in high LD genes were more consistent among populations. Comprehensive information about the distribution of LD patterns in gene regions in populations may provide insights into the evolutionary history of humans and help in the selection of biomarkers for disease association studies. PMID:21824289

  7. Tremor–genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non–tremor–genic regions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Syracuse, E. M.

    2015-09-17

    The slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, {near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor including: slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluidsmore » and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kilauea Volcano (~10⁻⁶ m/s) and Boso Peninsula (~10⁻⁷ m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kilauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. {Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kilauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kilauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.« less

  8. Tremor–genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non–tremor–genic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Syracuse, E. M.

    2015-09-17

    The slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, {near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor including: slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluids and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kilauea Volcano (~10⁻⁶ m/s) and Boso Peninsula (~10⁻⁷ m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kilauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. {Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kilauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kilauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.

  9. Tremor-genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non-tremor-genic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Syracuse, Ellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead, they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor, including slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluids, and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kīlauea Volcano (∼10−6 m/s) and Boso Peninsula (∼10−7 m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kīlauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula, and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kīlauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kīlauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.

  10. Tremor-genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non-tremor-genic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Syracuse, E. M.

    2015-10-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead, they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor, including slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluids, and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kīlauea Volcano (˜10-6 m/s) and Boso Peninsula (˜10-7 m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kīlauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula, and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kīlauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kīlauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.

  11. The emergence of load-oriented sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, R A

    1994-01-01

    Achieving maximum equipment sterilization is critical. Factors that contribute to sterilization efficiency are covered, including sterilization accuracy level, chamber loading and biological indicators. PMID:8031354

  12. Karlson ozone sterilizer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, E.

    1984-05-07

    The authors have a functional sterilization system employing ozone as a sterilization agent. This final report covers the work that led to the first medical sterilizer using ozone as the sterilizing agent. The specifications and the final design were set by hospital operating room personnel and public safety standards. Work on kill tests using bacteria, viruses and fungi determined the necessary time and concentration of ozone necessary for sterilization. These data were used in the Karlson Ozone Sterilizer to determine the length of the steps of the operating cycle and the concentration of ozone to be used. 27 references.

  13. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  14. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  15. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  16. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... have sterilization surgery. However, some may regret the decision later. Men or women who are younger at ... the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  17. Sterilization of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) by immersion in an aqueous solution of bisazir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    Groups of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) eggs fertilized by males previously immersed in an aqueous solution of p,p-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir) at concentrations of 10–100 mg/L produced fewer normal, live prolarvae after 15–17 d of incubation than did groups of eggs fertilized by normal males. Mortality of embryos or prolarvae was nearly 100% in groups of eggs fertilized by males that had been immersed in a 50 mg/L solution of bisazir for 4 h or in a 100 mg/L solution for 2 h. The immersion technique appears to be an efficient method of sterilizing large numbers of male sea lampreys for use in a proposed sterile-male-release program.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  18. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  19. Sterilization of Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)

  20. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  1. Dark matter and sterility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter F.

    2014-10-01

    In reply to Louise Mayor's dark-matter flow-chart "What's the matter?" (July pp30-31), which summarized the most likely candidates for galactic dark matter, and to Jon Cartwright's feature "A fourth type of neutrino" on the possibility of "sterile" neutrinos (August pp24-28).

  2. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  3. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  8. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  9. Genic Heterogeneity at Two Alcohol Dehydrogenase Loci in DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA and DROSOPHILA PERSIMILIS

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Jerry A.; Felton, Alexander A.

    1977-01-01

    A sequential electrophoretic survey of the second chromosome loci, alcohol dehydrogenase-6 (Adh-6) and octanol dehydrogenase ( Odh), was performed on 147 isochromosomal lines of Drosophila pseudoobscura and 60 lines of its sibling species, D. persimilis. Gels run with a variety of acrylamide concentrations and buffer pH's revealed the presence of 18 alleles of Adh-6 in the two species, where only eight had been previously detected by conventional electrophoretic methods. Only two alleles were added with our techniques to the previous total of nine in both species at the largely monomorphic Odh locus. Both enzymes show a predominance of one allele, with the other variants being fairly rare. There was no evidence of increased genetic divergence between the two species, but we found a striking increase in differentiation of Adh-6 alleles between the main body of D. pseudoobscura populations and the conspecific isolate from Bogotá, Colombia. These results are compared with our previous surveys of xanthine dehydrogenase in these species and discussed in reference to theories of genic polymorphism. PMID:17248763

  10. Development of Genic and Genomic SSR Markers of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre Ex A. Froehner)

    PubMed Central

    Hendre, Prasad S.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee breeding and improvement efforts can be greatly facilitated by availability of a large repository of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) based microsatellite markers, which provides efficiency and high-resolution in genetic analyses. This study was aimed to improve SSR availability in coffee by developing new genic−/genomic-SSR markers using in-silico bioinformatics and streptavidin-biotin based enrichment approach, respectively. The expressed sequence tag (EST) based genic microsatellite markers (EST-SSRs) were developed using the publicly available dataset of 13,175 unigene ESTs, which showed a distribution of 1 SSR/3.4 kb of coffee transcriptome. Genomic SSRs, on the other hand, were developed from an SSR-enriched small-insert partial genomic library of robusta coffee. In total, 69 new SSRs (44 EST-SSRs and 25 genomic SSRs) were developed and validated as suitable genetic markers. Diversity analysis of selected coffee genotypes revealed these to be highly informative in terms of allelic diversity and PIC values, and eighteen of these markers (∼27%) could be mapped on a robusta linkage map. Notably, the markers described here also revealed a very high cross-species transferability. In addition to the validated markers, we have also designed primer pairs for 270 putative EST-SSRs, which are expected to provide another ca. 200 useful genetic markers considering the high success rate (88%) of marker conversion of similar pairs tested/validated in this study. PMID:25461752

  11. Development and use of genic molecular markers (GMMs) for construction of a transcript map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Gujaria, Neha; Kumar, Ashish; Dauthal, Preeti; Dubey, Anuja; Hiremath, Pavana; Bhanu Prakash, A; Farmer, Andrew; Bhide, Mangla; Shah, Trushar; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Cook, Douglas R; May, Greg D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2011-05-01

    A transcript map has been constructed by the development and integration of genic molecular markers (GMMs) including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genic microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and intron spanning region (ISR)-based markers, on an inter-specific mapping population of chickpea, the third food legume crop of the world and the first food legume crop of India. For SNP discovery through allele re-sequencing, primer pairs were designed for 688 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of chickpea and 657 genes/ESTs of closely related species of chickpea. High-quality sequence data obtained for 220 candidate genic regions on 2-20 genotypes representing 9 Cicer species provided 1,893 SNPs with an average frequency of 1/35.83 bp and 0.34 PIC (polymorphism information content) value. On an average 2.9 haplotypes were present in 220 candidate genic regions with an average haplotype diversity of 0.6326. SNP2CAPS analysis of 220 sequence alignments, as mentioned above, provided a total of 192 CAPS candidates. Experimental analysis of these 192 CAPS candidates together with 87 CAPS candidates identified earlier through in silico mining of ESTs provided scorable amplification in 173 (62.01%) cases of which predicted assays were validated in 143 (82.66%) cases (CGMM). Alignments of chickpea unigenes with Medicago truncatula genome were used to develop 121 intron spanning region (CISR) markers of which 87 yielded scorable products. In addition, optimization of 77 EST-derived SSR (ICCeM) markers provided 51 scorable markers. Screening of easily assayable 281 markers including 143 CGMMs, 87 CISRs and 51 ICCeMs on 5 parental genotypes of three mapping populations identified 104 polymorphic markers including 90 markers on the inter-specific mapping population. Sixty-two of these GMMs together with 218 earlier published markers (including 64 GMM loci) and 20 other unpublished markers could be integrated into this genetic map. A genetic map developed here

  12. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated. PMID:10065320

  13. Sterile neutrino anarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2013-02-01

    Lepton mixing, which requires physics beyond the Standard Model, is surprisingly compatible with a minimal, symmetryless and unbiased approach, called anarchy. This contrasts with highly involved flavor symmetry models. On the other hand, hints for light sterile neutrinos have emerged from a variety of independent experiments and observations. If confirmed, their existence would represent a groundbreaking discovery, calling for a theoretical interpretation. We discuss anarchy in the two-neutrino eV-scale seesaw framework. The distributions of mixing angles and masses according to anarchy are in agreement with global fits for the active and sterile neutrino parameters. Our minimal and economical scenario predicts the absence of neutrinoless double beta decay and one vanishing neutrino mass, and can therefore be tested in future experiments.

  14. Immediate Sterility after Vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hay, D. Urquhart

    1973-01-01

    A 2·5-ml injection of 1/1,000 solution of euflavine given down each vas during vasectomy for sterilization will destroy all sperms within the semen and eliminate the necessity for examining two consecutive specimens of semen for azoospermia after the operation. No local inflammatory response has been observed in the seminal vesicles or prostate of 81 consecutive patients in whom the method has been used. PMID:4730187

  15. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Adir José; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Zambon, Luis da Silva; da Silva, Mônica Valero; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-01

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  16. [Sterilization of women].

    PubMed

    Tandberg, A

    1988-01-30

    The records of 209 women sterilized in the Lillehammer (Norway) county hospital during the period 1980-82 were examined for age, residence, parity, method of operation, induced abortions and frequency of complications. The patients were sent a questionnaire 6 months after the operation and were asked about how long they had felt unable to work after the operation, whether they regretted the operation, and whether they were satisfied with the cosmetic results. 96% of the patients returned the questionnaires. On the average the women had had 2.4 children at the time of sterilization. Those who had received induced abortions at the same time had 2.5 children. Women resident in the city had 2.1 children, those in the country had 2.4 children. None had 6 children. 20% had received abortion simultaneously. Aside from 1 patient who had transitory paresis in the left arm due to faulty padding in a shoulder support, there were no complications noted in the material. 2 patients regretted the operation. Neither of them had had simultaneous abortion. 1 of these had 1 child. Advised to be sterilized because of severe preeclampsia in her 1st pregnancy, she desired more children. The other, who had 4 children, gave decreased libido as the cause for her regret. Of the 177 who had had laparoscopy, only 6 patients (3.5%) said that they were dissatisfied with the appearance of the scar. PMID:3353913

  17. Hybrid sterility, Haldane's rule and speciation in Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene.

    PubMed Central

    Naisbit, Russell E; Jiggins, Chris D; Linares, Mauricio; Salazar, Camilo; Mallet, James

    2002-01-01

    Most genetic studies of Haldane's rule, in which hybrid sterility or inviability affects the heterogametic sex preferentially, have focused on Drosophila. It therefore remains unclear to what extent the conclusions of that work apply more generally, particularly in female-heterogametic taxa such as birds and Lepidoptera. Here we present a genetic analysis of Haldane's rule in Heliconius butterflies. Female F(1) hybrids between Heliconius melpomene and H. cydno are completely sterile, while males have normal to mildly reduced fertility. In backcrosses of male F(1) hybrids, female offspring range from completely sterile to fully fertile. Linkage analysis using the Z-linked triose-phosphate isomerase locus demonstrates a "large X" (Z) effect on sterility. Expression of female sterility varies among crosses in this and a previous study of Heliconius. Sterility may result from the production of normal but infertile eggs, production of small infertile eggs, or from a complete failure to develop ovarioles, which suggests multiple routes to the evolution of hybrid sterility in these Heliconius species. These results conform to the expectations of the "dominance" rather than "faster male" theories of Haldane's rule and suggest that relatively few loci are responsible. The two species are broadly sympatric and hybridize in the wild, so that female hybrid sterility forms one of several strong but incomplete barriers to gene flow in nature. The effect of female sterility is comparable to that of selection against non-mimetic hybrids, while mate choice forms a much stronger barrier to gene transfer. PMID:12196397

  18. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Review Methods Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. Results A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. Limitations All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Conclusions Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Plain Language Summary Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal

  19. Effectiveness of dental office instrument sterilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Hastreiter, R J; Molinari, J A; Falken, M C; Roesch, M H; Gleason, M J; Merchant, V A

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate instrument sterilization procedures in Minnesota, biological indicators were used to monitor 406 sterilizers in 381 dental offices. Findings suggest a general improvement in instrument performance over that of a decade ago, but sterilization failure rates are still too high. Sterilizer operator errors are a major cause of sterilization failures. BIs are useful in monitoring sterilization performance only when sterilization procedures are performed consistently and competently by well-trained staff using adequately maintained equipment. PMID:1660501

  20. Sociodemographic and Marital Heterogamy Influences on the Decision for Voluntary Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Frank D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationships between religious and age heterogamy and choice of voluntary contraceptive sterilization and decision for male or female procedure. Found that couples of disparate ages and mixed-faith marriages exhibited greater tendency to elect sterilization than did other couples. No relationship emerged between measures of heterogamy…

  1. The roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversions to fertility in S-type male-sterile maize: Progress report, April 1, 1985 through November 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneous cytoplasmic reversion to fertility of cms-S maize has been studied at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level in the three inbred line backgrounds M825, 38-11 and WF9. In the cases of M825 and 38-11, the free, linear plasmid-like molecules S1 and S2 are lost upon reversion. They are retained, however, upon reversion of cms-S in the WF9 nuclear background. Sequences homologous to S1 and S2 are found in the main mitochondrial genome of cms-S; thus they occur as both free and integrated versions. In M825 cytoplasmic revertants, the left end of the integrated S2 is always disrupted, as compared with the sterile progenitor, as evidenced by the loss of the left-most Pst-1 restriction site. In 38-11 revertants it is the left end of S1 that is disrupted. In the WF9 nuclear background, the integrated S1 and S2 sequences of revertants are not disrupted, but main mitochondrial regions flanking these integrated S sequences are rearranged. In all three inbred line backgrounds there is reorganization around the cytochrome oxidase I gene, while there is generally no rearrangement of the cytochrome oxidase II and apocytochrome B genes.

  2. The Bimodal Distribution of Genic GC Content Is Ancestral to Monocot Species

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Yves; Fustier, Margaux-Alison; Nabholz, Benoit; Glémin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In grasses such as rice or maize, the distribution of genic GC content is well known to be bimodal. It is mainly driven by GC content at third codon positions (GC3 for short). This feature is thought to be specific to grasses as closely related species like banana have a unimodal GC3 distribution. GC3 is associated with numerous genomics features and uncovering the origin of this peculiar distribution will help understanding the potential roles and consequences of GC3 variations within and between genomes. Until recently, the origin of the peculiar GC3 distribution in grasses has remained unknown. Thanks to the recent publication of several complete genomes and transcriptomes of nongrass monocots, we studied more than 1,000 groups of one-to-one orthologous genes in seven grasses and three outgroup species (banana, palm tree, and yam). Using a maximum likelihood-based method, we reconstructed GC3 at several ancestral nodes. We found that the bimodal GC3 distribution observed in extant grasses is ancestral to both grasses and most monocot species, and that other species studied here have lost this peculiar structure. We also found that GC3 in grass lineages is globally evolving very slowly and that the decreasing GC3 gradient observed from 5′ to 3′ along coding sequences is also conserved and ancestral to monocots. This result strongly challenges the previous views on the specificity of grass genomes and we discuss its implications for the possible causes of the evolution of GC content in monocots. PMID:25527839

  3. Discovery and validation of genic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Wang, Di; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    The economic and ecological importance of the oyster necessitates further research on the molecular mechanisms, which both regulate the commercially important traits of the oyster and help it to survive in the variable marine environment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used to assess genetic variation and identify genes underlying target traits. In addition, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a potentially powerful method for validating candidate SNPs. In this study, we adopted a rapid and efficient pipeline for the screening and validation of SNPs in the genic region of Crassostrea gigas based on transcriptome sequencing and HRM analysis. Transcriptomes of three wild oyster populations were sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology. In total, 50-60 million short reads, corresponding to 4.5-5.4 Gbp, from each population were aligned to the oyster genome, and 5.8 × 10(5) SNPs were putatively identified, resulting in a predicted SNP every 47 nucleotides on average. The putative SNPs were unevenly distributed in the genome and high-density (≥2%), nonsynonymous coding SNPs were enriched in genes related to apoptosis and responses to biotic stimuli. Subsequently, 1,671 loci were detected by HRM analysis, accounting for 64.7% of the total selected candidate primers, and finally, 1,301 polymorphic SNP markers were developed based on HRM analysis. All of the validated SNPs were distributed into 897 genes and located in 672 scaffolds, and 275 of these genes were stress inducible under unfavourable salinity, temperature, and exposure to air and heavy metals. The validated SNPs in this study provide valuable molecular markers for genetic mapping and characterization of important traits in oysters. PMID:24823694

  4. Bioequivalent chemical steam sterilization indicators.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A; Manne, S

    1984-01-01

    Biological indicators used to monitor steam sterilization cycles have two major shortcomings--the incubation period needed to determine if sterilization was accomplished, and the reliance on test packs for gathering information in each load. Chemical indicators do not suffer from these shortcomings. Chemical indicators can respond to time, temperature, and steam parameters to thus parallel the BI reaction. Nine commercially available chemical indicators and four biological indicators were evaluated under the conditions of dry heat, in a biological indicator-evaluator resistometer vessel, and in a hospital sterilizer. The results indicate that wider use of integrated chemical steam sterilization indicators is recommended. PMID:6493101

  5. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    PubMed Central

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  6. The perplexing links between contraceptive sterilization and (dis)advantage in ten low-fertility countries.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the association between contraceptive sterilization and socio-economic status (measured by educational attainment) in ten countries, using data from the 2006-10 National Survey of Family Growth and the 2004-10 Generations and Gender Surveys. The findings confirm that a long-standing association between socio-economic status and sterilization persists in the contemporary United States: female sterilization is associated with economic disadvantage, whereas male sterilization is associated with economic advantage. The latter association is found to be unique to the United States, but female sterilization is associated with disadvantage in most of the other countries studied. While basic demographic background factors such as early childbearing and parity can explain the observed associations in most of the countries, a strong gendered association between sterilization and socio-economic status remains in the United States and Belgium even after adjusting for these factors. PMID:26792541

  7. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  8. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  9. Irradiation of adult Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): egg sterility in parental and F1 generations.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Donald O; Kurashima, Rick; Woods, Bill; Suckling, David M

    2012-02-01

    Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of < 1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250-300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase fitness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs. PMID:22420255

  10. The sterilization of endodontic hand files.

    PubMed

    Hurtt, C A; Rossman, L E

    1996-06-01

    Several different methods of file sterilization were analyzed to determine the best method of providing complete file sterility, including the metal shaft and plastic handle. Six test groups of 15 files were studied using Bacillus stearothermophilus as the test organism. Groups were "sterilized" by glutaraldehyde immersion, steam autoclaving, and various techniques of salt sterilization. Only proper steam autoclaving reliably produced completely sterile instruments. Salt sterilization and glutaraldehyde solutions may not be adequate sterilization methods for endodontic hand files and should not be relied on to provide completely sterile instruments. PMID:8934994

  11. Roles of Distal and Genic Methylation in the Development of Prostate Tumorigenesis Revealed by Genome-wide DNA Methylation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Jadhav, Rohit Ramakant; Liu, Joseph; Wilson, Desiree; Chen, Yidong; Thompson, Ian M.; Troyer, Dean A.; Hernandez, Javier; Shi, Huidong; Leach, Robin J.; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Jin, Victor X.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation at promoters is often linked to tumorigenesis. But many aspects of DNA methylation remain unexplored, including the individual roles of distal and gene body methylation, as well as their collaborative roles with promoter methylation. Here we performed a MBD-seq analysis on prostate specimens classified into low, high, and very high risk group based on Gleason score and TNM stages. We identified gene sets with differential methylation regions (DMRs) in Distal, TSS, gene body and TES. To understand the collaborative roles, TSS was compared with the other three DMRs, resulted in 12 groups of genes with collaborative differential methylation patterns (CDMPs). We found several groups of genes that show opposite methylation patterns in Distal and Genic regions compared to TSS region, and in general they are differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumors in TCGA RNA-seq data. IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) reveals AR/TP53 signaling network to be a major signaling pathway, and survival analysis indicates genes subsets significantly associated with prostate cancer recurrence. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in Distal and Genic regions also plays critical roles in contributing to prostate tumorigenesis, and may act either positively or negatively with TSSs to alter gene regulation in tumors. PMID:26924343

  12. Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-10-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  13. Effectiveness of salt versus glass bead sterilizers.

    PubMed

    Haddad, A J; Girard, B; Bouclin, R; Valois, M; Landry, R G

    1997-06-01

    Microorganisms can be removed from dental instruments by various methods, including treatment in salt and glass bead sterilizers. However, no rigorous, controlled, in vivo or in vitro studies have been performed to verify the respective efficiencies of these methods. The goals of this study were to determine if the positioning of instruments at the centre or edge of a salt sterilizer results in differential sterilization effectiveness, and to compare the effectiveness of salt sterilizers relative to glass bead sterilizers. Autoclaved number 60 reamers were contaminated by plunging them to the handle in a commercial Bacillus stearothermophilus spore suspension. They were then sterilized for different periods of time and at different positions in the sterilizers. Each experiment included positive and negative controls. The results showed that better sterilization is achieved at the edge of the chamber than at the centre, and that salt sterilizers are more effective than glass bead sterilizers for a given period of time (15 seconds) in the sterilizer. PMID:9203778

  14. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  15. [Sterilization: necessity or genocide?].

    PubMed

    Muraro, R M

    1991-01-01

    Recent warnings by the UN Fund for Population Activities about the rapid growth of the world population and the overwhelming role in it played by impoverished women in developing countries are of interest to all women in Latin America. According to the document, Third World Women require drastic improvements in their socioeconomic positions in order to achieve reductions in their family sizes and avoid an increase in the world population from 5 billion at present to 10 billion in 2025, which would be a disaster for the planet. The document states that much of the environmental damage that would occur would be attributable to the combination of poverty and rapid population increase. If the proportion of the world's women using contraceptives increases from the current 45% to 58% by the year 2000, the world population in 2025 will be 8.5 billion. The document recommends that the amount of money invested in family planning be greatly increased by 2000 in order to make possible increased use of family planning. It appears, however, that much of the funding for family planning is under the control of private organizations and is used to serve the interests of foreign countries. The 2 principal private family planning organizations in Brazil, for example, received 18.2 million US dollars between 1978--84, which were used largely to finance a campaign of mass sterilization. Brazil's rate of population growth, which was 2.1% in 1980-85 and 1.8% in 1990, is expected to drop to 1.6% in 1995. With the decline in the rate of growth, the population will be 170 million in 2000 instead of the 220 million projected using data from the 1970s. A much higher proportion of fertile-aged women in Brazil is sterilized than in the US or Europe . Closer examination of the premises behind family planning policies shows them to be questionable. The premise that population density affects the environment is questionable; Japan, West Germany, and Holland have some of the highest population

  16. Sterility: an immunologic disorder?

    PubMed

    Rümke, P; Hekman, A

    1977-09-01

    Immunologic aspects of infertility are discussed. The autoantigenic and isoantigenic nature of spermatozoa is reviewed. Sperm antibodies may form in males by extravasation of spermatozoa following vasectomy and as a result of testicular lesions. Although little is known about the formation of isoantibidies to spermatozoa in females, they may arise as a result of epithelial lesions of the genital tract. Clinical findings of sperm agglutination and immobilizing antibodies in males and sperm antibodies in females in association with infertility are discussed along with some therapeutic approaches. A rare condition, allergy to seminal plasma, is noted. PMID:891061

  17. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  19. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  20. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  1. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  2. Evaluation of Canada goose sterilization for population control.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.; Kennelly, James J.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the vasectomy of 72 male Canada geese as a method to control growing populations of nuisance geese in Westchester County, New York. Thirty-three of the vasectomized males paired with a female and were located during ≥1 breeding seasons; 7 treated males were not seen following surgery. The remaining 32 males were never observed paired with a female during the breeding season. Of 56 nesting attempts by the 33 pairs in ≥1 breeding seasons, 84% of the nests were unsuccessful. Fidelity to nest sites during the second and third breeding seasons occurred for 17 of the 18 vasectomized males and their females that were observed for ≥2 seasons. The results suggest that male sterilization may reduce productivity of nuisance Canada geese providing one carefully selects areas and flocks suitable for this type of control.

  3. [Sterilization of mentally retarded women].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, W; Petersen, P; Schneider, J

    1982-07-01

    Seven mentally retarded women were sterilized in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Medical School Hannover between 1.6.74 and 1.6.81. The decision to operate proceeded only after careful consideration by the director of the clinic. Each case was documented with proof that improvement of the mental situation was unprobable and that sterilization seemed highly desirable. In spite of strong reservation the sterilization of a mentally retarded may medically and ethically be justified in exceptional cases. The operation seems possible by the following: The sterilization may only be performed if the patient does not obviously refuse it. Diagnosis and prognosis of the mental handicap must undoubtedly be proven. If the patient cannot judge the consequence of the operation the legal guardian must decide for her. The court must consent in these cases. Regarding legal theory the decision by the guardian is an open question. PMID:6922080

  4. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes be reversed, both must be considered permanent forms of birth control. When deciding if you want to have a ... other options for preventing pregnancy that are not permanent. Talk ... before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  5. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  6. Sterility method of pest control and its potential role in an integrated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  7. Voluntary sterilization in North Tyneside.

    PubMed

    Carnegie-Smith, K

    1984-04-01

    Since 1975, sterilization operations, on both men and women have been performed with increasing frequency within the National Health Service in the North Tyneside Area in northeast England. A prospective study was undertaken to discover some of the reasons why healthy young men and women chose surgical sterilization rather than use the established reversible methods of family planning available to them. The study examined some of the characteristics of those requesting sterilization, attempted to understand why they did so at that particular time, and assessed the patient-perceived morbidity resulting from this elective procedure. The study population included all individuals referred for consultation following the patient's request for voluntary sterilization by vasectomy or occlusive tubal surgery, during the period of 1 year (August 1, 1980-July 31, 1981). Women sterilized in association with a pregnancy outcome were not included in the study. Data on pregnancies and sterilizations in North Tyneside demonstrate a rapid increase in requests for vasectomy after 1975. Patients requesting sterilization were admitted to the study during the initial out-patient appointment with their surgeon. Couples seeking sterilization show similar age range for men (mean 34.2) and women (33.1). The proportion of patients who were not married at the time of the operation is perhaps a reflection of doctors' increasing willingness to perform sterilizations on the unmarried, and of individuals to seek such surgery in a committed manner. The increasing tendency for requests to be received from people still in their early 20s is seen as a problem. Data indicates that married people who request the operation at an early age are also those who were married under age 21, started a family immediately and with a 25% divorce rate. At the other end of the age range, couples who ahve been sucessfully using oral contraceptives have become concerned about its safety, especially after age 35. Data

  8. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  9. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-06-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  10. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  11. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. PMID:26006188

  12. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  13. Genic and Intergenic SSR Database Generation, SNPs Determination and Pathway Annotations, in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Morad M; Adawy, Sami S; El-Assal, Salah El-Din S; Hussein, Ebtissam H A

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out aiming to use the bioinformatics tools in order to identify and characterize, simple sequence repeats within the third Version of the date palm genome and develop a new SSR primers database. In addition single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are located within the SSR flanking regions were recognized. Moreover, the pathways for the sequences assigned by SSR primers, the biological functions and gene interaction were determined. A total of 172,075 SSR motifs was identified on date palm genome sequence with a frequency of 450.97 SSRs per Mb. Out of these, 130,014 SSRs (75.6%) were located within the intergenic regions with a frequency of 499 SSRs per Mb. While, only 42,061 SSRs (24.4%) were located within the genic regions with a frequency of 347.5 SSRs per Mb. A total of 111,403 of SSR primer pairs were designed, that represents 291.9 SSR primers per Mb. Out of the 111,403, only 31,380 SSR primers were in the genic regions, while 80,023 primers were in the intergenic regions. A number of 250,507 SNPs were recognized in 84,172 SSR flanking regions, which represents 75.55% of the total SSR flanking regions. Out of 12,274 genes only 463 genes comprising 896 SSR primers were mapped onto 111 pathways using KEGG data base. The most abundant enzymes were identified in the pathway related to the biosynthesis of antibiotics. We tested 1031 SSR primers using both publicly available date palm genome sequences as templates in the in silico PCR reactions. Concerning in vitro validation, 31 SSR primers among those used in the in silico PCR were synthesized and tested for their ability to detect polymorphism among six Egyptian date palm cultivars. All tested primers have successfully amplified products, but only 18 primers detected polymorphic amplicons among the studied date palm cultivars. PMID:27434138

  14. Genic and Intergenic SSR Database Generation, SNPs Determination and Pathway Annotations, in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out aiming to use the bioinformatics tools in order to identify and characterize, simple sequence repeats within the third Version of the date palm genome and develop a new SSR primers database. In addition single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are located within the SSR flanking regions were recognized. Moreover, the pathways for the sequences assigned by SSR primers, the biological functions and gene interaction were determined. A total of 172,075 SSR motifs was identified on date palm genome sequence with a frequency of 450.97 SSRs per Mb. Out of these, 130,014 SSRs (75.6%) were located within the intergenic regions with a frequency of 499 SSRs per Mb. While, only 42,061 SSRs (24.4%) were located within the genic regions with a frequency of 347.5 SSRs per Mb. A total of 111,403 of SSR primer pairs were designed, that represents 291.9 SSR primers per Mb. Out of the 111,403, only 31,380 SSR primers were in the genic regions, while 80,023 primers were in the intergenic regions. A number of 250,507 SNPs were recognized in 84,172 SSR flanking regions, which represents 75.55% of the total SSR flanking regions. Out of 12,274 genes only 463 genes comprising 896 SSR primers were mapped onto 111 pathways using KEGG data base. The most abundant enzymes were identified in the pathway related to the biosynthesis of antibiotics. We tested 1031 SSR primers using both publicly available date palm genome sequences as templates in the in silico PCR reactions. Concerning in vitro validation, 31 SSR primers among those used in the in silico PCR were synthesized and tested for their ability to detect polymorphism among six Egyptian date palm cultivars. All tested primers have successfully amplified products, but only 18 primers detected polymorphic amplicons among the studied date palm cultivars. PMID:27434138

  15. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population. PMID:25105593

  16. Causes of Sterility in Bosnia-Herzegovina Population

    PubMed Central

    Ümit, Göktolga; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Admir, Rama; Spahovic, Hajrudin; Cihan, Göktaş

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility or sterility or barrenness is defined as a state of inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse. Ovulation problems, uterine tube problems, endometriosis, uterine etiology problems, chromosomal problems which are not so rare, spermatogenesis disorders and azoospermia are stated as the most common causes of infertility. Objective: Main objective of this research is to present most common causes of marital infertility in Bosnia-Herzegovina population. Material and methods: Retrospective, descriptive- epidemiological study has been published at Bahceci IVF center in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The research covered a time-period of two years. During the time-period in question, 826 marital couples from Bosnia and Herzegovina diagnosed with marital sterility approached the Center. Results: Analysis of female patients as per age groups determined that the largest number of respondents belonged to the 36 – 39 age group with a total number of 293 patients, followed by 30 – 35 age group with a total number of 245 patients, and the third most frequent age group included those of ≥ 40 years of age with 179 patients in total, followed by 25–29 age group with 98 respondents. In 42% (n=350) of the couples diagnosed with marital infertility, female sterility was established as the reason, while in 36 % (n=294) of the couples, male sterility was the reason. Both marital spouses were infertile in 11% of the couples (n=92), while in remaining 11% of the couples, no diagnosis was determined and they belonged in the group of unexplainable sterility. The most common cause of sterility in women is diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), as was the case in 38.57% of respondents. This diagnosis is in direct correlation with the age of a woman. Among causes of sterility of organic and functional origin, the most common is ovarian tube problem – in 31.4% of the cases, then ovulatory problems – in 12.86% of the cases, and polycystic

  17. Misregulation of Gene Expression and Sterility in Interspecies Hybrids: Causal Links and Alternative Hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Civetta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the origin of species is of interest to biologist in general and evolutionary biologist in particular. Hybrid male sterility (HMS) has been a focus in studies of speciation because sterility imposes a barrier to free gene flow between organisms, thus effectively isolating them as distinct species. In this review, I focus on the role of differential gene expression in HMS and speciation. Microarray and qPCR assays have established associations between misregulation of gene expression and sterility in hybrids between closely related species. These studies originally proposed disrupted expression of spermatogenesis genes as a causative of sterility. Alternatively, rapid genetic divergence of regulatory elements, particularly as they relate to the male sex (fast-male evolution), can drive the misregulation of sperm developmental genes in the absence of sterility. The use of fertile hybrids (both backcross and F1 progeny) as controls has lent support to this alternative explanation. Differences in gene expression between fertile and sterile hybrids can also be influenced by a pattern of faster evolution of the sex chromosome (fast-X evolution) than autosomes. In particular, it would be desirable to establish whether known X-chromosome sterility factors can act as trans-regulatory drivers of genome-wide patterns of misregulation. Genome-wide expression studies coupled with assays of proxies of sterility in F1 and BC progeny have identified candidate HMS genes but functional assays, and a better phenotypic characterization of sterility phenotypes, are needed to rigorously test how these genes might contribute to HMS. PMID:27025762

  18. Sterilization. Low-income women have special counseling needs.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    An increasing percentage of low income women are using sterilization as a method of contraception. 26% of low income women in 1982 used sterilization; 37% used it in 1988. This group of women has less access to services and information than women in other income brackets, who use sterilization less. A 16 page booklet, which is based on a study, conducted from 1985-1989 at three hospital clinics, of 1800 low income women, has been prepared by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) for use by counselors. According to Joseph Feldman of Planned Parenthood of Central and Northern Arizona (PPCNA), low motivation to postpone pregnancy (due to concentration on the roles of wife and mother) and a sense of powerlessness over their lives are problems among poor women. Libby Antarsh of AVSC states the booklet has been designed to give women all the information necessary for an informed decision. Susan Philliber of the State University of New York at New Paltz, one of the investigators in the study, says the booklet removes one of the barriers to sterilization by alleviating the fears of physicians concerned about litigation. Barriers faced by low income women in undergoing sterilization, as revealed by the study, include 1) inadequate health care services and overburdened clinic staff; 2) less access to information about contraception, and less knowledge about using the health care system; and 3) little economic or psychological support for these, often, single parents. Culture effects support for the women and their ability to use the information provided. The number of women who actually follow through on being sterilized is double among those with the approval of their male partners. Counselors should include partners and discuss the influences of others who are pressuring the woman (friends, family, physicians). The woman should separate her feelings, but be aware of the consequences of the disapproval of others. Accurate information concerning

  19. Bacterial Sterilization Using Cavitating Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Yohei; Kato, Hiroharu; Usami, Ron; Fukushima, Tadamasa

    In this paper, a new sterilization method using cavitating flow is presented. Water with bacteria was pressurized up to 105 MPa and flushed out through two very small nozzles 0.1-0.31 mm in diameter, where a cavitating jet was generated containing bubbles that collapsed downstream. First, the effects of jet velocity and cavitation number on the sterilization rate of Escherichia coli JCM1649T (E. coli) were examined. The sterilization rate increased with jet velocity. The rate was proportional to the 3rd power of the velocity. All the E. coli cells were killed by three successive treatments at V=355.7 m/s and cavitation number σ=0.154. The sterilization rate has a peak depending on cavitation number at the low-jet-velocity region of less than 300 m/s. An experiment was also performed to compare two types of bacteria, E. coli, as typical Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis JCM1465T (B. subtilis), as typical Gram-positive bacteria. Additional tests were performed using Pseudomonas putida JCM13063T, Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus halodurans JCTM9153, Gram-positive bacteria. The sterilization rate of the Gram-positive bacteria was much lower than that of the Gram-negative bacteria under the same experimental conditions. Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan layer than Gram-negative bacteria. This may be the reason why B. subtilis is more resistant to the mechanical stress caused by cavitating flow.

  20. A reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap Sterile Insect Release Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, John G.

    2015-05-01

    The Sterile Insect Release Method (SIRM) is used as a biological control for invasive insect species. SIRM involves introducing large quantities of sterilized male insects into a wild population of invading insects. A fertile/sterile mating produces offspring that are not viable and the wild insect population will eventually be eradicated. A U.S. government program maintains a permanent sterile fly barrier zone in the Darien Gap between Panama and Columbia to control the screwworm fly (Cochliomyia Hominivorax), an insect that feeds off of living tissue in mammals and has devastating effects on livestock. This barrier zone is maintained by regular releases of massive quantities of sterilized male screwworm flies from aircraft. We analyze a reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap barrier zone. Simulations of the model equations yield two types of spatially inhomogeneous steady-state solutions representing a sterile fly barrier that does not prevent invasion and a barrier that does prevent invasion. We investigate steady-state solutions using both phase plane methods and monotone iteration methods and describe how barrier width and the sterile fly release rate affects steady-state behavior.

  1. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Sterile Insect Technology for Control of Anopheles Mosquito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Dumont, Y.; Lubuma, J.

    2011-11-01

    Sterile Insect Technology (SIT) is a nonpolluting method of insect control that relies on the release of sterile males. We study the effectiveness of the application of SIT for control of Anopheles mosquito via mathematical modeling. The theoretical analysis of the mathematical model as a dynamical system leads to the formulation of possible strategies for control of the Anopheles mosquito, also illustrated by numerical simulations.

  3. [Psychosexual implications of female sterilization].

    PubMed

    Grio, R; Fusi, D; Corsello, F P; Canestrelli, M; Abbondanza, M; Arrichiello, G; Marchino, G L

    1991-12-01

    According to data of the Italian Association for Demographic Education, from 1978 to 1991 a total of 16,000 sterilizations were carried out in patients with an average age of 36 years. There was an increasing frequency of anxiety, depression, and lack of satisfaction with sexual life, and deterioration of marital life as the consequence of the operations. Psychological improvement has been reported in only a few cases. Hysterectomy, mastectomy, abortion, and sterilization produce profound psychological effects in women. The ideal candidate for such intervention should be fully aware of the choice and be well informed about the reproductive system, and aged over 30 with at least 2 children in a stable marital relationship. A 1973 review of 80 different studies carried out in 12 different countries reported that 82% of women benefited from the operation. In a study of 180 patients in Glasgow, Scotland, psychosexual disorders were found, in only 3.6%. In a 1975 report, postoperative psychiatric disturbances in sexual life were recorded in 2% of 98 women. Another study of 94 women who were sterilized did not find any medical or psychological problems but did find patients who were completely satisfied 2 years later. In a study of 50 patients who underwent surgical sterilization by the Pomeroy technique during cesarean section, sexual behavior in the women, measured as desire, frequency of intercourse, and satisfaction, was unchanged in 47, while in 3 there were only modest variations in libido and frequency of intercourse. On the basis of these reports in the majority of cases the outcome of sterilization was favorable when assessing various gynecological problems over time. On the other hand, when the candidate is a young woman the information has to be particularly detailed and scrupulous with respect to risks and the probable irreversibility of sterilization. PMID:1819775

  4. NUCLEAR-MEDIATED MITOCHONDRIAL GENE REGULATION AND MALE FERTILITY IN HIGHER PLANTS: LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exploitation of hybrid vigor in plants usually capitalizes on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a maternally inherited trait characterized by the absence of functional pollen. Hybrids of many plants are produced using CMS, wherein a male-sterile line is grown adjacent to a selected male-fertile...

  5. Portable Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Songer, J. R.; Mathis, R. G.

    1969-01-01

    A portable ethylene oxide sterilization chamber was designed, constructed, and tested for use in the sterilization of embolectomy catheters. The unit can accommodate catheters up to 40 inches (101.6 cm) in length and can be operated for less than 4 cents per cycle. A constant concentration of 500 mg of ethylene oxide per liter of space and holding periods of 4 and 6 hr at 43 and 22 C, respectively, were adequate when tested with B. subtilis spores. The estimated cost of construction was $165.00. If temperature control is unnecessary, the cost is approximately $80.00. Images PMID:4977644

  6. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today's global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males' longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  7. Mating rates between sterile and wild codling moths (Cydia pomonella) in springtime: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tyson, R; Newton, K D; Thistlewood, H; Judd, G

    2008-09-21

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) can be a powerful method for pest control without the negative environmental effects of conventional pesticides. The goal is to induce pest population collapse by arranging conditions where wild females mate only with sterile males and thus do not produce offspring. In applying the SIT, it can be important to understand both how subtle alterations of sterile and wild insect behaviour alter the effectiveness of the SIT in different applications, and how this is reflected in the data gathered through associated monitoring devices, often pheromone traps. Our work in this paper is motivated by the use of SIT against orchard pests, particularly the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). We investigate how individual behaviours affect the mating rate between wild females and sterile males, and the corresponding sterile to wild trap catch ratio, through a preliminary individual-based model. Our analysis suggests that the sterile males may not be effective at interfering with mating between wild moths during springtime releases, while at the same time monitoring information gathered from trap catches may give no indication of reduced effectiveness of the SIT. PMID:18597787

  8. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  9. Sterilization beneath rings on dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H; Sheldrake, M A

    1991-12-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of standard methods of instrument sterilization beneath instrument rings. Sets of three types of dental instruments were contaminated with known amounts of bacterial spores (Bacillus stearothermophilus or Bacillus subtilis). Instrument rings were placed over the contamination and the instruments processed through standard cycles in a steam autoclave, an unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizer, a standard dry heat sterilizer, an ethylene oxide gas sterilizer or a 2.0% alkaline glutaraldehyde solution. Controls consisted of spore-contaminated instruments without rings that were not processed through any sterilizing method and that were processed through each sterilizing method. All instruments and their associated rings were cultured for the presence of live spores. The results indicate that the reliability of sterilization beneath the instrument rings used is greatest if the ringed instruments are processed through a steam autoclave or an unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizer. PMID:1814351

  10. Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sterilization Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhiraman, R. P.; Beeler, D.; Meyyappan, M.; Khare, B. N.

    2012-10-01

    Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sterilization shower to address both forward and backward biological contamination issues is presented. The molecular effects of plasma exposure required to sterilize microorganisms is also analysed.

  11. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  12. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  13. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR part 441, subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  14. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  15. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  16. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  17. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  18. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Amt. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Delta m2s 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  19. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results. PMID:26425144

  20. Cardboard versus sterile containers: more nitrite-positive urinalysis results?

    PubMed

    Eley, Rhiannon

    Urinalysis is a frequently performed test that provides valuable information as to the health of individuals. The presence of nitrites in the urine may indicate infection. Antibiotic therapy is commonly started following the results of dipstick urine taken from non-sterile urine samples. This is especially prevalent in men who are immobile, because sterile containers large enough to hold a full bladder of urine are not available (at the author's trust). Urine samples were taken from 25 male A&E patients in a sterile container. Half of each sample was decanted into an ordinary cardboard urine bottle and both samples were then tested using dipstick urinalysis after 1 minute and after 10 minutes to see if there was a difference in the presence of nitrites between the two container types. After 10 minutes, 21 of the 25 samples showed a positive nitrite dipstick in the cardboard container while it remained negative when the urine remained in the sterile container. These results demonstrate that care needs to be taken when collecting urine samples, and the results of dipstick urinalysis should be used with caution depending on the collection method. PMID:25978475

  1. The limits of sterility assurance

    PubMed Central

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10–6 is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10–6. By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10–6 is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10–6 corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into “High-level disinfection”, “Intermediate-level disinfection” and “Low-level disinfection”. The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options. In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10–3 is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of

  2. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public...

  3. Wolf management in the 21st century: From public input to sterilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.; Nelson, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Human-population increase and land development portend increasing conflict with large predators. Concurrently, changes and diversification of human attitudes are bringing increased disagreement about wildlife management. Animal-rights advocacy resulting from urbanization of human populations conflicts with traditional wildlife management. These forces focus more on wolves than on other wildlife because of strong public and media interest in wolves. Thus wolf management in the future will come under even greater public scrutiny, involve more public input, and may have greater restrictions imposed on it. This will lead to increased complexity in wolf management including more zoning, more experimentation with lethal and non-lethal capture techniques and alternate methods of alleviating damage to pets, livestock, and large ungulate herds, and greater public and private subsidy of wolf damage. One form of non-lethal control of wolf populations that may hold some promise is direct sterilization of males to reduce the biotic potential of the wolf population. Experimental vasectomy of five wild male wolves from four packs in Minnesota indicates that sterile males will continue to hold mates and territories, which would be necessary if sterilization is to be a viable technique for assisting with population control. If sterile males held territories but failed to produce pups, such territories might contain only about a third the number of wolves as fertile pack territories. Because wolves are long-lived in unexploited populations and their territories are large, direct sterilization of relatively few animals each year might significantly reduce populations.

  4. Dog and cat management through sterilization: Implications for population dynamics and veterinary public policies.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Moretti, Caio Figueiredo; de Lucca, Tosca; Rodrigues, Ricardo Conde Alves; Castagna, Cláudio Luiz; Presotto, Douglas; Kronitzky, Yury Cezar; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare different sterilization scenarios allowing the adoption of the most adequate strategy to control owned dog and cat population sizes as the official veterinary public policy for animal control in an urban area of Campinas municipality, Brazil. To achieve this goal, the vital parameters of the owned pet population were measured in a neighborhood of Campinas called Jardim Vila Olimpia through questionnaires used in two census studies performed in February 2012 and June 2013. Different hypothetical sterilization scenarios were compared with the scenario of a single sterilization campaign performed in the study area between the census studies. Using a deterministic mathematical model, population dynamics were simulated for these different scenarios. We have observed that for both owned dogs and cats, the impact on the population size achieved by a single sterilization campaign would be diluted over the years, equating to the impact achieved by the usual sterilization rate practiced before the sterilization campaign yearly. Moreover, using local and global sensitivity analyses, we assessed the relative influence on animal population evolution of each vital parameter used in the mathematical models. The more influential parameters for both species were the carrying capacity of the environment and sterilization rates of males and females (for both species). We observed that even with sterilizing 100% of the intact animals annually, it would not be possible to obtain proportions greater than 86% and 88% of sterilized dogs and cats, respectively, after 20 years due to the high introduction of new intact animals. There is no public dog and cat sterilization service in place in the city, and sporadic and local sterilization campaigns are performed with a prior communication to the owners to bring their animals to be sterilized in a selected veterinary facility. If a sterilization campaign was performed annually in the study area, it would

  5. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  6. Sixteen years of experience with sterilization monitoring.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J A; Gleason, M J; Merchant, V A

    1994-12-01

    Sterilization in the dental office should be monitored to ascertain proper sterilizer function. Biologic monitoring with calibrated preparations of bacterial spores is the preferred, as well as the only method that actually measures sterilization. A dental school-based sterilization monitoring service for dental practices was established in 1978 at the University of Detroit. This service has grown from 20 participating dental offices to more than 1,500. In 1993, 18,137 biologic monitoring tests were performed. The participants in the service primarily use autoclaves (70%) for heat sterilization, while unsaturated chemical-vapor sterilizers (20%) and dry-heat units (10%) are less common. This article describes the history of sterilization monitoring in dental practices from 1978 to the present through a dental school-based service. PMID:7758029

  7. Implementing AORN recommended practices for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Graybill-D'Ercole, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Any hospital or facility in which surgery and other invasive procedures are performed should have accommodations for cleaning, decontaminating, disinfecting, and sterilizing instruments, equipment, and other essential supplies that are used for patient procedures. Sterilization is essential to reducing or preventing the risk of surgical site infections. This is a collaborative process and should include all health care providers who handle these instruments, including perioperative nurses. The revised AORN "Recommended practices for sterilization," which became effective June 15, 2012, includes updates on sterilizing single-use items, inspecting critical items before sterilization, using low-temperature hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization methods, and immediate use steam sterilization. This RP document is the first AORN document to be evidence rated and accepted for inclusion in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Guideline Clearinghouse. PMID:23622825

  8. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Urquidi, Jacob Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-23

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  9. [Prolactin and sterility (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Santeler, P; Martin, J; Daxenbichler, G

    1980-07-01

    From July 1975 to December 1979 at the Univ.-Klinik für Frauenheilkunde, Innsbruck, 91 female sterile patients were examined due to hyperprolactinaemia. Since hyperprolactin presents common symptoms of different diseases, we established a differentiated clarification and therapy scheme using the guidelines of the W.H.O. and all new knowledge. After disqualification of patients with corresponding tubular sterility, we induced in 24 patients 32 pregnancies with medication or operative therapy. After birth or abortion a prolactin-caused dysfunction reappeared in the reproductive system. With a gradual prolactin increasion in the serum level, the grade of this dysfunction in the reproductive system was worsened. A reduction of the prolactin serum level to 40 ng/ml seems to be the basis for spontaneous ovulation. Present therapeutic possibilities and as a result the reversibility of this disturbance after interruption of prolactin inhibitors, we find that long-therm therapy is necessary. PMID:6933737

  10. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  11. Observation of Effectiveness of Clinical Sterilization by CASP-80A Low-Temperature Plasma Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Zhang, Yangde; Liu, Weidong

    2006-09-01

    The influence on the effectiveness of sterilization by low-temperature plasma sterilizer CASP-80A was investigated so as to provide a theoretical basis for reducing medical costs and achieving ideal sterilization effectiveness. To conduct the on-site simulation test, a clinical material sterilization test and a test of the influence of organic substance were conducted, the former by using the representative of Bacillus Stearothermophilus, preparing the bacteria-contaminated carrier through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) simulated hose endoscopes, and the latter by using calf serum as the influence factor of the organic substance. The results show that the CASP-80A low-temperature plasma sterilizer could achieve effective sterilization by either the short-cycle or the long-cycle sterilization method depending on different materials, apparatus, and extent of contamination. The organic substances could influence the effectiveness of sterilization by the low-temperature plasma (H2O2) sterilizer.

  12. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M. |

    1993-03-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed or sterile neutrinos. This model has been studied extensively in the context of the hot dark matter scenario. We reexamine this model and find that hot, warm, and cold dark matter are all possibilities. We focus on the case where sterile neutrinos are the dark matter. Since their only direct coupling is to left-handed or active neutrinos, the most efficient production mechanism is via neutrino oscillations. If the production rate is always less than the expansion rate, then these neutrinos will never be in thermal equilibrium. However, they may still play a significant role in the dynamics of the Universe and possibly provide the missing mass necessary for closure. We consider a single generation of neutrino fields ({nu}{sub L}, {nu}{sub R}) with a Dirac mass, {mu}, and a Majorana mass for the right-handed components only, M. For M {much_gt} {mu} we show that the number density of sterile neutrinos is proportional to {mu}{sup 2}/M so that the energy density today is independent of M. However M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe. In particular, M {approx_equal} 0.1--1.0 key leads to warm dark matter and a structure formation scenario that may have some advantages over both the standard hot and cold dark matter scenarios.

  13. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S. ); Widrow, L.M. . Dept. of Physics Toronto Univ., ON . Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics)

    1993-03-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed or sterile neutrinos. This model has been studied extensively in the context of the hot dark matter scenario. We reexamine this model and find that hot, warm, and cold dark matter are all possibilities. We focus on the case where sterile neutrinos are the dark matter. Since their only direct coupling is to left-handed or active neutrinos, the most efficient production mechanism is via neutrino oscillations. If the production rate is always less than the expansion rate, then these neutrinos will never be in thermal equilibrium. However, they may still play a significant role in the dynamics of the Universe and possibly provide the missing mass necessary for closure. We consider a single generation of neutrino fields ([nu][sub L], [nu][sub R]) with a Dirac mass, [mu], and a Majorana mass for the right-handed components only, M. For M [much gt] [mu] we show that the number density of sterile neutrinos is proportional to [mu][sup 2]/M so that the energy density today is independent of M. However M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe. In particular, M [approx equal] 0.1--1.0 key leads to warm dark matter and a structure formation scenario that may have some advantages over both the standard hot and cold dark matter scenarios.

  14. Radiation biology and inherited sterility of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): developing a sterile insect release program.

    PubMed

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Stringer, Lloyd D; Woods, Bill; Stephens, Andrea E A; Butler, Ruth C; Lacey, Ian; Kaur, Amandip; Suckling, David M

    2011-12-01

    The radiation biology of two geographically isolated populations of the light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] was studied in Australia and New Zealand as an initiation of a SIT/F1 sterility program. Pharate and < or = 2 d pre-emergence pupae were exposed to increasing radiation doses up to a maximum dose of 300 Gy. Fertility and other life history parameters were measured in emerging adults (parental) and their progeny (F1-F3 adults). Parental fecundity was significantly affected by increasing irradiation dose in pharate pupae only. For both populations, parental egg fertility declined with increasing radiation. This was most pronounced for the irradiated parental females whose fertility declined at a higher rate than of irradiated males. At 250 Gy, females < or = 2 d preemergence pupae produced few larvae and no adults at F1. No larvae hatched from 250 Gy-irradiated female pharate pupae. At 300 Gy, males still had residual fertility of 2-5.5%, with pharate pupae being the more radio-sensitive. Radiation-induced deleterious inherited effects in offspring from irradiated males were expressed as increased developmental time in F1 larvae, a reduction in percent F1 female survival, decreased adult emergence and increased cumulative mortality over subsequent generations. Males irradiated at > or = 150 Gy produced few but highly sterile offspring at F1 and mortality was > 99% by F2 egg. PMID:22299363

  15. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  16. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  17. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  18. Genic DNA methylation changes during in vitro organogenesis: organ specificity and conservation between parental lines of epialleles.

    PubMed

    Maury, Stéphane; Trap-Gentil, Marie-Véronique; Hébrard, Claire; Weyens, Guy; Delaunay, Alain; Barnes, Steve; Lefebvre, Marc; Joseph, Claude

    2012-11-01

    During differentiation, in vitro organogenesis calls for the adjustment of the gene expression program toward a new fate. The role of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation is suggested but little is known about the loci affected by DNA methylation changes, particularly in agronomic plants for witch in vitro technologies are useful such as sugar beet. Here, three pairs of organogenic and non-organogenic in vitro cell lines originating from different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima) cultivars were used to assess the dynamics of DNA methylation at the global or genic levels during shoot or root regeneration. The restriction landmark genome scanning for methylation approach was applied to provide a direct quantitative epigenetic assessment of several CG methylated genes without prior knowledge of gene sequence that is particularly adapted for studies on crop plants without a fully sequenced genome. The cloned sequences had putative roles in cell proliferation, differentiation or unknown functions and displayed organ-specific DNA polymorphism for methylation and changes in expression during in vitro organogenesis. Among them, a potential ubiquitin extension protein 6 (UBI6) was shown, in different cultivars, to exhibit repeatable variations of DNA methylation and gene expression during shoot regeneration. In addition, abnormal development and callogenesis were observed in a T-DNA insertion mutant (ubi6) for a homologous sequence in Arabidopsis. Our data showed that DNA methylation is changed in an organ-specific way for genes exhibiting variations of expression and playing potential role during organogenesis. These epialleles could be conserved between parental lines opening perspectives for molecular markers. PMID:22486767

  19. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation. PMID:24936306

  20. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  1. Locating the voices of the sterilized.

    PubMed

    Kluchin, Rebecca M

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have been studying eugenics and sterilization for years, but only recently have some begun to examine these issues from the point of view of those sterilized. This is in large part because so few records containing the voices of the sterilized exist or are accessible to scholars. This essay examines my own effort to recover the voices of women sterilized in the post-baby boom United States from the "bottom up" and includes my own experience researching and writing Fit to Be Tied?: Sterilization and Reproductive Rights in America, 1960-1984. It represents the beginning of a discussion about locating and using sources containing the voices of the sterilized and working with the limitations inherent to them. PMID:18175455

  2. Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on maturation and sexual performance of sterile, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on the attractiveness and competitiveness of the male Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Mexican fruit fly). Since the success of the sterile insect technique requires the release of males that can compete in the wild, these effects are very impor...

  3. Hysteroscopic Sterilization: History and Current Methods

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    For many practicing obstetrician-gynecologists, tubal ligation was the gold standard by which female sterilization techniques were measured. Yet gynecologic surgeons have simultaneously sought to occlude the fallopian tubes transcervically to avoid discomfort and complications associated with transabdominal approaches. In this review, the history of transcervical sterilization is discussed. Past, current, and upcoming techniques are reviewed. This article focuses on interval sterilization techniques, thus removing post-vaginal and post-cesarean delivery tubal ligations from the discussion. PMID:19015762

  4. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  5. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue. PMID:27131131

  6. Ramifications of a sterile Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2011-10-01

    The seldom considered ramifications of a sterile Mars are explored. Very much is now known about the environment on Mars. Herein, the individual and collective environmental parameters are examined with particular consideration of those that might be inimical to life as we know it, or as might reasonably be assumed to be so to alien life. It is shown that no single measurement or combination of them precludes the ability of Mars to support even a wide number of terrestrial microbial species, let alone the likely greater tolerance and/or adaptability of possible alien life forms. Some yet unknown factor or combination of factors would have to be responsible for Mars' failure to generate life or to successfully harbor viable forms received from space. Since Mars is so Earth-like, the red planet's sterility could deliver a fatal blow to the growing concept of a cosmic Biologic Imperative, and would raise the daunting prospect that Earth is a unique or a very rare habitat.

  7. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  8. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  9. Review of surface steam sterilization for validation purposes.

    PubMed

    van Doornmalen, Joost; Kopinga, Klaas

    2008-03-01

    Sterilization is an essential step in the process of producing sterile medical devices. To guarantee sterility, the process of sterilization must be validated. Because there is no direct way to measure sterility, the techniques applied to validate the sterilization process are based on statistical principles. Steam sterilization is the most frequently applied sterilization method worldwide and can be validated either by indicators (chemical or biological) or physical measurements. The steam sterilization conditions are described in the literature. Starting from these conditions, criteria for the validation of steam sterilization are derived and can be described in terms of physical parameters. Physical validation of steam sterilization appears to be an adequate and efficient validation method that could be considered as an alternative for indicator validation. Moreover, physical validation can be used for effective troubleshooting in steam sterilizing processes. PMID:18313509

  10. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  11. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.12 Sterility. (a) The test. Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, manufacturers of biological products must perform sterility testing of each lot of each biological product's final container material or other material, as appropriate and...

  12. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.12 Sterility. (a) The test. Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, manufacturers of biological products must perform sterility testing of each lot of each biological product's final container material or other material, as appropriate and...

  13. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  14. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  15. Monitoring dental sterilizers' effectiveness using biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, A; Bhuta, P; Orton, G; Alvin, B

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dental office sterilizers as measured by their ability to kill bacterial spores present on biological indicator strips. The biological indicators used in this study contained two different spores, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis (Spordi, AMSCO/Medical Products). Ten spore test strips were sent to 87 dental offices; 51 sterilizers were tested. Office personnel were instructed to place four strips in the center of a normal sterilization load and process the load. The procedure was repeated on a second day. The processed strips, along with two unprocessed control strips, were returned by mail for laboratory culturing. The results indicated the overall failure rate (positive test) of sterlizers tested for both days was 51% at the culturing temperature of 37 degrees C and 33.3% at 55 degrees C. McNemar's test indicated a significant difference (p less than .03) in sterilization failures associated with the type and number of microorganisms present on the test strips. This study also showed that the more times a sterilizer was tested, the more likely a failure would occur. Overall, an alarming number of sterilizers (64.7%) were not effective in killing all the spores present on the indicator strips. When office personnel were given information for improving sterilizer performance, there was a noticeable reduction in sterilization failures following retesting. PMID:2370583

  16. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  17. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  18. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  19. Viking heat sterilization - Progress and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daspit, L. P.; Cortright, E. M.; Stern, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars landers to be launched in 1975 will carry experiments in biology, planetology, and atmospheric physics. A terminal dry-heat sterilization process using an inert gas was chosen to meet planetary quarantine requirements and preclude contamination of the biology experiment by terrestrial organisms. Deep sterilization is performed at the component level and terminal surface sterilization at the system level. Solutions to certain component problems relating to sterilization are discussed, involving the gyroscope, tape recorder, battery, electronic circuitry, and outgassing. Heat treatment placed special requirements on electronic packaging, including fastener preload monitoring and solder joints. Chemical and physical testing of nonmetallic materials was performed to establish data on their behavior in heat-treatment and vacuum environments. A Thermal Effects Test Model and a Proof Test Capsule were used. It is concluded that a space vehicle can be designed and fabricated to withstand heat sterilization requirements.

  20. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-01

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation. PMID:27131128

  1. Sterilization and contraceptive services in Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    O'Lane, J M

    1979-02-15

    Sterilization and contraceptive practices in United States Catholic hospitals were surveyed by anonymous mail questionnaires, obtaining a 57% response rate (340 of 598). Twenty per cent of the hospitals permitted medically indicated sterilization operations. Forty-seven per cent of those hospitals not allowing sterilization procedures reported that their medical staffs were interested in performing medically indicated sterilizations. The types of contraceptive services offered varied widely. The rhythm method was most frequently available, with oral contraceptives in second place; many hospitals did not provide any family-planning services; 13% utilized all types of contraception. The thesis is advanced that improvement in availability of sterilization and contraceptive services is a duty of hospital medical staffs. PMID:433994

  2. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  3. Iran eases limits on sterilization.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1991-03-01

    The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother. PMID:12343087

  4. Yeast hydrolysate supplementation increases field abundance and persistence of sexually mature sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O L; Orchard, B A; Collins, S R; Taylor, P W

    2014-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a non-chemical approach used to control major pests from several insect families, including Tephritidae, and entails the mass-release of sterile insects that reduce fertility of wild populations. For SIT to succeed, released sterile males must mature and compete with wild males to mate with wild females. To reach sexual maturity, the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), must obtain adequate nutrition after adult emergence; however, in current SIT programs sterile B. tryoni receive a pre-release diet that lacks key nutrients required to sustain sexual development. The chief objective of this study was to determine whether pre-release yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplements affect the persistence and abundance of sexually mature sterile male B. tryoni under field conditions. Experiments were run in outdoor cages under conditions of low and high environmental stress that differed markedly in temperature and humidity, and in the field. Under low environmental stress conditions, survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under three diet treatments: (i) sugar only, (ii) sugar plus YH or (iii) sugar plus YH for 48 h and sugar only thereafter. Under high environmental stress conditions survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under four diet treatments: (i) white sugar only, (ii) brown sugar only, (iii) white sugar plus YH and (iv) brown sugar plus YH. In a replicated field study, we released colour-marked sterile B. tryoni from two diet regimes, YH-supplemented or YH-deprived, and monitored abundance of sexually mature males. In the low-stress cage study, there was no effect of diet, although overall females lived longer than males. In the high stress cage study, mortality was lower for YH-fed flies than YH-deprived flies and females lived longer than males. In the field, YH supplementation resulted in higher abundance of sexually mature sterile males, with 1.2 YH-fed flies

  5. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. PMID:26470205

  6. An investigation of a sterile access technique for the repair and adjustment of sterile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Fuller, H. V.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A description is presented of a unique system for the sterilization and sterile repair of spacecraft and the results of a test program designed to assess the biological integrity and engineering reliability of the system. This trailer-mounted system, designated the model assembly sterilizer for testing (MAST), is capable of the dry-heat sterilization of spacecraft and/or components less than 2.3 meters in diameter at temperatures up to 433 K and the steam sterilization of components less than 0.724 meter in diameter. Sterile access to spacecraft is provided by two tunnel suits, called the bioisolator suit systems (BISS), which are contiguous with the walls of the sterilization chambers. The test program was designed primarily to verify the biological and engineering reliability of the MAST system by processing simulated space hardware. Each test cycle simulated the initial sterilization of a spacecraft, sterile repair of a failed component, removal of the spacecraft from the MAST for mating with the bus, and a sterile recycle repair.

  7. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs. PMID:26647625

  8. New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'Hocine

    1997-06-01

    Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

  9. Parameters governing steam sterilization of deadlegs.

    PubMed

    Young, J H; Ferko, B L; Gaber, R P

    1994-01-01

    Use of saturated steam for sterilization-in-place (SIP) is limited by factors effecting displacement of air from deadlegs. Effects of tube diameter, length, orientation and position within a deadleg were quantitatively studied by examining temperature profiles and rates of kill of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Tube diameter had the greatest effect on sterilization. For small diameter tubes, 0.4 cm inside diameter (ID), air displacement was minimal and due mainly to diffusion. 8.8 cm long tubes with 0.4 cm IDs could not be sterilized at 121 degrees C. As tube diameter was increased and buoyant driven convective flow became dominant over viscous forces, sterilization was achieved and tube orientation became critical. Sterilization time, as defined by a twelve log reduction in spore population, was 75 minutes in a 19.0 cm long vertical tube with 1.7 cm ID, whereas 167 minutes were required for an 8.8 cm long tube with 1.0 cm ID. For 8.8 cm long tubes, only the 1.7 cm ID tube could be sterilized when orientated 5 degrees above horizontal. Data show that length to diameter ratios, L/Ds, do not provide a general guideline which can be used to predict sterilization. In the absence of steam bleeders, equipment should be designed to assure strong buoyancy driven convective flow to assure adequate air removal. This requires elimination of small diameter deadlegs (0.4 cm ID and less) and vertical positioning of deadlegs. PMID:8069515

  10. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  11. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  12. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

  13. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  14. Laparoscopic sterilization in HIV-1-positive women.

    PubMed

    Intaraprasert, S; Taneepanichskul, S; Chaturachinda, K

    1996-11-01

    Laparoscopic sterilizations in HIV-1-positive women were performed. Patients, who were HIV-1-positive, underwent voluntary laparoscopic sterilization. The mean age of patients was 27.5 +/- 3.8 years. Most were of low socioeconomic status. The mean duration of the operation was 14.4 +/- 5.4 min. No accidental injury to the surgical team was recorded, and no complications occurred among the patients. It was concluded that laparoscopic sterilization in HIV-positive patients was safe with low risk of HIV transmission to the surgical team. PMID:8934065

  15. Dynamic ultraviolet sterilization of different implant types.

    PubMed

    Delgado, A A; Schaaf, N G

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the dynamic ultraviolet sterilization process with various dental implants, stainless steel orthopedic cortical bone screws, and polysulfone polymer healing caps. These biomaterials were inoculated with the spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus. They were then exposed to dynamic ultraviolet radiation in the chamber of a BUD Ultraviolet Device. Samples were incubated in trypticase soy broth at 37 degrees C and 56 degrees C, and they were subcultured onto an enriched agar medium. Results indicate that 16 seconds of dynamic ultraviolet radiation is effective in sterilizing these materials. This is significantly less time than other sterilization techniques presently used. PMID:2133336

  16. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  17. Current attitudes toward, and incidence of, sterilization of cats and dogs by caregivers (owners) in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McKay, Stacey A; Farnworth, Mark J; Waran, Natalie K

    2009-01-01

    This study distributed a questionnaire to cat or dog caregivers (owners) throughout Auckland, New Zealand, to investigate the attitudes of human companions toward the sterilization of their cats and dogs and the degree to which this occurs relative to demographic information gathered. A total of 276 recipients returned questionnaires with data pertinent to 477 cats and dogs. Female owners were more likely than were males to sterilize cats or dogs: 90.2% sterilization rate compared with 80%. Statistical trends also suggested that owners with a postschool education had a higher percentage of sterilized nonhuman animals than owners with no postschool or only school-age education. Cats were more likely than dogs to be neutered: 91.7% versus 78.5%. Companion animals not annually vaccinated were more likely to be sterilized than animals who were vaccinated annually: 93.6% and 85.4%. The study also showed gender bias and age differences in owner attitudes toward a number of the statements regarding sterilization, with male owners more likely to be concerned about the effect of neutering or spaying on the sexuality or masculinity of the animal. PMID:20183485

  18. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: Sterilization to polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu

    1995-09-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization.

  19. A Simultaneous Genetic Screen for Zygotic and Sterile Mutants in a Hermaphroditic Vertebrate (Kryptolebias marmoratus)

    PubMed Central

    Sucar, Sofia; Moore, Ginger L.; Ard, Melissa E.; Ring, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is unique among vertebrates due to its self-fertilizing mode of reproduction involving an ovotestis. As a result, it constitutes a simplistic and desirable vertebrate model for developmental genetics as it is easily maintained, reaches sexual maturity in about 100 days, and provides a manageable number of relatively clear embryos. After the establishment and characterization of an initial mutagenesis pilot screen using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a three-generation genetic screen was performed to confirm zygotic mutant allele heritability and simultaneously score for homozygous recessive mutant sterile F2 fish. From a total of 307 F2 fish screened, 10 were found to be 1° males, 16 were sterile, 92 wild-type, and the remaining 189, carriers of zygotic recessive alleles. These carriers produced 25% progeny exhibiting several zygotic phenotypes similar to those previously described in zebrafish and in the aforementioned pilot screen, as expected. Interestingly, new phenotypes such as golden yolk, no trunk, and short tail were observed. The siblings of sterile F2 mutants were used to produce an F3 generation in order to confirm familial sterility. Out of the 284 F3 fish belonging to 10 previously identified sterile families, 12 were found to be 1° males, 69 were wild-type, 83 sterile, and 120 were classified as */+ (either wild-type or carriers) with undefined genotypes. This screen provides proof of principle that K. marmoratus is a powerful vertebrate model for developmental genetics and can be used to identify mutations affecting fertility. PMID:26801648

  20. A Simultaneous Genetic Screen for Zygotic and Sterile Mutants in a Hermaphroditic Vertebrate (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Sucar, Sofia; Moore, Ginger L; Ard, Melissa E; Ring, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is unique among vertebrates due to its self-fertilizing mode of reproduction involving an ovotestis. As a result, it constitutes a simplistic and desirable vertebrate model for developmental genetics as it is easily maintained, reaches sexual maturity in about 100 days, and provides a manageable number of relatively clear embryos. After the establishment and characterization of an initial mutagenesis pilot screen using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a three-generation genetic screen was performed to confirm zygotic mutant allele heritability and simultaneously score for homozygous recessive mutant sterile F2 fish. From a total of 307 F2 fish screened, 10 were found to be 1° males, 16 were sterile, 92 wild-type, and the remaining 189, carriers of zygotic recessive alleles. These carriers produced 25% progeny exhibiting several zygotic phenotypes similar to those previously described in zebrafish and in the aforementioned pilot screen, as expected. Interestingly, new phenotypes such as golden yolk, no trunk, and short tail were observed. The siblings of sterile F2 mutants were used to produce an F3 generation in order to confirm familial sterility. Out of the 284 F3 fish belonging to 10 previously identified sterile families, 12 were found to be 1° males, 69 were wild-type, 83 sterile, and 120 were classified as */+ (either wild-type or carriers) with undefined genotypes. This screen provides proof of principle that K. marmoratus is a powerful vertebrate model for developmental genetics and can be used to identify mutations affecting fertility. PMID:26801648

  1. [Low-temperature sterilization for the surgical infection prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kornev, I I; Baranov, G A; Ul'ianov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The comparative characteristic of the accepted methods of low-temperature sterilization of medical equipment is given. Special attention is devoted to the surgical infection prophylaxis. The efficacy, expediency and safety of gas sterilization with ethilenoxide is proved. Plasmic methods of sterilization is recommended for use together with other methods of low-temperature sterilization. PMID:21716218

  2. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  3. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  4. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  5. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  6. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  7. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  8. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  9. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  10. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  11. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  12. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  13. ETHYLENE OXIDE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR HOSPITAL STERILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of ethylene oxide (EO) control technology for hospital sterilizers. Hospitals sterilize heat-sensitive items in gas sterilizers that use a mixture of EO (12 wt %) and a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) (88 wt %). The active sterilizing agent is EO. Th...

  14. Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

    1964-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

  15. The sterilization of gutta-percha points.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, E H; Boquest, A; Faine, S

    1975-06-01

    The traditional methods employed for the sterilization of gutta-percha points are unsatisfactory. The use of propylene oxide for this purpose is described and experimental evidence is advanced to support this use. PMID:169776

  16. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  17. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-04-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  18. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  19. Experimental Study of Sterilizing Molds by Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jin-lian; Niu, Yong

    1998-02-01

    An ultrasound method of sterilizing aspergillus flavus and fusarium is proposed and demonstrated. The dependence of sterilizing effect on ultrasonic intensity, frequency, and treatment time is experimentally investigated. The density of surviving spores decreases first with increasing ultrasonic frequency and then increases with the further increase of the frequency, that is to say, there exists the optimum frequency 26 kHz at which the killing rate is near 100%. The killing rate seems proportional to the intensity and the time.

  20. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  1. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chiu Man; Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C.M.

    2007-04-23

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is tau(dec)=2/Gamma(aa), but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Gamma(1)=Gamma(aa)cos^2theta(m); Gamma(2)=Gamma(aa)sin^2theta(m) where Gamma(aa) is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and theta(m) the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the"polarization vector" and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  2. Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Slosar, Anze; /Ljubljana U.

    2005-11-01

    By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent BOOMERANG-2K2 results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.55eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses (which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.51eV) and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are non-trivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub {nu}} < 0.005 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {approx} 0.25 eV, {omega}{sub {nu}} can be as large as 0.015.

  3. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  4. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  5. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies. PMID:27104744

  6. Using high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization as a model for studying gaseous sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Gregg A

    2008-01-01

    This study uses the high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization system provided by the Harvey Chemiclave, manufactured by Barnstead Thermolyne Corporation (Dubuque, IA), as a model to investigate certain phenomena associated with gaseous chemical sterilization systems. Although formaldehyde sterilization presents some unique and complex system attributes, the current studies provide helpful insights into general sterilization methods by chemicals in the gaseous state. Both population recovery and fraction negative (FN) techniques were used to assay surviving populations from biological indicators of the organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus following exposure to incremental Chemiclave cycles. Models 5500 and 6000 of the Barnstead/Thermolyne Chemiclave were used in the study. Reusable instruments such as scalers, explorers, and various hinged pieces were tested in minimum versus maximum load studies. Population recovery study results demonstrated that lethality rates increase with time throughout the Chemiclave sterilization process and that there are significant variations in lethality according to load location. The population recovery data in conjunction with the FN studies and temperature data confirm that one-half the full-cycle time is not a good estimator of one-half the full-cycle lethality because lethality curves are concave downward and lethality varies by load location. This conclusion can also be applied to other types of gaseous, chemical sterilization such as ethylene oxide. The work outlined in this study was a result of investigations into the parameters affecting formaldehyde chemical vapor sterilization with the Harvey Chemiclave sterilizer. During these studies, it became apparent that results clearly depicted the effects of continued acceleration of the rate of microbial lethality, as well as variations in delivered lethality as a function of position in the sterilizer load. This publication focuses on these observations because they are

  7. Divergence patterns of genic copy number variation in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) reveal three conserved genes with major population-specific expansions

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Željka; Harr, Bettina; Teschke, Meike; Babiker, Hiba; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation represents a major source of genetic divergence, yet the evolutionary dynamics of genic copy number variation in natural populations during differentiation and adaptation remain unclear. We applied a read depth approach to genome resequencing data to detect copy number variants (CNVs) ≥1 kb in wild-caught mice belonging to four populations of Mus musculus domesticus. We complemented the bioinformatics analyses with experimental validation using droplet digital PCR. The specific focus of our analysis is CNVs that include complete genes, as these CNVs could be expected to contribute most directly to evolutionary divergence. In total, 1863 transcription units appear to be completely encompassed within CNVs in at least one individual when compared to the reference assembly. Further, 179 of these CNVs show population-specific copy number differences, and 325 are subject to complete deletion in multiple individuals. Among the most copy-number variable genes are three highly conserved genes that encode the splicing factor CWC22, the spindle protein SFI1, and the Holliday junction recognition protein HJURP. These genes exhibit population-specific expansion patterns that suggest involvement in local adaptations. We found that genes that overlap with large segmental duplications are generally more copy-number variable. These genes encode proteins that are relevant for environmental and behavioral interactions, such as vomeronasal and olfactory receptors, as well as major urinary proteins and several proteins of unknown function. The overall analysis shows that genic CNVs contribute more to population differentiation in mice than in humans and may promote and speed up population divergence. PMID:26149421

  8. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  9. Perspective on the combined use of an independent transgenic sexing and a multifactorial reproductive sterility system to avoid resistance development against transgenic Sterile Insect Technique approaches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an accepted species-specific genetic control approach that acts as an insect birth control measure, which can be improved by biotechnological engineering to facilitate its use and widen its applicability. First transgenic insects carrying a single killing system have already been released in small scale trials. However, to evade resistance development to such transgenic approaches, completely independent ways of transgenic killing should be established and combined. Perspective Most established transgenic sexing and reproductive sterility systems are based on the binary tTA expression system that can be suppressed by adding tetracycline to the food. However, to create 'redundant killing' an additional independent conditional expression system is required. Here we present a perspective on the use of a second food-controllable binary expression system - the inducible Q system - that could be used in combination with site-specific recombinases to generate independent transgenic killing systems. We propose the combination of an already established transgenic embryonic sexing system to meet the SIT requirement of male-only releases based on the repressible tTA system together with a redundant male-specific reproductive sterility system, which is activated by Q-system controlled site-specific recombination and is based on a spermatogenesis-specifically expressed endonuclease acting on several species-specific target sites leading to chromosome shredding. Conclusion A combination of a completely independent transgenic sexing and a redundant reproductive male sterility system, which do not share any active components and mediate the induced lethality by completely independent processes, would meet the 'redundant killing' criteria for suppression of resistance development and could therefore be employed in large scale long-term suppression programs using biotechnologically enhanced SIT. PMID:25471733

  10. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  11. Effect of sterilization on contaminated sponges.

    PubMed

    Kuritani, R H; McDonald, N J; Sydiskis, R J

    1993-02-01

    Sponges are routinely used as a storage medium for endodontic files during clinical practice; however, very little research has been done to determine the effectiveness of sterilization procedures for these contaminated sponges. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the efficacy of chemical vapor sterilizers (chemiclaves), steam pressure sterilizers (autoclaves), and dry heat sterilizers on laboratory contaminated sponges. Four different types of sponges were used in this study: a black, relatively nonporous sponge; a red, semiporous stationary sponge; a blue, endodontic sponge, and a yellow, common household sponge. Natural sponges were eliminated from the study, because their large pore size made them unsuitable as a storage medium for endodontic instruments. The sponges were divided into three groups: chemiclave, autoclave, and dry heat. Five samples of each sponge type were impregnated with biological indicating strips containing spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Each sponge was subjected to 25 cycles of sterilization. The spore strip indicator was inserted into the sponges at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cycles. The spore strip was cultivated in trypticase soy broth medium solution at 55 +/- 1 degree C for 7 days. At 7 days the culture vials were read for turbidity; its presence indicating a positive culture. The samples that were subjected to chemiclaving demonstrated positive cultures of 0.00%, 0.00%, and 30.00% and those to autoclaving 3.33%, 0.00%, and 0.00% positive cultures for the black, red, and blue sponge types, respectively. None of the sponges survived dry heat sterilization. The O-Cell-O sponges become unusable when subjected to all of the sterilization methods used in this study. PMID:8509738

  12. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Tamil; Albert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua), we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results A quarter (23%) of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers) knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001). WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child) HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker

  13. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  14. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization of freeze dryers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J W; Arnold, J F; Nail, S L; Renzi, E

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to steam sterilization has been examined using a pilot plant freeze dryer equipped with a prototype vapor generator. Specific objectives of the study discussed in this presentation were to: 1. Identify critical process variables affecting the lethality of VHP to Bacillus stearothermophilus spores, particularly within dead legs in the system. 2. Measure the efficacy of system degassing after sterilization. 3. Determine the effect of repeated sterilization cycles on the integrity of elastomeric components of the freeze dryer. Penetration of adequate concentrations of hydrogen peroxide vapor into small diameter piping, such as tubing connected to pressure gauges, is the most challenging aspect of VHP sterilization of freeze dryers. Prior to equipment modifications, spore strips placed within such dead legs remained positive irrespective of the number of gas/degas pulses and system pressure. Equipment modifications necessary to effect complete kill of biological indicators placed in system dead legs is discussed. Results of this study support the conclusion that vaporized hydrogen peroxide shows promise as an alternative sterilization method for freeze dryers. PMID:1474433

  15. Sterilization of Fuji pressure-sensitive film.

    PubMed

    Liggins, A B; Hardie, W R; Finlay, J B

    1994-11-01

    Fuji Prescale film is a pressure-sensitive medium which produces a characteristic pink stain on the application of pressure. Up to a saturation level, increases in pressure will produce a denser stain, thereby providing a method of determining pressures within the interface between two articulating surfaces. The relationship between the magnitude of applied pressure and the optical density of the resulting stain is non-linear; this relationship also varies with ambient temperature and humidity, in addition to load rate, and therefore requires a calibration procedure prior to use. The use of Fuji prescale film for recording interface pressures within the joint space in vivo has been widely reported; however, the object of this study was to assess the effects of sterilizing this medium, with a view to future in vivo applications. Samples of Fuji film were sterilized using a standard ethylene oxide (ETO) gas process and their subsequent pressure-recording properties were compared to a control group of samples. The 'optical-density vs pressure' relationship for the sterilized group was significantly different from that of the control group (paired Student's t-test, P < = 0.001); however, both groups provided reliable data across the same pressure-range and both exhibited an excellent degree of repeatability (coefficient of variation < 2.5%). It was concluded that Fuji film will continue to produce pressure-stains following ETO sterilization; however, the calibration of this film will only be valid if it is conducted using film from the sterilized group. PMID:7858782

  16. Fertility preservation for boys and adolescents facing sterilizing medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ahmed A.; Tran, Nam D.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in childhood cancer survival have allowed boys and their families to increasingly focus on quality of life after therapy, particularly their future ability to father children. Treatments should maintain comprehensive cancer care goals and consider the long-term quality of life of these children. While semen cryopreservation is a well-established method of fertility preservation for post-pubertal children, the use of cryopreserved pre-treatment testicular tissue represents a promising, yet experimental method of fertility preservation for prepubertal males facing sterilizing therapy. Healthcare providers should counsel families about the fertility risks of therapy, discuss or refer patients for standard fertility preservation options, and consider experimental approaches to fertility preservation while being mindful of the ethical questions these treatments raise. PMID:26816794

  17. N2O induces mitotic polyploidization in anther somatic cells and restores fertility in sterile interspecific hybrid lilies

    PubMed Central

    Nukui, Shotarou; Kitamura, Satomi; Hioki, Tomoyo; Ootsuka, Hideaki; Miyoshi, Kazumitsu; Satou, Takao; Takatori, Yuka; Oomiya, Tomo; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Fertile plants undergoing male gametogenesis can be treated with nitrous oxide (N2O) gas to obtain 2n male gametes. N2O treatment is also expected to restore the fertility of interspecific hybrids through meiotic restitution or mitotic amphidiploidization. However, this technique has few applications to date, and it is un-known how N2O treatment restores fertility in sterile hybrids. To establish optimal N2O treatment conditions and determine its cytological mechanism of action, we treated various sized floral buds with N2O gas at different anther developmental stages from fertile and sterile hybrid lilies. N2O treatment using the optimal 1–4 mm floral buds induced mitotic polyploidization of male archesporial cells to produce 2n pollen in fertile hybrid lilies. In sterile hybrid lilies, N2O treatment doubled the chromosome number in male archesporial cells followed by homologous chromosome pairing and normal meiosis in pollen mother cells (PMC), resulting in restoration of pollen fertility. Backcrossing the resultant fertile pollen to Lilium × formolongi produced many triploid BC1 plants. Thus N2O treatment at the archesporial cell proliferating stage effectively overcame pollen sterility in hybrid lilies, resulting in fertile, 2n pollen grains that could produce progeny. The procedure presented here will promote interspecific or interploidy hybridization of lilies. PMID:23136469

  18. Dynamic sterilization of titanium implants with ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Schaaf, N G

    1989-01-01

    All implantable devices must be sterile. However, autoclaves produce poor surface properties that jeopardize the integration process. The application of a modified ultraviolet light source has proven to enhance bioreactivity by controlling surface properties, but it lacks validation of its sterilization capabilities. Forty-eight titanium implants were contaminated with spores of the biological indicator Bacillus stearothermophilus and subjected to "dynamic sterilization" by ultraviolet light. Forty-seven of the implants were successfully sterilized, as indicated by not producing turbidity in a suitable growth medium. This sterilization technique only requires a 20-second exposure to achieve sterility. PMID:2599585

  19. Light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2014-06-24

    Cosmological and terrestrial data suggests the number of light neutrinos may be greater than 3, motivating a careful reexamination of cosmological bounds on extra light species. Big bang nucleosynthesis constrains the number of relativistic neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis, N{sub eff}{sup BBN}, while measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum constrain the effective energy density in relativistic neutrinos at the time of matter-radiation equality, N{sub eff}{sup CMB}. We review a scenario with two sterile neutrinos and explore whether partial thermalization of the sterile states can ease the tension between cosmological constraints on N{sub eff}{sup BBN} and terrestrial data. We conclude that, still, two additional light sterile neutrinos species cannot fit all the data at the 95% confidence level.

  20. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-04-28

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422